Hume, The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 16...

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The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 1688, Foreword by William B. Todd, 6 vols. (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 1983).

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WHEN DAVID HUME began his History of England the undertaking came, not from any sudden


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resolve nor as an entirely new enterprise, but as one possibly contemplated thirteen years before, in 1739, probably attempted several times thereafter, and certainly considered, at least as a corollary discipline, in a philosophical discourse published in 1748. Even so, any concerted effort long sustained necessarily awaited appropriate conditions: all happily combining for Hume upon his election, January, 1752, as Keeper of the Advocates’ Library in Edinburgh. With this appointment the author finally had “a genteel-office,” ready access to a collection of some thirty thousand volumes, and, no less desirable, leisure indefinitely extended to pursue his research. Heretofore, by mere exertion of his own commanding intellect, philosopher Hume had more than once set forth what he perceived to be the “constant and universal principles of human nature.” Now, as a philosophical historian, he could ascertain from dreary chronicles all the aberrations of human behavior as there exhibited in “wars, intrigues, factions, and revolutions.” These and other vagaries, previously recorded simply as odd phenomena, in Hume’s more coherent view constituted a varied range of “materials” documenting the “science of man.” Once intent upon a history so formulated, the immediate question for this author was where to begin. In his own Life (an essay prefixed to the first, 1778, posthumous edition of the History and so reprinted here), Hume ingenuously speaks of being “frightened” away from the very start— that is, from the time of Caesar’s invasion—and so at once passing over seventeen hundred years to “the accession of the House of Stuart [1603], an epoch when, I thought, the misrepresentations of faction began chiefly to take place.” Indeed this was Hume’s final decision, though he earlier admitted in a letter to Adam Smith, 24 September 1752, some inclination to commence with the preceding Tudor “epoch” [1485]. I confess, I was once of the same Opinion with you, & thought that the best Period to begin an English History was about Henry the 7th. But you will please to observe, that the Change, which then happen’d in public Affairs, was very insensible, and did not display its Influence till many Years afterwards. Twas under James that the House of Commons began first to raise their Head, & then the Quarrel betwixt Privilege & Prerogative commenc’d. The Government, no longer opprest by the enormous Authority of the Crown, display’d its Genius; and the Factions, which then arose, having an Influence on our present Affairs, form the most curious, interesting, & instructive Part of our History. . . . I confess, that the Subject appears to me very fine; & I enter upon it with great Ardour & Pleasure. You need not doubt of my Perseverance. For a historian tracing, in one period or another, the progress or decline of human welfare, the “influence” twice mentioned in the letter to Smith eventually required a “backward” narrative: from present effects to earlier precedents and then to causes earlier yet. Thus over the ensuing years Hume proceeded retrogressively, representing first the Stuart reigns (now volumes V–VI in this reprint), then the Tudors (III–IV), and finally all the “barbarous” times before Henry VII (I– II). Hence in surveying the development of this history, and the various reactions to its initial publication, we should remember that what Hume reports of his first two volumes (originally published 1754, 1757) is lastly conveyed here as V–VI (volumes not so designated until issue in 1762 of the “complete” edition). About his early work, so ebulliently described to Smith, Hume has much else to say, all of it in great confidence as to the rectitude and efficacy of his own procedure. To one friend he observes:


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“You know that there is no post of honour in the English Parnassus more vacant than that of History. Style, judgement, impartiality, care—everything is wanting to our historians; and even Rapin, during this latter period, is extremely deficient.” To another he confides that he has “more propos’d as my Model the concise manner of the antient Historians, than the prolix, tedious Style of some modern Compilers. I have inserted no original Papers, and enter’d into no Detail of minute, uninteresting Facts. The philosophical Spirit, which I have so much indulg’d in all my Writings, finds here ample Materials to work upon.” To a third correspondent Hume is even more assured. The more I advance in my undertaking, the more am I convinced that the History of England has never yet been written, not only for style, which is notorious to all the world, but also for matter; such is the ignorance and partiality of all our historians. Rapin, whom I had an esteem for, is totally despicable. I may be liable to the reproach of ignorance, but I am certain of escaping that of par[chtiality: The truth is, there is so much reason to blame and praise alternately King and Parliament, that I am afraid the mixture of both in my composition, being so equal, may pass sometimes for an affectation, and not the result of judgement and evidence. In this last comment the allusion to troubles between King and Parliament—obviously in reference to Charles I rather than to his father, James I—provides a clue to the advance in Hume’s narrative. On 26 May 1753 he reports that he is “now beginning the Long Parliament,” i.e., chapter V (subsequently chapter LIV of this edition). Five months later, on 28 October, he had come to the execution of the King, representing the final chapter of his original volume. By then, as he realized, “the history of [these] two first Stuarts will be most agreeable to the Tories: That of the two last, to the Whigs. But we must endeavour to be above any Regard either to Whigs or Tories.” The “two last,” Charles II and James II, were of course to be considered in his next volume, one as yet hardly under way. Early in 1754, and still affirming his conviction that “I am of no party, and have no bias,” Hume sent off to press his first volume and on 1 September received his final proofs. During the course of printing, some of the sheets circulated among interested persons, with the Whigs and Tories among them alternately approving or disapproving, and “a few Christians” in some anguish reproaching this “Libertine in religion.” The latter accusation, possibly quite unexpected, quickly prompted Hume to reassure his confidant that he was “tolerably reserved on this head.” Whatever the author’s claims, advanced perhaps all too complacently before issue, the charge of irreligion was hotly pursued upon publication of the volume, 20 November 1754. It may well be, as Hume discloses in his Life, that the primates of England and Ireland—surely much divergent in their own beliefs—both encouraged him to persevere; but the Bishop of Gloucester, in a violent outrage, privately denounced this historian as “an atheistical Jacobite, a monster as rare with us as a hippogriff.” Even among the secular reviewers exception was at once taken, first in the opening chapter to the excessive “enthusiasm” Hume discerned in the Protestant Reformation, then in the next chapter to the intolerable “superstition” he discovered in the Roman Catholic Church. Always responsive to critical commentary, but only when it did not run counter to his own principles, or to the dictates of history itself, Hume in later editions prudentially withdrew both of these passages in their entirety, and thus excised some interior text apparently beyond the


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immediate cause of complaint. So that the present reader may determine whether, at the very beginning of his work, Hume has maintained in suitable language his own impartial attitude these suppressed sections are now reprinted. The first, on the Protestants, appeared originally in Volume I of the first edition, pages 7–9 (1778 text, Volume VI, page 10) after the paragraph ending “reconcile both parties.” The first reformers, who made such furious and successful attacks on the Romish

and shook it to its lowest foundations, may safely be pronounced to

have been universally inflamed with the highest ENTHUSIASM. These two species of religion, the superstitious and fanatical, stand in diametrical opposition to each other; and a large portion of the latter must necessarily fall to his share, who is so couragious as to control authority, and so assuming as to obtrude his own innovations upon the world. Hence that rage of dispute, which every where seized the new religionists; that disdain of ecclesiastical subjection; that contempt of ceremonies, and of all the exterior pomp and splendor of worship. And hence too, that inflexible intrepidity, with which they braved dangers, torments, and even death itself; while they preached the doctrine of peace, and carried the tumults of war, thro’ every part of Christendom. However obstinate and uncomplying this species of religion, it necessarily received some alteration, according to the different situation of civil affairs, and the different species of government, which it met with in its progress. In the electorates of Germany, in Denmark, and in Sweden, where the monarch was early converted, and, by putting himself at the head of the reformers, acquired authority amongst them; as the spirit of enthusiasm was somewhat tempered by a sense of order, episcopal jurisdiction, along with a few decent ceremonies, was preserved in the new establishment. In Switzerland and Geneva, which were popular governments; in France, Scotland, and the low countries, where the people reformed themselves in opposition to the prince; the genius of fanaticism displayed itself in its full extent, and affected every circumstance of discipline and worship. A perfect equality was established among the ecclesiastics; and their inflamed imagination, unconfined by any forms of liturgy, had full liberty to pour out itself, in wild, unpremeditated addresses to the Divinity. They were the preachers of Switzerland, France, and the low countries, who carried the reformation into England: But as the government was there monarchical, and the magistrate took the lead in this grand revolution; tho’ the speculative doctrines were borrowed from the more fanatical churches, yet were the discipline and worship naturally mitigated with a more humane spirit of religion. But after the persecutions of Mary had chased abroad all the most obstinate reformers, who escaped her fury; they had leisure to imbibe a stronger tincture of


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the enthusiastic genius; and when they returned, upon the accession of Elizabeth, they imported it, in its full force and virulence, into their native country. That renowned Princess, whose good taste gave her a sense of order and decorum, and whose sound judgment taught her to abhor innovations, endeavored, by a steddy severity, to curb this obstinate enthusiasm, which, from the beginning, looked with an evil aspect, both on the church and monarchy. By an act of parliament in 1593, all persons above the age of sixteen, who were absent from church a month, or who, by word or writing, declared their sentiments against the established religion, were to be imprisoned, till they made an open declaration of their conformity. This if they refused during three months, they were to abjure the realm; and if they either refused such abjuration, or staid in England beyond the time limited, they were to suffer as felons, without benefit of clergy. To such extreme rigor was the severity pushed of Elizabeth’s administration. The Queen too had established the high commission court, which preserved an uniformity of worship thro’ all the churches, and inflicted severe penalties on all innovators. The powers, with which this court was invested, were mostly discretionary; tho’ by law it could exact a fine of twenty pound for every month that any one was absent from the established worship. The second passage, on the Roman Catholics, occurred in the next chapter, pages 25–28 (1778 text, Volume VI, page 39) in the paragraph starting “The moderation” after the sentence ending “conformed himself to it.” Here it may not be improper, in a few words, to give some account of the Roman catholic superstition, its genius and spirit. History addresses itself to a more distant posterity than will ever be reached by any local or temporary theology; and the characters of sects may be studied, when their controversies shall be totally forgotten. Before the reformation, all men of sense and virtue wished impatiently for some event, which might repress the exorbitant power of the clergy all over Europe, and put an end to the unbounded usurpations and pretensions of the Roman pontiff: But when the doctrine of Luther was promulgated, they were somewhat alarmed at the sharpness of the remedy; and it was easily foreseen, from the offensive zeal of the reformers, and defensive of the church, that all christendom must be thrown into combustion. In the preceeding state of ignorance and tranquillity, into which mankind were lulled, the attachment to superstition, tho’ without reserve, was not extreme; and, like the antient pagan idolatry, the popular religion consisted more of exterior practices and observances, than of any principles, which either took possession of the heart, or influenced the conduct. It might have been hoped, that learning and knowledge, as of old in Greece, stealing in gradually, would have opened the eyes of men, and corrected such of the ecclesiastical abuses as were the grossest and most burthensome. It had been observed, that, upon the revival of letters, very generous and enlarged


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sentiments of religion prevailed thro’out all Italy; and that, during the reign of Leo, the court of Rome itself, in imitation of their illustrious prince, had not been wanting in a just sense of freedom. But when the enraged and fanatical reformers took arms against the papal hierarchy, and threatened to rend from the church at once all her riches and authority; no wonder she was animated with equal zeal and ardor, in defence of such antient and invaluable possessions. At the same time, that she employed the stake and gibbet against her avowed enemies, she extended her jealousy even towards learning and philosophy, whom, in her supine security, she had formerly overlooked, as harmless and inoffensive. Hence, the severe check, which knowledge received in Italy: Hence, its total extinction in Spain: And hence, the slow progress, which it made, in France, Germany, and England. From the admiration of antient literature, from the inquiry after new discoveries, the minds of the studious were every where turned to polemical science; and, in all schools and academies, the furious controversies of theology took place of the calm disquisitions of learning. Mean while, the rage of dispute and the violence of opposition rivetted men more strongly in all their various delusions, and infected every intercourse of society with their malignant influence. The Roman pontiff, not armed with temporal force, sufficient for his defence, was obliged to point a-new all his spiritual artillery, and to propagate the doctrine of rebellion and even of assassination, in order to subdue or terrify his enemies. Priests, jealous and provoked, timorous and uncontroled, directed all the councils of that sect, and gave rise to such events as seem astonishing amid the mildness and humanity of modern manners. The massacre of Paris, that of Ireland, the murder of the two Henrys of France, the gunpowder conspiracy in England, are memorable, tho’ temporary instances of the bigotry of that superstition. And the dreadful tribunal of the inquisition, that utmost instance of human depravity, is a durable monument to instruct us what a pitch iniquity and cruelty may rise to, when covered with the sacred mantle of religion. Tho’ the prospect of sharing the plunder of the church had engaged some princes to embrace the reformation, it may be affirmed, that the Romish system remained still the favorite religion of sovereigns. The blind submission, which is inculcated by all superstition, particularly by that of the catholics; the absolute resignation of all private judgment, reason, and inquiry; these are dispositions very advantageous to civil as well as ecclesiastical authority; and the liberty of the subject is more likely to suffer from such principles than the prerogatives of the chief magistrate. The splendor too and pomp of worship, which that religion carefully supports, are agreeable to the taste of magnificence, that prevails in courts, and form a species of devotion, which, while it flatters the pampered senses, gives little perplexity to the indolent understandings, of the great. That delicious country, where the Roman pontiff resides, was the source of all modern art and refinement, and diffused on its superstition an air of politeness, which distinguishes it from the gross rusticity of the other sects. And tho’ policy made it assume, in some of its monastic orders, that austere mien, which is acceptable to the vulgar; all authority still resided in its prelates and spiritual princes, whose


especially when each succeeding volume took them backward to epochs of lesser concern.” Moreover. and abasements.” In later time the critics could be more than indulgent. nor Presbyterian—he is simply judicial. Printed “Stuarts” 1 [5] 2 [6] “Tudors” 1– 2 [3– 4] 1754 2. to less controversial matters. Confronted by six massive quarto books.Page 8 of 354 temper.html 4/7/2004 . as well as by more careful typography. All this achieved. essentially. it rouses the vain fears of unhappy mortals. as Hume anticipated. the complex printing Employing all these various arts. ceremonies. and in its scope by extending now. cruelties as a physician speaks of epidemic diseases. while his book had been “extremely run down by Faction .. when reduced to tabular form. Nonetheless.” No less effusive was the Earl of Chesterfield. even the most assiduous readers. as well as England. now statistically. tho’ sometimes at the expence of morals. indeed lavish in their praise.” one obviously of a “mind superior to his materials. nor royalist. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 16. the author thereof “is neither parliamentarian. blunders. the work received an extensive review by Voltaire. both political and clerical. in 1762. who considered this English account to be “perhaps the best written in any language. gradually appearing one or two at a time. more cultivated and humanized. the catholic religion has acquired the favor of many monarchs.750 750 2. . would become less and less interested. for work of any kind. he speaks of weaknesses. . himself an accomplished philosophe and historian.libertyfund.. it must be conceded that Hume here betrays no unwonted partiality and is quite even-handed in his censure. nor Anglican.” Still another way of assessing. it had been greatly improved in many respects: incidentally by more precise and extensive footnoting. in this period. but it knows also the secret of allaying these fears. he continued.250 750 250 http://oll.Hume. has felt the effect of its dangerous insinuations. he may be allowed the rejoinder that. who had received their education from its rival sect. in other volumes. Like all other species of superstition. especially those at the British Museum. in its authorities by reference to other historical archives. that I have no Reason to repent of my Undertaking. the continued acceptance of the History may be discovered in the printers’ own accounts. inclined them to every decent pleasure and indulgence. along with a restless enterprize.000 1757 1759 750 1761 1762 800 750 1763 [225?] 255 1764 1. in its text by the gradual elimination of peculiarly Scottish spelling and idioms. who rightly predicted that this was “the only History of England that will go down to Posterity. and by exterior rites. it has been met with such Indulgence by good Judges. it reconciles the penitent to his offended deity. To all sectarian objections then. disclose a total quarto issue hardly surpassed. However one may regard these two influential religious movements. and Sweden. for upon completion of the work.

7s. that it is merely a reissue of the 1763 octavo with substitute titles. to the end of the volumes. and accordingly produced in 1770. and some Additions. a magnificent “Royal Paper” quarto edition priced at £7. than from the new Edition. then designated as “Small Paper. Close inspection of this “edition” discloses. Beginning with the quarto issue of 1762 all titles uniformly read A New Edition. as well as that which I left of the Stuarts: For if you intend to print an Octavo Edition next Summer.html 4/7/2004 . The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 16. in another. The first hint of this new enterprise appears in a letter from Hume to his publisher concerning the full quarto edition then pending for 1762. and that you think so soon of making a new Edition. a smaller format in eight volumes. a clear indication that the quality market had been saturated long before. Acting on what he believed to be sufficient warrant from the quarto sales. and such an enormous issue effectively prevented him from introducing. excepting only an octavo issue now appearing in 1767. and the sale of http://oll. About this extraordinary venture Hume soon voiced nothing but contempt: Andrew Millar. and shall send you them up by the Waggon as soon as they are corrected. quarto issue. Almost from the outset certain of Hume’s subtended commentaries had threatened to overwhelm the text. of all the longer footnotes. when the supply of “that abominable Octavo Edition” had diminished. Copies of this as well as the earlier £4.. however. the book was “ill-printed”. Please tell Mr Strahan [the printer] to keep carefully this Copy I send up. Actually the octavo edition. expensively priced but highly successful quarto issue had run its course. or under an ingenious installment plan of one volume a month unbound for 5s. the luxurious 1770 edition is not without merit. effective 1 November. now as separate “Additional Notes” they could be steadily augmented.750 Before the long-produced. Corrected. I am running over both the antient History & the Tudors. still continuing at £4.” were still being advertised in 1778. under the imprint of Thomas Cadell. Even so. had been “rapacious”. Millar next imagined that he might profit still further from his more affluent clientele.Page 9 of 354 “Ancient”1– 2 [1–2] it seems.. all without any restraint. Eventually. many of them based on materials found 1763–65 during Hume’s travels in France. Quite undeterred by his cheap 1763–1767 fiasco. the publisher. a set. the publisher enthusiastically ordered five thousand copies of this cheaper issue. that you are in so good a way. To promote these sales Millar eventually resorted to a deceptive technique which.000 750 2. textually for the inclusion of numerous substantive revisions. misleading statements about its lagging sales were quite “detestable”. a printing far exceeding total production of all preceding editions. went quite unnoticed by Hume at the time and has gone undetected ever since. it will be better to do it from these Copies which are corrected.10s.libertyfund. still further revisions. and typographically for the transfer.. was sold either as a complete set leather bound for £2.10s. did not appear until 1763 and then. which suggestively announced A New Edition. the History was already destined to appear in a more economical format designed for an even wider audience—and ultimately in a radical transformation of the text. With Corrections. or occasionally increased in number.Hume. where there will necessarily be some Errors of the Press.8s. I am very glad.

continued to be sent forward through 27 July 1776. Hume confesses. in Europe. at least they will be esteemd such by the Generality of Readers.” Hume on 20 July 1771 submitted to press yet another corrected copy. when Hume asked Strahan to delete three passages relating to the Scottish clergy (1617). . with the Author’s last Corrections and Improvements. .” Adds final sentence “His intended . was appropriately designated A New Edition. Adds second paragraph “with regard . divine right. “many considerable Improvements. NN. Philip IV of Spain (1624). 61". . was the last in Hume’s lifetime.” another reading “Machiavel . though not the last to exhibit his continuing effort toward perfection. enlarged views.” The words are somewhat prophetic. and published in 1773. Malherbe” Adds first introductory sentence and last sentence in italics.. appearing in 1778. . “who . The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . . . Q. this now containing.html 4/7/2004 . parliament. and they run mostly upon Trifles.libertyfund. Also directed in the revised copy and immediately evident upon a cursory review. enterprize. Page 10 of 354 the sumptuous quarto was “pretty well advanced. and a message from Charles I to the House of Commons (1628). DD. . Amendments for this. among them these alterations in the “Additional Notes” to volumes VI–VII (volume V of this reprint): D. as long as he lives. succeeding 1778 notes accordingly relettered. as he advised printer Strahan. Adds final clause. but some also in the matter. http://oll. Hume’s final HH. . p. . for the edition then under way. GG. yet.” Adds final paragraph “What a paradox . now also at the last on these other matters. in him” Adds last three sentences “In reality . Deletes 1773 note DD “In a Parliament . . It is one great advantage that results from the Art of printing.” —. most of them in the Style. Z. are many other 1778 adjustments. who little attend to the extreme Accuracy of Style. that an Author may correct his works. . first mentioned 13 November 1775. . So at the first..Hume. . . . “I cannot help it. . of the text.” Stylistic refinements of old material variously introduced in times past admittedly would not be much appreciated. careful excision of unnecessary parts generally improved the total performance. K.” Adds paragraph in italics Substitutes for final sentence “the period . on Protestants and Catholics.

and the Boston Public Library. both Charles I and Charles II were also dismembered.html 4/7/2004 . THE LIFE OF DAVID and on this eighth comprehensive revision of his work. we may agree that the minuscule specimen here scrutinized sufficiently establishes the general practice. for example. pages 127–28) cancelled and replaced. Hume reluctantly acquiesced in this typographical butchery. signature I8. among the Stuarts. to represent some authorial correction overlooked on first printing. twenty-five years after he had begun writing on the early Stuart reigns. the 1778 edition also displays throughout Hume’s fastidious concern over insignificant “trifles”—as seen. (Reference here is to the paragraph introducing the variant. volume I. an ideal state unobtainable in his own day. There Henry VII entirely and the initial chapter of Henry VIII were abruptly cut away from the Tudors and huddled in with the last of the Ancients. from copies at the Humanities Research Center. There too. Were he present now to witness his best text in its best form. University of Texas.. all semblance of Hume’s construction was lost. With this demonstration there can be little doubt that the present issue necessarily must reproduce the posthumous 1778 edition.” When for merely commercial reasons that grand concept was abandoned in the eight-volume 1763–1778 editions. insisting only that the divisions not occur within a chapter. pages 476–477 of this reprint).. probably at Strahan’s direction. in the single leaf in the set (volume II. Todd is The Mildred Caldwell and Baine Perkins Kerr Centennial Professor in English History and Culture at the University of Texas at Austin. ESQ.libertyfund. Page 11 of 354 It is truly remarkable that. Apart from these substantive revisions. The only difficulty would be to restrain him from transforming this classic in historiography into yet another version! william b. Hume should find so much to amend. Paragraph Such was The king The escheats But besides ″″ 1773 granted by his laws intitled revenue to the king lands Where he sold 1778 ordained entitled revenue land If he sold Passing over the subtleties involved in this phraseology. now however extends to six volumes only: an arrangement which for the first time allows the final text to be recast according to Hume’s original design of three “epochs. WRITTEN BY HIMSELF http://oll. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . he would surely commend what the Liberty Fund has here accomplished. each being split between two volumes.Hume. The reprint here presented. todd 26 April 1982 William B.

however.html 4/7/2004 . gave my family a notion that the law was a proper profession for me. But being naturally of a cheerful and sanguine temper. in Anjou.. and I there laid that plan of life. and the great source of my enjoyments.libertyfund. with a view of prosecuting my studies in a country retreat. and my industry. My very slender fortune. During my retreat in France. my sobriety. I continued with my mother and brother in the country. was of course very slender. and soon made me entirely forget my former disappointment. old style. The first success of most of my writings was not such as to be an object of vanity. according to the mode of my country. I was of a good family. to make a very feeble trial for entering into a more active scene of life. at Edinburgh. After passing three years very agreeably in that country. and immediately went down to my mother and my brother. with an elder brother and a sister. my patrimony. My studious disposition. I went over to France. which my brother possesses. In 1742. died when I was an infant. My father. Never literary attempt was more unfortunate than my Treatise of Human Nature. except the improvement of my talents in literature. but I found an unsurmountable aversion to every thing but the pursuits of philosophy and general learning. I published my Treatise. I resolved to make a very rigid frugality supply my deficiency of fortune. as. first at Reims. I was tempted. being unsuitable to this plan of and my health being a little broken by my ardent application. In the end of 1738. and while they fancied I was poring upon Voet and Vinnius. to maintain unimpaired my independency. was not rich. It may be thought an instance of vanity that I pretend at all to write my life. as even to excite a murmur among the zealots. a woman of singular merit.Hume. and my ancestors had been proprietors of the estate. therefore. My mother was daughter of Sir David Falconer. I went to Bristol. both by father and mother: my father’s family is a branch of the Earl of Home’s. and was employing himself very judiciously and successfully in the improvement of his fortune. and was seized very early with a passion for literature. Page 12 of 354 MY OWN LIFE IT IS DIFFICULT for a man to speak long of himself without vanity. President of the College of Justice: the title of Lord Halkerton came by succession to her brother. I printed at Edinburgh the first part of my Essays: the work was favourably received. I was born the 26th of April 1711. leaving me. but in a few months found that scene totally unsuitable to me. with some recommendations to eminent merchants. I very soon recovered the blow. almost all my life has been spent in literary pursuits and occupations. I came over to London in 1737. for several generations. who lived at his country-house. or rather forced. indeed. devoted herself entirely to the rearing and educating of her children. which has been the ruling passion of my life. I passed through the ordinary course of education with success. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . In 1734. however. Cicero and Virgil were the authors which I was secretly devouring. who passed for a man of parts. and prosecuted with great ardour my studies in the country. I shall be short. and being myself a younger brother. who though young and handsome. It fell dead-born from the press.. but this Narrative shall contain little more than the History of my Writings. and to regard every object as contemptible. but chiefly at La Fleche. without reaching such distinction. which I have steadily and successfully pursued. and in that time http://oll. under the care of our mother. or Hume’s. I composed my Treatise of Human Nature. My family.

I received an invitation from the General to attend him in the same station in his military embassy to the courts of Vienna and Turin. Next year.libertyfund.Hume. On my return from Italy. In 1751. In 1745. never to reply to any body. However. Middleton’s Free Enquiry. Page 13 of 354 recovered the knowledge of the Greek language. were published at Edinburgh. now General Grant. moral and political.—I lived with him a twelvemonth. and in good company. In 1752. and my appointments. which I had too much neglected in my early youth. and also my Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals. that the books were beginning to be esteemed in good company.. by Dr. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . which is another part of my treatise.. But this piece was at first little more successful than the Treatise of Human Nature. and I found. I was now master of near a thousand pounds. cast the first part of that work anew in the Enquiry concerning Human Understanding. I had always entertained a notion. as I was ever more disposed to see the favourable than unfavourable side of things. my bookseller. while my performance was entirely overlooked and neglected. for my mother was now dead. I had fixed a resolution. that the sale of them was gradually increasing. which I called Political Discourses. Millar. to wit. that these disappointments made little or no impression on me. the true scene for a man of letters. It was well received abroad and at home. which had been published at London. had proceeded more from the manner than the matter. Such is the source of natural temper. inviting me to come and live with him in England. met not with a much better reception. A new edition. that the friends and family of that young nobleman were desirous of putting him under my care and direction. where I then lived. 1747. I. These two years were almost the only interruptions which my studies have received during the course of my life: I passed them agreeably. the only work of mine that was successful on the first publication. I removed from the country to the town. and was introduced at these courts as aid-de-camp to the general. Answers by Reverends. I received a letter from the Marquis of Annandale. my Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals. Warburton’s railing. in my own http://oll. informed me. which was published while I was at Turin. I went down in 1749. and Right Reverends. I found also. A. a turn of mind which it is more happy to possess. therefore. I have easily kept myself clear of all literary squabbles. along with Sir Harry Erskine and Captain Grant.html 4/7/2004 . These symptoms of a rising reputation gave me encouragement. In the same year was published at London. I had the mortification to find all England in a ferment. that my former publications (all but the unfortunate Treatise) were beginning to be the subject of conversation. with my frugality. though most of my friends were inclined to smile when I said so: in short. my Political Discourses. that my want of success in publishing the Treatise of Human Nature. Clair to attend him as a secretary to his expedition. of my Essays. on account of Dr. for the state of his mind and health required it. My appointments during that time made a considerable accession to my small fortune. that I cast anew. I then received an invitation from General St. which was at first meant against Canada. in going to the press too early. I there composed the second part of my Essay. I then wore the uniform of an officer. and that new editions were demanded. which I called independent. and that I had been guilty of a very usual indiscretion. and not being very irascible in my temper. and lived two years with my brother at his country-house. which I inflexibly maintained. Meanwhile. than to be born to an estate of ten thousand a-year. had made me reach a fortune. but ended in an incursion on the coast of France. came out two or three in a year.

Page 14 of 354 opinion (who ought not to judge on that subject) is of all my writings. and after the first ebullitions of their fury were over. containing the period from the death of Charles I.. I confess. I thought. but helped to buoy up its unfortunate brother. and the cry of popular prejudices. and as the subject was suited to every capacity. considerable for rank or letters. and the primate of Ireland. interest. It not only rose itself. its public entry was rather obscure except only that Dr. In this interval. heard of one man in the three kingdoms. that had at once neglected present power. however. philosophical. I was. But though I had been taught by experience. till the Revolution. In 1756. I commenced with the accession of the House of Stuart. and even detestation. the Faculty of Advocates chose me their Librarian. Millar told me. that in above a hundred alterations. or reflection engaged me to make in the reigns of the two first Stuarts. This performance happened to give less displeasure to the Whigs. was published the second volume of my History. In 1752. who had presumed to shed a generous tear for the fate of Charles I. an epoch when. I published at London my Natural History of Religion. But miserable was my disappointment: I was assailed by one cry of reproach. and the earl of Strafford. Scotch. which seem two odd exceptions. These dignified prelates separately sent me messages not to be discouraged. and the subsequent volume was considerably advanced. But as this scheme was not now practicable. which farther study. Dr. disapprobation. but which gave me the command of a large library. united in their rage against the man. the book seemed to sink into oblivion. have changed my name. historical. Stone. with all the illiberal petulance. incomparably the best. I have made all of them invariably to the Tory side. I published my History of the House of Tudor. I had certainly retired to some provincial town of the former kingdom. I then formed the plan of writing the History of England. The clamour against this performance was http://oll. that in a twelvemonth he sold only forty-five copies of it. English. arrogance. I was so little inclined to yield to their senseless clamour. I resolved to pick up courage and to persevere. indeed. and authority. This pamphlet gave me some consolation for the otherwise indifferent reception of my performance. along with some other small pieces.libertyfund. two years after the fall of the first volume. It is ridiculous to consider the English constitution before that period as a regular plan of liberty. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . that the Whig party were in possession of bestowing all places.html 4/7/2004 . an office from which I received little or no emolument. patriot and courtier. reading. and was better received. and scurrility. I was. but being frightened with the notion of continuing a narrative through a period of 1700 years. I scarcely. I expected proportional applause. I own. which distinguish the Warburtonian school. freethinker and religionist. Hurd wrote a pamphlet against it. I must only except the primate of England. discouraged. and Irish. what was still more mortifying.Hume. Whig and Tory. both in the state and in literature. sanguine in my expectation of the success of this work. I thought that I was the only historian. Mr. Herring. the misrepresentations of faction began chiefly to take place. and had not the war been at that time breaking out between France and England. churchman and sectary. and never more have returned to my native country. or literary. that could endure the book. It came unnoticed and unobserved into the world. In 1759.

will never imagine the reception I met with at Paris. I received from Mr. which at first gave me no alarm. I might be tempted to point to this later period. Conway an invitation to be Under-secretary and this invitation. in the meanwhile. and because I was afraid that the civilities and gay company of Paris. that the copy-money given me by the booksellers. But. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . both because I was reluctant to begin connexions with the great. become mortal and incurable. not richer. and retaining the satisfaction of never having preferred a request to one great man. and a much larger income. and what is more strange. than I left it. In spring 1775. But I was now callous against the impressions of public folly. being appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. I was become not only independent. I accepted of it. and next summer went to Edinburgh. which I should most choose to pass over again. to finish. prevented me from declining. of burying myself in a philosophical retreat. never suffered a moment’s abatement of my spirits. This offer. and but tolerable success. with a near prospect of being appointed secretary to the embassy. by means of Lord Hertford’s friendship. The more I recoiled from their excessive civilities. insomuch. that were I to name a period of my life. and of seeing the increase of my reputation. or even making advances of friendship to any of them. to which my writings had been exposed. but has since. I was appointed secretary to the embassy.html 4/7/2004 . when I received. an invitation from the Earl of Hertford. of performing the functions of that office. as well as afterwards with his brother. As I was now turned of fifty. determined never more to set my foot out of it. in summer 1765. and continued very peaceably and contentedly in my retreat at Edinburgh. have. and. with the same view as formerly. I thought of passing all the rest of my life in this philosophical manner. I left Paris. and I was desirous of trying what superfluity could produce. both the character of the person. from men and women of all ranks and stations. however. General with whom I was not in the least acquainted. and though somewhat stricken in years. very opulent (for I possessed a revenue of 1000l. knowing and polite company with which that city abounds above all places in the universe. in 1763. but with much more money. a-year). The reign of Elizabeth was particularly obnoxious. much exceeded any thing formerly known in England. but opulent.. with the prospect of enjoying long my ease. I retired to my native country of Scotland. There is. in two volumes. Those who have not seen the strange effects of modes. healthy. I returned to Edinburgh in 1769. Page 15 of 354 almost equal to that against the History of the two first Stuarts. I returned to that place.. would prove disagreeable to a person of my age and humour: but on his lordship’s repeating the invitation. I possess the same ardour as ever in http://oll. But in 1767. I have every reason. I was struck with a disorder in my bowels. a real satisfaction in living at Paris. and. the more early part of the English History. however inviting. from the great number of sensible. to think myself happy in my connexions with that nobleman. notwithstanding this variety of winds and seasons. as I had formerly made an experiment of a competency. I was chargé d’ affaires till the arrival of the Duke of Richmond.Hume. I now reckon upon a speedy dissolution. they had still been making such advances. In the beginning of 1766. the more I was loaded with them. notwithstanding the great decline of my person. which I gave to the public in 1761.libertyfund. to attend him on his embassy to Paris. I thought once of settling there for life. Lord Hertford left me. as I apprehend it. towards the end of the year. I at first declined. and my connexions with Lord Hertford. both of pleasure and interest. I have suffered very little pain from my disorder. with tolerable.

with that care and attention which might be expected from a temper so perfectly friendly and affectionate. therefore. Kirkaldy. but they could never find any which they thought would wear the face of probability. 9. by the entreaty of his friends. notwithstanding my frequent disappointments. or even attacked by her baleful tooth: and though I wantonly exposed myself to the rage of both civil and religious factions. I cannot say there is no vanity in making this funeral oration of myself. John Home and myself. Page 16 of 354 study. 1776. never soured my temper. Though. though most men. Mr. capable of attachment. He set out for London towards the end of April. April 18. I had no reason to be displeased with the reception I met with from them. LETTER FROM ADAM SMITH. As I had written to my mother that she might expect me in Scotland. a man of mild disposition. or rather was (for that is the style I must now use in speaking of myself. social. and this is a matter of fact which is easily cleared and ascertained. yet he allowed himself to be prevailed upon. My friends never had occasion to vindicate any one circumstance of my character and conduct: Not but that the zealots.html 4/7/2004 . and when he arrived in London. and attended him during the whole of his stay in England. and though I see many symptoms of my literary reputation’s breaking out at last with additional luster. TO WILLIAM STRAHAN. I was. my ruling passion. his disease was mortal and incurable. they seemed to be disarmed in my behalf of their wonted fury. that a man of sixty-five. and as I took a particular pleasure in the company of modest women. during his last illness. which. I never was touched. I was under the necessity of continuing my journey. as well as to the studious and literary.D. ESQ. He was advised to go to Bath to drink the waters. My account. and at Morpeth met with Mr. I am. His disease seemed to yield to exercise and change of air.Hume. I consider besides. and cheerful humour. In a word. would have been glad to invent and propagate any story to my disadvantage. of command of Home returned with him. though a very melancholy pleasure. of an open. shall begin where his ends.. and of great moderation in all my passions. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . I knew that I could have but few years to enjoy it. DEAR SIR.. have found reason to complain of calumny. 1776. It is difficult to be more detached from life than I am at present. expecting to have found him at Edinburgh. which appeared for http://oll. Fifeshire. Hume. he wrote that account of his own life. It is with a real. Even my love of literary fame. I say. To conclude historically with my own character. LL. cuts off only a few years of infirmities. to try what might be the effects of a long journey. but I hope it is not a misplaced one. which emboldens me the more to speak my sentiments). in his own judgment. Mr. A few days before he set out. but little susceptible of enmity.libertyfund. My company was not unacceptable to the young and careless. by dying. any wise eminent. he has left to your care. together with his other papers. we may well suppose. Nov. that I sit down to give you some account of the behaviour of our late excellent friend. who had both come down from London on purpose to see him. he was apparently in much better health than when he left Edinburgh. and the same gaiety in company.

