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: Attraction of the particle to the wave. Highways? If you make the wave, they will come. (particles) an example is electricity, if we pass a conductor through an electromagnetic field, the electrons jump to the wire and make electricity. Where did the electrons come from? You say from the atoms in the wire. Are the atoms missing there electrons? No, they already have a new electron who moved (or tunneled) in. two electrons in the same space? Seems that way; we made the wave and the particles came. They (Particles ride the wave) and indeed need the wave for transport! These particles are in my theorem are simply super surfers. They are not dual. But both (The wave and particle) are needed. This holds true for Photons, Gamma and electrons and of course they all move on the wave at the speed of light. Electro-magnetic waves all move at the speed of light. (In a vacuum) The particles angular velocity may change but their overall speed is that of light; no matter what the frequency
You can make a radio wave that have no particles and send it through space until it meets a medium in which it interacts (a coil of conductive wire) and the surfers will jump (Electrons).I believe you can make a light frequency wave without photons by passing the wave through an opaque piece of cardboard (Black object) and still have the wave, just like radio waves would pass right through it. Unfortunately we do not have detectors for detecting the wave without the photons. I believe that in making the wave in non-black space time that the photon jumps to the wave from either the Higgs field or 2 Neutrinos producing the photons. The double-slit experiment, sometimes called Young's experiment (after Young's interference experiment), is a demonstration that matter and energy can display characteristics of both waves and particles, and demonstrates the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena. But, if you used actual surfers riding a wave into a big wall with two passageways in the wall you will find the same result some surfers will go through on one slit and some through the other, if their goal was to reach the beach they would have to follow the no- interfered part of the wave. In the basic version of this experiment, a coherent light source such as a laser beam illuminates a thin plate pierced by two parallel slits, and the light passing through the slits is observed on a screen behind the plate. The wave nature of light causes the light waves passing through the two slits to interfere, producing bright and dark bands on the screen — a result that would not be expected if light consisted strictly of particles( you would if you believed that particles are just riding the wave). However, on the screen, the light is always found to be absorbed as though it were composed of discrete particles or photons. This result establishes the principle known as wave–particle duality. Additionally, the detection of individual photons is observed to be inherently probabilistic, which is inexplicable using classical mechanics. (Not). If light consisted strictly of ordinary or classical particles, and these particles were fired in a straight line through a slit and allowed to strike a screen on the other side, we would expect to
The double-slit apparatus can be modified by adding particle detectors positioned at the slits. The smaller the slit. thereby illustrating the complementarity principle: that light (and electrons. the expected pattern on the screen would simply be the sum of the two single-slit patterns. light can behave as if it is composed of discrete particles. as the distribution of brightness can be explained by the alternately additive and subtractive interference of wavefronts.) can behave as either particles or waves. It is debated whether this affects the validity of the experiment. Similarly. Young's experiment. as a wave would be expected to do? Many early experiments found that any modification of the apparatus that can determine which slit a particle passes through will reduce the visibility of interference at the screen. And in 2012. But an experiment performed in 1987 produced results that demonstrated that information could be obtained regarding which path a particle had taken. performed in the early 1800s. if light consisted strictly of classical particles and we illuminated two parallel slits. This showed the effect of measurements that disturbed the particles in transit to a lesser degree and thereby influenced the interference pattern only to a comparable extent. These seemingly contradictory discoveries made it necessary to go beyond classical physics and take the quantum nature of light into account. it indicated that light consists of waves. they used a setup such that particles coming to the screen were not from a point-like source. vanquishing the corpuscular theory of light proposed by Isaac Newton.) When Thomas Young (1773-1829) first demonstrated this phenomenon. the pattern on the screen is a diffraction pattern in which the light is spread out. as a particle would be expected to do. when this "single-slit experiment" is actually performed. This enables the experimenter to find the position of a particle not when it impacts the screen. However. or through both. In order to do this. when it passes through the double-slit — did it go through only one of the slits. but rather. . In reality. the later discovery of the photoelectric effect demonstrated that under different circumstances. but from a source with two intensity maximas. the greater the angle of spread. played a vital part in the acceptance of the wave theory of light. etc. researchers finally succeeded in correctly identifying the path each particle had taken without any adverse effects at all on the interference pattern generated by the particles.see a pattern corresponding to the size and shape of the slit. The top image in the image on the right shows the central portion of the pattern formed when a red laser illuminates a slit. However. which had been the accepted model of light propagation in the 17th and 18th centuries. the pattern changes to one with a series of light and dark bands (See the bottom photograph to the right. however. without destroying the interference altogether. but not both at the same time.