Good Charon.. yet his cheerfulness was still so great. he had no enemies upon whom he wished to revenge himself.” But I might still urge. Lucian’s Dialogues of the Dead. he could not forbear writing him a letter bidding him once more all eternal adieu.” Colonel Edmonstone soon afterwards came to see him. weaker than when I lay down in the evening. I may have the satisfaction of seeing the downfal of some of http://oll. so. I told him. and I could at no time expect to leave my relations and friends in a better situation than that in which I am now likely to leave them: I. that though I was sensible how very much he was weakened. so that I must soon die. have all reason to die contented. “Have a little patience. “that I left you much better. with reading books of amusement. that his more affectionate friends knew. your brother’s family in particular. though he found himself much weaker.. Mr. and that appearances were in many respects very bad. Page 17 of 354 some time to have so good an effect upon him. that he felt that satisfaction so sensibly. that I may see how the Public receives the alterations. and the most perfect complacency and resignation. with correcting his own works for a new edition. and that so far from being hurt by this frankness.” said I.” “Well. and when I rise in the morning. “Your hopes are groundless.html 4/7/2004 .” said he. “I could not well imagine. and which he immediately showed me. as usual. with the conversation of his friends. among all the excuses which are alleged to Charon for not entering readily into his boat. good Charon. the Marquis de la Fare. a few days before. that I am dying as fast as my enemies. he had no daughter to provide for. and as easily and cheerfully as my best friends could desire. An habitual diarrhoea of more than a year’s standing. and his conversation and amusements run so much in their usual strain. besides. “When you have seen the effect of these.” But Charon would answer.” He then diverted himself with inventing several jocular excuses which he supposed he might make to Charon. please step into the boat. however. therefore. His symptoms. and in a fair way of recovery. honest friend. he had no house to finish. the spirit of life seemed still to be so very strong in him. would be a very bad disease at any age: At my age it is a mortal one.Hume. could wish. that when he was reading. “what excuse I could make to Charon in order to obtain a little delay. you have at least the satisfaction of leaving all your friends.libertyfund. soon returned with their usual violence. Allow me a little time. what he was not apt to do. Colonel Edmonstone. “as I believe you would not chuse to tell any thing but the truth. If I live a few years I have been endeavouring to open the eyes of the Public. with a party at his favourite game of whist. sometimes in the evening. “I shall tell your friend. and on his way home. and with imagining the very surly answers which it might suit the character of Charon to return to them. that I could not help entertaining some faint hopes. that some of my vital parts are affected. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and from that moment he gave up all thoughts of recovery. that.” said he. “I thought I might say to him. When I lie down in the evening. in expectation of his own death. as to a dying man. Upon his return to Edinburgh. many people could not believe he was dying. I have been correcting my works for a new edition. and applying to him. and take leave of him. that they hazarded nothing in talking or writing to him as to a dying man. which he had just received. that even he himself began to entertain. I am sensible. he was rather pleased and flattered by it. notwithstanding all bad symptoms. but submitted with the utmost cheerfulness. Hume’s magnanimity and firmness were such. he could not find one that fitted him. I have done everything of consequence which I ever meant to do. “Upon further consideration.” “Doctor. and he continued to divert himself. you had better tell him. yet his cheerfulness never abated. “if it must be so.” said he. if I have any. and. the beautiful French verses in which the Abbé Chaulieu. He answered. I feel myself weaker than when I rose in the morning. in great prosperity. a better opinion of his own health. laments his approaching separation from his friend.” said Doctor Dundas to him one day. I happened to come into his room while he was reading this letter. There will be no end of such excuses. you will be for making other alterations. His cheerfulness was so great.” He said.

Doctor Black. and last night had a small fever. He finds. I agreed to leave Edinburgh. Hume himself. Mr. and never dwelt longer upon it than the course of the conversation happened to require: it was a subject indeed which occurred pretty frequently. but is much weaker. which I hoped might put a quicker period to this tedious illness. He never mentioned the subject but when the conversation naturally led to it.html 4/7/2004 . Monday. but unluckily it has. than suited the weakness of his body. where I was staying partly upon his account. his complaisance and social disposition were still so entire. he could not help talking more. and passes his time very well with the assistance of amusing books. and with greater exertion. but Doctor Black can better inform you concerning the degree of strength which may from time to time remain with me. that I ever had with him. in the mean time. 26th August. you lazy. At his own desire. in consequence of the inquiries which his friends. **** “I go very fast to decline. He sits up. and it is happy that he does not need it. Hume always talked of his approaching dissolution with great cheerfulness.” Three days after I received the following letter from Doctor Black. therefore. “I am obliged to make use of my nephew’s hand in writing to you. 1776. He had now become so very weak. that when any friend was with him. but seldom sees any body. he never affected to make any parade of his magnanimity. that the company of his most intimate friends fatigued him. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . though Mr. who came to see him. gone off. Page 18 of 354 the prevailing systems of superstition. was the last.. I cannot submit to your coming over here on my account. and returned to my mother’s house here. that will not happen these many hundred years.Hume. Do you fancy I will grant you a lease for so long a term? Get into the boat this instant. goes down stairs once a day. of which the following is an extract. The conversation which I mentioned above. 1776. in a great measure. loitering rogue. or low spirits. at Kirkaldy. naturally made concerning the state of his health. for he is quite free from anxiety.. to write me occasionally an account of the state of his health. Edinburgh. upon condition that he would send for me whenever he wished to see me. Hume has passed his time pretty easily. the physician who saw him most frequently. and which passed on Thursday the 8th of August. as I do not rise to-day. and amuses himself with reading. &c. 23d August. for his cheerfulness was still so great. On the 22d of August.” But Charon would then lose all temper and decency. that even the conversation of his most intimate friends fatigues and oppresses him.” But. except one. Adieu. http://oll.libertyfund. Edinburgh. impatience. as it is possible for me to see you so small a part of the day. “You loitering rogue.” I received the day after a letter from Mr. “MY DEAREST FRIEND. the Doctor wrote me the following letter: “Since my last.

The near approach of his death became evident in the night between Thursday and Friday.html 4/7/2004 . Mr. and free from much pain or feelings of distress. it seldom failed to please and delight. It never was the meaning of his raillery to mortify. I thought it improper to write to bring you over. but when he had occasion to speak to the people about him. when his disease became excessive. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . as perhaps the nature of human frailty will permit.. His constant pleasantry was the genuine effusion of good-nature and good-humour. When he became very weak. Page 19 of 354 “DEAR SIR. He continued to the last perfectly sensible. I have always considered him. so agreeable in society. and he died in such a happy composure of mind. “Yesterday about four o’clock Upon the whole. To his friends.Hume. that he could no longer rise out of his bed. ADAM SMITH. far from offending. was in him certainly attended with the most severe application. Even in the lowest state of his fortune.. tempered with delicacy and modesty. acts both of charity and generosity. and never to be forgotten friend. dear Sir. judge variously. the most extensive learning. He never dropped the smallest expression of impatience. even those who were the objects of it. especially as I heard that he had dictated a letter to you. but concerning whose character and conduct there can scarce be a difference of opinion. and therefore. no doubt. but upon the love of independency. his great and necessary frugality never hindered him from exercising. but which is so often accompanied with frivolous and superficial qualities. concerning whose philosophical opinions men will.libertyfund. desiring you not to come. which contributed more to endear his conversation. always did it with affection and tenderness. both in his lifetime and since his death.” Thus died our most excellent. and without even the slightest tincture of malignity. the greatest depth of thought and a capacity in every respect the most comprehensive. according as they happen to coincide or disagree with his own. and soon weakened him so much. so frequently the disagreeable source of what is called wit in other men. Hume expired. or condemning them. I The Britons – Romans – Saxons – the Heptarchy – The Kingdom of Kent – of Northumberland – of East–Anglia – of Mercia – of Essex– of Sussex – of Wessex http://oll. And that gaiety of temper. His temper. seemed to be more happily balanced. it cost him an effort to speak. or the steadiness of his resolutions. than that perhaps of any other man I have ever known. upon proper occasions. there was not perhaps any one of all his great and amiable qualities. The extreme gentleness of his nature never weakened either the firmness of his mind. It was a frugality founded not upon avarice. every one approving. Most affectionately your’s. indeed. that nothing could exceed it. who were frequently the objects of it. if I may be allowed such an expression. as approaching as nearly to the idea of a perfectly wise and virtuous man. I ever am.

and spread but a very faint light over this island. Neglecting. The south-east parts. violent. their government. made the first and most requisite step toward a civil settlement. all traditions or rather tales concerning the more early history of Britain. are so much guided by caprice. in order to excite the admiration of their countrymen. as belonging more to Roman than British story: We shall hasten through the obscure and uninteresting period of Saxon annals: And shall reserve a more full narration for those times. The inhabitants of Gaul. whose a http://oll. All ancient writers agree in representing the first inhabitants of Britain as a tribe of the Gauls or Celtae. that the history of past events is immediately lost or disfigured. and that the adventures of barbarous nations. possessed of leisure. and contradiction. when intrusted to memory and oral tradition. especially in those parts which lie contiguous to Italy. as usual. varied only by those small differences. had acquired. we shall only consider the state of the inhabitants. and the Britons. which they reared in the forests and marshes. The only certain means. which are commonly employed to supply the place of true history. are apt to push their researches beyond the period. and customs of their ancestors. and unprepared revolutions. when the truth is both so well ascertained and so complete as to promise entertainment and instruction to the reader. The convulsions of a civilized state usually compose the most instructive and most interesting part of its history. The fables.. had already. therefore. which attended the conquest made by that empire. their wants and their possessions were equally scanty and limited. who peopled that island from the neighbouring continent. as it appeared to the Romans on their invasion of this country: We shall briefly run over the events. it can only be in favour of the ancient Grecian fictions. their superstition.. Ingenious men. and being a military people. some refinement in the arts. when actuated either by the hopes of plunder or the fear of an enemy: The convenience of feeding their cattle was even a sufficient motive for removing their seats: And as they were ignorant of all the refinements of life. had there encreased to a great multitude. that they will ever be the objects of the attention of mankind. entertained by all civilized nations. ought entirely to be of enquiring into the exploits and adventures of their ancestors. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and terminate so often in cruelty that they disgust us by the uniformity of their appearance.Hume. but the sudden. could afford little or no entertainment to men born in a more cultivated age. Their language was the same. commonly excites a regret that the history of remote ages should always be so much involved in obscurity. or if any exception be admitted to this general rule. and to compare them with those of the neighbouring nations. is to consider the language. even if they were recorded. of Britain. which they magnified. by which nations can indulge their curiosity in researches concerning their remote origin. however. before the age of Caesar. The Britons were divided into many small nations or tribes. their manners. by tillage and agriculture. Page 20 of 354 THE BRITONS THE CURIOSITY. and it is rather fortunate for letters that they are buried in silence and oblivion. incident to Barbarians. which time or a communication with the bordering nations must necessarily introduce. The Greek and Roman navigators or merchants (for there were scarcely any other travellers in those ages) brought back the most shocking accounts of the ferocity of the people. from a commerce with their southern neighbours. in which literary monuments are framed or preserved. uncertainty. with which the country was covered: They shifted easily their habitation.libertyfund.html 4/7/2004 . which gradually diffused themselves northwards. which are so celebrated and so agreeable. manners. without reflecting. The other inhabitants of the island still maintained themselves by pasture: They were clothed with skins of beasts: They dwelt in huts.

which. they communicated their doctrines only to the initiated. after they had acquired a relish of liberty. they enjoyed an immunity from wars and taxes. and strictly forbad the committing of them to writing. Their governments. having over-run all Gaul by his victories. and this steddy conquest over human avidity may be regarded as more signal than their prompting men to the most extraordinary and most violent efforts. secured by no other guard than the terrors of their religion. he took advantage of a short interval in his Gaulic wars. were happily corroborated by the terrors of their superstition. than among the nations of Gaul. for their princes or chieftains to establish any despotic authority over them.Hume. when Caesar. and endeavoured to appease him by submissions. while it maintained its authority. The sentence of excommunication was pronounced against him: He was forbidden access to the sacrifices or public worship: He was debarred all intercourse with his fellow-citizens. as profane and dangerous: He was refused the protection of law: And death itself became an acceptable relief from the misery and infamy to which he was exposed. Human sacrifices were practised among them: The spoils of war were often devoted to their divinities.libertyfund. No idolatrous worship ever attained such an ascendant over mankind as that of the ancient Gauls and Britons. and the common people seem even to have enjoyed more liberty among them. Thus. and in order to throw a greater mystery over their religion. they possessed both the civil and criminal jurisdiction. and they punished with the severest tortures whoever dared to secrete any part of the consecrated offering: These treasures they kept in woods and forests. first cast his eye on their island. possessed great authority among them. and made an invasion on Britain. Besides ministering at the altar. retarded not the execution of his http://oll.. He was not allured either by its riches or its renown. The natives. they decided all controversies among states as well as among private persons. Page 21 of 354 sole property was their arms and their cattle. informed of his intention. Each state was divided into factions within itself. from whom they were descended. though monarchical. but being ambitious of carrying the Roman arms into a new world. however.html 4/7/2004 . and the Romans. after their conquest. finding it impossible to reconcile those nations to the laws and institutions of their who were their priests. b were free.. they inculcated the eternal transmigration of souls. They practised their rites in dark groves or other secret recesses. they presided over the education of youth. and directing all religious duties. it was impossible. were at last obliged to abolish it by penal statutes. the bands of government. and whoever refused to submit to their decree was exposed to the most severe penalties. wars were the chief occupation. lest they should at any time be exposed to the examination of the profane vulgar. then mostly unknown. Besides the severe penalties. which it was in the power of the ecclesiastics to inflict in this world. and formed the chief object of ambition. among the people. even in the common affairs of life: His company was universally shunned. No species of superstition was ever more terrible than that of the Druids. and thereby extended their authority as far as the fears of their timorous votaries. The religion of the Britons was one of the most considerable parts of their government. and the Druids. It was agitated with jealousy or animosity against the neighbouring states: And while the arts of peace were yet unknown. which were naturally loose among that rude and turbulent people. c d e f g h i THE ROMANS THE BRITONS had long remained in this rude but independent state. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . were sensible of the unequal contest. which had never in any other instance been practised by those tolerating conquerors. as well as those of all the Celtic nations. a violence.

made a journey into Britain. as is supposed. neglected the performance of their stipulations. which was the center of their superstition. took him prisoner. still maintained an obstinate resistance. and Trinobantes. which was ready to be imposed upon them. began to think seriously of reducing them under their dominion. who inhabited the southeast parts of the island. and though he found a more regular resistance from the Britons. was the chief seat of the Druids. enjoyed their liberty unmolested. made this advice of Augustus a pretence for his inactivity. Under the reign of Nero. who had united under Cassivelaunus. relieved from the terror of his arms. Tiberius. Atrebates. finding matters sufficiently prepared for his reception. at Deal. during almost a century. jealous of the fame. the Cantii. in which he menaced Britain with an invasion.. he was constrained. who gained some victories. k A. in the reign of Claudius. under the command of Caractacus.libertyfund. and to subject a place. 50. might also overwhelm the empire. which might be acquired by his generals. and A. and having obliged the inhabitants to make him new submissions. till Ostorius Scapula was sent over to command their armies. served only to expose himself and the empire to ridicule: And the Britons had now. pierced into the country of the Silures. 59. and prepared to signalize his name by victories over those barbarians. After some resistance. he resolved to attack it. He advanced into the country.D. Without seeking any more justifiable reasons of hostility than were employed by the late Europeans in subjecting the Africans and Americans. Page 22 of 354 design. Claudius himself. and whom their possessions and more cultivated manner of life rendered willing to purchase peace at the expence of their liberty. they sent over an army under the command of Plautius. which ensued. http://oll. This general advanced the Roman conquests over the Britons. and the Romans made little progress against The other Britons. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and left the authority of the Romans more nominal than real in this island. one of their petty princes. and that haughty conqueror resolved next summer to chastise them for this breach of treaty. l Notwithstanding these misfortunes. which had subverted the republic.D. 43. where his magnanimous behaviour procured him better treatment than those conquerors usually bestowed on captive princes. he discomfited them in every action. and received the submission of several British states. and which prepared the way for the establishment of monarchy in Rome. he again returned with his army into Gaul. a warlike nation. Regni. and made a considerable progress in subduing the inhabitants. and being apprehensive lest the same unlimited extent of dominion. and having obtained several advantages over the Britons and obliged them to promise hostages for their future obedience. who inhabited the banks of the Severne. established his ally. and this island was regarded by the ambitious Romans as a field in which military honour might still be acquired. The Britons. and the approach of winter.html 4/7/2004 . Augustus. The mad sallies of Caligula. content with the victory obtained over the liberties of his own country. and sent him to Rome. Anno ante C. he landed. in the sovereignty of the Trinobantes. by the necessity of his affairs. now Anglesey. the Britons were not subdued. Mandubratius. took and burned the capital of Cassivelaunus. 55. Finding that the island of Mona. passed the Thames in the face of the enemy. A. the successor of Caesar. He landed with a greater force. an able general. The civil wars.D.Hume. to withdraw his forces into Gaul. was little ambitious of acquiring fame by foreign wars. defeated Caractacus in a great battle. saved the Britons from that yoke. when the Romans. Suetonius Paulinus was invested with the command. he recommended it to his successors never to enlarge the territories of the Romans..

were all in arms.Hume. which he had forged. Page 23 of 354 which afforded protection to all their baffled forces. having experienced how unequal their own force was to resist that of the of that mighty empire. Julius Frontinus succeeded Cerealis both in authority and in reputation: But the general. reduced every state to subjection in the southern parts of the island. where 80. After some interval. Suetonius hastened to the protection of London. and employed every expedient to render those chains. which they despised. both easy and agreeable to them. he thereby cut off the ruder and more barren parts of the island. and rendering the acquisition useful to the conquerors... Cerealis received the command from Vespasian. than the real danger from the armed forces was able to inspire. But this cruelty was revenged by Suetonius in a great and decisive battle. rather than fall into the hands of the enraged victor. He introduced laws and civility among the Britons.000 of the Britons are said to have perished. The Britons endeavoured to obstruct his landing on this sacred island. between the friths of Clyde and Forth. The Britons. he was judged improper for composing the angry and alarmed minds of the inhabitants. and distinguished himself in that scene of action. cries. and tossing their dishevelled hair. where. and by his bravery propagated the terror of the Roman arms. to the number of 70. and. by rendering the war thus bloody. Nero soon after recalled Suetonius from a government. He carried his victorious arms northwards. Titus. This great commander formed a regular plan for subduing Britain. and chaced before him all the men of fiercer and more intractable spirits. their leader. and the Britons. they struck greater terror into the astonished Romans by their howlings. were cruelly massacred. destroyed all the consecrated groves and he neglected not the arts of peace. queen of the Iceni. The inhabitants. and Boadicea herself. in reducing the people to subjection. and headed by Boadicea. reconciled them to the Roman language and manners. which was already a flourishing Roman colony.000. were every where put to the sword without distinction. and running about with flaming torches in their hands. and execrations. seemed determined to cut off all hopes of peace or composition with the enemy. taking advantage of his absence. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . He even defeated them in a decisive action.html 4/7/2004 . and secured the Roman province from the incursions of the barbarous inhabitants. The women and priests were intermingled with the soldiers upon the shore. acquiesced in the dominion of their masters. he thought his future progress would be easy. m n During these military enterprizes. London was reduced to ashes. which they sought under Galgacus. But Suetonius. exhorting his troops to despise the menaces of a superstition. impelled them to the attack.libertyfund. burned the Druids in the same fires which those priests had prepared for their captive enemies. both by the force of their arms and the terrors of their religion. instructed them in letters and science. and having fixed a chain of garrisons. who finally established the dominion of the Romans in this island. who governed it in the reigns of Vespasian. the Romans and all strangers. by suffering and inflicting so many severities. taught them to desire and raise all the conveniencies of life. o Romans. defeated the Britons in every encounter. and were gradually incorporated as a part http://oll. that it would be requisite for the general safety to abandon that place to the merciless fury of the enemy. was Julius Agricola. such of the inhabitants as remained in it. had already attacked with success several settlements of their insulting conquerors. pierced into the inaccessible forests and mountains of Caledonia. and Domitian. put an end to her own life by poison. but he found on his arrival. But he was disappointed in his expectations. drove the Britons off the field. who had been treated in the most ignominious manner by the Roman tribunes. having thus triumphed over the religion of the Britons. who deemed war and death itself less intolerable than servitude under the victors.

who occupied the deserted habitations of the former. and during the reign of all the Roman emperors. though secured by the sea against the inroads of the greater tribes of barbarians. when that enormous fabric of the Roman empire. who visited this island. and submissive. no less dangerous to the sovereign than to the people. already unequal to the load which it sustained. defended by barren mountains. could no longer be attended to in this desperate extremity. made incursions upon their peaceable and effeminate neighbours. The necessity of self-preservation had superseded the ambition of power. The farther progress of the same disorders introduced the bordering barbarians into the service of the Romans. and collected the whole military force for the defence of the capital and center of the empire. Britain by its situation was removed from the fury of these barbarous incursions. and carried his arms to the most northern extremity of it. The Picts seem to have been a tribe of the native British race. having been http://oll. not much valued by the Romans. who made an expedition into Britain. together with peace and civility. who took advantage of its present defenceless situation. equally disposed to submit to a foreign yoke. over so considerable a part of the globe. who dwelt in the northern parts. these combined nations threatened the whole province with subjection. removed. which had diffused slavery and oppression.. Page 24 of 354 This was the last durable conquest made by the Romans. had entirely lost the military spirit. are some seditions or rebellions of the Roman legions quartered there.. once subdued.html 4/7/2004 . from all concern in the wars.Hume. advanced in their acquisitions. never to contract the limits of the empire. in the reign of Arcadius and Honorius. But that province. which defended it. assailed at once all the frontiers of the Roman empire. which occur. such a profound tranquillity prevailed in Britain. and besides the temporary depredations which they committed. Sensible of their own force. disarmed. could no longer be restrained by the impotent policy of the emperors. during so many ages. The natives. were carried over to the protection of Italy and Gaul. or to the tyranny of their own rulers. The emperors found themselves obliged to recruit their legions from the frontier provinces. The more distant barbarians. and the ancient point of honour. erected one in the place where Agricola had formerly established his garrisons: Severus. and being also a remote province. having now added discipline to their native bravery. with plunder and devastation. had left all desire and even idea of their former liberty and who were accustomed to employ one in the destruction of the others. built a rampart between the river Tyne and the frith of Solway: Lollius Urbicus.libertyfund. sometimes infested the more cultivated parts of the island by the incursions of its inhabitants. found enemies on its frontiers. or. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . Italy. Instead of arming the people in their own defence. and were peopled by an enervated race. dispirited. careless of laws and civil institutions. Adrian. was approaching towards its final dissolution. that little mention is made of the affairs of that island by any historian. established a military government. gave no farther inquietude to the victor. and Britain. in whom alone they could repose confidence. under Antoninus Pius. and by the contempt which the Romans entertained for it. and those fierce nations. where the genius of war. and having first satiated their avidity by plunder. the legions. and some usurpations of the imperial dignity by the Roman governors. But the period was now come. the emperors recalled all the distant legions. Caledonia alone. added new fortifications to the wall of Adrian. who. and the center of the empire. and pressed with their incumbent weight the Roman state. beyond the wall of Antoninus. and allured by the prospect of so rich a prize. The better to secure the frontiers of the empire. began to think of fixing a settlement in the wasted provinces. The only incidents. was not totally extinct. and these mercenary forces. though languishing. the northern barbarians. what the inhabitants more dreaded. The Picts and Scots.

to arm in their own defence. and one legion was sent over for their protection. That they might leave the island with the better grace. pressed by the arms of Attila. on the other. broke over the Roman wall. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . two Romans who had a little before assumed the purple in Britain. that. made supplications to Rome. soon rapine. The Britons. which their ancient lords had conferred upon them. NOTE [A] p q r THE BRITONS THE ABJECT BRITONS regarded this present of liberty as fatal to them.. and having perished in their unsuccessful attempts on the imperial throne. the sea. and we have only the hard choice left us. which proved effectual for their relief: But the Romans.html 4/7/2004 . reduced to extremities at home. and had long been accustomed. and fatigued with those distant expeditions. on the one hand. as they were now their own masters. exhorted them to arm in their own defence. the towering ruins of the empire. sustained. But Aetius. in this desperate extremity. and though a contemptible enemy in themselves. who. at that time. were best able to defend it. had despoiled the island of those. The Britons made again an application to Rome. which was inscribed. it became them to protect by their valour that independence. which had declared its resolution for ever to abandon them. The unhappy Britons had a third time recourse to Rome. The British ambassadors carried to him the letter of their countrymen. Their retreat brought on a new invasion of the enemy. had first been established in Ireland. The Britons. Gratian also and Constantine. about the year 448. finding that the Romans had finally relinquished Britain. and were in no condition to put in practice the prudent counsel given them by the Romans. after being masters of the more considerable part of it during the course of near four centuries. And having done this last good office to the inhabitants. had carried over to the continent the flower of the British youth. and again obtained the assistance of a Page 25 of 354 chaced into the northern parts by the conquests of Agricola. finding their more opulent neighbours exposed to invasion. The invaders carried devastation and ruin along with them. The barbarians. and having chaced them into their ancient limits. throws us back upon the barbarians. repelled their invasion.libertyfund. had there intermingled with the ancient inhabitants: The Scots were derived from the same Celtic origin. of perishing by the sword or by the waves. and deserting their station. The Picts and Scots. The Groans of the Britons. had migrated to the north-west coasts of this island. This force was an overmatch for the barbarians. and revived for a moment among the degenerate Romans the spirit. the Romans assisted them in erecting anew the wall of Severus. and exerted to the utmost their native ferocity. they bid a final adieu to Britain. which was built entirely of stone. Unaccustomed both to the perils of war. by his valour and magnanimity. and which the Britons had not at that time artificers skillful enough to repair. found the ramparts but a weak defence for them. say they. Aetius. informed the Britons that they must no longer look to them for succour. to infest the Roman province by pyracy and These tribes. of their ancestors. and to the cares of civil government. met with no resistance from the unwarlike inhabitants. as well as discipline. already subdued by their own fears. accustomed to have recourse to the emperors for defence as well as government. which was not mitigated by the helpless condition and submissive behaviour of the inhabitants. the most terrible enemy that ever s t http://oll.. left the country entirely open to the inroads of the barbarous enemy. returned in triumph to the defence of the southern provinces of the empire. and attacked the northern wall with redoubled forces. no longer defended by the Roman arms. The tenor of the epistle was suitable to its superscription. they found themselves incapable of forming or executing any measures for resisting the incursions of the barbarians. routed them in every engagement. chace us into the sea. now regarded the whole as their prey. as well from their old as their new feats. and urged.Hume. the patrician.

and though the sovereign was usually chosen from among the royal family. abandoned tillage. and flying for protection to the forests and mountains. soon threatened them with a new though precarious authority. and following the counsels of Vortigern. were reduced to despair. the men of greatest authority employed persuasion to engage their consent. made them soon forget their past miseries. after an independant manner. No more can be imagined to have been possessed by a people so rude. The barbarians themselves began to feel the pressures of famine in a country which they had ravaged. not to their cowardice or improvident counsels. and restored to them great plenty of all the necessaries of life.html 4/7/2004 . The Britons. than on opposing the public enemy. thus rejected. To this disunion of counsels were also added the disputes of theology. was executed with alacrity.. gave alarm to the clergy. Page 26 of 354 assailed the empire. who had not dared to resist them in a body. even when established among the Germans. suffered equally from hunger and from the enemy. u w x y z a THE SAXONS OF ALL THE BARBAROUS NATIONS. and to have carried to the highest pitch the virtues of valour and love of liberty. the civil union was in a great measure dissolved. and being harassed by the dispersed Britons. without the assistance of the Romans. but it appears probable. having encreased to a great multitude. These http://oll. known either in ancient or modern times. the Germans seem to have been the most distinguished both by their manners and political institutions. the princes governed more by example than by authority: But in peace. where justice and humanity are commonly neglected. there was no necessity for a nice scrutiny of votes among a multitude. who were usually carried with a strong current to one side or the other. and the favourable seasons which succeeded. invited by their former timid behaviour. who had not. and ascribe to that vice. entirely occupied in the enjoyment of the present interval of peace. Labouring under these domestic evils. over whom he presided. who. Even in war. deserted their habitations. each in his particular district. Kingly government. the people expressed their approbation by rattling their armour. they retreated with their spoils into their own country. though stained with every vice. he was directed in every measure by the common consent of the nation. (for it was not universal) possessed a very limited authority. that the great men in the different districts assumed a kind of regal. complain of the luxury of the Britons during this period. the Britons attended only to the suggestions of their present fears. prince of Dumnonium. returned to their usual occupations. all the warriors met in arms. who treat of those events.Hume. who was himself a native of Britain. whom generosity alone could induce him to assist. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . who seem to have been more intent on suppressing them. and lived in a great measure independant of each other. We are not exactly informed what species of civil government the Romans on their departure had left among the Britons. the only virtues which can have place among an uncivilized people. thus suddenly chosen by general agreement. The Britons. made no provision for resisting the enemy. taking advantage of this interval. The Britons.. and the disciples of Pelagius. and menaced with a foreign invasion. art of masonry sufficient to raise a stone rampart for their own defence: Yet the Monkish historians. When any important affairs were transacted. they sent into Germany a deputation to invite over the Saxons for their protection and assistance. and prosecuted with vigour. or their dissent by murmurs. and the measure. had no leisure to attend to the complaints of allies. possessed the chief authority among them. seconding their industry. who. all their subsequent calamities. and the inferior leaders administered justice.

The contributions. The dark industry of antiquaries. whence they had long infested by their pyracies all the eastern and southern parts of Britain. for the annals of a people. Their constant emulation in military renown dissolved not that inviolable friendship which they professed to their chieftain and to each other. and the northern of Gaul. procured them. was infamous. acquired by a superior rank. a circumstance which added much to their authority. The warriors of each tribe attached themselves to their leader. or making such progress in agriculture as might divert their attention from military expeditions. whom they called Count of the Saxon shore. the Romans had established an officer. they were invincible. or by the superior discipline. either by the similar manners and institutions of the neighbouring Germans. which they chiefly their valour. as his defence in war. The dissolution of the Roman power invited them to renew their inroads. who adopted all the martial sentiments of the men: and being thus impelled by every human motive. when their first leaders. In order to oppose their inroads. d e f Hengist and Horsa. whom they defended. from the suffrages of their fellow-citizens. c The Saxons had been for some time regarded as one of the most warlike tribes of this fierce people.libertyfund. where they were not opposed. possessed great credit among the Saxons.. by annually distributing anew all the land among the inhabitants of each village. They even carried into the field their women and children. and had become the terror of the neighbouring nations. It is evident what fruitless labour it must be to search. they seem to have been more successful in repelling the Saxons than any of the other barbarians. exalted by ignorance into that character. and the leaders. or by uncertain traditions. b The leaders and their military companions were maintained by the labour of their slaves. with the most devoted affection and most unshaken constancy. kept them from attaching themselves to particular possessions. were believed by them to be the fourth in descent from a fabulous deity. or the death of their leader. and though regard was paid to nobility in the choice.html 4/7/2004 . They were reputed. the chief occupation of the community. went not beyond a bare subsistence. Page 27 of 354 were elected by the votes of the people in their great councils. two brothers. which covers the remote history of those nations. They had diffused themselves from the northern parts of Germany and the Cimbrian Chersonesus. or by that of the weaker and less warlike part of the community. as most of the Saxon princes.. that the deputies of the Britons appeared among them. that honorable but dangerous distinction. and it was an acceptable circumstance. We shall not attempt to trace any higher the origin of those princes and nations. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . were the only reward of their superior dangers and fatigues. and numbers of the Romans. as his council in the administration of justice. their personal qualities. arms. by whom they were invaded. and were much celebrated both for their valour and nobility. known in any true history. To die for the honour of their band was their chief ambition: To survive its disgrace. in those barbarous and illiterate ages. to which they were of themselves sufficiently inclined. and had taken possession of all the sea-coast from the mouth of the Rhine to Jutland. and the honours. led by imaginary analogies of names. to be sprung from Woden. All the refined arts of life were unknown among the Germans: Tillage itself was almost wholly neglected: They even seem to have been anxious to prevent any improvements of that nature. g http://oll. and they are said to be his great grandsons. and as the naval arts can flourish among a civilized people alone. and prompted them to undertake an enterprize. They attended him as his ornament in peace.Hume. or from a man. who was worshipped as a god among those nations. would in vain attempt to pierce into that deep obscurity.

being now cut off from the Roman empire. They fought many battles with their enemies. had not yet acquired any union among themselves. they put themselves under the command of his son. This weak expedient soon failed them. and of all national attachments and regards. whose numbers they found continually augmenting. carried devastation into the most remote corners of Britain. he spared neither age. and the rich provinces of Gaul already conquered or over-run by other German tribes.. The Scots and Picts were unable to resist the valour of these auxiliaries. and being chiefly anxious to spread the terror of his arms. and the Saxons in Germany. however. and proceeded to open hostility against the Britons. The private and public edifices of the Britons were reduced to ashes: The priests were slaughtered on the altars by those idolatrous ravagers: The bishops and nobility shared the fate of the vulgar: The people. who had not been able to resist those feeble invaders. In one battle. and left the sole command over his countrymen in the hands of Hengist. who. they formed an alliance with the Picts and Scots. found it easy to persuade their countrymen to embrace the sole enterprize. not for the defence of their degenerate allies. which promised a favourable opportunity of displaying their valour and gratifying their avidity. nor sex. and from the bad event of his rash counsels. observing the other provinces of Germany to be occupied by a warlike and necessitous people. nor condition. and were destitute of all affection to their new liberties. who came over in seventeen vessels. following such agreeable prospects. except a passive submission and connivance. and the Britons. The Saxons sought a quarrel by complaining. but thought of no remedy. impelled by these violent extremities. took shelter in the province of Armorica. with what facility they might subdue the Britons themselves. were a new ground of hope. applauding their own wisdom in calling over the Saxons. so long disused to arms. that their subsidies were ill paid. and though the victories in these actions be disputed between the British and Saxon annalists. wherever he marched with his victorious forces. was slain. They sent intelligence to Saxony of the fertility and riches of Britain. the daughter of Hengist. perceiving. But Hengist and Horsa. now Ailsford. and gave the country the name of Brittany. of which they had been a province during so many ages. h i k l The British writers assign one cause. fought at Eglesford. the Saxon general. and their provisions withdrawn: And immediately taking off the mask. with which Vortigern was at first seized for Rovena.html 4/7/2004 . who had become odious from his vices. and roused to indignation against their treacherous auxiliaries. and about the year 449 or 450. the British leader. the progress still made by the Saxons prove that the advantage was commonly on their side. continually reinforced by fresh numbers from Germany. and immediately marched to the defence of the Britons against the northern invaders. which facilitated the entrance of the Saxons into this island. were intercepted and butchered in heaps: Some were glad to accept of life and servitude under their victors: Others. flying to the mountains and deserts. the love. hoped thenceforth to enjoy peace and security under the powerful protection of that warlike people. This active general. Horsa. The vices and pusillanimity of Vortigern. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . The Britons now began to entertain apprehensions of their allies. They embarked their troops in three vessels. deserting their native country.Hume.. Page 28 of 354 These two brothers. and having deposed Vortigern. who landed in the isle of Thanet. being charitably received by a people of the same language and manners. and represented as certain the subjection of a people. soon reinforced Hengist and Horsa with 5000 men. Vortimer. and which http://oll. from their easy victory over the Scots and Picts. carried over 1600 men. were determined to conquer and fight for their own grandeur. The Britons. were necessitated to take arms. they settled in great numbers.

comprehending the county of that name. where. notwithstanding their opposition.libertyfund. accepted of a banquet from Hengist. from the situation of the country. enraged by this resistance. as somewhat retarded the progress of their conquests. Middlesex. and himself detained captive. brought over an army from Germany. they suffered so considerable a loss. and at different times. redoubled their efforts against the place. that Vortimer died. who had taken possession of that territory. Ambrosius. a Briton. Hengist. and when masters of it. He fixed his royal seat at Canterbury. though of Roman descent. The first Saxon state. which had before been sunk into a fatal lethargy. after that of Kent. The same historians add. now armed. sometimes of Saxons. the Saxons. These conquerors were chiefly composed of three tribes. they were naturally led. was still maintained by the Britons: but became every day more feeble: and their calamities admitted of few intervals. again took the field against the Britons. and he settled them in Northumberland. who assumed the name of King. and part of Surrey. The most memorable action. m n o After the death of Vortimer. and laid the foundation of the kingdom of Kent. from these causes. This decisive advantage secured the conquests of Aella. did not tamely abandon their possessions. who all passed under the common appellation. which was established in Britain. leaving his new-acquired dominions to his posterity. and extended his dominion over Sussex and a great part of Surrey. till they were driven into Cornwal and Wales. and that Vortigern. though unequal. He was stopped in his progress to the east by the kingdom of Kent: In that to the west by another tribe of Saxons. and laid siege to Andred-Ceaster. still maintained his ground in Britain. the son of Octa. He himself remained in the southern parts of the island. where 300 of his nobility were treacherously slaughtered. and to account for the rapid progress and licentious devastations of the Saxons. The resistance however. nor were they expelled. and received protection from the remote situation or inaccessible mountains of those countries. a Saxon chief. and roused the military spirit of the ancient inhabitants.. till defeated in many battles by their warlike invaders. The Britons. sometimes of Angles. they flocked over in multitudes to the invasion of this island. at Stonehenge. The Saxons. and were called the West- p q r s http://oll. But these stories seem to have been invented by the Welsh authors. mentioned by historians. to unite themselves against the ancient inhabitants. Angles. proceeded to take possession of the neighbouring territory. to unite them in their resistance against the Saxons. was invested with the command over his countrymen. he called over a new tribe of Saxons. and speaking the same language. as well as from their common interest. however. Aella. and being governed by the same institutions. and by the fatigues and dangers which they had sustained. The success of Hengist excited the avidity of the other northern Germans. Those contests encreased the animosity between the two nations. and under different leaders.Hume. and in order to divide the forces and attention of the natives.html 4/7/2004 . where he governed about forty years. in which they settled. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and landing on the southern coast.. which was defended by the garrison and inhabitants with desperate valour. in order to palliate the weak resistance made at first by their countrymen. and of Ebissa. In the year 477. These Saxons. though the Saxons seem to have obtained the victory. being restored to the throne. put all their enemies to the sword without distinction. reinforced by fresh numbers of his countrymen. is that of Mearcredes-Burn. and Jutes. Essex. But Aella. and he died in or near the year 488. not without success. under the command of his brother Octa. was the kingdom of South-Saxony. Page 29 of 354 that artful warrior made use of to blind the eyes of the imprudent monarch.

and use strange liberties with truth where they are the sole historians. Crida that of Mercia in 585. but was not sufficient to wrest from him the conquests. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . who claimed a descent. from Woden.libertyfund. and comprehended Essex. a desperate battle with the Britons. under several leaders. Kenric. who had prevailed in the other wing. whose short swords and close manner of fighting gave them great advantage over the missile weapons of the Britons. At last in 547. Uffa assumed the title of king of the East-Angles in 575. and after fighting many battles. and enabled the Northumbrians to carry on their conquests over the Britons. and Norfolk: Mercia was extended over all the middle counties. Prince of the Silures. so much on their guard.html 4/7/2004 . Suffolk. While the Saxons made this progress in the south. and whose military atchievements have been blended with so many fables as even to give occasion for entertaining a doubt of his real though they disfigure the most certain history by their fictions. who succeeded him. their liberties against the invaders. But poets. The southern Britons in this extremity applied for assistance to Arthur. That of the East-Angles. their countrymen were not less active in other quarters. and he was thence joined by a fresh army under the command of Porte.Hume. a great tribe of adventurers. None of the other tribes of Saxons met with such vigorous resistance. over the counties of Hants. under the command of Cerdic. which he had already made. and Erkenwin that of East-Saxony or Essex nearly about the same time. brought timely assistance to his father. brought over a reinforcement from Germany. that none of their princes for a long time assumed the appellation of king. and of his sons Bleda and Megla. have commonly some foundation for their wildest exaggerations. as well as from Germany. and part of Hertfordshire. or exerted such valour and perseverance in pushing their conquests. Berks. but the year is uncertain. he laid siege to Mount Badon or Banesdowne near Bath. But Kenric. Dorset. Cerdic was even obliged to call for the assistance of his countrymen from the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex. soon after the landing of Hengist. Page 30 of 354 Saxons. the counties of Cambridge. landed on the eastcoast of Britain. and restored the battle. commanded by NazanLeod. Cerdic died in 534. and landed in the year 495. he fought. He x y z a b http://oll. who was victorious in the beginning of the action. This misfortune stopped the progress of Cerdic. and of his son Kenric. in the year 508. from the banks of the Severn. The Britons were.. still defended. Nazan-Leod perished. Ida. whose heroic valour now sustained the declining fate of this country. and routed the wing in which Cerdic himself commanded. The Saxons. Middlesex. This is that Arthur so much celebrated in the songs of Thaliessin. and left their new-acquired dominions to their posterity. as did all the other princes of that nation. but as they met with an obstinate resistance. In the year 527. Certain it is.. a Saxon prince of great valour. whither the most obstinate of the discomfited Britons had retired. and so well prepared to receive the enemy. and made but small progress in subduing the inhabitants. The war still continued. though the success was commonly on the side of the Saxons. This latter kingdom was dismembered from that of Kent. He and his son. established the kingdom of the West-Saxons or of Wessex. for some time. as among the Britons. and the Saxons were there discomfited in a great battle. Wilts. they established three new kingdoms in this island. to the frontiers of these two kingdoms. that the siege of Badon was raised by the Britons in the year 520. and the other British bards. Strengthened by these succours. by past experience. which ended in a complete victory gained by the Saxons. Kenric in 560. Cerdic was not wanting to his good fortune. their affairs were in so unsettled a condition. had been planted in Northumberland. and though vanquished. that they gave battle to Cerdic the very day of his landing. of which history has preserved no particular account. with 5000 of his army: But left the Britons more weakened than t u w discouraged by his death. and in order to extend his conquests. and the Isle of Wight.

libertyfund. received the appellation of king of Deiri. and hostilities.Hume. of the accounts transmitted to us. in Britain. instead of excluding other adventurers. had totally changed its inhabitants. and he assumed the crown under the title of king of Bernicia. but it cannot be doubted. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . except Wales and Cornwal. than can be opposed by the imperfect. and revolutions and dissensions were unavoidable among a turbulent and military people. especially to the vanquished. besides a great number of villages and country-seats: But the fierce conquerors. None of the other northern conquerors. or to have assumed. c THE HEPTARCHY THUS WAS ESTABLISHED. The first invaders from Germany. were tempted to make resistance. established one of the most powerful of the Saxon kingdoms. who were not either massacred or expelled their habitations. though the expeditions. especially the east-coast of that country. at least barrenness. having conquered Lancashire. or were inflamed into so violent an animosity against the ancient inhabitants. which are obtruded on us by the Scottish historians. Goths. as well as some of the south-east counties of Scotland. customs. Wars.. the Franks. added to the difficulty of carrying on at once the history of seven independant kingdoms. there is great discouragement to a writer. and wholly separate from the rest. Page 31 of 354 entirely subdued the county now called Northumberland. though they over-ran the southern provinces of the empire like a mighty torrent. and the greater part of Yorkshire. the daughter of Aella. and expelling her brother. or seven Saxon kingdoms. and these events. The language. his authority. the several Saxon princes preserved a union of counsels and interests. however intricate or confused. by whom they were now subdued. These two kingdoms were united in the person of Ethelfrid. the bishopric of Durham. The Britons. but after the Britons were shut up in the barren countries of Cornwal and Wales. after a violent contest of near a hundred and fifty years. lived remote from public affairs. arising from the uncertainty. the Britons. How far his dominions extended into the country now called Scotland is uncertain. and political institutions. that they had built twenty-eight considerable cities within their province. So long as the contest was maintained with the natives. and the whole southern part of the island. under the Roman dominion. have escaped the records of history. or rather fabulous annals. who must share with them the spoils of the ancient inhabitants. and a total extermination of the Britons became the sole expedient for providing a settlement and subsistence to the new planters. and those few natives. grandson of Ida. another Saxon prince. Though one prince seems still to have been allowed. and each state acted as if it had been independant. threw every thing back into ancient barbarity. or Burgundians. were obliged to solicit fresh supplies from their own country. ought now to become the objects of our attention. proved more destructive to both parties. the Heptarchy. made by the several Saxon adventurers.html 4/7/2004 . spoken in those countries. that all the lowlands. which is purely Saxon. however at first unwarlike. an ascendant over the whole. The Monks. who were the only annalists during those ages. by the title of Northumberland. Vandals. is a stronger proof of this event. Edwin. was extremely limited. Aella. had made such advances towards arts and civil manners. were reduced to the most abject slavery. were peopled in a great measure from Germany. if it ought ever to be deemed regular or legal. and few revolutions more violent than that which they introduced. Nearly about the same time. therefore. who married But. the band of alliance was in a great measure dissolved among the princes of the Heptarchy. Hence there have been found in history few conquests more ruinous than that of the Saxons. d http://oll. made such devastations in the conquered territories. language.. and gave no farther disturbance to the conquerors. As the Saxons came over at intervals in separate bodies. being thereby prolonged.

as the confused transactions and battles of the Saxon Heptarchy. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and the situation of his country. the son of Crida. Even the great learning and vigorous imagination of Milton sunk under the weight. Hengist. who performed nothing memorable during a reign of thirty-two years. and this author scruples not to declare. and manner of life. of a dangerous league against him. as rendered him little better than a tributary prince under his artful benefactor. king of and distinguish his own name. we shall give a succinct account of the successions of kings. like that by which he himself had been enabled to overthrow Ceaulin. but seems not to have possessed the military genius of that conqueror. but is extremely barren of events. Ethelbert. was unsuccessful. king of Wessex. and with a propensity to imposture.. who sought either the fame of valour. was the introduction of the Christian religion among the English Saxons. except associating with him his son. he had the prudence to resign the kingdom of Mercia to Webba. the rightful heir. except the king of Northumberland. however. The inactivity of his predecessors. in whose time the East-Saxons established their monarchy. who first made way for the entrance of the Saxon arms into Britain. and Ethelbert. which was the fiat established. he gave Webba possession of the crown on such conditions. Escus was content to possess in tranquillity the kingdom of Kent. He reduced all the princes. secured from all hostility with the Britons. which distinguished the reign of this great prince. or the events are related so much without circumstances and causes. in his first attempt to aggrandize his country. who was carrying on successful war against the Britons. who preserved no moderation in his victory. All the Saxons. with the love of wonder. and of the more remarkable revolutions in each particular kingdom. to connect the events in some tolerable measure. that he might secure the succession in his family. flocked to the standard of Aella. Ceaulin died soon after. and obtained a decisive victory. and besides partaking of the ignorance and barbarity. or new establishments by arms. after a reign of twenty-two years. and prevent such revolutions as are incident to a turbulent and barbarous monarchy. which had languished for some generations. who had first founded that monarchy. Apprehensive. An association was formed against him. and Ethelbert succeeded as well to his ascendant among the Saxon states.libertyfund. and obliged to yield the superiority in the Heptarchy to that ambitious monarch. which were then universal. that the most profound or most eloquent writer must despair of rendering them either instructive or entertaining to the reader. But governed still by ambition more than by justice. The history of that period abounds in names. The superstition of the Germans. But the most memorable event. and Ethelbert.Hume. beginning with that of Kent. intrusted with the command of the allies. as to his other ambitious projects. e THE KINGDOM OF KENT ESCUS SUCCEEDED HIS FATHER.html 4/7/2004 . made room for his son Hermenric in 534. Page 32 of 354 considered the civil transactions as entirely subordinate to the ecclesiastical. in the government. seem to have much enfeebled the warlike genius of the Kentish Saxons. Ethelbert revived the reputation of his family. and dismembered the provinces of Essex and Middlesex from that of Kent. were strongly infected with credulity. to a strict dependance upon him.. and laying the foundations of a new kingdom. which he left in 512 to his son Octa. In order. and by reducing the kingdom of Sussex to subjection. and even established himself by force on the throne of Mercia. excited jealousy in all the other princes. in the kingdom of Kent. the most extensive of the Saxon kingdoms. gave him battle. f g http://oll. He was twice discomfited in battle by Ceaulin. vices almost inseparable from their profession. His death. however. that the skirmishes of kites or crows as much merited a particular narrative.

of converting the British Saxons. We know little of the other theological tenets of the Saxons: We only learn that they were polytheists. that they worshipped the sun and moon. that they had images in their temples. The constant hostilities. but which. would naturally indispose them for receiving the Christian faith. Incited by this idea of paradise. that they adored the god of thunder. Her popularity in the court. a concession not difficult to be obtained from the idolatrous Saxons. had married Bertha. which the Saxons maintained against the Britons. he was obliged to stipulate. they despised the dangers of war. which they held as sacred. had once embraced. the only daughter of Carlbert. like that of the Druids. she had been very assiduous in her devotional exercises. and admitted in general a system of doctrines. still maintain a sensible superiority over barbarous and ignorant nations. that they practised sacrifices. they could not but have perceived a degree of cultivation in the southern countries beyond what they themselves possessed. They believed. which gratified at once the passion of revenge and that of intemperance..libertyfund. all the other northern conquerors of Europe had been already induced to embrace the Christian faith. sirnamed the Great. However limited in their views. must carry the air of the wildest extravagance. and encreased their native ferocity against the vanquished by their religious prejudices. Bertha brought over a French bishop to the court of Canterbury. in his father’s lifetime. Woden. had supported the credit of her faith by an irreproachable conduct. But these causes might long have failed of producing any considerable effect. whom they deemed the ancestor of all their princes. began to entertain hopes of effecting a project which he himself. the conqueror of Gaul. that Gregory.Hume. promulgated to them. h i http://oll. not reduced to any system. as well as zeal. was of the grossest and most barbarous kind. (for they made less account of the other virtues) they should be admitted after their death into his hall. was regarded as the god of war. whom they had slain in battle. must have regarded with some degree of veneration a doctrine. which had acquired the ascendant over all their brethren. king of Paris. Page 33 of 354 particularly that of the Saxons. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . received from their ancestors. but before he was admitted to this alliance. and the chief object of their religious worship. like all other superstitions. and had employed every art of insinuation and address to reconcile her husband to her religious principles. and to have easily resigned its place to the new doctrine. that the princess should enjoy the free exercise of her religion. and being zealous for the propagation of her religion. it seems to have made little impression on its votaries. were not overfond of communicating to their cruel invaders the doctrine of eternal life and salvation. by which the inhabitants of the Christian kingdoms were even at that time distinguished. became their supreme deity. But as a civilized people. then Roman pontiff. which they found established in the empire. as is objected to them by Gildas and Bede. if propounded to those who are not familiarized to it from their earliest infancy. and her influence over Ethelbert.. if they obtained the favour of this divinity by their valour. by a natural consequence. and perhaps the Britons. one of the descendants of Clovis. when preached to them by such inveterate enemies. should satiate themselves with ale from the skulls of their enemies. and reposing on couches. however subdued by arms. that. before he mounted the papal throne. and it was impossible but the Saxons informed of this event. had so well paved the way for the reception of the Christian doctrine. the ruling inclinations of barbarians. and.html 4/7/2004 . and being founded on traditional tales. believed firmly in spells and inchantments. and it was natural for them to yield to that superior knowledge. had not a favourable incident prepared the means of introducing Christianity into Kent. under the name of Thor. not supported by political institutions.

But Gregory exhorted them to persevere in their purpose. that to her friendly assistance was. at that time in a private station. whom the Roman merchants. he believed the force of their magic would be more easily dissipated. and that so beautiful a frontispiece should cover a mind destitute of internal grace and righteousness. and as you have undertaken so long a journey. unwilling to expose him to such dangers. I will supply you with all necessaries. he was informed. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . in their trading voyages to Britain. and a kingdom in heaven without end. that this prelate. of whose language they were ignorant. assigned him a habitation in the Isle of Thanet. as well as from the style of his compositions. advised them to chuse some interpreters from among the Franks. though stained with every vice of treachery and cruelty. that the Romans..libertyfund. l m Augustine.Hume. either possessed or pretended great zeal for the cause. that it was Deïri. Page 34 of 354 It happened. that the praises of God be sung in their country. “Your words and promises. who still spoke the same language with the Saxons. that they ought more properly to be denominated angels: It were a pity that the Prince of Darkness should enjoy so fair a prey. and permit you to deliver your doctrine to n o p http://oll. “are fair.” replied Ethelbert. and even with their writings. which I and my ancestors have so long maintained. he had not taste or genius sufficient to comprehend. terrified with the dangers which might attend their proposing a new doctrine to so fierce a people. solely. a mission into Britain. by means of his interpreters. but because they are new and uncertain. had observed in the market-place of Rome some Saxon youth exposed to sale. he pitched on Augustine. found the danger much less than he had apprehended. if he would be persuaded to receive that salutary doctrine. to remain here in peace. and recommended them to the good offices of queen Brunehaut. owing the success of that undertaking. already well-disposed towards the Christian faith. Ethelbert. and he was obliged for the present to lay aside all farther thoughts of executing that pious purpose. a Roman monk. he prepared for that perilous journey: But his popularity at home was so great. opposed his design. Here Augustine. Enquiring farther concerning the name of their province. But what is the name of the king of that province? He was told it was Aella or Alla Alleluiah. and being told they were Angles. however. and relinquish the principles. who brought an unknown worship from a distant country. Moved by these allusions. and crave his permission to desist from the undertaking. which. He had waged war with all the precious monuments of the ancients. in a great measure.. Gregory asked to what country they belonged. This princess. You are welcome. and soon after admitted him to a conference. for what you believe to be for our advantage. had bought of their mercenary parents. k The controversy between the Pagans and the Christians was not entirely cooled in that age. he had the precaution to receive them in the open that is good! They are called to the mercy of God from his anger. he replied. which appeared to him so happy. and having obtained the Pope’s approbation. and no pontiff before Gregory had ever carried to greater excess an intemperate zeal against the former religion. he determined to undertake. and sent back Augustine to lay the hazards and difficulties before the Pope.html 4/7/2004 . and Gregory acknowledged. delivered to him the tenets of the Christian faith. De ira. a district of Northumberland: Deïri! replied he. himself. as appears from the strain of his own wit. however. I cannot entirely yield to them. Apprehensive. and promised him eternal joys above. on his arrival in Kent in the year 597. Struck with the beauty of their fair complexions and blooming countenances. who had at this time usurped the sovereign power in France. where. These missionaries. cried he: We must endeavour. and sent him with forty associates to preach the gospel in this island. as it appears. Ambitious to distinguish his pontificate by the conversion of the British Saxons. stopped some time in France. lest spells or enchantments might be employed against him by priests.

html 4/7/2004 . and he ought not. Immediately. that no issue could ever come from such marriages..libertyfund. Augustine asked. in the commencement of his mission. Augustine thought proper. when they found it celebrated in a place.. in which. And as the Pagans practised sacrifices. to kill their cattle in the neighbourhood of the church. and seeing now a prospect of success. and most splendid victories. The more to facilitate the reception of Christianity. by the abstinence and self-denial which he practised: And having excited their wonder by a course of life. that Gregory and his missionary. as their ancestors had ever done in their most sanguinary triumphs. How soon a husband might have commerce with his wife after her delivery? Not till she had given suck to her child: a practice to which Gregory exhorts all women. The pontiff also answered some questions. that that liberty had indeed been formerly granted by the Roman law. and to the usual papal maxims. And on the whole it appears. Whether a woman pregnant might be baptized? Gregory answered. t u and replies still more indecent and more ridiculous. and feasted with the priests on their offerings. but that experience had shewn. How soon a man might enter the church. proceeded with redoubled zeal to preach the gospel to the Kentish Saxons. who now exulted as much in those peaceful trophies. which. he also exhorted the missionary to persuade them. to exert rigour against the worship of were better calculated than men of more refined understandings. merely for the sake of propagating his species. after informing him that the end of the world was approaching. which the missionary had put concerning the government of the new church of Kent. blandishment. he procured more easily their belief of miracles. He attracted their attention by the austerity of his manners. Whether cousingermans might be allowed to marry? Gregory answered. afforded great joy to the Romans. Gregory enjoined Augustine to remove the idols from the Heathen altars. How soon after the birth the child might receive baptism? It was answered. before he entered the church. Gregory wrote a letter to Ethelbert. or receive the sacrament. on Christian festivals. after having had commerce with his wife? It was replied. he was not without sin: But in all cases it was requisite for him. Influenced by these motives. or correction: A doctrine more suitable to that age. even after using these precautions. and the king himself was persuaded to submit to that rite of Christianity. numbers of the Kentish men were baptized. but not to destroy the altars themselves. His example had great influence with his subjects. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . or communicated. unless he had approached her without desire. would be allured to frequent the Christian worship. which appeared so contrary to nature. if sympathy of manners have any influence. which it is not material here to relate. to purge himself by prayer and ablution. by the severe pennances to which he subjected himself.Hume. and to build up the good work of holiness by every expedient of exhortation. terror. if necessary. that the service of Christ must be entirely voluntary. Page 35 of 354 my subjects. he wrought for their conversion. and by the declared favour of the court. to participate immediately of the sacred duties. that. which they were accustomed to revere. and he therefore prohibited them. and that no violence ought ever to be used in propagating so salutary a doctrine.” q Augustine. encouraged by this favourable reception. because the people. he exhorted him to display his zeal in the conversion of his subjects. received of these spiritual conquests. and to indulge themselves in w There are some other questions http://oll. to assume the appearance of the greatest lenity: He told Ethelbert. but he employed no force to bring them over to the new doctrine. it was pretended. he said. Augustine asked. r s The intelligence. Besides other queries. which Augustine had thought it prudent to inculcate. that he saw no objection. for making a progress with the ignorant and barbarous Saxons. than the tolerating principles.

org/Texts/Hume0129/History/0011-1_Bk. These political compliances shew. and beneficial to his people. Domnona. from Rome. in order to escape the mortification of preaching the gospel without fruit to the infidels. This prince is renowned for his encouragement of learning. Augustine was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury. who had been consecrated bishops of London and Rochester. and returned to the profession of Christianity: His whole people returned with him. and for utterly extirpating idolatry. took possession of the kingdom. after a reign of twenty-five years. in order to secure the power in his family. and other nations on the continent. was endowed by Gregory with authority over all the British churches. his son. This prince. that. Eadbald. which.. which permitted not these incestuous marriages: His whole people immediately returned with him to idolatry. the dispossessed prince.libertyfund. and tended to reclaim them from that gross ignorance and barbarity. and much more his embracing Christianity. He is celebrated by Bede for two exploits. and dying in 616. the prince of the apostles. some lands in the Isle of Thanet. Erminfrid and Ercombert. Lothaire. He governed the kingdom of Kent fifty years. to which they had been habituated. before he should entirely abandon his dignity. a body of laws. notwithstanding the prevalence of Christianity. his son. Whether Eadbald was struck with the miracle. in the administration of the government. leaving two sons. made one effort to reclaim the king. and received the pall. he was not unacquainted with the arts of governing mankind. the first written laws promulgated by any of the northern conquerors. who had appeared to him in a vision. found means to mount the throne. he associated with him Richard. or influenced by some other motive. though the younger son. Eadbald. the successor of Augustine. wondering that any man should have dared to treat in that manner a person of his rank. was told by Laurentius. Edric. Page 36 of 354 those cheerful entertainments. king of Sussex. Laurentius. a French princess. left the succession to his son. had inflicted on him these visible marks of his displeasure. x y z a The marriage of Ethelbert with Bertha. begat a connexion of his subjects with the French. who reigned nine years. Peter. had hitherto been tolerated by the two preceding monarchs. the Pope informed him. seduced by a passion for his mother-in-law. fought a battle with his uncle. and died in 640.. Ercombert. his uncle. which he had received. that they lay entirely without the bounds of his jurisdiction. Gregory also advised him not to be too much elated with his gift of working miracles. had already departed the kingdom. Edric. showed his body all torn with bruises and stripes. and left the crown to Egbert. when Laurentius. He appeared before that prince. The ecclesiastical writers praise him for his bestowing on’ his sister. proud of the success of his mission. for assistance. where she founded a monastery. a badge of ecclesiastical honour. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and severely reproving him for his intention to desert his charge. sons of Erminfrid. he divorced himself from his mother-in-law. He reigned twenty-four years. in which all the Saxon tribes had been hitherto involved. with the consent of the states of his kingdom. for establishing the fast of Lent in his kingdom. Eadbald reached not the fame or authority of his father. by Emma.Hume. and being supported by that prince. and was prepared to return to France. that he had received this chastisement from St. and his reign was in every respect glorious to himself. found the Christian worship wholly abandoned. and throwing off his vestments.html 4/7/2004 . seemed to think himself entitled to extend his authority over the bishops of Gaul. Mellitus and Justus. who was defeated b c d e f http://oll. brother of the deceased prince. The bloody precaution of Egbert could not fix the crown on the head of his son. Italians. and as Augustine. Ethelbert also enacted. deserted for some time the Christian faith. notwithstanding his ignorance and prejudices. but infamous for putting to death his two cousin-germans. had recourse to Edilwach. and.

The Britons. William of Malmesbury ascribes Lothaire’s bad fortune to two crimes. obtained possession of the crown. and acquired a great ascendant in the Heptarchy. where his engaging and gallant deportment procured him general esteem and affection. Ethelbert. he was. only two. astonished at this event. threw the state into confusion. Eadbert. Baldred. Egbert. Edwin. successively mounted the throne. that there was a mile’s distance from one gate of it to another. extended on all sides the bounds of his dominions. expelled by Egbert. that only fifty escaped with their lives. his successor. which happened in 794. and after a reign of thirty-two years. and they were attended by a body of 1250 monks from the monastery of Bangor. Page 37 of 354 and slain. reigned but two years. who first succeeded. now grown to man’s estate. and Alric. however. who fell upon them. Edwin. king of the East-Angles. brother to the King of Mercia. l m n Notwithstanding Adelfrid’s success in war. and expelled her infant brother. Richard fled into Germany. KING OF BERNICIA. who stood at a small distance from the field of battle. eighteen: And after a troublesome and precarious reign. his brother. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . Redwald. the royal family of Kent was extinguished. as those who intend to fight against us: And he immediately sent a detachment. king of Deïri. and united the several kingdoms under his dominion. and war denounced against him in case of his refusal. king of Wessex. was strongly solicited by the king of Northumberland to kill or deliver up his guest: Rich presents were promised him.Hume. in continual danger from the attempts of Adelfrid. Edric. wandered from place to place. that these priests had come to pray against him: Then are they as such our enemies. pursuing his victory. who dissolved the Saxon Heptarchy. and it contained two thousand one hundred monks. After rejecting several messages of this kind. a city of Tuscany. in order to encourage the combatants by their presence and exhortations. his descendants. the daughter of Aella. received a total defeat: Chester was obliged to surrender: and Adelfrid. whom he had unjustly dispossessed of the crown of Deïri. He also spread the terror of the Saxon arms to the neighbouring people. who was slain in a skirmish. but the death of Mollo. king of Wessex. which invited Cedwalla. This prince. made himself master of Bangor.libertyfund. Having laid siege to Chester. six years..html 4/7/2004 . i k THE KINGDOM OF NORTHUMBERLAND ADELFRID. Upon the death of the h gave a short breathing-time to that kingdom. his generosity began to yield to the motives of interest: and he retained the last ambassador. said he. having married Acca. and every factious leader who could entertain hopes of ascending the throne. and his contempt for reliques. Widred restored the affairs of Kent. he lived in inquietude on account of young Edwin. a building so extensive. which happened in 686. till he should come to a resolution in a case of such importance. Widred. as well as Welsh. and entirely demolished the monastery. the Britons marched out with all their forces to engage him. faction began to prevail among the nobility. and afterwards died in Lucca. to attack the kingdom. After the death of the last. left the crown to his posterity. who are said to have been there maintained by their own labour. had united all the counties north of Humber into one monarchy. Adelfrid enquiring the purpose of this unusual appearance. and by his victories over the Scots and Picts. and did such execution. g Lothaire reigned eleven years. But as the succession had been of late so much disjointed by revolutions and usurpations. Cuthred. These invaders committed great devastations in Kent. if he would comply.. with his brother Mollo. in the year 723. http://oll. his concurrence in the murder of his cousins. an illegitimate branch of the royal family. was told. and received at last protection in the court of Redwald.

He reclaimed his subjects from the licentious life. who had been the instrument for converting her husband and his people to Christianity. the daughter of Ethelbert. and sought a battle with Adelfrid. son of Redwald. and he employed one Eumer for that criminal purpose. without any danger of violence or robbery. having obtained admittance. His own sons. and it was a common saying. though on a precarious footing. and having no other means of defence. Cuichelme. Redwald. hesitated on the proposal. Eanfrid. thought it safest to prevent Adelfrid. they offered their crown to Edwin. drew his dagger. and thought. obliged them to submit to Earpwold.html 4/7/2004 . and distinguished himself. and she effectually represented to her husband the infamy of delivering up to certain destruction their royal guest. Besides the authority and influence of the King. and having put him to death. Edwin. with his other accomplishments. But Edwin. King of Kent. There is a remarkable instance. seeing his master’s danger. carried Paullinus. and declared. This confidence in Redwald’s honour and friendship. Accordingly he held several conferences with Paullinus. in order to revolve alone that important question. He marched suddenly with an army into the kingdom of Northumberland. retired frequently from company. declared in favour of the Christian religion: The people soon after imitated his example. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . Page 38 of 354 informed of his friend’s perplexity. yet infants. who had fled to them for protection against his cruel and jealous enemies. under the protection of the Northumbrian monarch . after his accession to the crown.. it even wounded Edwin: But before the assassin could renew his blow. which was readily granted her. after piercing Lilla. that if the protection of that court failed him. transmitted to us. along with her. the high priest. a learned bishop. of the affection borne him by his servants. but finding himself unable to maintain open war against so gallant and powerful a prince. that during his reign a woman or child might openly carry every where a purse of gold.libertyfund. and besides stipulating a toleration for the exercise of her own religion. after revenging himself by the death of by pretending to deliver a message from Cuichelme. to which they had been accustomed. which was pushed with such violence. an officer of his army. This princess. embracing more generous resolutions.. it were better to die than prolong a life so much exposed to the persecutions of his powerful rival. were carried into Scotland. while he resided among them. and Edwin obtained possession of the crown of Northumberland. being converted after a public conference with Paullinus. interposed with his own body between the King and Eumer’s dagger. they were moved by another striking example. Oswald. Lilla. if he found them satisfactory. like a prudent prince. engaged the Queen on his side. in which that monarch was defeated and killed. that. of whose valour and capacity they had had experience. o p q r Edwin. before that prince was aware of his intention. that. was yet determined at all hazards to remain in East-Anglia. The East-Angles conspired against Redwald. but promised to examine the foundations of that doctrine. and that prince preserved his authority. and to attack him while he was yet unprepared for defence. and. both by his influence over the other kingdoms. and by the strict execution of justice in his own dominions. led the way in destroying the images. their King.Hume. was his enemy. the son of Redwald. from a sense of gratitude towards his benefactor. he was willing to be converted. canvassed the arguments propounded with the wisest of his counsellors. Coifi. emulating the glory of her mother Bertha. she used every reason to persuade the King to embrace it. The assassin. he was dispatched by the King’s attendants. he determined to use treachery against him. and Oswy. Edwin was the greatest prince of the Heptarchy in that age. king of Wessex. after a serious and long enquiry. and rushed upon the King. married Ethelburga. which he had so long s t u http://oll.

who was not of the royal family. and retired into a monastery. in favour of Eadbert his cousin-german. returned to Paganism. and Ailred. and Eanfrid of Bernicia. He gained a bloody and well-disputed battle against Caedwalla. x That event. since Paullinus. the Queen Dowager. his wife. Osric. Oswald. The younger son. where they died. imitating his predecessor. Eanfrid. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . finally imposed upon them. Vuscfraea. his son. the grandson of Edwin. perished by a like fate. king of Mercia. particularly the curing of a sick horse. another son of Mollo. and after him Celwulph the son of Kenred. the elder surviving son. divided the monarchy of Northumberland. who was the first archbishop of York. which he governed for nineteen years. after a reign of eleven years. the Briton. the brother of Eanfrid. having. retired into France to King Dagobert.. the first in battle against Caedwalla. his nephew. that his reliques wrought miracles. next mounted the throne. fled to Penda. king of the Britons. was soon after expelled by his subjects. http://oll. refused to violate her vow of chastity. lost all attachment to their government and princes. from Scotland. which that prince had united in his person. and restored the Christian religion in his dominions. and was forward in making this atonement for his past idolatry. and the people. Edwin’s cousin-german. into Kent. were well prepared for subjection to a foreign yoke. Osfrid. which the latter relinquished in the year 738. w This able prince perished with his son. which happened in the forty- eighth year of Edwin’s age and seventeenth of his reign. his natural brother. of the race of Bernicia. After Ethelbert’s death an universal anarchy prevailed in Northumberland. Alfred. united again the kingdom of Northumberland in the year 634. and not finding themselves in safety there. having succeeded in his design upon the throne. and the whole people seem to have returned with them. established himself in Deïri. after a short reign of a year. by Osfrid. was deposed and slain by the people. which Egbert. the next king. who established himself in the government of the whole Northumbrian kingdom. son of Eadbert. the son of Adelfrid. who. seized the crown. the last vigorous effort which the Britons made against the Saxons. and he left it to Osred. and his place was filled by Osred. king of Wessex. who. His son Egfrid succeeded him. the son of Mollo.libertyfund. y z Osric. the brother of Ailred. made way for Ethelbert. the second by the treachery of that prince. who perishing in battle against the Picts. was slain in a sedition.html 4/7/2004 . returned with his brothers. a boy of eight years of age. the son of Osric. underwent a like fate. acquired possession of the kingdom. abdicated the crown. which had approached the place of his interment. a prince of the blood. King of Deïri. Oswy. and was succeeded by his brother. but to which the sons of Edwin had a preferable title. Page 39 of 354 worshipped. with Yffi. by so many fatal revolutions. a He died in battle against Penda. Oswolf. This prince. Oswald is much celebrated for his sanctity and charity by the Monkish historians. was murdered by Kenred his kinsman. whose death was equally tragical with that of almost all his predecessors.. who. the inheritance of his family. king of and they pretend. and who had converted them. by putting to death Oswin. and Caedwalla. Oswald and Oswy. Ethelred. his paternal kingdom: Osric. He perished by the treachery of Ailred. and Mollo. in a great battle which he fought against Penda. thought proper to retire with Ethelburga. his successor. because Adelthrid. Eanfrid. and took possession of Bernicia. Both these Northumbrian kings perished soon after. by whom he was treacherously slain.Hume. after enjoying the crown only a year. a year after his accession to the crown. the last king of the race of Deïri. sought protection in Kent. Celwold. without leaving any children.

libertyfund. and his state was thenceforth united with that of Offa. Sigebert. engaged him to take this step: But soon after. Ethelred. and introduced learning among the East-Angles. that did not early retire into monasteries. in converting her husband and his subjects to that religion. experience. and his temerity and restless disposition were found nowise abated by time. king of Mercia. mounted the throne of Mercia in 655. his wife. or rather some schools in that place. Sigebert. freed the world from this sanguinary tyrant. and quite needless to be more particular in relating the transactions of the EastAngles. Page 40 of 354 THE KINGDOM OF EAST-ANGLIA THE HISTORY of this kingdom contains nothing memorable. he resigned the crown to Kendred. which was violent. Annas. the largest. What instruction or entertainment can it give the reader to hear a long bead-roll of barbarous names. governed his paternal dominions by a precarious authority. by his injustice and violence. Egric. however. like that of most of the Saxon princes. was. being placed on the throne by Ethelbert. his son. and obscurely filled the throne of that kingdom. though a lover of peace. the last of these princes was treacherously murdered by Offa. comprehended all the middle counties of England. expelled. whose turbulent character appeared dangerous to that prince. in the year 792. This princess was educated in the Christian faith. His son. and after having reduced to dependance the kingdoms of Essex and East-Anglia. on whom that prince entirely depended. three kings of East-Anglia. having defeated and slain him in a decisive battle. by the influence of the Kentish monarch. as a compensation for the loss of his brother. who was an idolatress. king of Northumberland. and after his death. rendered himself equally odious to his own subjects and to strangers. brought him back to her religion. At last. and he slew in battle Elfwin.Hume. Kendred returned the present of b c http://oll. Aldulf. king of Kent. which have seduced the wisest of mankind. Peada died a violent death. as we shall relate presently. who had invaded his dominions. Ethelbert. restored Christianity. Wibba. founder of the monarchy. who had been educated in France. He engaged in continual hostilities against all the neighbouring states. the brother of that prince. It is almost impossible. it received its name from that circumstance. The authority of Edwin. or inherited from each other. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and lived under the protection of Oswy. the two greatest princes that had reigned over Northumberland. and half-brother. brother to Oswald. After his death. the founder of the monarchy. Penda was thus fifty years of age before he mounted the throne. he repulsed Egfrid. of composing all animosities with Egfrid. Some pretend that he founded the university of Cambridge. the son of Crida. After a prosperous reign of thirty years. who. as well as to Wales. Ceorl.. if not the most powerful kingdom of the Heptarchy. he payed him a sum of money. king of Northumberland. as did also Edwin and Oswald. showed himself not unfit for military enterprizes. and she employed her influence with success. his successor. the fourth king. and Annas. his kinsman. succeeded to the government. Besides making a successful expedition into Kent.html 4/7/2004 . Ethelbert. who successively murdered. Ethelwald. Beorne. and. except the conversion of Earpwold. he left the crown to his brother. perished successively in battle against him. Ethelbert. and as its frontiers extended to those of all the other six kingdoms. Thus the fair sex have had the merit of introducing the Christian doctrine into all the most considerable kingdoms of the Saxon Heptarchy. Oswy. whose daughter he had espoused. preferred to his son. and retired into the monastery of Bardney. Egric.. or reflection. Elfwald. THE KINGDOM OF MERCIA MERCIA. Ethelred. Penda. son of Wolflhere. and great-grandson of Uffa. Desirous. Wolfhere. and he was found unable to resist those allurements.