So experiments with electrons add confirmatory evidence to the view of Dirac that electrons. the emergence of an interference pattern suggested that each electron was interfering with itself. even though the probabilities at specific points can be calculated. In other words. However. Probabilities are the squares of amplitudes.) Thus. and the mathematics of quantum mechanics (see below) allows us to predict the exact probability of an electron striking the screen at any particular point. an interference pattern emerges when these particles are allowed to build up one by one (see the image to the right). This phenomenon has also been shown to occur with atoms and even some molecules. however. This experimental fact is highly reproducible. For example. and even larger entities that are ordinarily called particles nevertheless have their own wave nature and even their own specific frequencies. Remarkably. The second demonstrates that wave behavior can be restored by erasing or otherwise making permanently unavailable the "which path" information. Sending particles through a double-slit apparatus one at a time results in single particles appearing on the screen. and the probability that it will appear somewhere else increases. and therefore in some sense the electron had to be going through both slits at once — an idea that contradicts our everyday experience of discrete objects.There are many methods to determine whether a photon passed through a slit. they are called particles here). that does not mean that a photon disappears. the electrons do not arrive at the screen in any predictable order. An important version of this experiment involves single particles (or waves — for consistency. including buckyballs. (Note that it is not the probabilities of photons appearing at various points along the detection screen that add or cancel. Delayed choice and quantum eraser variations The delayed-choice experiment and the quantum eraser are sophisticated variations of the double-slit with particle detectors placed not at the slits but elsewhere in the apparatus. when a laboratory apparatus was developed that could reliably fire one electron at a time through the double slit. protons. knowing where all the previous electrons appeared on the screen and in what order tells us nothing about where any future electron will hit. Also note that if there is a cancellation of waves at some point. neutrons. as expected. but the amplitudes. . it only means that the probability of a photon's appearing at that point will decrease. for instance by placing an atom at the position of each slit. The first demonstrates that extracting "which path" information after a particle passes through the slits can seem to retroactively alter its previous behavior at the slits. Interesting experiments of this latter kind have been performed with photons and with neutrons.
Časlav Brukner and Anton Zeilinger have succinctly expressed this limitation as follows: The observer can decide whether or not to put detectors into the interfering path. Ever since the origination of quantum mechanics. The double-slit experiment (and its variations). nature will tell h/er/im is the one in which the particle is found. That way.". Both outcomes are completely random. The Englert–Greenberger duality relation provides a detailed treatment of the mathematics of double-slit interference in the context of quantum mechanics. if s/he chooses to observe the interference pattern.. Jönsson's double-slit experiment was voted "the most beautiful experiment" by readers of Physics World. by reducing the level of incident light until photon emission/absorption events were mostly nonoverlapping. to explain in any classical way. and he was fond of saying that all of quantum mechanics can be gleaned from carefully thinking through the implications of this single experiment. most importantly. Taylor in 1909. In reality. If s/he chooses not to put the detectors there. then s/he has no influence whatsoever over where in the observation plane he/she will observe a specific particle. has become a classic thought experiment for its clarity in expressing the central puzzles of quantum mechanics.we have the appearance of a seemingly causeless selection event in a highly orderly and predictable formulation of the interference pattern. then the interference pattern will become reality. it contains the only mystery [of quantum mechanics]. In 2002. Because it demonstrates the fundamental limitation of the ability of the observer to predict experimental results. A double-slit experiment was not performed with anything other than light until 1961. Yet. and which has in it the heart of quantum mechanics.. Richard Feynman called it "a phenomenon which is impossible . the left one or the right one. Specifically. . if s/he chooses to determine the path. A low-intensity double-slit experiment was first performed by G. some theorists have searched for ways to incorporate additional determinants or "hidden variables" that. were they to become known. by deciding whether or not to determine the path through the two-slit experiment. would account for the location of each individual impact with the target. when Clauss Jönsson of the University of Tübingen performed it with electrons. the observer has no influence on the specific element of the world that becomes reality. conducted with individual particles. Likewise. s/he can decide which property can become reality. if s/he does put the detectors there. then s/he has no influence whatsoever over which of the two paths. then the beam path will become reality.
frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute. For example.7 nm. and is the reciprocal of the frequency f: The SI unit for period is the second. The period is the duration of one cycle in a repeating event. and that the single photon will show up on the detector screen according to the net probability values resulting from the co-incidence of the two probability waves coming by way of the two slits. nearly half a million times larger than a proton) — were found to exhibit wave-like interference. objects large enough to be seen under an electron microscope — buckyball molecules (diameter about 0. is the length of time taken by one cycle. It is also referred to as temporal frequency. Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz: 1 Hz means that an event repeats once per second. The period. more complicated systems that involve two or more particles in superposition are not amenable to such a simple.In 1999. The appearance of interference built up from individual photons could seemingly be explained by assuming that a single photon has its own associated wave front that passes through both slits. the SI unit. oscillations. Definitions and units For cyclical processes. usually denoted by T. 60 RPM equals one hertz. frequency is usually denoted by a Latin letter f or by a Greek letter ν (nu). so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. and radio. abbreviated RPM. acoustics. Measurement . or waves. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute. its period (the interval between beats) is half a second. However. In physics and engineering disciplines. classically intuitive explanation. such as rotation. such as optics. the unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz). For counts per a time interval. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second.
It uses digital logic to count the number of cycles during a time interval established by a precision quartz time base. When the frequency of the strobe equals the frequency of the rotating or vibrating object. This is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δf = 1/ (2 Tm). The strobe light is pointed at the rotating object and the frequency adjusted up and down. so it is a problem at low frequencies where the number of counts N is small. This is an intense repetitively flashing light (strobe light) whose frequency can be adjusted with a calibrated timing circuit. This is an electronic instrument which measures the frequency of an applied repetitive electronic signal and displays the result in hertz on a digital display. or sound waves. or a fractional error ofΔf / f = 1/ (2 f Tm) where Tm is the timing interval and f is the measured frequency. The horizontal axis represents time. rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. By frequency counter Higher frequencies are usually measured with a frequency counter. the object completes one cycle of oscillation and returns to its original position between the flashes of light. the bottom waves have higher frequencies than those above. mechanical vibrations. A downside of this method is that an object rotating at an integer multiple of the strobing frequency will also appear stationary. such as the rotation rate of a shaft.Sinusoidal waves of various frequencies. By counting Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period. This error decreases with frequency. can be converted to a repetitive electronic signal . The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count. if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: If the number of counts is not very large. Cyclic processes that are not electrical in nature. then dividing the count by the length of the time period. Then the frequency can be read from the calibrated readout on the stroboscope. it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences. so on average half a count. so when illuminated by the strobe the object appears stationary. For example. By stroboscope An older method of measuring the frequency of rotating or vibrating objects is to use a stroboscope.
If the two signals are close together in frequency the heterodyne is low enough to be measured by a frequency counter. Current research is extending this method to infrared and light frequencies (optical heterodyne detection). To reach higher frequencies. This creates a heterodyne or "beat" signal at the difference between the two frequencies. frequencies above this must be measured by indirect methods. This represents the limit of direct counting methods. where c is the speed of light in a vacuum. Heterodyne methods Above the range of frequency counters. frequency has an inverse relationship to the concept of wavelength. then v = c. and this expression becomes: When waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another. which must be determined by some other method. several stages of heterodyning can be used. A reference signal of a known frequency near the unknown frequency is mixed with the unknown frequency in a nonlinear mixing device such as a diode. frequency is inversely proportional to wavelength λ (lambda).by transducers and the signal applied to a frequency counter. frequencies of electromagnetic signals are often measured indirectly by means of heterodyning (frequency conversion). Frequency of waves For periodic waves. their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. The frequency f is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum. Frequency counters can currently cover the range up to about 100 GHz. simply. This process only measures the difference between the unknown frequency and the reference frequency. Examples Physics of light Complete spectrum of electromagnetic radiation with the visible portion highlighted .