org/Texts/Hume0129/History/0011-1_Bk. Malmesbury. and practised all the monkish devotion. and conquering that county. in 794.. together with that of Glocester. a circumstance. the martyr. bishop of Urgel in Catalonia. and reduced his kingdom to a state of dependance: he gained a victory over the latter at Bensington in Oxfordshire. where his great power and riches could not fail of procuring him the papal absolution. This young prince. he engaged to pay him a yearly donation for the support of an English college at Rome. That emperor being a great lover of learning and learned men. and Kenwulph. which did honour to Offa. being slain in a mutiny. Such were the questions which were agitated in that age. king of the East-Angles. bestowed rich donations on the cathedral of Hereford.. Page 41 of 354 the crown to Ceolred. who escaped into their own country. discovered at Verulam the reliques of St. and perhaps of appeasing the remorses of his own conscience. This heresy was condemned in the council of Francfort. The place of Ceolred was supplied by Ethelbald. a clergyman much celebrated for his knowledge. could. in an age very barren of that ornament. l This prince was become so considerable in the Heptarchy. declares himself at a loss to determine d e f g h i k whether the merits or crimes of this prince preponderated. after a reign of thirty-nine years. in order to solemnize the nuptials. was commonly denominated Peter’s pence. being afterwards levied on all England. be denominated the adoptive than the natural son of God. not only of cloystered scholars. the son of Ethelred. annexed both to his dominions. He defeated the former in a bloody battle at Otford upon the Darent. was succeeded by Offa. Offa. and was invited with all his retinue to Hereford. The chief reason. and though conferred at first as a gift. This prince. payed great court to the clergy. had some great qualities. and in order to raise the sum. and secretly beheaded: and though Elfrid. and was successful in his warlike enterprizes against Lothaire. and which employed the attention. The better to ingratiate himself with the sovereign pontiff.html 4/7/2004 . he imposed a tax of a penny on each house possessed of thirty pence a year. and endowed a magnificent monastery in that place.Hume. considered in his human nature. Offa. Amidst the joy and festivity of these entertainments. m n http://oll. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . king of Kent. at his desire. his brother. he was seized by Offa. but of the wisest and greatest princes. He gave the tenth of his goods to the church. Carrying his hypocrisy still farther. But all these successes were stained by his treacherous murder of Ethelbert. was afterwards claimed as a tribute by the Roman pontiff. the daughter of Offa. as distant princes at that time had usually little communication with each other.libertyfund. sent him over Alcuin. king of Wessex. why he had at first desired the company of Alcuin. passed his life there in pennance and devotion. had time to give warning to the East-Anglian nobility. one of the best of the old English historians. who maintained. and this prince. Moved by all these acts of piety. who abhorred her father’s treachery. and his violent seizing of that kingdom. had paid his addresses to Elfrida. and making a pilgrimage to Rome. who mounted the throne in 755. Offa died. held in 794. Offa. and even became his preceptor in the sciences. who received great honours from Charlemagne. that the emperor Charlemagne entered into an alliance and friendship with him. by Eawa. that Jesus Christ. another brother. succeeded in his design of subduing that kingdom. who is said to have possessed great merit. and even made a pilgrimage to Rome. great-grand-nephew to Penda by Alwy. and consisting of 300 bishops. having extinguished the royal family. feigning to be directed by a vision from heaven. Alban. so much esteemed in that ignorant and superstitious age. more properly. desirous of re-establishing his character in the world. The perfidious prince. This imposition. was that he might oppose his learning to the heresy of Felix. who was a degree more remote from Penda.

left the crown to his son. having made a vow of chastity. and the history of it is very imperfect. daughter to Penda. but their opposition served only to prolong the miseries of their country. was subdued in battle by Ceadwalla. notwithstanding his marriage with But on his refusing them. and taking Egbert. s t u w THE KINGDOM OF SUSSEX THE HISTORY of this kingdom. at the communion. distributed by Mellitus. the founder of the monarchy. that these two kings expressed great desire to eat the white bread. and was the last of the royal line: The failure of which threw the kingdom into great confusion. who was not of the royal family. and we scarcely know the names of the princes. who mounted this unstable throne. The names of the other princes. Aella.. Sebert. being nephew to Ethelbert. falling into the hand of the conqueror. The reign of this usurper. Sigebert the good. and was slain in the action. Offa. who. are Sigebert the little. Quendrade. he cut off his hands. resisted some time the violence of the West-Saxons. the founder of the monarchy. and the subduing of this kingdom was the first step.html 4/7/2004 . Kenelm. but survived him only five months. unless they would submit to be baptized. Sigheri. Sleda succeeded to his father. his successor. leaving Cuthred. in possession of the crown of that kingdom. prisoner. who. o p q r THE KINGDOM OF ESSEX THIS KINGDOM made no great figure in the Heptarchy. Sigered. Cissa. king of Wessex. and killed by his own subjects. king of Kent. Adelwalch. and made way for his son. and found everything in the utmost confusion. Ludican. Bercthun and Audhun. his own brother. who united all the Saxon kingdoms into one great monarchy. Erkinwin. who.libertyfund. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . his successor. the South Saxons fell almost into a total dependance on the kingdom of Wessex. Offa. relapsed into idolatry. Kenulph was killed in an insurrection of the East Anglians. During his time. To shew the rude manner of living in that age. and his death made way for Sigeric. went in pilgrimage to Rome. Ceolulf. were murdered by him. submitted to the victorious arms of Egbert. is still more imperfect than that of Essex. But she was supplanted by her uncle. who ended his life in a pilgrimage to Rome. underwent the same fate . Selred. was dethroned by Beornulf. leaving two infant sons. His successor. two years after. who was murdered the same year by his sister. they expelled him their dominions. had usurped. This last prince. a Mercian princess. and reduced it to dependance under Mercia. Offa. The abbot of Redford opposed the order for this execution. the East–Angles. who were possessed of this titular sovereignty. Page 42 of 354 Egfrith succeeded to his father. unable to defend his kingdom. two noblemen of character. Swithelm. could not withstand the fortune of Egbert. and Wiglaff. He left his son. and shut himself up during the rest of his life in a cloyster. who is chiefly remarkable for his long reign of seventy-six years. the smallest in the Heparchy. who restored Christianity.. the last of them. the bishop. but could only prevail on Ceadwalla to suspend it. This prince waged war against Kent. Switherd first acquired the crown. a descendant of the royal family. Sexted and Seward. Bede tells us. and were soon after slain in a battle against the West-Saxons. who reigned successively in Essex. till they should be baptized. reigned thirty-eight years. was short and unfortunate: He was defeated by the West-Saxons. by the concession of the Mercian princes. who had entertained the ambitious views of assuming the government. a minor. which the West-Saxons made towards acquiring http://oll. and put out his eyes. whose crown his predecessor. was persuaded by that prince to embrace the Christian faith. when he made way for Kenulph. His sons and conjunct successors. the king.

This alliance proved successful under the conduct of Ethelbert. and his son. and Ceaulin. he treated the vanquished with a humanity. according to the ideas of those times. shut himself up in a cloyster. Cuichelme. inherited the military virtues of Ceodwalla. mounted not the throne without opposition. tired with wars and bloodshed. and lying much under y z a http://oll. Page 43 of 354 the sole monarchy of England. by whose death. left the succession so much disputed. This prince embraced Christianity. hitherto unknown to the Saxon conquerors. and the death of the former in 593. and slew him in a skirmish. Ina. kept possession of the government till her death. Kenric.. policy. the founder of the monarchy. who had lost the affections of his own subjects by his violent disposition. Though the kings of Wessex had always been princes of the blood. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . which finally swallowed up all the other Saxon states. who was the son and successor of Kenric. the king.libertyfund. his widow. Cerdic. that is. He allowed the proprietors to retain possession of their lands. Kenwalch next succeeded to the monarchy. who were now enured to arms. Escwin then peaceably acquired the crown. x THE KINGDOM OF WESSEX THE KINGDOM OF WESSEX. having no children of his own. till the expulsion of the latter in 591. made way for Cealric. against the natives. his sons. he provoked a general confederacy against him. warlike. where he died.Hume. and dying in 672. made way for Kentwin. was. by means of these hostilities.. in preference to one descended from a nearer branch of the royal family. and the martial spirit. who proved successful against Mollo. Ceodwalla at last. therefore. and died in 689. and prudence. his successor. brother to Ceodwalla. he invaded the other Saxon states in his neighbourhood. and died in exile and misery. but proved a great prince. and a more remote prince had often found means to mount the throne. and who had attained a great ascendant in the Heptarchy. his successor. yielded not tamely their possessions to those invaders. king of Kent. through the persuasion of Oswald. Kynegils inherited the crown. and made a pilgrimage to Rome. the founder of the monarchy. common to all the Saxons. bestowed several endowments on the church. and added to them the more valuable ones of justice. He made inroads into Kent. who governed nine years. he was enterprizing.html 4/7/2004 . and after his return. Ceodwalla. that Sexburga. met with great resistance on its first establishment: and the Britons. Ina. was still more ambitious and enterprizing than his predecessors. after a short reign of two years. carried to the greatest height among this tribe. Carried along by the tide of success. he added a great part of the counties of Devon and Somerset to his other dominions. was expelled the throne. a woman of spirit. and Cuthwin. In the decline of his age he made a pilgrimage to Rome. who had married his daughter. was seized with a fit of devotion. and had now fallen into contempt from his misfortunes. and some unsuccessful battles. which happened in 611. These laws he augmented and ascertained. and who began his reign in 560. to whom succeeded Ceobald in 593. fought many successful. which happened two years after. where he received baptism. He entirely subdued the kingdom of Sussex. and. but met with resistance from Widred. governed jointly the kingdom. and by waging continual war against the Britons. descended from and becoming terrible to all. his long reign of thirty-seven years may be regarded as one of the most glorious and most prosperous of the Heptarchy. He made war upon the Britons in Somerset: and having finally subdued that province. and successful. king of Northumberland. encouraged marriages and alliances between them and his ancient subjects. and gave them the privilege of being governed by the same laws. the order of succession had been far from exact. and annexed it to his own dominions. and though he was disturbed by some insurrections at home. Ceaulin.

the reigning prince. And familiarizing himself to the manners of the French. father to Alchmond. though remotely descended from the royal family. The reign of this prince was distinguished by a great victory. gave him disturbance. sensible of his danger from the suspicions of Brithric. who instantly took revenge upon him for the murder of his master. and put every one to the sword. her brother. gave him many salutary counsels for his future conduct. the affections of the people. that his people rose in an insurrection. crowning Cenulph in his stead. and because he had acquired. who lived at Merton in Surrey. in the nighttime. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and treacherously murdered him. who. nephew to king Ina. from whom sprung Egbert. But these were so much resented by the ungrateful prince. who had acquired her husband’s friendship. Cudred. his queen. whither having secretly retired. The king had an intrigue with a young woman. equally infamous for cruelty and for incontinence. King of Wessex. had married Eadburga. took arms against Adelard. but he enjoyed not that dignity without inquietude. he was forsaken by all the world. It was not long ere Egbert had opportunities of displaying his natural and acquired talents. accompanied with some reprehensions for the past. rising next day in arms. took revenge on Kynehard for the slaughter of their king. Brithric. governor of Hampshire. b Cenulph. secretly withdrew into France. to an eminent degree. and in the year 741. who was his remote kinsman: But this destination did not take place without some difficulty. by means of Edelhun. The nobility and people of the neighbourhood. and where this expedient failed. and dethroned him. king of Mercia. his general. were eminent both for valour and civility. he hovered on the frontiers. who had been engaged in that criminal enterprize. but he being suppressed. a young man of the most promising hopes. a profligate woman. After this infamous action. who governed so ill. and dying soon after.. Page 44 of 354 the influence of Ethelburga. he learned to polish the rudeness and barbarity of the Saxon character: His early misfortunes thus proved of singular advantage to him. Eoppa. by Kynehard and his followers. His death made way for Sigebert. above all the western nations. over Ethelbald. the most able and most generous that had appeared in Europe during several ages. Egbert. by his brother Ingild. that he might add new obligations to Sigebert. left by will the succession to Adelard. and had on that account become the object of her jealousy: But c d e f http://oll. had begot Eata. but afterwards lost some reputation by his ill success against Offa. who died before that prince. that he conspired against the life of his protector. who gave great jealousy to Brithric. who. Kynehard also. where he was well received by Charlemagne. he was on a sudden invironed. Brithric next obtained possession of the government. king of Mercia.libertyfund. his kinsman. who had obtained the crown on the expulsion of Sigebert. This event happened in 784. she scrupled not being herself active in traiterous attempts against them. and serving in the armies of that prince.. Oswald. brother to the deposed Sigebert. and though expelled the kingdom. with all his attendants. was at last discovered by a servant of Cumbran’s. was murdered. By living in the court. The exiled prince found a refuge with duke Cumbran. as Malmesbury observes.Hume. both because he seemed by his birth better intitled to the crown. which afterwards enabled him to make such a shining figure on the throne. She had mixed a cup of poison for a young nobleman. and skulking about in the wilds and forests. the title of Adelard was not any farther disputed. natural daughter of she often instigated him to destroy such of the nobility as were obnoxious to her. king of Mercia. and watched an opportunity for attacking his rival. and after making a vigorous resistance. he acquired those accomplishments. a prince more nearly allied to the crown. was fortunate in many expeditions against the Britons of Cornwal. Having great influence over her husband. he was succeeded by his cousin.html 4/7/2004 . which he obtained.

Egbert was the sole descendant of those first conquerors who subdued Britain. whence Egbert was at the same time recalled by the nobility. and craved the protection of Egbert. and by the great slaughter which he made of them in their flight. as he had done to Mercia and the tributary king. to send deputies. and two years after.. which had been established over them by treachery and violence. century. unable to resist his power. whom he defeated in several battles. who advanced into the center of the Mercian territories. and rather chose to turn his arms against the Britons in Cornwal. and probably exercised with tyranny.html 4/7/2004 . much inferior in extent to Mercia. that she was g obliged to fly into France. From this fatal cause. immediately rose in arms. The anarchy. together with the admiration of the monastic life. to retain the title of king. the king drank of the fatal cup along with his favourite. was defeated and slain. The Mercians. however. Ludican. Egbert. rendered Eadburga so odious. i k l m http://oll. whom he still considered as rivals. Page 45 of 354 unfortunately. on his first appearance. and the opinion of merit. had very nearly attained the absolute sovereignty in the Heptarchy: They had reduced the East-Angles under subjection. The kingdom of Essex was conquered with equal facility. entered their country on the side of Oxfordshire. and swore allegiance to him as their sovereign. their countryman. he sent an army into Kent. the royal families had been entirely extinguished in all the kingdoms except that of Wessex. and soon after expired. gave a mortal blow to the power of the Mercians. met with the same fate. he allowed Wiglef. These insurrections and calamities facilitated the enterprizes of Egbert. attending the preservation of chastity even in a married state. who marched against them. But that prince.. who submitted to his authority. before the accession of Egbert. and who enhanced their authority by claiming a pedigree from Woden. h He attained that dignity in the last year of the eighth In the kingdoms of the Heptarchy. and expelling Baldred. and no state of any consequence remained but that of Wessex. and threatened the heart of their dominions. which had formerly been confined to the princes of the blood alone. still allowed to Northumberland. in order to ascend the throne of his ancestors. and established tributary princes in the kingdoms of Kent and Essex. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and desirous of possessing some established form of government. who paid him tribute.libertyfund. and made easy conquests over a dispirited and divided people. Whilst he himself. which. was supported solely by the great qualities of its sovereign. and was dependant on him. and encountering them at Ellandun in Wiltshire. tempted him to carry still farther his victorious arms. and thence the reigning prince was continually agitated with jealousy against all the princes of the blood. in prosecution of his victory. He was recalled from the conquest of that country by an invasion made upon his dominions by Bernulf. commanded by Ethelwolph. were now diffused among all the nobility in the several Saxon states. suspicions. his successor. were forward. gave them for some time no disturbance. and the inhabitants. the Mercian king. though invited by this favourable circumstance to make attempts on the neighbouring Saxons. whilst he himself exercised the real powers of sovereignty. Bernulf. and whose death alone could give him entire security in his possession of the throne. This tragical incident. the supreme divinity of their ancestors. which prevailed in Northumberland. from their hatred to the Mercian government. Egbert led his army against the invaders. an exact rule of succession was either unknown or not strictly observed. Northumberland was involved in anarchy. his eldest son. and the EastAngles. the power of electing a king. obtained a complete victory.Hume. joined to her other crimes. soon made himself master of that country. and conspiracies. and the emulations. King of Mercia. In order to engage them more easily to submission.

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Thus were united all the kingdoms of the Heptarchy in one great state, near four hundred years after the first arrival of the Saxons in Britain; and the fortunate arms and prudent policy of Egbert at last effected what had been so often attempted in vain by so many princes. Kent, Northumberland, and Mercia, which had successively aspired to general dominion, were now incorporated in his empire; and the other subordinate kingdoms seemed willingly to share the same fate. His territories were nearly of the same extent with what is now properly called England; and a favourable prospect was afforded to the Anglo-Saxons, of establishing a civilized monarchy, possessed of tranquillity within itself, and secure against foreign invasion. This great event happened in the year 827.



The Saxons, though they had been so long settled in the island, seem not as yet to have been much improved beyond their German ancestors, either in arts, civility, knowledge, humanity, justice, or obedience to the laws. Even Christianity, though it opened the way to connexions between them and the more polished states of Europe, had not hitherto been very effectual, in banishing their ignorance, or softening their barbarous manners. As they received that doctrine through the corrupted channels of Rome, it carried along with it a great mixture of credulity and superstition, equally destructive to the understanding and to morals. The reverence towards saints and reliques seems to have almost supplanted the adoration of the Supreme Being: Monastic observances were esteemed more meritorious than the active virtues: The knowledge of natural causes was neglected from the universal belief of miraculous interpositions and judgments: Bounty to the church atoned for every violence against society: And the remorses for cruelty, murder, treachery, assassination, and the more robust vices, were appeased, not by amendment of life, but by pennances, servility to the monks, and an abject and illiberal devotion. The reverence for the clergy had been carried to such a height, that, wherever a person appeared in a sacerdotal habit, though on the highway, the people flocked around him; and showing him all marks of profound respect, received every word he uttered as the most sacred oracle. Even the military virtues, so inherent in all the Saxon tribes, began to be neglected; and the nobility, preferring the security and sloth of the cloyster to the tumults and glory of war, valued themselves chiefly on endowing monasteries, of which they assumed the government. The several kings too, being extremely impoverished by continual benefactions to the church, to which the states of their kingdoms had weakly assented, could bestow no rewards on valour or military services, and retained not even sufficient influence to support their government.





Another inconvenience, which attended this corrupt species of Christianity, was the superstitious attachment to Rome, and the gradual subjection of the kingdom to a foreign jurisdiction. The Britons, having never acknowledged any subordination to the Roman pontiff, had conducted all ecclesiastical government by their domestic synods and councils: But the Saxons, receiving their religion from Roman monks, were taught at the same time a profound reverence for that see, and were naturally led to regard it as the capital of their religion. Pilgrimages to Rome were represented as the most meritorious acts of devotion. Not only noblemen and ladies of rank undertook this tedious journey; but kings themselves, abdicating their crowns, sought for a secure passport to heaven at the feet of the Roman pontiff. New reliques, perpetually sent from that endless mint of superstition, and magnified by lying miracles, invented in convents, operated on the astonished minds of the multitude. And every prince has attained the eulogies of the monks, the only historians of those ages, not in proportion to his civil and military virtues, but to his devoted attachment towards their order, and his superstitious reverence for Rome.




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The sovereign pontiff, encouraged by this blindness and submissive disposition of the people, advanced every day in his encroachments on the independance of the English churches. Wilfrid, bishop of Lindisferne, the sole prelate of the Northumbrian kingdom, encreased this subjection in the eighth century, by his making an appeal to Rome against the decisions of an English synod, which had abridged his diocese by the erection of some new bishoprics. Agatho, the pope, readily embraced this precedent of an appeal to his court; and Wilfrid, though the haughtiest and most luxurious prelate of his age, having obtained with the people the character of sanctity, was thus able to lay the foundation of this papal pretension. The great topic, by which Wilfrid confounded the imaginations of men, was, that St. Peter, to whose custody the keys of heaven were entrusted, would certainly refuse admittance to every one who should be wanting in respect to his successor. This conceit, well suited to vulgar conceptions, made great impression on the people during several ages; and has not even at present lost all influence in the catholic countries. Had this abject superstition produced general peace and tranquillity, it had made some atonement for the ills attending it; but besides the usual avidity of men for power and riches, frivolous controversies in theology were engendered by it, which were so much the more fatal, as they admitted not, like the others, of any final determination from established possession. The disputes, excited in Britain, were of the most ridiculous kind, and entirely worthy of those ignorant and barbarous ages. There were some intricacies, observed by all the Christian churches, in adjusting the day of keeping Easter; which depended on a complicated consideration of the course of the sun and moon: And it happened that the missionaries, who had converted the Scots and Britons, had followed a different calendar from that which was observed at Rome, in the age when Augustine converted the Saxons. The priests also of all the Christian churches were accustomed to shave part of their head; but the form given to this tonsure, was different in the former from what was practised in the latter. The Scots and Britons pleaded the antiquity of their usages: The Romans, and their disciples, the Saxons, insisted on the universality of theirs. That Easter must necessarily be kept by a rule, which comprehended both the day of the year and age of the moon, was agreed by all; that the tonsure of a priest could not be omitted without the utmost impiety, was a point undisputed: But the Romans and Saxons called their antagonists schismatics; because they celebrated Easter on the very day of the full moon in March, if that day fell on a Sunday, instead of waiting till the Sunday following; and because they shaved the forepart of their head from ear to ear, instead of making that tonsure on the crown of the head, and in a circular form. In order to render their antagonists odious, they affirmed, that, once in seven years, they concurred with the Jews in the time of celebrating that festival: And that they might recommend their own form of tonsure, they maintained that it imitated symbolically the crown of thorns worn by Christ in his passion; whereas the other form was invented by Simon Magus, without any regard to that representation. These controversies had, from the beginning, excited such animosity between the British and Romish priests, that, instead of concurring in their endeavours to convert the idolatrous Saxons, they refused all communion together, and each regarded his opponent as no better than a Pagan. The dispute lasted more than a century; and was at last finished, not by men’s discovering the folly of it, which would have been too great an effort for human reason to accomplish, but by the entire prevalence of the Romish ritual over the Scotch and British. Wilfrid, bishop of Lindisferne, acquired great merit, both with the court of Rome and with all the southern Saxons, by expelling the quartodeciman schism, as it was called, from the Northumbrian kingdom, into which the neighbourhood of the Scots had formerly








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introduced it.


Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, called, in the year 680, a synod at Hatfield, consisting of all the bishops in Britain; where was accepted and ratified the decree of the Lateran council, summoned by Martin, against the heresy of the Monothelites. The council and synod maintained, in opposition to these heretics, that, though the divine and human nature in Christ made but one person; yet had they different inclinations, wills, acts, and sentiments, and that the unity of the person implied not any unity in the consciousness. This opinion it seems somewhat difficult to comprehend; and no one, unacquainted with the ecclesiastical history of those ages, could imagine the height of zeal and violence, with which it was then inculcated. The decree of the Lateran council calls the Monothelites impious, execrable, wicked, abominable, and even diabolical; and curses and anathematizes them to all eternity.




The Saxons, from the first introduction of Christianity among them, had admitted the use of images; and perhaps, that religion, without some of those exterior ornaments, had not made so quick a progress with these idolaters: But they had not paid any species of worship or address to images; and this abuse never prevailed among Christians, till it received the sanction of the second council of Nice.

[a] Caesar, lib. 4. [b] Diod. Sic. lib. 4. Mela, lib. 3. cap. 6. Strabo, lib. 4. [c] Dion Cassius, lib. 75. [d] Caesar, lib. 6. [e] Tacit. Agr. [f] Caesar, lib. 6. Strabo, lib. 4. [g] Plin. lib. 12. cap. 1. [h] Caesar, lib. 6. [i] Sueton. in Vita Claudii. [k] Tacit. Agr. [l] Tacit. Ann. lib. 12. [m] Tacit. Ann. lib. 14. [n] Tacit. Agr.


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[o] Tacit. Agr. [p] Gildas, Bede, lib. 1. cap. 12. Paull. Diacon. [q] Bede, lib. 1. cap. 12. [r] Ibid. [s] Gildas, Bede, lib. 1. Ann Beverl. p. 45. [t] Gildas, Bede, lib. 1. cap. 13. Malmesbury, lib. 1. cap. 1. Ann. Beverl. p. 45. [u] Chron. Sax. p. 11. Edit. 1692. [w] Ann. Beverl. p. 45. [x] Gildas, Bede, lib.1. cap. 14. [y] Gildas, Usher Ant. Brit. p. 248, 347. [z] Gildas, Bede, lib. 1. cap. 17. Constant. in vita Germ. [a] Gildas, Gul. Malm. p. 8. [b] Caesar, lib. 6. Tacit. de Mor. Germ. [c] Caesar, lib. 6. Tacit. ibid. [d] Amm. Marcell. lib. 28. Orosius. [e] Amm. Marcell. lib. 27. cap. 7. lib. 28. cap. 7. [f] Will. Malm. p. 8. [g] Bede, lib. 1. cap. 15. Saxon Chron. p. 13. Nennius, cap. 28. [h] Sax[chon Chronicle, p. 12. Gul. Malm. p. 11. Huntington, lib. 2. p. 309. Ethelwerd. Brompton, p. 728. [i] Chron. Sax. p. 12. Ann. Beverl. p. 49. [k] Bede, lib. 1. cap. 15. Nennius, cap. 35. Gildas, § 23. [l] Bede, lib. 1. cap. 15. Usher, p. 226. Gildas, § 24. [m] Nennius. Galfr. lib. 6. cap. 12.


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[n] Nennius, cap. 47. Galfr. [o] Stillingfleet’s Orig. Britt. p. 324, 325. [p] Bede, lib. 1. cap. 15. Ethelwerd, p. 833. edit. Camdeni. Chron. Sax. p. 12. Ann. Beverl. p. 78. The inhabitants of Kent and the Isle of Wight were Jutes. Essex, Middlesex, Surrey, Sussex, and all the southern counties to Cornwal, were peopled by Saxons: Mercia and other parts of the kingdom were inhabited by Angles. [q] Chron. Sax. p. 14. Ann. Beverl. p. 81. [r] Saxon. Chron. A. D. 485. Flor. Wigorn. [s] Hen. Huntin. lib. 2. [t] Will. Malm. lib. 1. cap. 1. p. 12. Chron. Sax. p. 15. [u] Chron. Sax. p. 17. [w] H. Hunting. lib. 2. Ethelwerd, lib. 1. Chron. Sax. p. 17. [x] Hunting. lib. 2. [y] Gildas, Saxon Chron. H. Hunting. lib. 2. [z] Math. West. Huntingdon. lib. 2. [a] Chron. Sax. p. 19. [b] Will. Malms p. 19. [c] Ann. Bever. p. 78. [d] Gildas. Bede, lib. 1. [e] Milton in Kennet, p. 50. [f] Chron. Sax. p. 21. [g] H. Hunting. lib. 2. [h] Greg. of Tours, lib. 9. cap. 26. H. Hunting. lib. 2. [i] Bede, lib. 1. cap. 25. Brompton, p. 729. [k] Bede, lib. 2. cap. 1. Spell. Conc. p. 91.


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[l] Bede, lib. 1. cap. 23. [m] Greg. Epist. lib. 9 epist. 56. Spell. Conc. p. 82. [n] Higden, Polychron. lib. 5. Chron. Sax. p. 23. [o] Bede, lib. 1. cap. 25. H. Hunting. lib. 3. Brompton, p. 719. Parker Antiq. Brit. Eccl. p. 61. [p] Bede, lib. 1. cap. 25. Chron. W. Thorn. p. 1759. [q] Bede, lib. 1. cap. 25. H. Hunting. lib. 3. Brompton, p. 729. [r] Bede, lib. 1. cap. 26. [s] Ibid. cap. 26. H. Hunting. lib. 3. [t] Bede, lib. 1. cap. 32. Brompton, p. 732. Spell. Conc. p. 86. [u] Bede, lib. 1 cap. 27. Spell. Conc. p. 97, 98, 99, &c. [w] Augustine asks, “Si mulier menstrua consuetudine tenetur, an ecclesiam intrare ei licet, aut sacrae communionis sacramenta percipere?” Gregory answers, “Santae communionis mysterium in eisdem diebus percipere non debet prohiberi. Si autem ex veneratione magna percipere non praesumitur, laudanda est.” Augustine asks, “Si post illusionem, quae per somnum solet accidere, vel corpus Domini quilibet accipere valeat; vel, si sacerdos sit, sacra mysteria celebrare?” Gregory answers this learned question by many learned distinctions. [x] Bede, lib. 1. cap. 30. Spell. Conc. p. 89. Greg. Epist. lib. 9. epist. 71. [y] Chron. Sax. p. 23, 24. [z] H. Hunting. lib. 3. Spell. Conc. p. 83. Bede, lib. 1. Greg. Epist. lib. 9. epist. 6. [a] Bede, lib. 1. cap. 27. [b] Will. Malm. p. 10. [c] Wilkins Leges Sax. p. 13. [d] Bede, lib. 2. cap. 5. [e] Ibid. cap. 6. Chron. Sax. p. 26. Higden, lib. 5. [f] Brompton, p. 739. [g] Will. Malm. p. 11.


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[h] Higden, lib. 5. [i] Chron. Sax. p. 52. [k] Will. Malmes. lib. 1. cap. 1. p. 11. [l] Brompton, p. 779. [m] Trivet. apud Spell. Conc. p. 111. [n] Bede, lib. 2. cap. 2. W. Malmes, lib. 1. cap. 3. [o] W. Malmes. lib. 1. cap. 3. H. Hunting. lib. 3. Bede. [p] Bede, lib. 2. cap. 12. Brompton, p. 781. [q] Chron. Sax. p. 27. [r] Gul. Malmes. lib. 1. cap. 3. [s] H. Hunting. lib. 3. [t] Bede, lib. 2. cap. 9. [u] Bede, lib. 2. cap. 9. Malmes. lib. 1. cap. 3. [w] Bede, lib. 2. cap. 13. Brompton, Higden, lib. 5. [x] Matth. West. p. 114. Chron. Sax. p. 29. [y] W. Malmes. lib. 1. cap. 3. [z] Bede, lib. 2. cap. 20. [a] Bede, lib. 3. cap. 9. [b] Hugo Candidus, p. 4. says that he was treacherously murdered by his queen, by whose persuasion he had embraced Christianity; but this account of the matter is found in that historian alone. [c] Bede, lib. 5. [d] Chron. Sax. p. 59. [e] Brompton, p. 750, 751, 752. [f] Spell. Conc. p. 308. Brompton, p. 776.


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[g] Spell. Conc. p. 230, 310, 312. [h] Higden, lib. 5. [i] Ingulph. p. 5. W. Malmes. lib. 1. cap. 4. [k] Lib. 1. cap. 4. [l] Chron. Sax. p. 65. [m] Dupin, cent. 8. chap. 4. [n] Offa, in order to protect his country from Wales, drew a rampart or ditch of a hundred miles in length from Basinwerke in Flintshire to the South-sea near Bristol. See Speed’s Description of Wales. [o] Ingulph. p. 6. [p] Ingulph. p. 7. Brompton, p. 776. [q] Ingulph. p. 7. [r] Ann. Beverl. p. 87. [s] Chron. Sax. p. 24. [t] Lib. 2. cap. 5. [u] H. Hunting. lib. 3. Brompton, p. 738, 743. Bede. [w] Malmes, lib. 1. cap. 6. [x] Brompton, p. 800. [y] Chron. Sax. p. 22. [z] Higden, lib. 5. Chron. Sax. p. 15. Ann. Beverl. p. 94. [a] Bede, lib. 4. cap. 12. Chron. Sax. p. 41. [b] Higden, lib. 5. W. Malmes. lib. 1. cap. 2. [c] W. Malmes. lib. 1. cap. 2. [d] Chron. Sax. p. 16. [e] H. Hunting. lib. 4.


71. [m] Ingulph. [i] Chron. 2.. 5.libertyfund. lib. 3. [a] Bede. Sax. 4. cap. Camdeni. p. D.Hume. [g] Higden. § 24. § 24. Spain and Gaul. 2. 109. 10. 60. and they preserved the Roman language and laws. p. 5. lib. p. [w] See Appendix to Bede. edit. 2. 71.html 4/7/2004 . 16. 2. For several ages. [y] Bede. [s] Bedae Epist. 7. Sax. 5. [n] Chron. they were almost all Romans. 3. lib. A. § 12. cap. which they rendered society. p. [h] Chron. 2. 5. Epistola Bedae ad Egbert.. and almost as ignorant and barbarous as the laity. made some atonement for them by other advantages. 10. [q] Bede. 21. [o] Chron. ex. 3. numb. Asser. therefore. Sax. But the priests in the Heptarchy. [r] Ibid. [z] Bede. [t] Append. cap. 19. lib. 5. 8. West. were wholly Saxons. 69. M. Brompton. ex edit. lib. in vita Alfredi. [l] Ibid. 801. the ancient natives. [x] Eddius vita Vilfr. 108. cap. 800. cap. [b] Bede. Eddius. p. 3. 23. 22. little to the improvement of the society in knowledge or the arts. 19. [p] These abuses were common to all the European churches. cap. 152. 5. Eddius. or. Higden. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . 7. p. after the first missionaries. to Bede. lib. p. cap. in other words. lib. 1722. p. cap. 26. [u] Bede. but the priests in Italy. ad Egbert. 20. 3. lib. They contributed. Page 54 of 354 [f] Lib. http://oll. [k] Ethelwerd. Spelm. 11. lib. cap. lib. with some remains of the former civility. lib. Sax. numb. cap.

but infinite numbers more. was much infested by bands of robbers or pyrates. which lie in a very remote antiquity. as they passed long before the age of history and records. 172. Not to mention. that neither Bede nor Gildas are Caesars or Tacituses. that the migrations of that colony of Gauls or Celts. was originally made from the north west parts of Britain. vol. and this conjecture (if it do not merit a higher name) is founded both on the Irish language. It appears more than probable. Cumberland. who repelled those invaders: Yet the same Britons valiantly resisted for 150 years not only this victorious band of Saxons. We may infer from two passages in Claudian. [d] Spell. 25. vol. that Britain either was originally peopled. The Irish Scots. But besides these primitive facts. lib. It appears also probable. Eddius. they remain the sole testimony on the subject. but such as they are. Conc. were guided by like inferences. and from one in Orosius and another in Isidore. who poured in upon them from all quarters.. and on the vicinity of Lancashire. cap. which in this case seems to be pretty satisfactory: Caesar and Tacitus. during the time of the lower empire. but shall propose our opinion in a few words. must be known by reasoning alone. 1. These events. in which England. Scotland was totally subdued by a small handful of English.Hume. Robert Bruce in 1322 made a peace. it is a matter of positive and undoubted testimony. Their barbarous manner of life rendered them much fitter than the Romans for subduing these http://oll. All history is full of such events. that. We shall not enter into any detail on so uninteresting a subject. I grant. who peopled or subdued Ireland.html 4/7/2004 .libertyfund. was constrained to acknowledge the independance of his country: Yet in no more distant period than ten years after. Those arguments are still much weaker than the authorities. if any part of the traditional history of a barbarous people can be relied on. and Ireland from Britain: The position of the several countries. p. a name which was probably used as a term of reproach. 3.. though we can neither assign the period nor causes of that revolution. It is in vain to argue against these facts from the supposed warlike disposition of the Highlanders and unwarlike of the ancient Irish. and which these banditti themselves did not acknowledge or assume. p. it is the genealogy of nations. [NOTE [A]] This question has been disputed with as great zeal and even acrimony between the Scotch and Irish antiquaries. is an additional reason that favours this conclusion. that the chief fear of these Scots was in Ireland. by the migration of inhabitants from Gaul. after many defeats. § 12. and even sometimes that of families. Page 55 of 354 [c] Bede. might find time and opportunities sufficient to settle in North Britain. Galloway and Argyleshire to that island. Conc. 173. not to mention a multitude of other Greek and Roman authors. p. whence their ancestors had probably been derived in a more remote age is positively asserted by Bede. That some part of the Irish freebooters migrated back to the northwest parts of Britain. from the similitude of language and manners. Nations change very quickly in these particulars. whom the provincial Britons called Scots or Scuits. led by a few private noblemen. and therefore must be relied on for want of better: Happily. which is a very different dialect from the Welsh and from the language anciently spoken in South Britain. as if the honour of their respective countries were the most deeply concerned in the decision. 174. that the Roman province of Britain. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in The Britons were unable to resist the Picts and Scots. in the course of two or three centuries. and implied in Gildas. 168. or was subdued. 1. the frivolousness of the question corresponds to the weakness of the authorities. [e] Ibid. and invited over the Saxons for their defence. [f] Spell.

. We have positive evidence. when imposed on them by the violence of Charlemagne: and the more generous and warlike of these Pagans had fled northward into Jutland. their customs. who seemed to merit it.html 4/7/2004 . and being there known under the general name of Normans. by the most rigorous edicts. had been induced by bigotry to exercise great severities upon the Pagan Saxons in Germany. which. and the superior nobility of his birth. that the former.Hume. Page 56 of 354 mountaineers. who. and afforded subsistence to those numerous inhabitants. which they received from their northern 827. seemed to be firmly cemented into one state under Egbert. which both promised revenge on the haughty conqueror. the vigour of his administration. though from neutral persons. he had in cool blood decimated all the inhabitants for their revolts. laws. kept the Anglo-Saxons in perpetual inquietude. II Egbert – Ethelwolf – Ethelbald and Ethelbert – Ethered – Alfred the Great – Edward the elder – Athelstan – Edmund – Edred – Edwy – Edgar – Edward the Martyr EGBERT THE KINGDOMS of the Heptarchy. they were readily received among them. Meeting there with a people of similar manners. They invaded the provinces of France. delivered from father to son. which were exposed by the degeneracy and dissentions of Charlemagne’s posterity. sprang from the latter: We have no evidence at all that the latter sprang from the former. that they would thenceforth become formidable to their neighbours. the people readily transferred their allegiance to a prince. to make a seeming compliance with the christian doctrine. it is clear. and the inhabitants of the several provinces had lost all desire of revolting from that monarch. That religion. and it appeared more probable. by the splendor of his victories. committed the most barbarous ravages upon them. from the language of the two countries. And in a word. and had obliged them. which had easily made its way among the British-Saxons by insinuation and address. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and besides often ravaging their country with fire and sword. in order to escape the fury of his persecutions. Their language was every where nearly the same. with which the northern countries were now overburthened. though united by so recent a conquest. appeared shocking to their German brethren. and as the race of the ancient kings was totally extinct in all the subjected states. than be exposed to their inroads and devastations. institutions civil and religious. or of restoring their former independent governments. The emperor Charlemagne. g http://oll. given by the low-country Scots to the language of the Scotch Highlanders. A union also in government opened to them the agreeable prospect of future though naturally generous and humane. that the Highlanders and the Irish are the same people. is a certain proof of the traditional opinion. that the latter people came originally from Ireland. is not perhaps the best that may be wished for. But these flattering views were soon overcast by the appearance of the Danes. during some centuries. and they soon stimulated the natives to concur in enterprizes. I shall add. that the name of Erse or Irish. whom he subdued. and that the one are a colony from the other. and at last reduced them to grievous servitude. in the third or fourth century.libertyfund.

to make great progress over a people. and account for their intentions. and being able. or they betook n o p http://oll.libertyfund. l m ETHELWOLF 838. made an inroad with their confederates into the county of Devon. by sudden inroads.. They were also tempted to visit England in their frequent excursions. They avoided coming to a general engagement. Kent. who had relaxed their military institutions. governor of the neighbouring county. of committing spoil upon the country. and carrying off their booty. Athelstan. the remainder scattered themselves every where. though they were sometimes repulsed and defeated. they killed him. that they must expect a vigorous resistance from this warlike prince. and delivering over to his eldest and having pillaged it. and ran easily up the creeks and rivers. they always obtained their end. which they guarded with part of their number.. they made no distinction in their hostilities between the French and English kingdoms. k 832. but he obtained the victory after a furious engagement. and when the magistrate of the place questioned them concerning their enterprize. unfortunately died. THIS PRINCE had neither the abilities nor the vigour of his father. they entered into an alliance with the Britons of Cornwal. Their first appearance in this island was in the year 787. appeared at Southampton. the Danes landed in the Isle h i of Shepey. Next year. Their vessels were small. as the continual terror of the Danish invasions prevented all domestic dissention. If the military force of the county were assembled. and defended itself more by temporary expedients than by any regular plan of administration. with a view of learning the state of the country. and thence made good their retreat to their ships. and left the government to his son. in East-Anglia and Lindesey and Kent. but were met at Hengesdown by Egbert. The next alarm was given to Northumberland in the year 794. and he bought it with the loss of his life. at Charmouth in Dorsetshire. escaped with impunity. and carrying off the inhabitants and cattle and goods. and was better qualified for governing a convent than a kingdom. The same year. A fleet of these ravagers. they maintained the post. the Danes made several inroads into England. escaped into their own country. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and landing two years after in that country. and the remainder of them put to the sword. and summoned them to appear before the king. But no inconveniencies seem to have arisen from this partition. and quickly disappeared. and fought battles. He began his reign with making a partition of his dominions. and who were sunk into a superstition. when they disembarked from thirty-five ships. and having formed an entrenchment round them. who were not defended by any naval force. routed another band which had disembarked at Portsmouth. they became the terror of all the maritime and even of the inland countries. where. the new conquered provinces of Essex.Hume. and totally defeated. Ethelwolf. which they had taken. where they drew them ashore. While England remained in this state of anxiety. and their leader slain in a skirmish. Egbert. but though the Danes lost great numbers.html 4/7/2004 . but their ships being much damaged by a storm. but were repulsed with loss by Wolf[chhere. when Brithric reigned in Wessex. they were at last defeated by the inhabitants. A small body of them landed in that kingdom. Five years after Egbert had established his monarchy over England. governor of Dorsetshire. Page 57 of 354 situation. (for there was no time for troops to march from a distance) the Danes either were able to repulse them and to continue their ravages with impunity. which had become odious to the Danes and ancient Saxons. and were encountered by Egbert. or rather skirmishes. and Sussex. The battle was bloody. They were not so fortunate in their next year’s enterprize. Having learned by experience. Aethelhelm. which was not suited to their plan of operations. and flying to their ships. consisting of thirty-three sail. when a body of these pirates pillaged a monastery. they hastened to their ships. who alone was able to provide effectually against this new evil.

he made a perpetual grant of three hundred mancuses q 851. rouzed themselves with a vigour proportioned to the exigency. at the head of the West-Saxons. and laid every place waste around them. Charles the Bald. Ethelbald. his second. invaded the land in so numerous a body. which he little looked for. This advantage procured but a short respite to the English. joined to all the other calamities under which the English laboured. and put them to rout with great slaughter. whom. r s and receiving in the spring a strong reinforcement of their countrymen in 350 vessels. and put the rest to flight. and killed both the governors. Ethelwolf. Page 58 of 354 themselves to their vessels. a few centuries before. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . that they might farther extend their devastation and ravages. the project of excluding his father from a throne. one third to support the lamps of St. and setting sail. Ceorle. and failed not in that most essential part of devotion. where they had stationed themselves. and favourite son. they marched into the heart of Surrey. for the first time. and the priests and monks. Athelstan. governors of Kent and Surrey. which was not prepared for their reception. he married Judith.. and having put to flight Brichtric. to take up winter-quarters in England. in concert with many of the nobles.libertyfund. sunk nine of their ships. who had been commonly spared in the domestic quarrels of the Heptarchy. encouraged by their successes against France as well as England (for both kingdoms were alike exposed to this dreadful calamity). Besides giving presents to the more distinguished ecclesiastics. they finally repulsed the assailants. In his return home. and http://oll.html 4/7/2004 . whither he carried his fourth. Every part of England was held in continual alarm. and the absence of the enemy was no reason why any man could esteem himself a moment in safety. w His eldest son. King Athelstan attacked another at sea near Sandwich. where they took up their winterquarters. they had treated with like violence. formed. t u a year to that see. marched against them. a third to the pope himself. who now governed Mercia. which his weakness and superstition seem to have rendered him so ill-qualified to fill. Peter’s. but on his landing in England. as seemed to threaten it with universal subjection. Paul’s. then only six years of age. sought a battle with one body of the Danes at Wiganburgh. suddenly invaded some distant quarter. under the title of King. and being attacked by Ealher and Huda. He passed there a twelvemonth in exercises of devotion. He made with him a partition of the kingdom. more military than the Britons. being dead. governor of Devonshire. liberality to the church of Rome. were the chief objects on which the Danish idolaters exercised their rage and animosity. though defeated in the beginning of the action. gave them battle at Okely. who had assumed the government. another those of St. and carrying with him his second son. burnt the cities of London and Canterbury. Ethelbald. ventured. daughter of the emperor. and gained a bloody victory over them. The Danes still maintained their settlement in the Isle of Thanet. All orders of men were involved in this calamity. lest their own families and property should in the mean time be exposed by their absence to the fury of these barbarous ravagers. This unsettled state of England hindered not Ethelwolf from making a pilgrimage to Rome. and a bloody civil war. impelled by the urgency of the danger.. appeared inevitable. Every season of the year was dangerous. they advanced from the Isle of Thanet.Hume. when the Danes. But the English. Alfred. A body of them however. The people were divided between the two princes. when Ethelwolf had the facility to yield to the greater part of his son’s pretensions. he met with an opposition. and the inhabitants of one county durst not give assistance to those of another. They removed thence to the Isle of Shepey. These incursions had now become almost annual.

His reign was short. from the contrary interests of the laity. and when the people. Ethelbald and Ethelbert. they neglected the ordinary means of safety. and committed great 857.. having deceived the English by a with an opposition. behaved himself. as well as the most exposed. that the revenues of the church should be exempted from all burthens. and terrified with the fear of future invasions. were susceptible of any impression. which bore the appearance of religion. that. and inculcating the most absurd and most interested doctrines. what they themselves taught. his brother. the west being assigned to the former. made by courtezans in the exercise of their profession. which they claimed as belonging to them. from the general tenor of these discourses. a tenth of all the produce of land was conferred on the priest-hood. but moved by the remonstrances of Swithun. that this donation conveyed a perpetual property. x y z a Though parishes had been instituted in England by Honorius. and one would have imagined. though imposed for national defence and security. that the clergy were entitled to the tythe of the profits. Immediately after. when a weak. that all the practical parts of Christianity were comprized in the exact and faithful payment of tythes to the clergy. Encouraged by their success in inculcating these doctrines. archbishop of Canterbury. though they sometimes met. during a reign of five years.libertyfund. So meritorious was this concession deemed by the English. and agreed. and pretended to draw the tenth of all industry. succeeding to the government. During some centuries. who were quartered in the Isle of Thanet. the ecclesiastics had never yet been able to get possession of the tythes: they therefore seized the present favourable opportunity of making that acquisition. some canonists went so far as to affirm. merchandize. discouraged by their losses from the Danes. and Ethelbert. made rapid advances in the acquisition of power and grandeur. Ethelbald was a profligate prince. bishop of Winchester. that. however. under the Jewish law. they insisted. inherent by divine right in those who officiated at the altar. and forgetting. The ecclesiastics. they had been able to discover. in a manner more worthy of his birth and station. and with the same facility conferred a perpetual and important donation on the church. he summoned the states of the whole kingdom. was still infested by the Danes. the east to the latter. The kingdom. Not content with the donations of land made them by the Saxon princes and nobles. However little versed in the scriptures. which it required time and address to overcome.. Page 59 of 354 taking to himself the eastern part. near two centuries before. in those days of ignorance. A body also of these pirates. but were there defeated. even in the present desperate extremity. wages of labourers. which was always at that time esteemed the least considerable. his mother-in-law. unexpectedly broke into Kent. 860. they had cast a wishful eye on a vast revenue. by a sacred and indefeizable title. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . nay. he was at last prevailed on to divorce her. they found no obstacle in their reason or understanding. superstitious prince filled the throne. and marrying Judith. the whole scope of sermons and homilies was directed to this purpose. and pay of soldiers. they ventured farther than they were warranted even by the Levitical law. he delivered over to Ethelbald the sovereignty of the western. trusting entirely to supernatural assistance. and by his will he shared England between his two eldest sons. that the moral part only of that law was obligatory on Christians. gave great offence to the people. who made an inroad and sacked Winchester. b c d ETHELBALD AND ETHELBERT ETHELWOLF lived only two years after making this grant. and with temporary oblations from the devotion of the people.Hume.html 4/7/2004 . http://oll.

and by the superiority. which he might entertain. which he had received in an action with the Danes. Ethered died of a wound. and that prince. His younger brother. conducting a great army to Nottingham. refused to join him with their forces. was ascribed by the monks to the piety of that monarch.. They there seized the city of York. in Berkshire. and committing the most barbarous ravages on the people. attended by Alfred. Alfred. which they had obtained. were in danger of a total defeat. enjoyed. Page 60 of 354 outrages. to leave the sea-coast. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . defeated and took prisoner. and to retreat into Northumberland. whence they infested the neighbouring country by their incursions. during his whole reign. not the danger of Alfred. which enabled them to make an irruption by land into the kingdom of Northumberland. ETHERED ETHELBERT was succeeded by his brother Ethered. The next station of the Danes was at Reading. allowed them not to remain long in those quarters: They broke into East-Anglia. who. in the beginning of the day. on account of his being excluded by Ethered from a large patrimony. under the command of Hinguar and Hubba. and left the inheritance of his cares and misfortunes. they became every day more terrible to the English. f ALFRED http://oll. and Ethered. whom they afterwards murdered in cool blood. Their restless and being reinforced by a new army from their own country. which had been left him by his father. The first landing of the Danes in the reign of Ethered was among the East-Angles. with his brother. An action soon after ensued at Aston. Alfred. who. and defended it against Osbricht and Aella. by assisting the common enemy. The Mercians. they took up their winter-quarters at Nottingham. and their avidity for plunder. and obliged them to raise the siege. refused to march to his assistance. particularly on the monasteries. being defeated in an action.. where they threatened the kingdom with a final subjection. shut themselves up in their garrison. was obliged to march against the enemy. This battle of Aston did not terminate the war: Another battle was a little after fought at Basing. and penetrating into Mercia. who was now twenty-two years of age. this success. to his brother. till prayers should be finished. 866. the king of that country. e 870. seconded him in all his enterprizes. where the English. they now ventured. The Mercians. was surrounded by the enemy in disadvantageous ground. though he defended himself with bravery. with the West Saxons alone. Alfred. more anxious for their present safety than for the common interest. and generously sacrificed to the public good all resentment. no tranquillity from those Danish irruptions. which they had acquired in arms. where the Danes were more successful. but quickly making thence an irruption. Encouraged by these successes. advancing with one division of the army. who perished in the assault. The Danes. in this extremity. 871. they routed the WestSaxons. Amidst these confusions. and that prince.html 4/7/2004 . and furnished them with horses. But as he afterwards obtained the victory. applied to Ethered for succour. they gave the East-Angles cause to regret the temporary relief. desirous of shaking off their dependance on Ethered. two Northumbrian princes. obliged the enemy to dislodge.libertyfund. who was at that time hearing mass. Alfred. Edmund. his hereditary subjects. rather than of his grandeur. entered into a separate treaty with the enemy.

and having first joined their countrymen at Repton.html 4/7/2004 . A new swarm of Danes came over this year under three princes. king of Mercia. that better prompted his heroic spirit. in a quarter where they expected to find it without defence. he soon learned to read those compositions. took shelter in a cloyster. to the right of conferring kingdoms. Finding therefore no object in that place. Their loss. a country which they had already reduced to ruin and desolation. who from all quarters invaded them. who had seized Wilton. gained at first an advantage. they immediately set themselves to the committing of spoil on the neighbouring country. which is sometimes able to make a considerable progress even among barbarians. a circumstance which had great authority with the Anglo-Saxons. they were unable to sustain the efforts of those ravagers. they soon found the necessity of separating. by which. and he had already reached his twelfth year. the superiority of the enemy’s numbers prevailed. Burrhed. and no treaties bind. fearing Alfred would receive daily reinforcement from his subjects. the pope. under the command of Haldene. whether prognosticating his future greatness from the appearances of his pregnant genius. Part of them. Page 61 of 354 THIS PRINCE gave very early marks of those great virtues and shining talents. He marched against them with the few troops. either for their rapine or violence. Oscitel. and flying to Rome. and Amund. in preference to his brother’s children. but by his pursuing the victory too far.libertyfund. the year after his 871. l 875. by presents of money. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and were exercising their usual ravages on the countries around. where they fixed their quarters. or willing to pretend even in that age. on his return home. that. Ethelwolf. Guthrum. became every day more the object of his father’s affections. to remove to Lindesey in Lincolnshire. as well by the will of his father. abandoned his kingdom. and engaged them. He was brother-in-law to Alfred. his father. he saved his country from utter ruin and subversion. gave Alfred the royal unction. return with Alfred from Rome. they suddenly turned back upon Mercia. Encouraged by the queen. he shook off his literary g h i k indolence. despairing of success against an enemy.Hume. in order to oppose the Danes. For that purpose they were conducted to London. and stimulated by his own ardent inclination. and directed his generous views. and a report being spread of the king’s death. when he was obliged to take the field. when he was yet totally ignorant of the lowest elements of literature. and exerted himself in the defence of his people. in which the queen took delight. made a new stipulation with them. The West-Saxons were now the only remaining power in England. and promised to depart the kingdom. and allowed to take up winter-quarters there. Burrhed. which he had received from nature. m marched into Northumberland. he regarded his accession to royalty rather as an object of regret than of triumph. and this species of erudition. in the action was so expanded those noble and elevated sentiments. and recovered them the day. their chieftain. he was much neglected in his education. His genius was first rouzed by the recital of Saxon poems. Absorbed in these elegant pursuits. in which he met with authors. Leo III. and the last who bore the title of King in Mercia. as by the vows of the whole nation and the urgency of public affairs. they laid the whole country desolate with fire and sword. careless of their engagements. in order to provide for their subsistence. in whose territories London was situated. during the most difficult times.. He had scarcely buried his brother. had again sent the young prince thither with a numerous retinue. which he could assemble on a sudden. but. and giving them battle. part of them took http://oll. Alfred. and fixing their station at Repton in Derbyshire. but being called to the throne.. however. and though supported by the vigour and abilities of Alfred. whom no force could resist. but being indulged in all youthful pleasures. they were content to stipulate for a safe retreat. and proceeded thence to acquire the knowledge of the Latin tongue.

and were exercising their usual ravages all around rated the king very severely. which were toasting. the very center of Alfred’s dominions. reduced to such distress. except so far as every circumstance is interesting. in the meanest disguises. while she was employed elsewhere in other domestic affairs. their impiety would infallibly draw down upon them the vengeance of heaven. and building a habitation on them. and it now bears the name of t http://oll. in the county of Dorset. under his conduct. He here found two acres of firm ground. Finding that. He hearkened however to new proposals of peace. and delivered over to those swarms of robbers. which it seemed the interest of the Danes themselves to fulfil. which the fertile north thus incessantly poured forth against them. that he fought in one year eight battles with the enemy. This place he called Aethelingay. that they were content to come to a treaty with him. The wife of the neat-herd was ignorant of the condition of her royal guest. whose thoughts were otherwise engaged. There passed here an incident. neglected this injunction. n o p q r s By degrees. whence they dislodged in the ensuing summer. who summoned them to make. and was long preserved by popular tradition. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . That prince so straitened them in these quarters. equally greedy of spoil and slaughter. a new band. and lived some time in the house of a neat-herd. from the pursuit and fury of his enemies. and retired into Wales or fled beyond sea: Others submitted to the conquerors. one effort more in defence of their prince. in hopes of appeasing their fury by a servile obedience: And every man’s attention being now engrossed in concern for his own preservation. which has been recorded by all the historians. well acquainted with their usual perfidy. and reduced them to despair. on her return. their country. and to seek shelter.html 4/7/2004 . no one would hearken to the exhortations of the King. fell upon Alfred’s army. she desired him to take care of some cakes. and seized Wereham. marched westward. formed by the stagnating waters of the Thone and Parret. and observing him one day busy by the fire-side in trimming his bow and arrows.Hume. Some left their country. that they would settle somewhere in England. though it contains nothing memorable in itself. This last incident quite broke the spirit of the Saxons. and reduced them to the utmost extremity. had disembarked among them. and was satisfied to stipulate with them. Page 62 of 354 quarters at Cambridge.. and would not permit the entrance of more ravagers into the kingdom. But Alfred. though he was thus negligent in toasting them. and stipulated to depart his country. and took possession of Exeter. Alfred himself was obliged to relinquish the ensigns of his dignity. He concealed himself under a peasant’s habit. without seeking any pretence. they believed themselves abandoned by heaven to destruction. which they had exerted in their own defence. then a considerable town. But while he was expecting the execution of this treaty. that he always seemed very well pleased to eat her warm cakes. Alfred. after all the miserable havoc. who had been entrusted with the care of some of his cows. and having put it to rout. had surprized Chippenham. after all the vigorous actions.libertyfund. not that he expected they would pay any veneration to the reliques. obliged them to swear upon the holy reliques to the observance of the treaty. suddenly. and by the forests and morasses. Alfred. The prince collected new forces. finding her cakes all burnt. which attends so much virtue and dignity. and upbraided him. and retired into the center of a bog. and exerted such vigour. rendered himself secure by its fortifications. he heard that another body had landed.. or the Isle of Nobles. to dismiss his servants. if they now violated this oath. and having collected all the scattered troops of their countrymen. with which it was every way environed. in Somersetshire. and their liberties. little apprehensive of the danger. that. collected some of his retainers. as he found the search of the enemy become more remiss. and the good woman. But the Danes. which they had undergone in their persons and in their property. and still more by the unknown and inaccessible roads which led to it. but he hoped.

and which. and. where he remained some days. that the kingdoms of x y z http://oll. and taking them unprepared. himself. was besieged by Alfred in a fortified camp. He subsisted himself and his followers by the plunder which he acquired. and their dissolute wasting of what they gained by rapine and violence. The remainder of the routed army. and could not satiate their eyes with the sight of this beloved monarch. their prince. he determined. by some vigorous blow. prove and got possession of the famous Reafen. He thence made frequent and unexpected sallies upon the Danes. The English. He knew. which. and were soon put to flight with great slaughter. who often felt the vigour of his arm. they joyfully resorted to their prince. attended by their warlike followers. the good or bad success of any enterprize. when the news of a prosperous event reached his ears. He remarked the supine security of the Danes. It contained the figure of a raven. whom they considered as totally subdued. into faithful subjects and confederates. having spread devastation. where the Danes were encamped: and taking advantage of his previous knowledge of the place. at the appointed day. Oddune. had landed in Devonshire from twenty-three vessels. On his appearance. with his followers. and who now with voice and looks expressing his confidence of success. who had hoped to put an end to their calamities by servile submission. from mortal enemies. their negligence in foraging and plundering. He made a sudden sally on the Danes before sun-rising. now found the insolence and rapine of the conqueror more intolerable than all past fatigues and dangers. u w When Alfred observed this symptom of successful resistance in his subjects. fire. called them to liberty and to vengeance.libertyfund.. he put them to rout. by its different movements. with many magical incantations. which had been inwoven by the three sisters of Hinguar and Hubba. but knew not from what quarter the blow came. he directed his attack against the most unguarded quarter of the enemy. with their prince. or urge them to any attempt. the Dane. or enchanted standard. and laid siege to the castle of Kinwith. Encouraged by these favourable appearances.. but before he would assemble them in arms.Hume. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . earl of Devonshire.html 4/7/2004 . He instantly conducted them to Eddington. and even with water. and passed unsuspected through every quarter. and summoned them to a rendezvous. gave them their lives. he secretly sent emissaries to the most considerable of his subjects. Alfred lay here concealed. to prevent the necessity of submitting to the barbarous enemy. and slaughter. he procured them consolation by revenge. he opened their minds to hope. notwithstanding his present low condition. pursued them with great slaughter. whom they had long regarded as dead. prognosticated. For this purpose he entered their camp under the disguise of a harper. the situation of the enemy. and still more astonished to hear that Alfred was at their head. no less generous than brave. The Danes. had taken shelter there. and from small successes. he resolved to inspect. but being reduced to extremity by want and hunger. a place situated near the mouth of the small river Tau. Page 63 of 354 Athelney. more important victories might at length attend his valour. and offered to submit on any conditions. killed Hubba himself. and even formed a scheme for converting them. made but a faint resistance. and was even introduced to the tent of Guthrum. at Brixton. in which the Danes put great confidence. they received him with shouts of applause. surprised to see an army of English. over Wales. notwithstanding their superiority of number. if unfortunate. they had recourse to the clemency of the victor. that he met with a welcome reception. on the borders of Selwood forest. that. might. He so entertained them with his music and facetious humours. and to judge of the probability of success. The king. and being ill supplied with provisions. their contempt of the English. and called him to the field. he left his retreat. but not unactive. in their present despondency. as the Danes believed. Hubba. during a twelve-month. to which they fled.

without much instruction or argument or conference. and.html 4/7/2004 . He hoped that the new planters would at last betake themselves to industry. without leaving the other quarters defenceless or disarmed. But before he ratified these mild conditions with the Danes. which he built at proper places. He was. As equality among subjects is the great source of concord. his brother-in-law. and received him as his adopted son. and except by a short incursion of Danes. Lincoln. in composing the minds of men to industry and justice. and Nottingham. that they should give him one pledge of their submission. he distributed part into the castles and fortresses. and the Danes could no sooner appear in one place. and that they might serve him as a rampart against any future incursions of their countrymen. had hitherto been totally neglected by the English. he required another part to take the field on any alarm. were distributed into the five cities of in establishing civil and military institutions. Page 64 of 354 East-Anglia and Northumberland were totally desolated by the frequent inroads of the Danes. Alfred was not for some years infested by the inroads of those barbarians.Hume. but suddenly retreated to their ships. who bore the title of Earl: and though the Danes. which. and the exhausted condition of the country. than a sufficient number was assembled to oppose them. (for so the Saxons were now universally called) because the kingdom of Mercia was at last incorporated in his state. The king answered for Guthrum at the font. after rebuilding the ruined cities. and of their inclination to incorporate with the English.. who were employed in the cultivation of the land. and he now purposed to re-people them by settling there Guthrum and his followers. the sole monarch of the English. Leicester. though the most natural defence of an island. he required. and put them entirely on a like footing in the administration both of civil and criminal justice. He ordained that all his people should be armed and registered. e f g h But Alfred. and were thence called the Fif or Five-Burgers. The king employed this interval of tranquillity in restoring order to the state. and in providing against the return of like calamities. The fine for the murder of a Dane was the same with that for the murder of an Englishman. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . was to meet them on their own element. and his army had no aversion to the proposal. and was governed by Ethelbert. he assigned them a regular rotation of duty. they all acknowledged a subordination to Alfred. by declaring their conversion to Christianity. sensible that the proper method of opposing an enemy. took care to provide himself with a naval force. and submitted to his superior authority. the great symbol of equality in those ages. Alfred gave the same laws to the Danes and English. The whole kingdom was like one great garrison. Stamford. who sailed up the Thames and landed at Fulham. The success of this expedient seemed to correspond to Alfred’s hopes: The greater part of the Danes settled peaceably in their new quarters: Some smaller bodies of the same nation. and to assemble at stated places of rendezvous. gave him the name of Athelstan. when. by reason of his resistance.libertyfund. The more turbulent and unquiet made an expedition into France under the command of Hastings. Guthrum. they could no longer subsist by plunder. which had been shaken by so many violent convulsions. they were all admitted to baptism. c d The king. who peopled East-Anglia and Northumberland. i http://oll.. who made incursions by sea. established a regular militia for the defence of the kingdom. a b 880. on finding the country in a posture of defence. which were dispersed in Mercia. particularly London. more properly than his grandfather Egbert. and he left a sufficient number at home. and who afterwards took their turn in military service. were for some time ruled immediately by their own princes. which had been destroyed by the Danes in the reign of Ethelwolf.

took possession of Bamflete. disembark on the coast. The greater part of the enemy disembarked in the Rother. by their total destruction. and being obliged to quit that country. and these pyrates. entered the Thames. on the first alarm of this descent. and to commit the most destructive ravages. whom he always kept about his person. at the same time. broke into rebellion. which carried them up the Colne to Mersey in Essex. These ravagers. at the head of a select band of soldiers. and fortifying Milton in Kent. All straggling parties. A fleet of a hundred and twenty ships of war was stationed upon the coast. but the order which Alfred had p q http://oll. the Danes at Apuldore rose suddenly from their encampment. Though the Danes might suddenly. near the Isle of Canvey in the same county. l m n o where he hastily threw up fortifications Unfortunately for the English. and appeared before Exeter in the west of England. appeared in the field with a force superior to the enemy. Hastings himself. made a like movement. But at last Hastings the famous Danish chief. appeared off the coast of Kent with a fleet of 330 sail. were cut off by the English.html 4/7/2004 . and gathering to him the armed militia from all quarters. began to plunder the country near Chichester. as was also Guthred. and seized the fort of Apuldore. for his defence against the power of Alfred. as of naval action. and yielding to their inveterate habits of war and depredation. pursued them to their ships with great slaughter. they were encountered by the English fleet in their retreat and escaped not. But Alfred. He distributed his armed vessels in proper stations around the island. by abandoning their booty. shook off the authority of Alfred. which was generally become desolate by their frequent ravages. flew to the defence of his people. Tired of this situation. in safety and tranquillity. where they entrenched themselves. with which England had so often been infested. Guthrum.. whom necessity or love of plunder had drawn to a distance from their chief encampment. as formerly. (for Alfred supplied the defects of his own subjects by engaging able foreigners in his service) maintained a superiority over those smaller bands.Hume. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . Alfred repelled several inroads of these pyratical Danes. began to spread his forces over the country. In this manner.. than by the resistance of the inhabitants. with an intention of marching towards the Thames. and chaced the runaways on board their ships. embarked on board two hundred and forty vessels. found themselves cooped up in their fortifications. which must in the end prove ruinous to them. was now dead. whom the king had appointed governor of the Northumbrians. seized all their horses and baggage. and probably by concert. and being provided with warlike engines. and was sure to meet the Danish ships either before or after they had landed their troops. Hastings. he marched suddenly to the west. and to pursue them in all their incursions. both k 893. but paid.libertyfund. put them to rout. more by the desolation which he himself had occasioned. Having left some forces at London to make head against Hastings and the other Danes. who encountered them at Farnham. during some years. and being encouraged by the appearance of so great a body of their countrymen. having ravaged all the provinces of France. by surprize. and deserting Milton. and those restless tribes. the penalty of the disorders which they had committed. instead of increasing their spoil. Page 65 of 354 He increased the shipping of his kingdom both in number and strength. Alfred lost not a moment in opposing this new enemy. as well as with expert seamen. commanding a fleet of eighty sail. and falling on the rebels before they were aware. and maintained his kingdom. and passing over into Essex: But they escaped not the vigilance of being no longer restrained by the authority of their princes. and trained his subjects in the practice as well of sailing. and obliged to subsist by the plunder which they had brought from France. prince of the East-Anglian Danes. along the sea coast and the Loire and Seine. sailing next to Sussex. both Frisians and English.

he took twenty of their ships. and provided for the future security of the government. than those of the Northumbrians. The Welsh also acknowledged his authority. by building vessels still higher. where they exercised pyracy.. baffled and without plunder. The English army. restored full tranquillity in England. and though the greater number fell in the action. were obliged to put again to sea. when he died. overpowered the garrison. having united their force under the command of Hastings. This free-booter. and made spoil of all around them. and having tried all the prisoners at Winchester. meeting with a new repulse. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . established his sovereignty over all the southern parts of the island. where. and swifter. the Danish invaders in Essex. made anew the most humble submissions to him. advanced into the inland country. the common enemies of mankind. in which many of them were killed. and having left a garrison there. and longer. in the vigour of his age and the full strength of his faculties. a Northumbrian.. higher. and even restored them to Hastings. on condition that he should depart the kingdom. he hanged them as pyrates. Page 66 of 354 every where established. attacked the enemy’s entrenchments at Bamflete. seized and fortified Shobury at the mouth of the Thames. had framed vessels of a new construction. without establishing over them a viceroy of their own nation. in which he deservedly attained the appellation of http://oll. on the first appearance of Alfred upon their frontiers. they attacked Leicester with success. where they were finally broken and subdued. well acquainted with Alfred’s naval preparations. a considerable body made their escape. and having many of them perished with hunger. Meanwhile. and the rebels. he had not entirely subdued or expelled the invaders. They were reduced to such extremities. while they were exercising their ravages in the west. and swifter. after a glorious reign of twentynine years and a half. and falling upon them. left in London. and some of their ships taken.Hume. for the defence of the place. and as he had now a certain prospect of victory. and longer. having eaten their own horses.libertyfund. and were discouraged from attempting any other enterprize. The well-timed severity of this execution. being reinforced by some Welsh. without his presence. and having done great execution upon them. he resolved to trust nothing to chance. The pyratical Danes willingly followed in an excursion any prosperous leader. they marched along the river. till they came to Boddington in the county of Glocester. that. sufficed here. assisted by a body of the citizens. and this great prince had now. but rather to master his enemies by famine than assault. under the command of Sigefert. Alfred generously spared these captives. after the departure of Hastings. still pursued by the vigilance of Alfred. and then fled to Quatford. The small remains of them either dispersed themselves among their countrymen in Northumberland and Great numbers of them. The king here surrounded them with the whole force of his dominions. together with the excellent posture of defence established every where. and prepared for their defence. or had recourse again to the sea. The East-Anglian and Northumbrian Danes. r s t u w they made a desperate sally upon the English. who gave them hopes of booty. from the English channel to the frontiers of Scotland. but were not so easily induced to relinquish their enterprize. But though the king had thus honourably rid himself of this dangerous enemy. defended themselves in Hartford. x y z a 901. These roved about for some time in England. they threw up entrenchments.html 4/7/2004 . but soon had reason to repent of their temerity. than those of the English: But the king soon discovered his superior skill. carried off the wife and two sons of Hastings. or submit to return. into their native country. by prudence and justice and valour. and he thought it prudent to take them under his immediate government.

had bestowed on him every bodily accomplishment. that the former. rather as a fiction of their imagination. which the annals of any age or any nation can present to us. Though the great armies of the Danes were broken.libertyfund. Ten neighbouring house-holders were formed into one corporation. both in private and public life. was appointed to preside. the most severe justice with the gentlest lenity. engaging. the greatest vigour in commanding with the most perfect affability of deportment. as a man. b c http://oll. that we may at least perceive some of those small specks and blemishes. excepting only. He seems indeed to be the model of that perfect character. indulged themselves in committing Fortune alone. The merit of this prince. the highest capacity and inclination for science. without a warrant or certificate from the borsholder of the tything. and the hundreds into tithings. betook themselves next day to a like disorderly life. and the title of Founder of the English monarchy. philosophers have been fond of delineating. so justly were they blended. and with more particular strokes. and so powerfully did each prevent the other from exceeding its proper boundaries! He knew how to reconcile the most enterprizing spirit with the coolest moderation. with the most shining talents for action. if they lived above three days in his house. it is impossible he could be entirely exempted. His civil and his military virtues are almost equally the objects of our admiration. with a pleasing. and who. who. and from despair joined the robbers in pillaging and ruining their fellow citizens. being accustomed to live by plunder. which.Hume. being more rare among princes. the country was full of straggling troops of that nation. even beyond what was requisite to supply their necessities. he divided all England into counties. and open countenance. he found the kingdom in the most wretched condition. And no man could change his habitation. called a tythingman. and we wish to see him delineated in more lively colours. seem chiefly to challenge our applause. and thrown into disorders. had shaken off all bands of government. than in hopes of ever seeing it really existing. and those who had been plundered to-day. After Alfred had subdued and had settled or expelled the Danes. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . under the name of a tithing. or borsholder. were answerable for each other’s conduct.. may with advantage be set in opposition to that of any monarch or citizen. Every house-holder was answerable for the behaviour of his family and slaves. from which. were become incapable of industry. headbourg. and over whom one person. reduced to the most extreme indigence by these continued depredations. and of his zeal for the encouragement of arts and sciences. Page 67 of 354 Alfred the Great. to which he formerly belonged. who did not register himself in some tything. That he might render the execution of justice strict and regular. These were the evils. Nature also. deprived him of historians worthy to transmit his fame to posterity. The English themselves. the most obstinate perseverance with the easiest flexibility. under the denomination of a sage or wise man. dignity of shape and air. these counties he subdivided into hundreds. and even of his guests. decennary. for which it was necessary that the vigilance and activity of Alfred should provide a remedy. which were calculated to perpetuate its misery. and were not more particular in our account of his institutions for the execution of justice. But we should give but an imperfect idea of Alfred’s merit. who. desolated by the ravages of those barbarians. as well as more useful.html 4/7/2004 . as if desirous that so bright a production of her skill should be set in the fairest light. vigour of limbs. from the natural ferocity of their manners. by throwing him into that barbarous age. or fribourg. So happily were all his virtues tempered together. were we to confine our narration to his military exploits. Every man was punished as an outlaw.