000 Hz. Other species have different hearing ranges. and vice-versa. Southern South America. Likewise. The wavelength is inversely proportional to the frequency. Africa. At even lower frequency. are fundamentally the same. but it will be invisible to the human eye. Physics of sound Main article: Sound Sound is made up of changes in air pressure in the form of waves. the frequency of the alternating current in household electrical outlets is 50 Hz (close to the tone G). Mechanical vibrations perceived as sound travel through all forms of matter: gases. All of these waves. Australia. whereas in North America and Northern South America. They all travel through a vacuum at the speed of light. from the lowest-frequency radio waves to the highestfrequency gamma rays. that is. The frequency of the 'hum' in an audio recording can show where the recording was made. High frequencies often become more difficult to hear with age. Line current In Europe. in countries using a European. The audible frequency range for humans is typically given as being between about 20 Hz and 20. and higher still are gamma rays. the wave is called a microwave. The frequencies an ear can hear are limited to a specific range of frequencies. so an electromagnetic wave with a higher frequency has a shorter wavelength. liquids. an electromagnetic wave can have a frequency higher than 8×1014 Hz. Sound cannot travel through a vacuum. Another property of an electromagnetic wave is its wavelength. but it will be invisible to the human eye.Main articles: Light and Electromagnetic radiation Visible light is an electromagnetic wave. or an American. solids. The frequency of the wave determines its color: 4×1014 Hz is red light.000 Hz (20 kHz). a minor third above the European frequency). The matter that supports the sound is called the medium. 8×1014 Hz is violet light. grid frequency. Even higher-frequency waves are called X-rays. . and they are all called electromagnetic radiation. and plasmas. such waves are called infrared (IR) radiation. such waves are called ultraviolet (UV) radiation. An electromagnetic wave can have a frequency less than 4×1014 Hz. and between these (in the range 4-8×1014 Hz) are all the other colors of the rainbow. Frequency is the property of sound that most determines pitch. most of Asia. consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields traveling through space. and Russia. the frequency of the alternating current in household electrical outlets is 60 Hz (between the tones B♭ and B. and at still lower frequencies it is called a radio wave. some dog breeds can perceive vibrations up to 60. For example.
or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform (e.Period versus frequency As a matter of convenience. or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: Angular frequency is commonly measured in radians per second (rad/s) but. like audio and radio. Frequency ranges The frequency range of a system is the range over which it is considered to provide a useful level of signal with acceptable distortion characteristics. for discretetime signals. in oscillations and waves). Short and fast waves. tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. are usually described by their frequency instead of period. k. These commonly used conversions are listed below: 1 mHz (10−3) 1 Hz (100) 1 kHz (103) 1 MHz (106) 1 GHz (109) 1 THz (1012) Frequency Period (time) 1 ks (103) 1 s (100) 1 ms (10−3) 1 µs (10−6) 1 ns (10−9) 1 ps (10−12) Other types of frequency Angular frequency ω is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement. In case of more than one spatial dimension. such as ocean surface waves. can also be expressed as radians per sample time. . which is a dimensionless quantity. θ. A listing of the upper and lower limits of frequency limits for a system is not useful without a criterion for what the range represents. but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes.: Wavenumber. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency. (during rotation). sometimes means the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency. wavenumber is a vector quantity.g. E.g. longer and slower waves.
X-rays and so on.Many systems are characterized by the range of frequencies to which they respond. Allocation of radio frequency ranges to different uses is a major function of radio spectrum allocation. The electromagnetic spectrum can be divided into many different ranges such as visible light. infrared or ultraviolet radiation. . called its bandwidth.radio waves. A radio communications signal must occupy a range of frequencies carrying most of its energy. and each of these ranges can in turn be divided into smaller ranges. Musical instruments produce different ranges of notes within the hearing range.