appointed also a sheriff in each county. for the enquiry into crimes. the correction of abuses in magistrates. according to the degree of the offence. an institution. to administer impartial justice. and the proper object of the court was the receiving of appeals from the hundreds and decennaries. having sworn. Which consisted of ten decennaries. was obliged to appear. the alderman possessed both the civil and military authority. and the obliging of every person to shew the decennary in which he was registered. and was in a manner surety for the behaviour of those who were placed under the division. who possessed an equal vote in the decision of causes.libertyfund. the criminal was committed to prison. and its court served both for the support of military discipline. and for the administration of civil justice. the borsholder was summoned to answer for him. there was an annual meeting. in appeals from the decennary. and consisted of the freeholders of the county. and if that time elapsed without their being able to find him. appointed for a more general inspection of the police of the district. or a hundred families of freemen. to which he belonged: Whence these decennaries received the name of frank-pledges. together with the hundreder or presiding magistrate of that division. But Alfred took care to temper these rigours by other institutions favourable to the freedom of the citizens. which was submitted to their jurisdiction. The borsholder summoned together his whole decennary to assist him in deciding any lesser difference. In affairs of greater moment. the ancient Germans. the borsholder. when men are more enured to obedience and justice. for the deciding of after Michaelmas and Easter. Such a regular distribution of the people. proceeded to the examination of that cause. whence a hundred was sometimes called a wapen-take. that ever was devised by the wit of man. Formerly. admirable in itself.html 4/7/2004 . If the borsholder could not find such a number to answer for their innocence.. and together with three chief members of the three neighbouring decennaries (making twelve in all) to swear that his decennary was free from all privity both of the crime committed. the cause was brought before the hundred. and of the escape of the criminal. either before or after finding sureties. Their method of decision deserves to be noted. assembled there in arms. but Alfred. the decennary was compelled by fine to make satisfaction to the king. The bishop presided in this court. as being the origin of juries. together with the alderman.Hume. And beside these monthly meetings of the hundred. and the best calculated for the preservation of liberty and the administration of justice. and if he were not willing to be surety for his appearance and his clearing himself. Page 68 of 354 When any person in any tything or decennary was guilty of a crime. or in controversies arising between members of different decennaries. The people. d e f g The next superior court to that of the hundred was the county-court. which occurred among the members of this small community. and were exposed to the penalties of law. who. and the deciding of such controversies as arose between men of different hundreds. may not be necessary in times. in imitation of their ancestors. but it was well calculated to reduce that fierce and licentious people under the salutary restraint of law and government. the borsholder and decennary became liable to enquiry. with such a strict confinement in their habitation.. sensible that this conjunction of powers rendered the nobility dangerous and independant. Thirty-one days were allowed them for producing the criminal. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . Twelve freeholders were chosen. and which was regularly assembled once in four weeks. If he fled. and nothing could be more popular and liberal than his plan for the administration of justice. which met twice a year. who enjoyed a co-ordinate authority with the former in the judicial http://oll. and there detained till his trial. and it might perhaps be regarded as destructive of liberty and commerce in a polished state. with two other members of the decennary. By this institution every man was obliged from his own interest to keep a watchful eye over the conduct of his neighbours.

he contented himself with reforming. and it is a memorable sentiment preserved in his will. who had reached even that pitch of education. and endowed it with many privileges. 4/7/2004 . he found the nation sunk into the grossest ignorance and barbarism. to the practice of the other northern conquerors. n And he removed all the earls. by correcting the ignorance or corruption of the inferior magistrates. revenues and immunities. and very few in the northern parts. and no man dared to touch them. that on his accession he knew not one person. o p And so exact was the general police. that Alfred. He appointed regular meetings of the states of England twice a year in London. Alfred framed a body of laws. but finding that his time must be entirely engrossed by this branch of duty. the care of Alfred for the encouragement of learning among his subjects was another useful branch of his legislation. he was soon overwhelmed with appeals from all parts of England. The similarity of these institutions to the customs of the ancient Germans. and tended to reclaim the English from their former dissolute and ferocious manners: But the King was guided in this pursuit. His office also impowered him to guard the rights of the crown in the county. golden bracelets near the highways. Alfred himself complains. allowing only some of the more elderly to serve by a deputy. When he came to the throne. which. and to levy the fines imposed. in default of justice. and as the people. The better to guide the magistrates in the administration of justice. till their death should make room for more worthy successors. There lay an appeal. served long as the basis of English jurisprudence. placed their chief confidence in him.libertyfund. and to the Saxon laws during the Heptarchy. q r As good morals and knowledge are almost inseparable. he gave s http://oll. south of the Thames. that it was just the English should for ever remain as free as their own thoughts. and leads us rather to think. he enjoined by law all freeholders possessed of two hydes of land or more to send their children to school for their instruction. He was indefatigable in the dispatch of these causes. a city which he himself had repaired and beautified. though not in every individual. extending. their libraries burnt. the monks butchered or dispersed. this great prince preserved the most sacred regard to the liberty of his people. Yet amidst these rigours of justice. at least repaired the university of Oxford. and executing the institutions. and from the ravages of the Danes: The monasteries were destroyed. like a wise man. But on the whole. though now lost. he established schools every where for the instruction of his people. who could so much as interpret the Latin service.. he resolved to obviate the inconvenience. from which it arose. in every age. which he found previously established.Hume. from all these courts to the king himself in council. less by political views. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . such success attended his legislation. He took care to have his nobility instructed in letters and the laws: He chose the earls and sheriffs from among the men most celebrated for probity and knowledge: He punished severely all malversation in office: h i k l m whom he found unequal to the trust. But this prince invited over the most celebrated scholars from all parts of Europe. and which he thus rendered the capital of the kingdom. by way of bravado. than by his natural bent and propensity towards letters. hung up. proceeding from the continued disorders in the government. it is said. Page 69 of 354 function.. prevents us from regarding Alfred as the sole author of this plan of government. and thus the only feats of erudition in those ages were totally subverted. and is generally deemed the origin of what is denominated the COMMON LAW. sensible of the equity and great talents of Alfred. he founded. which in that age formed no contemptible part of the public revenue. that every thing bore suddenly a new face in England: Robberies and iniquities of all kinds were repressed by the punishment or reformation of the criminals.

The eldest son. and in a work of his. and as one of the wisest and best that had ever adorned the annals of any nation. and of Boethius concerning the consolation of philosophy. as well as in translating from the Greek the elegant fables of Aesop. The third. Sensible.. Alfred had. warrior. which he fixed in lanthorns. couched in poetry. at all times. though he often laboured under great bodily infirmities. Page 70 of 354 preferment both in church and state to such only as had made some proficiency in knowledge: And by all these expedients he had the satisfaction. before his death. from all quarters. and his subjects. which he found in the Saxon tongue. was able. he made use of burning tapers of equal length. daughter of a Mercian earl. He set apart a seventh portion of his own revenue for maintaining a number of workmen. legislator. notwithstanding the multiplicity and urgency of his affairs. He prompted men of activity to betake themselves to navigation. were taught to respect the virtues of justice and industry. w this martial hero. in more fortunate ages. But the most effectual expedient. had already made in England. three sons and three daughters. apophthegms. he congratulates himself on the progress which learning. And by such a regular distribution of his time. t u person fifty-six battles by sea and land. he employed himself in the pursuits of knowledge. Alfred was regarded. Alfred endeavoured to convey his morality by apologues. though blest with the greatest leisure and application. and to acquire riches by propagating industry among their fellow-citizens.. Meanwhile. industrious foreigners to re-people his country. stories. this prince was not negligent in encouraging the vulgar and mechanical arts. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . Even the elegancies of life were brought to him from the Mediterranean and the Indies. to acquire more knowledge. died without issue. who fought in x y z a He introduced and encouraged manufactures of all kinds. with which. that the people. and monasteries. when the geometry of dialling and the mechanism of clocks and watches were totally unknown. from which alone they could arise. b c d http://oll. former compositions of that kind. though not a closer connexion with the interests of society. have. thus to lead the way to his people in the pursuits of literature. no less than by his own subjects. was his own example. are not much susceptible of speculative instruction. He usually divided his time into three equal portions: One was employed in sleep. another in the dispatch of business. and even to compose more books. to see a great change in the face of affairs. whom he constantly employed in rebuilding the ruined cities.Hume. which have a more for the encouragement of learning. Ethelward.html 4/7/2004 . employed by Alfred.libertyfund. as the greatest prince after Charlemagne that had appeared in Europe during several ages. a third in study and devotion: And that he might more exactly measure the hours. And he deemed it nowise derogatory from his other great characters of sovereign. to push commerce into the most remote countries. made the object of their uninterrupted industry. especially when their understandings are obstructed by ignorance and bad education. during a life of no extraordinary length. palaces. and no inventor or improver of any ingenious art did he suffer to go unrewarded. than most studious men. and the refection of his body by diet and exercise. and the constant assiduity. castles. by foreigners. he exercised his genius in inventing works of a like nature. He invited. in his father’s lifetime. by seeing those productions of the peaceful arts. Both living and dead. by his wife. and politician. under his patronage. parables. an expedient suited to that rude age. He also gave Saxon translations of Orosius’s and Bede’s histories. which had been desolated by the ravages of the Danes. Edmund. Ethelswitha. and besides propagating among his subjects. which is still extant.

freed from the fear of so dangerous a competitor. by that of Ethelwald.. they thought the opportunity favourable. insurrections. The Danes assaulted the Kentish men. though they gained the field of battle. that. rapine. and the English found that they were again menaced with those convulsions. from which the valour and policy of Alfred had so lately rescued them. though inferior to him in knowledge and erudition. seize the first pretence or opportunity of rebellion. Oxford. his cousin-german. and fled first into Normandy. that. began to put themselves in motion. they retired with their booty. in order to divert the force of these enemies. who were seated in the heart of Mercia. where he seemed e 901.libertyfund. they must at least remain at home. but met with so vigorous a resistance. contrary to repeated orders. who perished in the action. insisted on his preferable title. hoping. and passes by the appellation of Edward the Elder. in an age when men. son of king Ethelbert. greedy of more spoil. Satiated with revenge. and lived a private life. and Wilts. who had been recently subdued by Alfred. before the king. having thus connected his interests with the Danish tribes. The East-Anglian Danes joined his party: The Five-burgers. succeeded to his power. however. made peace on advantageous terms with the East-Angles. to stay behind him. who. ventured. and loaded with booty. The rebels. headed by Ethelwald. But when the king approached the town with a great army. being the first of that name who sat on the English Edward. h i k l In order to restore England to such a state of tranquillity as it was then capable of attaining. Edward. had no f determined to defend himself to the last extremity. which was feeble in peace. who equalled his father in military talents.. naught was wanting but the subjection of the Northumbrians. they bought that advantage by the loss of their bravest leaders. The second. less restrained by law or justice. and entered Edward’s territories with all their http://oll. to which all princes. and Ethelwald. he excited the hopes of all those who had been accustomed to subsist by rapine and violence. was not much better established in the field. and depredation.html 4/7/2004 . Edward. who was determined that his preparations should not be fruitless. EDWARD THE ELDER THIS PRINCE. on his accession. a specimen of that turbulent life. that the chief strength of the English was embarked on board the fleet. and provide for their defence. continually infested the bowels of the kingdom. by spreading the like devastation among them. Ethelwald. Page 71 of 354 inherited his father’s passion for letters. found immediately. made his escape. assisted by the scattered Danes in Mercia. and the Kentish men. and to take up their quarters in Bury. and even all individuals were exposed. Ethelwald. he gave orders to retire: But the authority of those ancient kings. and concluding. The event did not disappoint his expectations: The Northumbrians declared for him. having the prospect of where he hoped. But the Northumbrians were less anxious to secure their own property than greedy to commit spoil on their enemy. and collecting a body of these freebooters. and having exercised their ravages in these places. and arming his partizans. impatient of peace. and to await the issue of his pretensions. but wars. when his ships appeared on their coast. the elder brother of Alfred. and who were g certain destruction. and retaliated the injuries which the inhabitants had committed. and among the rest. went beyond sea. that the people.Hume. The king. took possession of Winburne. was able to approach them. conducted his forces into East-Anglia. aliment for their inquietude. thence into Northumberland. prepared a fleet to attack them by sea. made an incursion into the counties of Glocester. and less occupied by industry. would. This disobedience proved in the issue fortunate to Edward. on the intelligence of that great prince’s death. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . convulsions. who had assembled an army.

a great Danish chief. All the rest of Edward’s reign was a scene of continued and successful action against the Northumbrians. earl of Mercia. which before had been entrusted to the authority of a governor. in those times. as if the guilt of the conspirator were now fully ascertained. the Five-burgers. being seized upon strong suspicions. who. firmly denied the conspiracy imputed to him. who found means of making them real. confiscated his estate. who was prepared against this event. Nor was he less provident in putting his kingdom in a posture of defence. and Alfred. who forged them. during the remainder of his reign. Alfred. these fortunate achievements he was assisted by the activity and prudence of his sister m n In all Ethelfleda. at Temsford and Maldon. it is said. ATHELSTAN THE STAIN in this prince’s birth was not. before John. who was widow of Ethelbert. Warwic. in quest of spoil and adventures. not from any weak superstition. The king accepted of the condition. He subdued the East Angles. attacked them on their return at Tetenhall in the county of Stafford. he ventured to make the oath required of him. and forced them to swear allegiance to him: He expelled the two rival princes of Northumberland. the East-Angles. and yet hope to escape the immediate vengeance of heaven. This princess. who invaded him from Normandy and Britanny. of which. according to the degree of credit he is disposed to give them. contained such superior sanctity. and even the Scots. The king. being of an She died before her brother. refused afterwards all commerce with her husband. may impute either to the invention of monks. Eddesbury.html 4/7/2004 . but because she deemed all domestic occupations unworthy of her masculine and ambitious spirit. Huntingdon. encreased their power. or to their artifice. put them to rout. but without any certain proof. than he fell into convulsions. the dominion of that province: Several tribes of the Britons were subjected by him. though legitimate.. to which he appealed.libertyfund. recovered all the booty. who then filled the papal chair. and in order to justify himself. and Edward. who had been reduced to extremity in child-bed. and acquired. Page 72 of 354 forces. who. under the conduct of Kenneth. a nobleman of considerable power. and Alfred was conducted to Rome. fitted for government. http://oll. had. where. Some discontents.Hume. He vanquished Thurketill. Cherbury. and Colchester. either conscious of his innocence. obtained the preference to Edward’s younger children. and Athelstan. and obliged him to retire with his followers into France. The king. and pursued them with great slaughter into their own country. and who. Reginald and Sidroc. prevailed on his accession. his natural son. He fought two signal battles. which the reader.. were nevertheless obliged to give him marks of submission. he offered to swear to his innocence before the pope. however. 925: o p q The Saxon Chronicle fixes the death of this prince in His kingdom devolved to Athelstan. and made a present of it to the monastery of 925. or neglecting the superstition. This incident is related by historians with circumstances. whose person. after her husband’s death. deemed so considerable as to exclude him from the throne. their king. But no sooner had he pronounced the fatal words. took upon himself the immediate government of Mercia. that no one could presume to give a false oath in his presence. was thence encouraged to enter into a conspiracy against him. as was common in that age. Maldon. it was supposed. than vigorous in assaulting the enemy. and the foreign Danes. he expired. Buckingham. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . He fortified the towns of Chester. three days after. by the final subjection of the Picts. for the present. during the reign of Egbert. retained the government of that province. were of too tender years to rule a nation so much exposed both to foreign invasion and to domestic convulsions. Towcester. as well as of a capacity.

as wholly to lay aside the military character. that the latter prince.Hume. however. collecting his forces. that the inhabitants bore with impatience the English yoke. whether he owed the retaining of his crown to the moderation of on the approach of the English army. who were terrified at the growing power of Athelstan: and all these allies made by concert an irruption with a great army into England. from any farther anxiety. who. secure that no doubts would ever thenceforth be entertained concerning the justice of his proceedings. the title of King. he thought it prudent to confer on Sithric. who was unwilling to employ all his advantages against him. in marriage. and Anlaf. having played before that prince and his nobles during their repast. met the enemy near Brunsbury in Northumberland. by Athelstan. The Scottish prince. by making submissions to the enemy. Anlaf. Page 73 of 354 Malmesbury. and they add. Anlaf and Godfrid. lose all credit. who esteemed the humiliation of an enemy a greater acquisition than the subjection of a discontented and mutinous people. Sithric died in a twelvemonth after. and ravaging the country with impunity. r s t u w x There is a circumstance. by providing against the insurrections of the Danes. But this policy proved by accident the source of dangerous consequences. he gave Godfrid warning to make his escape. after subsisting by pyracy for some years. when national prepossessions and animosities have place: And on that account. no one was so much occupied in civil employments. whom he found hovering in the Irish seas. which historians relate with regard to the transactions of this war. thought. than he endeavoured to give security to the government. He marched into Northumberland. that he could not venture too much to ensure a fortunate event. Constantine. without having any more knowledge of the matter. he reduced the Scots to such distress. at last promised to deliver up his guest. His http://oll. who then enjoyed the crown of that kingdom. founding pretensions on their father’s elevation. a Danish nobleman. The dominion of Athelstan was no sooner established over his English subjects. continually solicited. and with some Welsh princes. and the former took shelter in Ireland. This victory was chiefly ascribed to the valour of Turketul.. and his two sons by a former marriage. without waiting for Athelstan’s consent. where he received. as the latter did in Scotland. and that fugitive. that Constantine did homage to Athelstan for his kingdom. replied. which had created so much disturbance to his predecessors.. Athelstan. He entered into a confederacy with Anlaf. thought the behaviour of the English monarch more an object of resentment than of gratitude. or to the policy of that prince. who flocked about him. But those annals. and defeated them in a general engagement. he entered the enemy’s camp in the habit of a minstrel. strenuously deny the fact. being urged by his courtiers to push the present favourable opportunity. protection from Constantine.libertyfund.html 4/7/2004 . that their king was content to preserve his crown. and employing the artifice formerly practised by Alfred against the Danes. and to attach him to his interest. They were soon expelled by the power of that monarch. assumed the sovereignty. The English historians assert. that it was more glorious to confer than conquer kingdoms. was dismissed with a handsome reward. during some time. resenting Constantine’s behaviour. but secretly detesting this treachery. Athelstan. not unworthy of notice. and entirely subdue Scotland. seem more worthy of belief. who had collected a great body of Danish pyrates. and finding. the English chancellor: For in those turbulent ages. entered Scotland with an army. by giving him his sister. so uncertain and imperfect in themselves. that they introduced him to the king’s tent. freed the king. The stratagem was for the present attended with like success. by his death. Editha. He gave such satisfaction to the soldiers. and even menaced. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . the Scotch historians.

and he is regarded as one of the ablest and most active of those ancient princes. before he had time to prepare for his defence.Hume. and protect the north from all future incursions of the Danes. had been struck with some suspicion on the first appearance of the minstrel. for that very reason. and conferred that territory on Malcolm king of Scotland. used the precaution of removing the Five-burgers from the towns of Mercia. After this success. that Leolf. and was succeeded by Edmund. put the bishop to death. and that Athelstan himself. that he might have seized his enemy. Athelstan. (for the ecclesiastics were then no less warlike than the civil magistrates) he occupied with his train that very place which had been left vacant by the king’s removal. leaving the greater part of their army on the field of battle. that they endeavoured to appease him by the most humble submissions. and was engaged by curiosity to observe all his motions. But a soldier in Athelstan’s camp. and shook off as soon as a favourable opportunity offered. they regarded as a badge of servitude. and Constantine and Anlaf made their escape with difficulty. in that age. and introduced the rebellious or foreign Danes into the heart of the kingdom. ON HIS ACCESSION. and he immediately carried the intelligence to Athelstan. who lay in wait for every opportunity of breaking into rebellion. Edmund. his legitimate EDMUND EDMUND. which was calculated for the encouragement of commerce. as his death was violent. y z There fell several Danish and Welsh princes in the action of Brunsbury. This prince died at Glocester in the year 941. He removed his station in the camp. they offered to embrace Christianity. than Anlaf broke into the camp. and hastening directly to the place where he had left the king’s tent. in which they had been allowed to settle. would have had equal reason to distrust his allegiance. when reduced to difficulties.. while he fancied that he was unespied by all the world. but his pride determined him. to have devised: That a merchant. but which. b http://oll.. The precaution of Athelstan was found prudent: For no sooner had darkness fallen. But the soldier told him that. yet was his reign short. trusting little to their sincerity in this forced submission. a after a reign of sixteen years. to bury it. he remarked. having praised the generosity of the soldier’s principles. which he foresaw might be attended with important consequences. He regarded this last action as a full proof of Anlaf’s disguise. who had formerly served under Anlaf. met with disturbance from the restless Northumbrians. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . that they took advantage of every commotion. because it was always found. and as a bishop arrived that evening with a reinforcement of troops. brother. But marching suddenly with his forces into their country. a religion which the English Danes had frequently professed. he could never have pardoned himself the treachery of betraying and ruining his ancient master. He passed a remarkable law. He also conquered Cumberland from the Britons. as he had formerly sworn fealty to Anlaf. he so overawed the rebels. reflected on the incident. as he was solemnizing a festival in the county of Glocester. who made three long sea-voyages on his own account. Page 74 of 354 prudence kept him from refusing the present. on condition that he should do him homage for it. Edmund was young when he came to the crown. In order to give him the surer pledge of their obedience. should be admitted to the rank of a thane or gentleman. Athelstan enjoyed his crown in tranquility.html 4/7/2004 . who blamed him for not sooner giving him information. on his departure. One day. after such an instance of his criminal conduct. a 941. and which it required some liberality of

as a punishment of their rebellion. He obliged also Malcolm. they made him their wonted submissions. Dunstan. this churchman imported into England a new order of monks. and the king. renounced all claim to e http://oll. there had been monasteries in England. and gave Edmund a wound. and placed over them an English governor. who lived after the manner of the present canons or prebendaries. carrying farther the plausible principles of mortification.html 4/7/2004 . took greater precautions against their future revolt. was promoted to the throne. abbot of Glastenbury. Taking advantage of the implicit confidence reposed in him by the were never entirely subdued. whom he had sentenced to banishment. Edred. and were again subdued: But the king. and encreased by remorses for the crimes into which they were so frequently betrayed. and excited. whose temper. but so young. who might watch all their motions. But the monks had hitherto been a species of secular priests. though frequently quelled. to renew his homage for the lands which he held in England. called Benedictines: who. and he straight retired with his forces. whom he advanced to the highest offices.Hume. whose superstition. From the introduction of Christianity among the Saxons. either of a married or a single life. under the appearance of sanctity. was disturbed by the rebellions and incursions of the Northumbrian Danes. derived from their ignorance and precarious life. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . but on his refusing to obey. but on Edred’s appearance with an army. and these establishments had extremely multiplied. Provoked at the devastations of Edred. and were both intermingled. He fixed English garrisons in their most considerable towns. leaped on him himself. drew his dagger. secluded themselves entirely from the world. and even reduced by necessity to subsist on plunder. Edred.. and to sit at table with his attendants. the most violent commotions. knew no other expedient for appeasing the Deity than a profuse liberality towards the ecclesiastics. c d And they still retained the choice without quitting the convent. by the donations of the princes and nobles. and endeavoured to render themselves useful to it. on their first establishment. But a mistaken piety had produced in Italy a new species of monks. The obedience of the Danes lasted no longer than the present terror.. the most violent and most insolent ambition. with the world. and had blindly delivered over his conscience to the guidance of Dunstan. and who covered. Enraged at this insolence. and his brother. EDRED THE REIGN of this prince. though not unwarlike. and seized him by the hair: But the ruffian. naturally choleric. nor had ever paid a sincere allegiance to the crown of England. obliged them to renew their oaths of allegiance. had yet the boldness to enter the hall where he himself dined. who. they broke into a new rebellion. as those of his predecessors. The accession of a new king seemed to them a favourable opportunity for shaking off the yoke. now instructed by experience. that they were incapable of governing the kingdom. lay under the influence of the lowest superstition. They were employed in the education of youth: They had the disposal of their own time and industry: They were not subjected to the rigid rules of an order: They had made no vows of implicit obedience to their superiors: 946. Page 75 of 354 notorious robber. commonly called St. Edmund left male-issue. of which he immediately expired. and in the sixth year of the king’s reign. who much changed the state of ecclesiastical affairs. in some degree. nor unfit for active life. king of Scotland. having wasted the country with fire and sword. was inflamed by this additional insult. he ordered him to leave the room. and suppress any insurrection on its first appearance. the king.libertyfund. This event happened in the year 946. pushed to extremity.

libertyfund. since he had the strongest propensities of human nature to encounter. have retarded the execution of that bold scheme. that this master-stroke of art should have met with violent contradiction. engage them to promote. perceived. and the inclinations of the priests. so long as the monks were indulged in marriage. but at the same time an undertaking the most difficult of any. and had acquired some character in the court of Edmund. it is transmitted to posterity by one who. which he paid him. during the course of near three centuries. that his brain became gradually crazed by these solitary occupations. Dunstan was born of noble parents in the west of England. which generally encourage devotion. and the violent impetuous character of Dunstan. and the pope undertook to make all the clergy throughout the western world renounce at once the privilege of marriage: A fortunate policy. notwithstanding the continued efforts of Rome. a ready and zealous obedience. and found. till Dunstan. and he held him there. unavoidable in the ancient establishments. Celibacy. had betaken himself to the ecclesiastical life. But the pope. Under pretence. among the frequent visits. with unceasing industry. that the celibacy of the clergy alone could break off entirely their connexion with the civil power. as the indispensible duty of priests. which superstition at first engendered. that the same connexions with the female sex. and depriving them of every other object of ambition. and the pretence for making them renounce marriage was much less plausible. was determined to reduce them under strict rules of obedience. procured him the general character of sanctity among the people. He was sensible. and finding his fortune blasted by these suspicions.. by running into an opposite extreme. therefore. seized him by the nose with a pair of red hot pincers. and began to form attempts towards a like innovation in England. The Roman pontiff. Aldhelm. then Archbishop of Canterbury. which was requisite to procure to the mandates. He fancied. issued from Rome. and made a merit of the most inviolable chastity. nor stretch out his limbs during his repose. and he here employed himself perpetually either in devotion or in manual labour. These practices and principles. his ardent ambition prompted him to repair his indiscretions. of reforming abuses. he framed a cell so small that he could neither stand erect in it. who was making every day great advances towards an absolute sovereignty over the ecclesiastics. being now placed in this singular opposition. which were. were greedily embraced and promoted by the policy of the court of Rome. and that his head was filled with chimeras. as he put his head into the cell. It is probable. he had already spread over the southern countries of Europe the severe laws of the monastic life. therefore. were here unfavourable to the success of his project. the hopes of success with them were fainter. provoked at his importunity..Hume. f g http://oll. began to be extolled. in some degree. and to break off all their other tyes which might interfere with his spiritual policy. He secluded himself entirely from the world. which. or reduced to that slavery under their superiors. and that the interests of the hierarchy. and being educated under his uncle. they never could be subjected to strict discipline. that the devil. Page 76 of 354 liberty. to procure them the credit of sanctity by an appearance of the most rigid mortification. As the bishops and parochial clergy lived apart with their families. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . It is no wonder therefore. was one day more earnest than usual in his temptation. and were more connected with the world. and were permitted to rear families. being believed by himself and his stupid votaries. He was.html 4/7/2004 . that. The favourable opportunity offered itself (and it was greedily seized) arising from the weak superstition of Edred. represented to that prince as a man of licentious manners. the grandeur of their own order. having cast his eye on the monks as the basis of his authority. This notable exploit was seriously credited and extolled by the public. till that malignant spirit made the whole neighbourhood resound with his bellowings. should.

and gained such an ascendant over Edred. The praises of an inviolable chastity had been carried to the highest extravagance by some of the first preachers of Christianity among the Saxons: The pleasures of love had been represented as incompatible with Christian perfection: And a total abstinence from all commerce with the sex was deemed such a meritorious pennance. was once fully established. their marriage became a sure subject of invective. he endeavoured to render it universal in the kingdom. and rich. or rather by the most frivolous: Since it is a just remark. could. as made him. a reputation. m He would have been the favourite of his that his advancement had been owing to the opinion of his austerity. son of Edmund. but as they were infants. with the most promising virtues. that the more affinity there is between theological parties. was not above sixteen or seventeen years of age. which was become considerable. Supported by the character obtained in his retreat. and possessed of the ecclesiastical dignities. not only the director of that prince’s conscience. The people were thrown into agitation. who expired after a reign of nine years.libertyfund. Dunstan appeared again in the world. The minds of men were already well prepared for this innovation. The monks knew how to avail themselves of all these popular topics. the greater commonly is their animosity. who were numerous. as was sufficient to atone for the greatest enormities. and when the doctrine of transubstantiation. and of credit with the populace. excited by the most material differences in religion. which was now creeping in. and was even endowed. and few instances occur of more violent dissentions. or other more opprobrious appellation. who had succeeded to the crown. on the other hand. he was enabled to attempt with success the most arduous enterprizes. Edwy. was placed on the throne.. He was placed at the head of the treasury. much less virtue. defended themselves with vigour. h i k l EDWY EDWY. and being thus possessed both of power at court. may pass for a writer of some elegance. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and their wives received the name of concubine. The consequence seemed natural. Page 77 of 354 considering the age in which he lived. even in the most enlightened period. the reverence to the real body of Christ in the eucharist bestowed on this argument an additional force and influence. He left children. their partizan. The secular clergy. had he not unhappily.html 4/7/2004 .. Finding. was possessed of the most amiable figure. and after introducing that reformation into the convents of Glastenbury and Abingdon. The progress of the monks. and to set off their own character to the best advantage. according to authentic accounts. They affected the greatest austerity of life and manners: They indulged themselves in the highest strains of devotion: They inveighed bitterly against the vices and pretended luxury of the age: They were particularly vehement against the dissolute lives of the secular clergy. have ever procured him with the people.Hume. and it insured to Dunstan. that those at least who officiated at the altar should be clear of this pollution. and endeavoured to retaliate upon their adversaries. which no real piety. he professed himself a partizan of the rigid monastic rules. their rivals: Every instance of libertinism in any individual of that order was represented as a general corruption: And where other topics of defamation were wanting. at the http://oll. at the time of his accession. was somewhat retarded by the death of Edred. his nephew. but his counsellor in the most momentous affairs of government. 955.

by orders of the late king.. made them particularly violent on this occasion. and when that minister refused to give any account of money. called Elgiva. retired into the Queen’s apartment. Northumberland. over whom he had gained an absolute ascendant. and the former soon found reason to repent his provoking such dangerous enemies. and of possessing themselves of those rich establishments. there to remain in perpetual exile. when the force of the passions first begins to be felt. was obliged to consent to his divorce. they carried her by force into Ireland. and seemed on that account determined not to second their project. She was hamstringed.. whom the primate had sent to intercept her. been engaged in a controversy with the monks. which they exercised against his person and dignity during his short and unfortunate reign. exclaimed that the misfortunes of Edwy and his consort were a just judgment for their dissolute contempt of the ecclesiastical statutes. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . in a disgraceful manner. contrary to the advice of his gravest counsellors. whom she still regarded as her husband. awaited the unhappy Elgiva. Edwy. being cured of her wounds. o to espouse her. and expired a few days after at Glocester in the most acute torments. and the remonstrances of the more dignified ecclesiastics. instead of being shocked with this inhumanity. the younger brother of Edwy. affected by the monks. and having even obliterated the scars. a boy of thirteen years of age. and who have pursued his memory with the same unrelenting vengeance. his nobility were assembled in a great hall. upbraided Edwy with his lasciviousness. with which Odo had hoped to deface her beauty. pushed him back. and a catastrophe. into the banquet of the nobles. had become habitual to the English. which was pronounced by Odo. They even proceeded to rebellion against their sovereign: and having placed Edgar at their head. as he affirmed. who seized the queen. He questioned Dunstan concerning the administration of the treasury during the reign of his predecessor. he had ventured. which was only moderately checked by the presence of her mother. Page 78 of 354 commencement of his reign. and the most cruel death was requisite to satiate their vengeance. they soon put him in possession of Mercia. finding it in vain to resist. War was therefore declared between the king and the monks. which. There was a beautiful princess of the royal blood. East-Anglia. though p q r s t u The English. and chaced Edwy into the http://oll. he burst into the apartment. and having burned her face with a red hot iron in order to destroy that fatal beauty. though young and opposed by the prejudices of the people. Edwy entertained a strong prepossession against them. Archbishop Odo sent into the palace a party of soldiers.libertyfund. still more dismal. who had made impression on the tender heart of Edwy. when she fell into the hands of a party. Edwy.Hume. expended. Dunstan conjectured the reason of the king’s retreat. archbishop of 4/7/2004 . whose rage neither the graces of the body nor virtues of the mind could mitigate. blinded with superstition. of expelling the seculars from all the convents. n she was within the degrees of affinity prohibited by the canon-law. and were indulging themselves in that riot and disorder. That amiable princess. which had seduced Edwy. Odo. and tearing him from her arms. they proceeded to still more outrageous acts of violence against the royal authority. and banished him the kingdom. Nothing but her death could now give security to Odo and the monks. As the austerity. returned into England. when Edwy. gave reins to his fondness towards his wife. probably bestowed on the queen the most opprobrious epithet that can be applied to her sex. and in that privacy. But Dunstan’s cabal was not unactive during his absence: They filled the public with high panegyrics on his sanctity: They exclaimed against the impiety of the king and queen: And having poisoned the minds of the people by these declamations. attracted by softer pleasures. and carrying along with him. and as he was of an age. found an opportunity of taking revenge for this public insult. he accused him of malversation in his office. and was flying to the embraces of the king. On the day of his coronation. from the example of their German ancestors.

and pursued with unrelenting vengeance. freed his enemies from all farther inquietude. Odo is transmitted to us by the monks under the character of a man of piety: Dunstan was even canonized. of the Orkneys and even of Ireland. w x and. not for his crown. and gave Edgar peaceable possession of the government. and even in that of many civil affairs. http://oll. that. did him homage. he consulted these prelates in the administration of all ecclesiastical. and united their e and to place Ethelwold. and is one of those numerous saints of the same stamp who disgrace the Romish calendar. were reduced to pay submission to so formidable a monarch. Page 79 of 354 southern counties. He maintained a body of disciplined troops. z NOTE [C] a b c d another of them. and having purposed to go by water to the abbey of St. his successor. had not his power been so well established.Hume. as to deprive his enemies of all hopes of shaking it. He built and supported a powerful navy. and the violent expulsion of Brithelm. which he quartered in the north. The foreign Danes dared not to approach a country which appeared in such a posture of defence: The domestic Danes saw inevitable destruction to be the consequence of their tumults and insurrections: The neighbouring was the paying of court to Dunstan and the monks. the king of Scotland. John the Baptist. residing once at Chester. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . he bestowed preferment on none but their partizans. by their pretensions to superior sanctity and purity of manners. That it might not be doubtful at whose instigation this revolt was undertaken. He showed no aversion to war. the circuit of his dominions. and to employ himself in supporting and improving the internal government of his kingdom. king of Scots among the number: The Scottish historians either deny the fact. Dunstan returned into England. without any danger of suffering insults. He favoured their scheme for dispossessing the secular canons of all the monasteries. and his reign is one of the most fortunate that we meet with in the ancient English history. if ever he acknowledged himself a vassal to Edgar. He carried his superiority to a great height. he allowed Dunstan to resign the see of Worcester into the hand of Oswald. to indulge his inclination towards peace. by which Edgar maintained his authority. and though the vigour of his own genius prevented him from being implicitly guided by them. and always present a formidable armament to his enemies. in order to keep the mutinous Northumbrians in subjection. who mounted the throne in such early youth. but for the dominions which he held in England. one of his creatures. he stationed three squadrons off the coast. had acquired an ascendant over the people.html 4/7/2004 . and to repel the inroads of the Scots. then in that of London. or assert. who had at first placed him on the throne. on Odo’s death. which happened soon after.. and took upon him the government of Edgar and his party. from time to time. and that he might retain the seamen in the practice of their duty. But the chief means. Meanwhile the unhappy Edwy was excommunicated. he made the wisest preparations against invaders: And by this vigour and foresight. soon discovered an excellent capacity in the administration of affairs. y NOTE [B] EDGAR THIS PRINCE. he obliged eight of his tributary princes to row him in a barge upon the Dee. and ordered them to make. He was first installed in the see of Worcester. and preserved public peace. that their king. in that of Winchester. of the Isle of Man.libertyfund. the king and the bishops found such advantages in their mutual agreement. that they always acted in concert. The English historians are fond of mentioning the name of Kenneth III. of all which he long kept possession. It is said. and might have excited an universal combination against him. and who. but his death. he was enabled. in that of Canterbury. the princes of Wales.

in granting to some monasteries an exemption from episcopal jurisdiction: He allowed the convents. and he even indulged them in pretensions. the most grateful to my Maker. hunting. by which. engage the monks to support royal authority during his own reign. to usurp the election of their own abbot: and he admitted their forgeries of ancient charters. maintained no longer any resemblance to the crown of thorns. Edgar summoned a general council of the prelates and the heads of the religious orders. concurred with the prevailing party. He then turned himself to Dunstan the primate. and their openly living with concubines. that the monks paid court to the populace by an affected austerity of life. which. built churches. that the declamations against the secular clergy are. both here and in all the historians. it was not long before the monks prevailed. they assumed many privileges and immunities.. We may remark. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . when complied with.html 4/7/2004 . When did you call for supplies. whom he supposed to look down from heaven with indignation against all those enormities. as great and unpardonable by whose advice I founded monasteries. taken by the other clergy. that these charities were. and fixed a perpetual fund for the support of religion? And are all our pious endeavours now frustrated by the dissolute lives of the priests? Not that I throw any blame on you: You have reasoned. by which it is commonly supposed he meant their wives. and in the name of king Edred. which I refused you? Was my assistance ever wanting to the poor? Did I deny support and establishments to the clergy and the convents? Did I not hearken to your instructions. representing the most innocent liberties. that this harangue had the desired effect: and that. conveyed in general terms. and.” f It is easy to imagine. and expended my treasure in the support of religion and religious houses. thereby prepared the way for the encrease of their own power and influence. “It is you. He here inveighed against the dissolute lives of the secular clergy. though they might. besought. proved afterwards dangerous to his successors. It is more probable. which. inculcated. and as that order of men are commonly restrained by the decency of their character. and gave disturbance to the whole civil power. and he is transmitted to us not only under the character of a consummate statesman and an active prince. Page 80 of 354 influence in preserving the peace and tranquillity of the kingdom. who told me. their negligence in attending the exercise of their function. when the king and prelates thus concurred with the popular prejudices. even those of royal foundation. and singing. from the pretended grant of former kings. inveighed: But it now behooves you to use sharper and more vigorous remedies. it is probable. the smallness of their tonsure. Edgar. and conjoining your spiritual authority with the civil power. it is difficult to believe. He seconded the policy of the court of Rome. of all others.Hume. dancing.. however. Dunstan. like a true politician.libertyfund. to purge effectually the temple of God from thieves and intruders. g http://oll. he thus addressed him. that the complaints against their dissolute manners could be so universally just as is pretended. In order to compleat the great work of placing the new order of monks in all the convents. their mixing with the laity in the pleasures of gaming. and established their new discipline in almost all the convents. These merits of Edgar have procured him the highest panegyrics from the monks. You were my counsellor and assistant in all my schemes: You were the director of my conscience: To you I was obedient in all things.

and whose love to his bedfellow was rather enflamed by enjoyment. offered to retire. and reflecting on her noble birth. and has been represented to us under the most odious colours. that he expressed no displeasure with the old lady on account of her fraud. human and divine. she had filled all England with the reputation of her beauty. to deceive. She feigned therefore a submission to his will. enflamed him at first sight with the highest desire. made probably but a faint resistance. by force. he was obliged. he lodged in the house of a nobleman. till his marriage with Elfrida. As he had not leisure to employ courtship or address for attaining his purpose. being endowed with all the graces of person and behaviour. But nothing could more betray both his hypocrisy in inveighing against the licentiousness of the secular clergy. Such is the ascendant which may be attained. but being well acquainted with the impetuosity of the king’s temper.. History. Page 81 of 354 praises to which he seems to have been justly entitled. but under that of a great saint and a man of virtue. but Edgar. and even committed violence on her person. In the morning.libertyfund. and violated every law. could only deserve the name of irregular. in bestowing such eulogies on his piety. had no idea of any moral or religious merit. as well as safer. but to abstain from wearing his crown during seven years. he http://oll. over mankind! There was another mistress of Edgar’s. and determined not to dishonour her daughter and her family by compliance. and desired that the young lady might be allowed to pass that very night with him. Edgar broke into a convent. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . after all the company should be retired to rest. as we are told by Ingulf. refused his consent. was loaded with calumnies. not only connived at his enormities. which was licentious to the highest degree. but secretly ordered a waiting-maid. who. and to the love with which. h i k The circumstances of his marriage with this lady were more singular.html 4/7/2004 . a very ancient historian. Elfleda (for that was the name of the maid) trusting to her own charms. and had never appeared at court. He had passed a night so much to his satisfaction. whose daughter. and to deprive himself so long of that vain ornament. declared the violence of his passion. we may form a conjecture of the rest. before day-break. in the strictest sense. Elfrida was daughter and heir of Olgar. than the usual tenor of his conduct. The mother was a woman of virtue. his love was transferred to Elfleda. she thought it would be easier.. earl of Devonshire. from which. For this act of sacrilege he was reprimanded by Dunstan. but loaded him with the greatest praises. agreeably to the injunctions of her mistress. by hypocrisy and cabal. she had now inspired the king. and maintained her ascendant over she hoped. of no disagreeable figure. with whom he first formed a connexion by a kind of accident. saw his queen treated with singular barbarity. she became his favourite mistress. and employed force and entreaties to detain her. A punishment very unequal to that which had been inflicted on the unfortunate Edwy. a nun. Passing one day by Andover. the damsel. and the return of light discovered the deceit to Edgar.Hume. Edgar himself. who was indifferent to no accounts of this nature. found his curiosity excited by the frequent panegyrics which he heard of Elfrida. has preserved some instance of his amours. and though she had been educated in the country. who. was expelled his kingdom. which. he went directly to her mother. except chastity and obedience. and the interested spirit of his partizans. who had no reserve in his pleasures. however. for a marriage. and that he might reconcile himself to the church. and more criminal. as from a specimen. carried off Editha. not to separate from his mistress. Yet those very monks. than refuse him. and he resolved by any expedient to gratify it. to steal into the king’s bed.

Hume. by her birth and riches. and to the trust reposed in him. and the advantages. but used the precaution. and knowing the force of her own charms. Elfrida promised compliance. The violent passion of Athelwold had rendered him blind to the necessary consequences. found general report to have fallen short of the truth. She appeared before the king with all the advantages. he determined to sacrifice to this new passion his fidelity to his master. but before he would execute vengeance on Athelwold’s treachery. and for keeping her at a distance from Edgar. gave his approbation. he was determined to make proposals in his own behalf to the earl of Devonshire. as well as the young lady’s consent to the marriage.libertyfund. and being actuated by the most vehement love. on pretence of hunting. by every circumstance of dress and behaviour. would. When he had. that always pursue a royal favourite. that they imported http://oll. had been the ground of the admiration paid her. which must attend his conduct. Dreading. and the most furious desire of revenge against her husband. If the king. before he made any advances to her parents. which the numerous enemies. that fatal beauty. m We are told. not only exhorted him to execute his purpose. and the most engaging airs could bestow upon her. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . when introduced to the young lady. l Before we conclude our account of this reign. He communicated his intention to earl Athelwold. Page 82 of 354 resolved. by its means. she did not despair even yet of reaching that dignity. and she excited at once in his bosom the highest love towards herself. though the parentage and fortune of the lady had not produced on him. and be introduced to the acquaintance of his newmarried wife. that he intended to pay him a visit in his castle. he stabbed him with his own hand. diverted the king from his purpose. be able to make against him. She deemed herself little beholden to Athelwold for a passion. to obtain possession of her on honourable terms. which the richest attire. Edgar. to pay them a visit. that. make him sufficient compensation for the homeliness of her person. He then discovered the whole matter to Elfrida. and that her charms. and had betrayed him into so many falsehoods. and soon after publickly espoused Elfrida. Edgar was soon informed of the truth. as he could not refuse the honour.html 4/7/2004 . that he might the better prepare every thing for his reception. he could not forbear reflecting. and high quality of Elfrida. and doubted not to obtain his. he took an opportunity after some interval. to order that nobleman. and Athelwold. on some pretence. by this deceit. He told him. any illusion with regard to her beauty. he employed every pretence of detaining Elfrida in the country. of turning again the conversation on Elfrida: He remarked. his favourite. which are remarked by historians. and told him. only craved leave to go before him a few hours. and he gave them encouragement to settle in England. and begged her. The reputation of Edgar allured a great number of foreigners to visit his court. He returned to Edgar.. though nothing was farther from her intentions. the detection of the artifice. if he found her charms answerable to their fame. far from being any wise extraordinary. but forwarded his success by his recommendations to the parents of Elfrida. we must mention two circumstances. as on others. which had deprived her of a crown. however. which had seduced him from fidelity to his friend. of which her husband’s artifice had bereaved her. Athelwold. to conceal from Edgar. however. that she would on the whole be an advantageous match for him. and Athelwold was soon made happy in the possession of his mistress. he resolved to satisfy himself with his own eyes of the certainty and full extent of his guilt. would have been overlooked in a woman of inferior station. He knew. either to her own honour or his life. to dissemble these passions. pleased with an expedient for establishing his favourite’s fortune. and to bring him a certain account of the beauty of their daughter.. and might. if she had any regard. and seducing Athelwold into a wood. that the riches alone.

were averse to her son’s government. To cut off all opposite pretensions. which produced such diligence in hunting them. who wished to support them in the possession of the convents. The monks were able to prevail in these assemblies. He was appointed successor by the will of his father: He was approaching to man’s estate. so highly and often so injudiciously extolled. This advantage was attained by the industrious policy of Edgar. Edgar died. But the title of Edward was supported by many advantages. Dunstan resolutely anointed and crowned the young prince at Kingston. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . On the first intelligence of Edgar’s death. Page 83 of 354 all the vices of their respective countries. or having been so fortunate s t http://oll.. into an annual tribute of three hundred heads of wolves. had a son. and he was determined to execute the will of Edgar in his favour. consisted partly of ecclesiastical members.libertyfund. and to cure them of those illiberal prejudices and rustic manners. duke of the EastSaxons. and probably put her in possession of the regency: Above all. after a reign of sixteen years. contrary to the secret wishes. Another remarkable incident of this reign was the extirpation of wolves from England. Ethelred. 957. the greatest of all vices. whose character of sanctity had given him the highest credit with the people. protected them within their territories. to which islanders are often subject. and Brithnot. expelled the new orders of monks from all the monasteries which lay within his jurisdiction. seven years old. did not take place without much difficulty and opposition. p q r It was of great importance to Dunstan and the monks. They had more invention in forging miracles to support their cause. but Elfwin. dreading the imperious temper of Elfrida. according to the practice of those times. who was only fifteen years of age at his father’s death. He was succeeded by Edward. and the most incident to a rude uncultivated people. which. and when he found. she had found means to acquire partizans.html 4/7/2004 . over whom he had already acquired a great ascendant. he changed the tribute of money imposed on the Welsh princes by Athelstan. submitted to him. did not preserve them from barbarity and treachery. which must enlarge her authority. as it tended to enlarge their views. and the whole kingdom. of the leading men in the nation. that all that escaped him had taken shelter in the mountains and forests of Wales. and insisted upon the execution of the late laws enacted in their favour. without farther dispute. n o EDWARD THE MARTYR THE SUCCESSION of this prince. his predecessor. whom she attempted to raise to the throne: She affirmed. though. who seconded all her pretensions. whom he had by his first marriage with the daughter of earl Ordmer. He took great pains in hunting and pursuing those ravenous animals. that Edgar’s marriage with the mother of Edward was exposed to insuperable objections. and in the thirty-third of his age. and as she had possessed great credit with her husband. there were summoned several synods.Hume. and contributed to corrupt the simple manners of the natives: But as this simplicity of manners. Dunstan. as it appears. and of the ecclesiastical authority.. duke of Mercia. if not the declared inclination. his step-mother. to place on the throne a king favourable to their cause: The secular clergy had still partizans in England. duke of East-Anglia. Elfrida. and might soon be able to take into his own hands the reins of government: The principal nobility. In order to settle this controversy. partly of the lay nobility. we ought perhaps to deem their acquaintance with foreigners rather an advantage. that the animal has been no more seen in this island. had espoused the cause of Edward.

72. 66. received an immediate revelation in behalf of the monks: The assembly was so astonished at this intelligence. and that the beam. put spurs to his horse. He was hunting one day in Dorsetshire. but could never. and as his own intentions were always pure. and could not be opposed without impiety. that they believed miracles to be wrought at his tomb. and there passed nothing memorable during his reign. and gave him a stab behind. Being tracked by the blood. and he thereby presented her with the opportunity. were regarded as the u w surest proof of the immediate interposition of providence. he desired some liquor to be brought him: While he was holding the cup to his head.Hume. p. and even expressed on all occasions. he fell from the saddle. but becoming faint by loss of blood. http://oll. finding the majority of votes against him. by their pretended austerities. and being led by the chase near Corse-castle. p.html 4/7/2004 . with his tragical death. finding himself wounded. that Dunstan had that day prevented the king from attending the synod. This young prince was endowed with the most amiable innocence of manners. a voice issued from the crucifix. But the miracle performed in the third synod was still more alarming: The floor of the hall in which the assembly met. and had raised a party in favour of her own son. he took the opportunity of paying her a visit. [i] Chron Sax. which she had long wished for. that they proceeded no farther in their deliberations. The prince. where Elfrida resided. and a great number of the members were either bruised or killed by the fall. that he had that instant. and was privately interred at Wareham by his servants.. in behalf of those favourites of heaven. recover the good opinion of the public. Elfrida built monasteries. p. and he was dragged along by his unruly horse. or probably so overawed by the populace. that the establishment of the monks was founded on the will of by all her hypocrisy or remorses. instead of begetting any suspicion of contrivance. on which his own chair stood. Beverl. their miracles were more credited by the populace. rose up. unattended by any of his retinue. and informed the members. In another synod. Neustria. his body was found. a servant of Elfrida approached him. 108. was the only one that did not sink under the weight of the assembly: But these circumstances. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . His death alone was memorable and tragical. he always showed her marks of regard. Sax. In one synod. The youth and innocence of this prince. till he expired. x ENDNOTES [g] Ypod. Edward lived four years after his accession. Dunstan. Sax. in order to atone for her guilt. and informed the audience. his foot stuck in the stirrup. sunk of a sudden. the character of piety. though so easily deluded in those ignorant ages. the most tender affection towards his brother. After he had mounted his horse. though his murder had no connexion with any religious principle or opinion.libertyfund. Though his stepmother had opposed his succession. Page 84 of 354 as to obtain. and they gave him the appellation of martyr.. p. 64. begat such compassion among the people. p. he was incapable of entertaining any suspicion against others. Alur. It was remarked. 414. [h] Chron. [k] Chron. and performed many pennances.

p. 268. [f] Asser. p. 3. [i] Asser. Sax. lib. Malmes. http://oll. Sax. [r] H. Ingulf. West. H. Colon. lib. Simeon Dunelm. 1. Anglia Sacra. cap. 862. 120.libertyfund. lib. W. 3. Malmes. cap. p. Malmes.. lib. Hunting. Asserius. 139. Hunt. p. in verbo Mancus. 76. W. 3. p. Malm. vol. p. lib. p. 51. 8. 3. lib. Chron. 2. [x] Asserius. 2. 95. M.Hume. [s] Chron. West. p. Ingulf. 76. Simeon Dunelm. 2. p. cap. Sax. lib. p. p. 2. edit. p. 3. cap. 167. Simeon Dunelm. 205. [c] Ingulf. W. Ann. 2. 3. p. p.. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . 108. cap. 5. West p. 73. p. 2. p. [o] Chron. 2. 2. [m] Chron. Beverl. 52. Page 85 of 354 [l] Ibid. Selden’s Hist. 2. 7. Sax. [z] Spell. 869. cap. Malm. p.html 4/7/2004 . Chron. 2. 2. sopra beneficii ecclesiastici. 5. lib. [u] A mancus was about the weight of our present half crown: See Spelman’s Glossary. p. 5. Ethelward. lib. p. [p] Chron. cap. Ethelward. lib. [y] Padre 79. 3. 73. p. 125. [g] Asser. [b] Parker. Matth. 2. Hunt. p. W. lib. Chron. [n] Wm. p. 17. [q] Alured Beverl. 2. Conc. 71. cap. 2. 3. 132. 2. 1. p 7. [t] Asserius. c. cap. 120. Ethelward. p. 3. p. [e] Asser. lib. M. lib. Sax. 158. vol. 5. p. 74. 8. 2. p. [a] Padre Paolo. p. p. Malm. [w] W. [h] Asser. 1675. Sax. 6. cap. 77. Sax. p. Ethelward. i. of tythes. [d] Asserius.

106. 4. lib. 812. p. p.. [z] Asser. p. [x] W. [h] Spelman’s life of Alfred. p. [q] Chron. 9. Brompton. p. 105. Beverl. 22. [t] Chron. p. p. 84. p. 4. 18. W. Ethelward. Malm. p. 131. p. Malm. [g] Chron. Ingulf. 9. Sax. Chron. p. 8. 105. cap. [l] Asser. p. p. 4. p. p. 8. Simeon Dunelm. [f] Asser. 2. p. p. 88. 121. lib. 84. Chron. p. [s] Asser. 10. 15. p. p. 354. Ingulf. p. [c] W. Alured Beverl. [a] Chron. [m] Chron. p. Page 86 of 354 [k] Ibid. 9. p. Chron. 4. [o] Asser. 27. 395. 147. West. p. http://oll. Sax. Simeon Dunelm. 83. 10. Sax. [e] Asser. 92. Sax. Alured Beverl. Beverl. 171. p. p. cap. 85. Ethelward. lib. 10. Chron. p. Sax. Hearne. p. Sax. [r] Asser. [b] Asser. M. cap.. M. edit. p. 85. lib. 93. 2. 85. Sax. Alur. p. p. [d] Asser. lib. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . Alured Beverl. Sax. p. Simeon Dunelm. Abbas Rieval. [w] Asser. p. Malm. 170.html 4/7/2004 . p. 4. 128. Ingulf. 26. 85. p. [y] Chron. 4. cap. [n] Asser. 10. 11. Abbas Rieval. 105. 90. 82. p. Sax. Sax. p. Alured. p. cap. says nine battles. p. Chron. [u] Asser. p. [p] Asser. 1709. 26.Hume. 104. ex edit. 4. p.libertyfund. Sax. 82. p. The Saxon Chronicle. 8. p. West.

Leg. p. Sax. 598. 47. apud Wilkins. 92. 5. West. http://oll. [q] Chron. p. 596. [n] Chron. p. 20. [x] Chron. p. p. 95. Ethelr. 93. p. West. Sax. 13. p. p. 3. p.libertyfund. Flor. [p] Chron.. Edw.. 87. 93. Wigorn. p. Flor. 179. p. [t] M. 202. 176. 11. [z] Flor. [e] Leg.Hume. 96. Wigorn. p. Wigorn. p. 92. p. [u] Chron. Edw. p. p. Sax. [w] Ibid. 94. Wigorn. § 4. apud Wilkins. p. cap. [o] Chron. 2. p. 19. [s] Chron. [l] Asser. 9. [a] Asser. 179. [k] Asser. p. Sax. p. p. and Gothurn. cap. [d] Leges St. Ethelstani. M. [b] Asser. p. 117. p. p. Sax. 178. p. 179. cap. Chron. M. p. 58. Sax. Flor. Page 87 of 354 [i] Asser. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . p. 21. p. Sax. [r] Chron. apud Wilkins. [f] Faedus Alfred. Sax. 2. Wilkins. [y] Ibid. LL. M. Sax. West. [m] Chron. p. 99. 595. Sax. Chron. 86. 97. 93.html 4/7/2004 . 94. 596. [g] Spellman in voce Wapentake. p. West. [c] Asser. cap. Sax. M. p.

cap. [k] Ibid. 2. p. p. 355. p. 588. Malm. [s] A hyde contained land sufficient to employ one plough. cap. [q] W. [i] Asser. [x] Asser.libertyfund. 4. 5. p. p. Malm. 4. p. [z] W. p. [a] Asser. [c] Ibid. 99. in A. 4. Malmes. Malmes. p. p. p. 13.. D. Brompton. in 21. Hoveden. 12. Malmes. [w] W. p. p. 355. 18. Flor. Sax. W. 4. Malm lib. Rieval. Hunt. 20. cap. cap. [t] Asser. 2. 4. 1083. p. Malm. [n] Asser. [d] W. [y] Spelman. Gervase of Tilbury says it commonly contained about l00 acres. Ingulf. Waverl.Hume. 124.html 4/7/2004 . 2. lib. http://oll. 2. l00. 4.. 594. lib. p. p. Abas. 421. 4. p. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . 24. 17. lib. Wigorn. cap. W. Wigorn. [l] Flor. 2. p. chap. D. 6. Abbas Rieval. lib. lib. 870. p. [f] Chron. p. 20. [e] W. [r] Asser. p. Brompton. Annal. [m] Le Miroir de Justice. 4. 870. 20. 2. cap. See H. 1008. 594. 20. [b] Asser. [o] Le Miroir de Justice. p. Flor. cap. Page 88 of 354 [h] Ingulf. 13. lib. 814. 2. 814. p. 13. [u] Asser. 27. Wigorn. [p] Ingulf. lib.

p. lib. Math. Brompton. 5. p. 100. 859. [w] W.. 354. 28. p. Chron. 6. 2. [o] W. 110. 2. St. Hoveden. p. Wint. [h] Chron. lib. [r] W. Sax. Brompton. cap. 92. p. 6. p. apud Spell. 407. lib. lib. p. 421. 6. 181. p. Hunting. 2. [t] Chron. 601. Abb. H. p. 5. [y] W. Hunt. cap. 831. p. Sax. 182. Spell. p. p. lib.. [d] Osberne. Chron. p. Petri de Burgo. 110. lib. Brompton. 91. Wigorn. 857. Brompton. Higden. [l] Chron. p. tom. 2. Math. MS. p. Hoveden. 261. cap. Sax. 212. p. lib. Ingulf. 434. Sax. Sax. West. Conc. p. [m] Chron. Page 89 of 354 [g] Ibid. 6. p. West. vol. H. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . 114. p. p. cap. Malmes. 2. 100. 832. p. 352. 832. [z] Brompton. 111. See Spelman in voce Cancellarius. [b] W. Malmes. Sax. Sax. 101. [q] Page 110. Ingulf. [s] W. 7.html 4/7/2004 . p. Sax. p. p. p. Malmes. Hunting. [e] See Wharton’s notes to Anglia Sacra. [a] Chron. 100. 2. Malmes. Conc. 108. [n] Chron. [i] Chron. p. Anglia Sacra. cap. 24. 91. p. Malmes. than that of our present chancellor. 422. p. p. [p] Chron. tom. Sax. Flor. [u] Hoveden. p. Malmes. p. p. 5. lib. [x] The office of chancellor among the Anglo-Saxons resembled more that of a secretary of state. 352. p. 1645. 263. Gervase. 2. lib. 422.Hume. cap. 5. [c] Osberne in Anglia Sacra. I. 29. http://oll. Higden. p. 2. [k] Chron. p.libertyfund. p. H.

. p. vol. p. Sax. [e] Gervase. 95. lib. Hoveden. I. p. lib. lib. Gervase. Wallingford. 83. p. Malmes. [q] W. Hoveden. cap. 112. p. Osberne. lib. Flor. [z] Higden. 432. p. p. 7. p. 356.Hume. cap. 102. [h] Osberne. [o] Ibid. [g] Osberne. Wigorn. [n] W. p.html 4/7/2004 . p. Wallingford. lib. [y] Brompton. 356. Flor. [r] Wallingford. 605. 118. Malmes. 864. p. Hoveden. [i] Osberne. p. Chron. p. 425. cap. Petri de Burgo. 2. p. 542. Beverl. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . p. 109.libertyfund. 5. p. St. cap. p. 425. Hunting. Osberne. 8. 196. West. 97. Malmes. p. cap. p. [b] W. p. Page 90 of 354 [f] Osberne. [x] Conc. p. p. p. 406. Matth. [t] Hoveden. 1616. [c] Chron. Malmes. H. [m] H. 84. 1645. Alur. 7. [p] Wallingford. 8. Abb. Osberne. [k] Spell. 1646. http://oll. Conc. 84. 117.. p. Sax. lib. 544. 2. p. 2. M. p. p. Hunting. 541. p. [a] Spell. Brompton. p. [d] W. 105. 863. p. 426. Wigorn. [u] Osberne. 2. 187. 265. 5. p. 2. 425. 96. 117. p. 112. [s] Osberne. p. 452. West. 115. 606. Sax. W. 195. p. lib. [w] Chron. Malmes. p. p. p. [l] Chron. 1644. 425. 542. 8. Gervase.

p. 361. Elgiva. It is also agreed. Brompton. 9. Wigorn. Gervase. 427. p. that this prince had a violent passion for his second or third cousin. Spell. 3. 457. [p] Hoveden. 2. 9. p. 268. Malmes. [m] Chron. lib. p. 607. Abb. [k] W. p. 124. p. p. Hunting. Malm. ex edit. 6. 5. and that the lady was afterwards treated with the singular barbarity above mentioned. Sax. p 3. [r] W. 269. 865. 356. p. 29. p. whom he married. p. lib. Hoveden. cap. lib. cap. cap. Conc. 116. lib. p. p. 9. Malmes. 426. Osberne. cap. 269. 478. St. 118. [q] Eadmer. [NOTE [B]] There is a seeming contradiction in ancient historians with regard to some circumstances in the story of Edwy and Elgiva. 111. 2. 149. p. Spell. Flor. lib. 8. p. W. Flor. p. Malmes. [s] Chron. 8. Wigorn. lib. [o] W. cap. Brompton. Hunting.. Malmes. 870. 2. 2. Sax. p. p. [t] W. Osberne. 112. [u] W. though within the degrees prohibited by the canons. Seldeni. Hoveden. p. p. Malmes. Higden. Brompton. p. 268. Higden. 5. 2. 2. 2. 9. lib. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . cap. p. [f] Abbas Rieval. 268. lib. Chron. Hoveden. [x] Chron. 866. Higden. p. p. The only http://oll. [h] W. p. lib. Higden.html 4/7/2004 . p. 481. [i] Osberne. cap. [l] W. 607. 113. W. p. 476. p. [n] W. Eadmer. cap. 3. Brompton. 2. ad Eadm. Petri de Burgo. Diceto. 2. 1647. 838. Page 91 of 354 27. lib. 8. H. It is agreed. Seldeni Spicileg. Malmes. 360. 157. Malmes. 28. 267. 427. Osberne. 8. 865. 870. Higden. that he was dragged from a lady on the day of his coronation. 427. p. H. p. [w] Chron. Conc. Gervase. lib. p. Malmes. p. 357. Sax. 427. [g] Chron. Flor. lib. 477. p. 606. 1647. 265. Malmes. Malmes. cap. p.Hume. cap. Sax. 123. 870. 2. p. Sax. 8. p. W. Wigorn. 9. p. Brompton. p. Brompton. Hoveden. p. 2. cap. lib. p.

who. the English had reason to dread.html 4/7/2004 . Page 92 of 354 difference is. Abbas Rieval p. which is more probable. p. Flor. seems to have proceeded. 607. nor had entirely forgotten their inveterate habits of war and depredation. having now found affairs in a very 978. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . which England had so long enjoyed from the depredations of the Danes. http://oll. though long established in the kingdom. says that Edgar had 4000 vessels. The fleet of Ethelred. 426. says it was the greatest navy that ever had been seen in England. p.Hume. 360. the monks would be sure to deny her to be his wife. were not yet thoroughly incorporated with the natives.libertyfund. and even when he attained to man’s estate. at least. [NOTE [C]] Many of the English historians make Edgar’s ships amount to an extravagant number. yet the Saxon Chronicle. not his wife. and having landed from seven vessels near Southampton. as by far the most probable. which that pyratical nation had obtained in the north of France. the people might justly apprehend the worst calamities from so dangerous a crisis. Brompton. The invaders. it is well known. they made a like attempt in the west. and to the state of the navy in the time of Alfred? W. III Ethelred — Settlement of the Normans — Edmund Ironside — Canute — Harold Harefoot — Hardicanute — Edward the Confessor — Harold ETHELRED THE FREEDOM. they ravaged the country. and called for their highest resentment. before they durst attempt any important enterprize against England. Six years after. enriched themselves by spoil. 981. 137. And as the reigning prince was a minor.. p. How can these accounts be reconciled to probability. we may esteem this representation of the matter as certain.. and would insist that she could be nothing but his strumpet: So that. If Edwy had only kept a mistress. as she is said to be by Malmesbury. must have been short of 1000 ships. and met with like success. Thorne makes the whole number amount only to 300. on the whole. partly from the vigour and warlike spirit of a long race of English princes. that there are methods of accommodation with the church. who preserved the kingdom in a posture of defence by sea and land. and departed with impunity. much less to repel a formidable enemy. both by the memory of their past successes. partly from the establishments. to which they were invited. Edgar’s son. The Danes. made an inconsiderable descent by way of trial. to 3000. never discovered either courage or capacity sufficient to govern his own subjects. and which employed all their superfluous hands to people and maintain them. who could no longer disburthen themselves on Normandy. and either prevented or repelled every attempt of the invaders. was an insult on their authority. contrary to the canons. or 3600: See Hoveden. 869. But a new generation of men being now sprung up in the northern regions. But this difference is easily reconciled: For if Edwy married her contrary to the canons. and by the expectation of assistance from their countrymen. p. that Osborne and some others call her his strumpet. that the Danes would again visit an island. which would have prevented the clergy from proceeding to such extremities against him: But his marriage.

and a general action ensued. This shameful expedient was attended with the success which might be expected. in that extensive command. Ethelred. but being deprived of it two years after.Hume. As the English had formed the plan of surrounding and destroying the Danish fleet in harbour. they spread their devastations over all the neighbouring now well acquainted with the defenceless condition of England. and banished the kingdom. though that judicious measure failed of success. had. This conduct of the court. which was seconded by many of the degenerate nobility. Having had experience of the credit and malevolence of his enemies. he privately informed the enemy of their danger. in every revolution. in all its circumstances. But such was the power of Alfric. Alfgar. in the interval. sensible of their folly. succeeded to his father. he bribed them to depart the kingdom. which was too great for a subject. Frithegist. Brithnot. and had determined to collect at London a fleet able to give battle to the enemy. which repelled them. and thereby disappointed all the efforts of his countrymen. in consequence of this intelligence. must. who defended themselves by their money. which. both merited and prognosticated the most grievous calamities. encouraged their countrymen to assemble a greater force.. instead of their arms. and sailing up the Humber. and all his power. were constrained either to join the invaders. and to the public calamities. he was obliged to employ all his intrigue. and Olave. Banbury was destroyed. made a powerful descent under the command of Sweyn. in hopes of subduing a people. whose name is infamous in the annals of that age. y z a 993. The Danes next year appeared off the eastern coast. and received this grievous provocation. to attack them. not to his services or to the affections of his fellow citizens. In this extremity. but to the influence which he had obtained over his vassals. in 983. Alfere. render his assistance necessary. Lindesey was laid waste. duke of that county.. enraged at his perfidy. spread on all sides their destructive ravages. king of Norway. from the cowardice or treachery of their three leaders.html 4/7/2004 . from the treachery of Alfric. Frena.libertyfund. and having defeated and slain at Maldon. They landed in Essex under the command of two leaders. king of Denmark. weak. it was found necessary to entrust him anew with the government of Mercia. to whom historians give the epithet of the Unready. archbishop of Canterbury. and though he had given this specimen of his character. The northern invaders. with the squadron under his command. duke of Mercia. he thought. who gave the example of a shameful flight to the troops under their command. seized his son. all of them men of Danish race. Encouraged by this success. Having fixed this resolution. which invited assailants. the night before the engagement. But the English. http://oll. and to hope for more considerable advantages. and still more by the contempt which it inspired for their enemy. Ethelred. the 991. and ordered his eyes to be put out. though mostly of Danish descent. he thenceforth trusted for security. This nobleman had. instead of rousing his people to defend with courage their honour and their property. or render his own situation dependant or precarious. assembled in a great council. and imprudent. by the calamities which his repeated perfidy brought upon his country. but the English were deserted in the battle. or to suffer under their depredations. who ventured. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and all the Northumbrians. that he again forced himself into authority. is so barbarous. he determined to prevent all such successes as might establish the royal authority. and when they put to sea. he deserted to them. and Godwin. and paying the enemy the sum of ten thousand pounds. which. hearkened to the advice of Siricius. A powerful army was assembled to oppose the Danes. with a small body. and reinstated in his authority. Page 93 of 354 different situation from that in which they formerly appeared. to be restored to his country.

of courage and conduct in the field. and he faithfully fulfilled the engagement. the fury of their depredations. But the citizens. After this victory the whole province of Kent was made a scene of slaughter. where they defeated the Kentish-men in a pitched battle. and having committed spoil in Wales. Ethelred and his nobles had recourse to the former expedient. as well as many rich presents from the king. and sending ambassadors to the two northern kings. the Danes were engaged by another motive to depart a kingdom. and peaceably took up their quarters at Southampton.html 4/7/2004 . where the sum of sixteen thousand pounds was paid to them.Hume. made a bolder defence than the cowardice of the nobility and gentry gave the invaders reason to apprehend. upon the departure of the Norwegian prince. without making any effectual preparations for a more vigorous resistance upon the next return of the enemy. which by experience they had already found so ineffectual: They offered the Danes to buy peace by paying them a large sum of money. Sweyn. that he would never more infest the English territories. they entered the Thames and Medway. These ravagers rose continually in their demands. The departure of the Danes procured them another short interval of repose. and after ravaging the Isle of Wight. the want of concert in all. and notwithstanding the general presumption. they were thereby enabled to spread. and devastation. This prince receives the appellation of St. He here promised.000 pounds. who in those ignorant ages was dignified with that title. b http://oll. and now required the payment of 24. Sussex. and threatened it with total destruction. frustrated every endeavour: Their fleets and armies either came too late to attack the enemy. and entering the Thames in ninety-four vessels. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . They next changed the seat of war. was constrained. which they enjoyed as if it were to be perpetual. and he received the rite of confirmation from the English bishops. and firmly united among themselves. the cowardice of others. but the weakness of the king. the treachery of some. fire.. and carried fire and sword even into Dorsetshire. and Hampshire. This composition brought only a short interval to the miseries of the English. and the people were thus equally ruined by resistance or by submission. which lies. therefore. he seems to have been a man of merit and of virtue. They then returned to the Bristol-channel. for the present. The extremity of these miseries forced the English into counsels for common defence both by sea and land. Sweyn and Olave agreed to the terms. through the more inland counties. after suffering the greatest hardships. and entering the Tamar. were finally frustrated in their attempt. on condition they would. and the and laid siege to Rochester. spread themselves over all that neighbourhood. Page 94 of 354 pirates ventured to attack the center of the kingdom. Olave even made a journey to Andover. Besides receiving this sum. In this extremity. where Ethelred resided. laid siege to London. completed the devastation of these two counties. they sailed round to the south-coast. alarmed at the danger.libertyfund. the divisions among the nobility. 997. and having there procured horses. Olave from the church of Rome. The English. or were repulsed with dishonour. The Danish pirates appeared soon after in the Severne. though less scrupulous than Olave. destitute both of prudence and unanimity in council. and soon after depart the kingdom.. they promised them subsistence and tribute. In order to revenge themselves. as well as in Cornwall and Devonshire. had recourse to the same weak expedient. they laid waste Essex. to which the English were so mean and imprudent as to submit. to evacuate also the kingdom with all his followers. 998. put an end to their ravages. and penetrating into the country by the Avon. either against the understanding or morals of every one.

lived Rollo. and offered to follow him in every enterprize. took delight in nothing but war and plunder. and a vision. sent forth a new race. he committed the most destructive ravages both on the inland and maritime provinces of that kingdom. duke of Normandy. instead of attempting to recover his paternal dominions. which. His reputation brought him associates from all quarters. d e The first attempt. whose valour and abilities soon engaged the attention of his countrymen. Frisians. not of conquerors. were obliged to submit to the expedient practised by Alfred. governed by such a prince. who infested the countries possessed by her once warlike sons. who. Settlement of the Normans. but independant principality. and who. murdered his brother and his bravest officers. partly by the oppressions of the Danish monarch. but of pirates and ravagers. having settled Guthrun and his followers in East-Anglia. made by Rollo. and of Charles the Simple. not yet exhausted by that multitude of people or rather nations. in imitation of his countrymen. The French. Swedes. It is probable. and to make his fortune. proved also a powerful incentive with those ignorant and superstitious people. being foiled in every assault. when that great monarch. which. c 1001. like that of all those ravagers. that Ethelred. having no means of defence against a leader. He was exposed in his youth to the jealousy of the king of Denmark. who united all the valour of his countrymen with the policy of more civilized nations. was on England. In the end of the ninth and beginning of the tenth century.. and he soon succeeded in his negociation. and was married to Ethelred. when the north. which he found more exposed to his inroads.. as before. and falling suddenly upon him. observing the close connexions thus maintained among all the Danes. with so much advantage to themselves and glory to their nation. and forced him to fly for safety into Scandinavia. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . a petty prince or chieftain in Denmark. he made his addresses to also. near the end of Alfred’s reign. and others of those freebooters in Northumberland. determined to pursue an easier. induced partly by affection to their prince. ranged themselves under his standard. f g The reason why the Danes for many years pursued measures so different from those which had http://oll. The princess came over this year to England.html 4/7/2004 . king of France. a weak prince. soon turned his enterprizes against France. which he pretended to have appeared to him in his sleep. had established the most excellent military as well as civil institutions among the English. an usurper. Rollo. and which. they had made in that country. who attacked his small. and during the reigns of Eudes. who at this time were hard pressed by the arms of Robert. sister to Richard II.libertyfund. being accustomed to a roving. and having restored peace to his harassed country. unsettled life. had recourse at last to perfidy for effecting his purpose. The prudent Dane.Hume. Danes. was desirous of forming an alliance with that formidable people: For this purpose. He collected a body of troops. finding that no advantages could be gained over such a people. where he must expect a vigorous resistance from the Danes. however divided in government or situation. but more important undertaking. and who found it difficult to defend the settlement. Page 95 of 354 which appeared so little in a situation to resist their efforts: They were invited over by their countrymen in Normandy. being now a widower. which they had depopulated by their arms. was composed of Norwegians. by pillaging the richer and more southern coasts of Europe. and to offer the invaders a settlement in some of those provinces. which he had often attempted in vain by force of arms: He lulled Rollo into security by an insidious peace. which she had successively emitted. according to his interpretation of it. Here many of his ancient subjects. prognosticated the greatest successes. and adventurers of all nations.

found it prudent to overlook this insult. He treated the French subjects who submitted to him. he made a sacrifice of his pride to his interest. Vandals. that he might kiss it. commissioned for this purpose. He long refused to submit to this indignity. and found it safe to remain longer in the midst of the enfeebled enemy. made incursions into the inland countries. besides that which he was obliged to surrender to him by his stipulations. had acquired some experience of navigation. Lombards. and in their military excursions pursued the method practised against the Roman empire by the more early Saxons: They made descents in small bodies from their ships or rather boats. which was thenceforth called Normandy. This circumstance quickly made them think of forcing a settlement in the provinces. Charles gave him his daughter. and these barbarians. and http://oll. who was now in the decline of life. whom they had subdued.. and acknowledged himself in form the vassal of the French monarch. and that he might bind him faster to his interests. in marriage. and to purchase peace on these hard conditions. The French. made him a donation of a considerable territory. they had been accustomed to crowd their vessels with their wives and children. returned with the booty to their families. in the method of attack. Burgundians. there appeared only one circumstance shocking to the haughty Dane: He was required to do homage to Charles for this province. found an interest in protecting the property and industry of the people. he established law and order throughout his state. Page 96 of 354 been embraced by the Goths. was the great difference. He followed in this partition the customs of the feudal law. whom they could not conveniently carry along with them in those hazardous enterprizes. But the Danes and Norwegians. applied himself. Affairs were in this situation with Rollo and his followers. with mature counsels. that he should throw himself at the king’s feet. with mildness and justice. The Dane. that. But when they encreased their armaments. and make suitable acknowledgments for his bounty. whom they had no hopes of soon re-visiting. to the settlement of his new-acquired territory. After all the terms were fully settled. and it was with some difficulty they could persuade him to make that compliment by one of his and was tired of wars and depredations. and who could not otherwise participate of their plunder. which they had over-run. in return for so generous a present. Rollo replied. imposed on vassals by the rites of the feudal law. they were obliged to carry along with them their wives and families. but being unwilling to lose such important advantages for a mere ceremony.Hume. which was then universally established in the southern countries of Europe. and to put himself in that humiliating posture. and pretending to carry it to his mouth. spreading themselves over the country. they willingly embraced an opportunity of settling in the warm climates and cultivated fields of the south. Gisla. and despising so unwarlike a prince. made incursions by land upon the Roman empire. caught Charles by the foot. h i Rollo. and other northern conquerors. and when they entered far into the frontiers. it was expected. The latter tribes. he reclaimed his ancient followers from their ferocious violence. overthrew him before all his courtiers. that he would rather decline the present. invited by their maritime situation. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . Franks. and to which the nature of their respective situations necessarily confined them. and obliged to maintain themselves in their uncultivated country by fishing. and having no longer any temptation to return to their own country. and he parcelled it out among his captains and followers. When some of the French nobles informed him. when Charles proposed to relinquish to them part of the province formerly called Neustria.. sensible of their present weakness.html 4/7/2004 . full of indignation at the order. and ravaging the coasts.libertyfund. living in an inland country. which was practised by these several nations. and which suited the peculiar circumstances of that age.

These mercenaries had attained to such a height of luxury. and dishonoured many families. changed their cloaths frequently. in marriage to Ethelred. bathed themselves once a week. The spared neither sex nor age. had. Page 97 of 354 after a life spent in tumults and ravages. and valued themselves only on their national character of military bravery. they were ever ready to betray them to the foreign Danes. the day on which the Danes usually bathed themselves. But what most provoked the inhabitants. and left his dominions to his posterity. who had married Earl Paling. that her murder would soon be avenged by the total ruin of the English nation. was. instead of defending them against invaders. after a long reign of fifty-four years..five years. and never did barbarous policy prove more fatal to the l m n NOTE [D] Nov. they had hitherto found so little example of civilized manners among the English. and to associate themselves with all straggling parties of that nation. sensible of that superiority.libertyfund. after seeing her husband and children butchered before her face. king of England. which fell on a Sunday. that they combed their hair once a day. Richard. k William I. Emma. who gave his sister. and stimulated by example. risen to a great height. was chosen for that purpose. of the unhappy victims. and the English princes. from a policy incident to weak princes. It is needless to repeat the accounts transmitted concerning the barbarity of this massacre: The rage of the populace. as well as death. particularly Athelstan and Edgar. and was not wholly sustained by the abilities of the Sovereign. had been accustomed to keep in pay bodies of Danish troops. he died peaceably in a good old age. between the inhabitants of English and Danish race. distinguished not between innocence and guilt. the festival of St.html 4/7/2004 . and committed many violences upon the inhabitants. had rendered themselves so agreeable to the fair sex. Never was prophecy better fulfilled. inherited his dominions: A sure proof. his son. Even Gunilda. according to the old English writers. was. and had made such progress towards cultivation. and was not satiated without the tortures. The Danes had been established during a longer period in England than in France. as well as by their military character. that they retained all their ancient ferocity. dispatched to commence the execution every where on the same day. that. and 1002. the Normans were thoroughly intermingled with the French.Hume. tended to support this idea. in the agonies of despair. had acquired their language. that. and who thereby formed connections with a country.. Brice. excited by so many injuries. was succeeded by his son of the same name in the year 996. This unhappy princess foretold. when Ethelred. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . as well as more ancient atchievements of their countrymen. sister to the king of Denmark. which his posterity was so soon after destined to subdue. and though the similarity of their original language to that of the Saxons invited them to a more early coalition with the natives. and by all these arts of effeminacy. that the Normans were already somewhat advanced in civility. though a minor. who were quartered about the country. This was the duke. on the death of William. embraced the cruel Secret orders were resolution of massacring the latter throughout all his dominions. which was eighty-five years after the first establishment of the Normans in France.. seized and condemned to death by Ethelred. Richard. from these repeated injuries. and had embraced Christianity. http://oll. had imitated their manners. and that their government could now rest secure on its laws and civil institutions. The animosity. that they debauched the wives and daughters of the English. governed the dutchy twenty. 13. and during that time. earl of Wilts. who succeeded him. by the advice of Edric. sanctified by authority.

where nothing but a general consternation. added to all the other miseries of the inhabitants. and at last submitted to the infamy of purchasing a precarious peace from the enemy. or would be tedious. animosities. their cruel diligence in discovering any corner. General councils were summoned. discouraged. but either no resolution was taken. and made an appearance of vigorous from the negligence or treachery of earl Hugh. governor of Sussex. in which the English agreed. and divided. and in the command of the English armies. and stranded on the coast.Hume. The imbecility of the king was little capable of repairing this misfortune: The treachery of Edric frustrated every plan for future defence: And the English navy.000 pounds. and threatened to take full revenge for the slaughter of their countrymen. to relate particularly all the miseries to which the English were thenceforth exposed. succeeded Alfric in the government of Mercia. The governors of one province refused to march to the assistance of another. but proved fatal. found no means of safety but in deserting with twenty ships to the Danes. wasted by the Danes. appeared off the Western coast. Brightric pursued him with a fleet of eighty sail. and mutual diffidence and dissention prevailed. feigning sickness. was the base and imprudent one. assembled more early and in greater numbers than usual. and all his vessels burnt and destroyed. and had acquired a total ascendant over him. by the payment of 30. refused to lead the army against the Danes. which they had reason soon to expect. The English endeavoured to employ this interval in making preparations against the return of the Danes. A law was made.. Edric had impelled his brother Brightric to prefer an accusation of treason against Wolfnoth. Exeter fell first into their hands. when the English. But all these preparations were frustrated by the treachery of duke Alfric. ordering the proprietors of eight hydes of land to provide each a horseman and a complete suit of armour.000 pounds. The country. They began to spread their devastations over the country. and dissentions of the nobility. This measure did not bring them even that short interval of repose. partly from the decay of agriculture. Page 98 of 354 authors. and were at last terrified from assembling their forces for the defence of their own province. who had been made governor by the interest of Queen Emma. was reduced to the utmost desolation. who was intrusted with the command. he was suddenly attacked by Wolfnoth.. well acquainted with the malevolence as well as power of his enemy. all hopes of its success were disappointed by the factions. disconcerted. and those of 310 hydes to equip a ship for the defence of the coast. And the only expedient. sensible what outrages they must now expect from their barbarous and offended enemy. was at last scattered into its several harbours. and who. The broken and disjointed narration of the antient historians is here well adapted to the nature of the war. of buying a new peace from the Danes by the payment of 48. and Edric. a Norman. which must have consisted of near eight hundred vessels. We hear of nothing but the sacking and burning of towns. and that nobleman. as would have been dangerous even to an united and well governed kingdom. by his fatal misconduct. the father of the famous earl Godwin. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . Sweyn and his Danes. o 1011. or none was carried into execution. When this navy was assembled. Alfric soon after died. A great famine. which had not been ransacked by their former violence. It is almost impossible. proceeding partly from the bad seasons. who wanted but a pretence for invading the English. till it was dispirited.libertyfund. who had married the king’s daughter. harassed by the fruitless expeditions of its own forces.html 4/7/2004 . the appearance of the enemy in every quarter of the kingdom. http://oll. and at last dissipated. which 1007. but his ships being shattered in a tempest. the devastation of the open country. a greater traitor than he. which was conducted by such sudden inroads.

the son and successor of Sweyn. who had refused to countenance this exaction. where he murdered them. He ravaged the eastern coast with merciless fury. as to instil into the king jealousies of Sigefert and Morcar. they were so discouraged. when he heard of the death of Sweyn. disregarding all engagements. His son-in-law. Alfred and Edward. and Somerset. and thrusting into a convent the widow of Sigefert. he continued his depredations along the southern coast: He even broke into the counties of Dorset. Wilts. but really from apprehensions. during her confinement. whither he had sent before him Queen Emma. which had so often exposed him to the insults of his enemies. Meanwhile the English found in Canute. The King had not been above six weeks in Normandy. cowardice. she inspired him with so violent an affection.Hume. indolence. notwithstanding his repeated treasons. inviting Ethelred to return to them. But the misconduct of Ethelred was incurable. and in a visit which was paid her. The king had had such frequent experience of perfidy among his subjects. and delivering him hostages for their fidelity. which had been attended with such misfortunes to himself and to his people. Richard received his unhappy guests with a generosity that does honour to his memory. to make a voyage to Denmark. equally afraid of the violence of the enemy and the treachery of his own subjects. after having cut off their hands and noses. was in a condition to give battle to the enemy. swearing allegiance to him. without the consent of his father. sent over a deputation to Normandy. Edmond was not disconcerted. retained such influence at court. continued their devastations and hostilities. 1013. The army called aloud for their sovereign to march at their head against the Danes. Ethelred.. and on his refusal to take the field. but returning soon after. http://oll. The Danes. who expired at Gainsborough. and put ashore all the English hostages at Sandwich. 1014. pretending sickness. expressing a desire of being again governed by their native prince. and after endeavouring in vain to get the prince into his power. while Ethelred participated in the infamy of the action. He was obliged. two of the chief nobles of Mercia: Edric allured them into his house.libertyfund. being now tutored by experience. Edric. where an army was assembled against him. Notwithstanding this misfortune. that. by the necessity of his affairs. that those vast preparations became ineffectual for the defence of the kingdom. and the English nobility found no other resource than that of submitting every where to the Danish monarch. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in . and her two sons. that he released her from the convent. and on his resuming the government. and soon after married her. but assembling all the force of England. the king’s eldest son. The English prelates and nobility. before he had time to establish himself in his new-acquired dominions. he found means to disperse the army. taking advantage of this event. and he then openly deserted to Canute with forty vessels. by prince Edmond. Page 99 of 354 they had expected from it. he discovered the same incapacity. levied a new contribution of 8000 pounds upon the county of Kent alone. from whom death had so lately delivered them. that he had lost all confidence in them: He remained at London. and intimating their hopes. an enemy no less terrible than the prince..html 4/7/2004 . under the command of prince Edmond and duke Edric. and credulity. that they intended to buy their peace. by delivering him into the hands of his enemies. murdered the archbishop of Canterbury. fled into Normandy. The latter still continued his perfidious machinations. She was a woman of singular beauty and merit. by confiscating their estates. he would avoid all those errors.

the two sons of Edmond. Edmond. however. and after making some fruitless expeditions into the north. by pretending to desert to him. and Edwy. who thereby made way for the succession of Canute the Dane to the crown of England. equally harassed with those convulsions.Hume.. immediately upon Ethelred’s death. He here found every thing in confusion by the death of the king. active and brave himself. Edric now took a surer method to ruin him. took off his helmet and showed himself to them. who. http://oll. and as Edmond was well acquainted with his power. after his death.. He left two sons by his first marriage. who were commanded by Canute and Edric. that it was time to fly. was obliged to commit equal ravages with those which were practised by the Danes. was ready to take advantage of the minority of Edwin and Edward. consisting of Mercia. followed by a great slaughter of the nobility. Among the other misfortunes of the English. conveyed into Normandy by Queen Emma. expect nothing but total subjection from Canute. who succeeded him. for behold! the head of their sovereign. in the county of Glocester. accomplices of Edric. 1016. had still resources. could. who was 1017. Assembling a new army at and called aloud to the English. who expired after an unhappy and inglorious reign of thirty-five years. and maintain their independency. Alfred and Edward. fixed it on a spear. This prince survived the treaty about a month: He was murdered at Oxford by two of his chamberlains. where Edric. when the Danish and English nobility. A battle soon after ensued at Assington in Essex. flying in the beginning of the day. and to divide the kingdom between them by treaty. who received the name of Ironside from his hardy valour. occasioned the total defeat of the English. notwithstanding the repeated perfidy of the man. and at Scoerston. observing the consternation of the troops. he was obliged. determined there to maintain to the last extremity the small remains of English liberty. The indefatigable Edmond. having cut off the head of one Osmer. CANUTE THE ENGLISH. carried it through the ranks in triumph. he was again in a condition to dispute the field. and to employ them against the common enemy. and Northumberland. Canute reserved to himself the northern division. the utmost he could gain by his activity and valour was to leave the victory undecided. but not to raise it from that abyss of misery. which he had entirely subdued: The southern parts were left to Edmond. Fortune in the beginning of the day declared for him. into which it had already fallen. After meeting with some success at Gillingham. EDMOND IRONSIDE THIS PRINCE. he prepared himself to decide in one general engagement the fate of his crown. sufficient to have prevented his country from sinking into those calamities. whose countenance resembled that of Edmond. obliged their kings to come to a compromise. he retired to London. under so active and brave a prince as Edmond. Page 100 of 354 Edmond. and probably knew no other of the chief nobility in whom he could repose more confidence. And though Edmond. but Edric. than to lead his army instantly into the field. deprived of all regular supplies to maintain his soldiers. Yet this conqueror. and at the head of a great force.html 4/7/2004 . whom Canute afterwards murdered. and Edmond found no better expedient for stopping the farther progress of these fatal evils. East-Anglia. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . which had submitted entirely to Canute’s power.libertyfund. were. treachery and disaffection had creeped in among the nobility and prelates. he offered battle to the enemy. possessed courage and abilities. His two sons by the second marriage. who had been unable to defend their country. to give him a considerable command in the army.

by bestowing on them the most extensive governments and jurisdictions.html 4/7/2004 . to protect the lives and properties of all his people. in order to fix the succession of the kingdom. that. (for these titles were then nearly of the same import) Yric of Northumberland. He sent back to Denmark as many of his followers as he could safely spare: He restored the Saxon customs in a general assembly of the states: He made no distinction between Danes and English in the distribution of justice: And he took care. in the treaty of Glocester. by a strict execution of law. to free him.000 pounds. and his body to be thrown into the Thames. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . he expelled Thurkill and Yric from their governments. he sent them to Solomon. he summoned a general assembly of the states. Edwin. Edric. from political motives. Margaret. But these rigors were imputed to necessity. had. and she bore him Edgar Atheling.000 pounds.. afterwards queen of Scotland. But seizing afterwards a favourable opportunity. was condemned to be executed. The Swedish monarch was too generous to comply with the request. in the beginning of his reign. to load the people with heavy taxes. it had been verbally agreed. should be reconciled to the Danish yoke. was determined. from which the one. as soon as they arrived at his court. Solomon gave his sister-in. supported by the great power of Canute. king of Hungary. The Danes were gradually incorporated with his new subjects. He here suborned some nobles to depose. in case of Edmond’s death. by the justice and impartiality of his administration. whom he desired. sent them abroad to his ally. daughter of the emperor Henry II. either to name Canute. experienced such fatal Agatha. in marriage to Edward. a suitable reward for his multiplied acts of perfidy and rebellion. besides 11. and banished them the kingdom: He put to death many of the English nobility. was. but being afraid of drawing on himself a quarrel with Canute. successor to his dominions. The elder. was obliged at first to make great sacrifices to it. And even the traitor. to be educated in his court. He created Thurkill earl or duke of He was probably willing. and Edric of Mercia.. the king of Sweden. and whom he hated on account of their disloyalty to their native prince.Hume. who retired into a convent. if he ordered them to be dispatched in England. Canute also found himself obliged. on account of the affection which it had borne to Edmond. showed himself anxious to cover his injustice under plausible pretences: Before he seized the dominions of the English princes. except p http://oll. to mulct severely that city. the younger brother. but sensible that he should render himself extremely odious. and both were glad to obtain a little respite from those multiplied calamities. and the resistance which it had made to the Danish power in two obstinate sieges.libertyfund. by protecting the young princes. by their death. was afterwards married to the sister of the king of Hungary. in order to reward his Danish followers: He exacted from them at one time the sum of 72. from all farther anxiety. in obtaining possession of the English crown. like a wise prince. no less than the other. Canute. and Canute. regarded by Canute as the greatest security to his government: He had no farther anxiety. The removal of Edmond’s children into so distant a country as Hungary. Page 101 of 354 commonly so little scrupulous. jealous of the two princes. reserving only to himself the administration of Wessex. that the English. and Christina. though he had reached the great point of his ambition. or tutor to his children (for historians vary in this particular): And that evidence. but the English prince dying without issue. having had the assurance to reproach him with his services. on whose fidelity he could not rely. and to gratify the chief of the nobility. Canute. in their fierce contest for power. which he levied on London alone. next to their death. now deprived of all their dangerous leaders. determined the states immediately to put the Danish monarch in possession of the government.

which he was obliged suddenly to seize. which the monks represented as the most meritorious. the confidence of his own subjects. and gaining to himself the friendship of his sovereign. Unfortunately. the alliance of Normandy. beyond all danger of a revolution. but unwarlike Olaus. http://oll. He even undertook a pilgrimage to Rome. Richard complied with his demand. under the command of earl Godwin.Hume. and he left the inheritance of the dutchy to his eldest son of the same name. Richard even fitted out a great armament. drove them from their trenches. to make the object of its attention. Canute attacked Norway. whom he should have by that marriage. The English. laid the foundation of that immense fortune which he acquired to his family. and obtained a decisive victory over them. and promised. by which he both reconciled the king’s mind to the English nation. from the enmity of so warlike a people as the Normans. though they disapproved of her espousing the mortal enemy of her former husband and his family. that he would leave the children. and who had already formed connections with them: And thus Canute. gradually acquired. This nobleman had here an opportunity of performing a service. who were protected and supported by their uncle. He built churches. and observing a favourable and with the manner of obtaining it. Next morning. to whom they were accustomed. he felt the unsatisfactory nature of all human enjoyments. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution .. whether satiated by prosperity or disgusted with adversity.. he paid his addresses to queen Emma. The Norman prince did not long survive the marriage of Emma. he attacked the enemy in the night. and he carried along with him a great body of the English. in order to restore the English princes to the throne of their ancestors. that they were at that time engaged in pursuit of the discomfited Swedes. which it is so natural for the human mind. pursued his advantage. Canute. which they were accustomed to exact from the English q r 1028. to desist from those heavy impositions and tolls. by this marriage. were pleased to find at court a sovereign. dying a year after him without children. which he made afterwards to Denmark. He was stationed next the Swedish camp. till the death of that prince. besides securing. he began to cast his view towards that future existence. a man of valour and abilities. Canute. he engaged all the princes. He was so pleased with this success. made a voyage to Denmark. through whose dominions he was obliged to pass. the spirit which prevailed in that age gave a wrong direction to his devotion: Instead of making compensation to those whom he had injured by his former acts of violence. where he appointed prayers to be said for the souls of those who had there fallen in battle against him. in possession of the crown of England. Richard. and equally weary of the glories and turmoils of this life. and treated him ever after with entire confidence and regard. where he resided a considerable time: Besides obtaining from the pope some privileges for the English school erected there. In order to acquire the friendship of the duke.html 4/7/2004 . he enriched the ecclesiastics. sister of that prince. he employed himself entirely in those exercises of piety. in order to resist the attacks of the king of Sweden.libertyfund. having settled his power in England. who. imagined that those disaffected troops had deserted to the enemy: He was agreeably surprised to find. and he bestowed revenues for the support of chantries at Assington and other places. In another voyage. was succeeded by his brother Robert. He had now by his conquests and valour attained the utmost height of grandeur: Having leisure from wars and intrigues. duke of Normandy. that he bestowed his daughter in marriage upon Godwin. and sent over Emma to England. seeing the English camp entirely abandoned. threw them into disorder. where she was soon after married to Canute. Canute saw the danger to which he was exposed. Page 102 of 354 with regard to Alfred and Edward. and though the navy was dispersed by a storm. by the same means. he endowed monasteries. kept possession of his kingdom. and expelling the just.

or in making preparations against the inroads of that hostile nation. and began to wash him with its billows. king of Scotland. and to obey the voice of him who was lord of the ocean. Canute.html 4/7/2004 . During the reign of Ethelred. s Canute passed four years in peace after this enterprize. He feigned to sit some time in expectation of their submission. could not fail of meeting with adulation from his courtiers. In whose hands were all the elements of nature. was at that time in England. exclaimed that every thing was possible for him: Upon which the monarch.. and who could level with his nod the most towering piles of human pride and ambition. Thus far shalt thou ordered his chair to be set on the sea-shore. t HAROLD HAREFOOT THOUGH CANUTE. and that the heirs of Scotland should always acknowledge themselves vassals to England for that province. Page 103 of 354 pilgrims. in admiration of his grandeur. leaving three sons. Sweyn. as well as of England. after his accession. nor pay others for resisting them. sovereign of Denmark and Norway. it is said. the affections of his subjects. as he was always able to repulse the Danes by his own power. Sweyn. he gained. was in possession of Denmark: Harold. and no farther. he had either considered himself as released from that 1035. on pretence that he owed homage to those princes only. and the king of Scotland soon found. should make the submissions required. The only memorable action. but when the sea still advanced towards him. http://oll. which was held by the Scots. was crowned in Norway: Hardicanute. the greatest and most powerful monarch of his time. who was of the same marriage with Sweyn. he would neither submit to buy peace of his enemies. whom Emma had born him. 1031. one day. duke of Normandy. in a good measure. Canute. that the same tax should be paid by Cumberland. It was commonly called Danegelt. while the tide was rising. he commanded them to retire. and Hardicanute. whom he put in possession of Cumberland. he could never bring Malcolm to a temper more humble or submissive. and remarked to them. either in buying peace with the Danes. daughter of the earl of Hampshire. which Canute performed after his return from Rome. a tax of a shilling a hyde had been imposed on all the lands of England. no less than by his equitable and politic administration. Harold. summoned the Scottish king to acknowledge himself a vassal for Cumberland to the crown of England. Duncan. Malcolm agreed. that his grandson and heir. a warlike prince. had stipulated. which contained a secret reproach on his own conduct. who could say to the ocean. whom he had by his first marriage with Alfwen. because the revenue had been employed. Some of his flatterers breaking out. Upon Canute’s appearing on the frontiers with a formidable army. he turned to his courtiers. That monarch had required. and that power resided with one Being alone. told him. Ethelred. and as the waters approached.libertyfund. offended at this reply. who inherited that kingdom by right of blood. but though he committed ravages upon the country. that every creature in the universe was feeble and impotent. a tribute which is liberally paid even to the meanest and weakest princes. but Malcolm. undertook an expedition against Cumberland. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . was an expedition against Malcolm. that his children by Emma should succeed to the crown of England.. By this spirit of devotion. in his treaty with Richard. that the sceptre was in very different hands from those of the feeble and irresolute Ethelred. but Malcolm refused compliance. and he died at Shaftsbury. that. Canute was not of a temper to bear this insult.

libertyfund. these two tyrants laid a plan for the destruction of the English princes. which might be equally useful. and above all. the robust (for he too is chiefly known by his bodily accomplishments). before Harold’s death. especially in the province of Wessex. and acknowledged and whose bodily accomplishments alone are known to us. yet a minor. on account of his being born among them of queen Emma. While Harold. either by his own negligence. and he had determined. he himself was taken prisoner. of all the dominions assigned to his brother. He died on the l4th of April. gladly embraced the opportunity of paying a visit. who gave so bad a specimen of his character. in insuring his succession. that Harold should enjoy. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . or Canute the Hardy. where he was received in triumph. u HARDICANUTE HARDICANUTE. with a numerous retinue. Alfred was invited to London by Harold with many professions of friendship. triumphing in his bloody policy. while the possession of the south should remain to Hardicanute: And till that prince should appear and take possession of his dominions. and left the succession open to his brother. the latter into Flanders. or esteemed it dangerous to leave an unsettled and newly conquered kingdom in the hands of so young a prince as Hardicanute: He therefore appointed. little regretted or esteemed by his subjects.. apprized of the fate which was awaiting them. but when he had reached Guilford. a compromise was made. and he was conducted to the monastery of Ely. This is the only memorable action. performed. what he had lost. On the other hand. that is. Meanwhile. which he acquired from his agility in running and walking. had not abandoned his pretensions. by remaining so long in Denmark. http://oll. by his will. to maintain his claim. during a reign of four years. duke of Normandy. and it was agreed. This prince was besides present. and established her authority over her son’s share of the partition. the two English princes. his eyes were put out. whether he found it necessary to proceed by force or intrigue. his party was espoused by earl Godwin. who promised to espouse the daughter of that nobleman. without resistance. regarded him as their countryman. and being succeeded by a son. Hardicanute had the suffrages of the English. But the face of affairs soon wore a melancholy aspect. Harold successor to the crown. Edward and Emma. by this prince.Hume. Affairs were likely to terminate in a civil war. about six hundred of his train were murdered in the most cruel manner. he was set upon by Godwin’s vassals. where he died soon after.html 4/7/2004 . Alfred and Edward. by the interposition of the nobility of both parties. he had assembled a fleet of sixty sail. the most powerful nobleman in the kingdom. who. 1039. Emma fixed her residence at Winchester. or by the necessity of his affairs. all the provinces north of the Thames. together with London. the former into Normandy. died in a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Robert. and he got immediately possession of his father’s treasures. Page 104 of 354 engagement by the death of Richard. though. to their mother Emma. Hardicanute. and while the treaty was yet a secret. to recover by arms.. the chief seat of the ancient English. Earl Godwin had been gained by the arts of Harold. On pretence of paying a visit to the queen dowager in Flanders. when intelligence of his brother’s death induced him to sail immediately to London. when. who found no longer any countenance or protection in that country. took possession. he was favoured by the articles of treaty with the duke of Normandy. he had been deprived of his share in the partition of the kingdom. he was favoured by all the Danes. by his appellation of Harefoot. fled beyond sea. and was preparing to make a descent on England. who seemed to be placed in a state of so much power and splendor at Winchester.

they were able to appease the king. was absent. he allowed him to be acquitted. under which they had so long laboured. and to be thrown again into the river: But it was fished up a second time. weighing sixteen ounces. on the death of Hardicanute. and obliging the nation to pay a great sum of money to the fleet. preferred an accusation against Godwin for the murder of Alfred. and obtain the pardon of the supplicants. and were armed and cloathed in the most sumptuous manner. his sudden death gave as little surprize. to execute his menaces with the utmost rigour. and buried in London. which he had honoured with his presence.libertyfund. The discontents ran high in many places: In Worcester the populace rose. pleased with the splendor of this spectacle. that.html 4/7/2004 . Hardicanute. equally servile and insolent. and for shaking off the Danish yoke. before his accession.. They were obliged to set fire to the city. till. and as the two last kings had died without issue. but nothing appeared more grievous to them. whom they confined in a small island of the Severn. for depriving him of his share of the kingdom. Godwin. he soon lost the affections of the nation by his misconduct. duke of Northumberland. and though the descendants of Edmond 1041. called Beverey. made him a magnificent present of a galley with a gilt stern. that. The first act of Hardicanute’s government afforded his subjects a bad prognostic of his future conduct. the eldest son of Canute. But prince Edward.Hume. He was so enraged at Harold. which brought him from Denmark. duke of Wessex. Page 105 of 354 king without opposition. Siward. and for the cruel treatment of his brother Alfred. Prince Edward was fortunately at court on his brother’s demise. Godwin. Godwin. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR THE ENGLISH. nor any whom the Danes could support as successor to the throne. to his subjects. king of Norway. The king. and Leofric. and deliver it up to be plundered by their soldiers. swore vengeance against the city. submitted to be his instrument in this unnatural and brutal action. and to be thrown into the Thames: And when it was found by some fishermen. This violent government was of short duration. His usual habits of intemperance were so well known. at the nuptials of a Danish lord. rowed by fourscore men. by displaying this rage against Harold’s memory. saw a favourable opportunity for recovering their liberty. in order to appease the king.. and then interred with great secrecy. and that he was on that account obnoxious to Hardicanute. as it did sorrow. and perhaps he hoped. and put to death two of the collectors. and on Godwin’s swearing that he was innocent of the crime. in an impotent desire of revenge against the dead. than his renewing the imposition of Danegelt. who wore each of them a gold bracelet on his arm. being invited over by the king. none of that race presented himself. Hardicanute died in two years after his accession. immediately on his appearance. http://oll. he ordered his body to be dug up. Though Hardicanute. by their intercession. quickly forgot his brother’s murder. and ordered three noblemen. That nobleman knew. enraged at this opposition. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . but they saved the lives of the inhabitants. that he was universally believed to have been an accomplice in the barbarity exercised on Alfred. notwithstanding his robust constitution. he ordered it again to be dug up. to justify himself from having had any participation in his counsels. and demanded justice for that crime. had been called over by the vows of the English. duke of Mercia.

which is commonly attended with the most dangerous consequences. The English were unanimous and zealous in their resolutions. be sincerely pardoned. and it was observed in some counties. as a pledge of his sincere reconciliation. and in humbling the Danes. and representing the necessity of their good correspondence. their countrymen. On the one hand. without concert. The triumph of the English. but the king. should promise to marry his daughter Editha. and as the loss fell chiefly on the Danes. The Danes were interspersed with the English in most of the provinces. There were opposite reasons. But their common friends here interposed. appeared a sufficient reason for their exclusion. that they instituted an annual festival for celebrating that great event. without a leader. and which he might believe so deep an offence. and the present occasion must hastily be embraced. an attempt. who had obtained large grants from the late kings. and as the Norman conquest. which divided men’s hopes and fears with regard to Godwin’s conduct. of which the latter had publicly been accused by the prince. his resuming all the grants of his immediate predecessors. on account of any subsequent merits. in restoring the Saxon line. on account of their services in subduing the kingdom. and having fortified himself by this alliance. w The popularity.. which might awaken past animosities. that he would second the wishes of that people. The king’s severity also towards his mother. as they had already felt. even to the time of Spellman. astonished at the present incident. The poverty of the crown convinced the nation. alliances. The joy.libertyfund. the English were rather pleased to see them reduced to their primitive poverty. the Danes were divided and dispirited: Any small opposition. was at first attended with some insult and violence against the Danes. as could never. the queen-dowager. and Edward was crowned king. of their present deliverance made such impression on the minds of the English. though http://oll. upon this signal and decisive advantage. they differed little in their manners and laws. which appeared in this assembly. there subsisted a declared animosity between Edward and Godwin. and concur in restoring liberty to their native country.html 4/7/2004 . might have failed of its effect. and anxious only for their personal safety. as well as they. and the distinction between the two nations gradually disappeared. which was almost entirely inhabited by English: It was therefore presumed. the credit of that nobleman lay chiefly in Wessex. he summoned a general council at Gillingham. any powerful invasion from thence. that this act of violence was become absolutely necessary. on account of Alfred’s murder. But this concurrence of circumstances in favour of Edward. either seized or neglected. On the other hand. and prepared every measure for securing the succession to Edward. reduced both nations to equal subjection. they spoke nearly the same language. however. to a people like the English. commonly prove decisive.. Page 106 of 354 Ironside were the true heirs of the Saxon family. obliged them to lay aside all jealousy and rancour. and abilities gave him a great influence at all times.Hume. which ensued soon after. which always attend a revolution of government. while the Danes. was not destroyed by the first act of his administration. had reason to dread. so little accustomed to observe a regular order in the succession of their monarchs. especially amidst those sudden opportunities. Godwin only stipulated. that Edward. domestic dissentions in Denmark prevented. with every demonstration of duty and by the mildness of his character. was brow-beaten and suppressed. there is no farther mention in history of any difference between them. whose power. and which. which Edward enjoyed on his accession. the most grievous oppressions. yet their absence in so remote a country as Hungary. from whom he. had his succession been opposed by Godwin. All delays might be dangerous. soon reconciled the latter to his administration. for some years. durst not oppose the united voice of the nation. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution .

and excited the jealousy of the English. His eldest son. The courtiers affected to imitate that nation in their dress. customs. as well as ambition. Berks. and of a criminal correspondence with the bishop of Winchester. and by a degree of cultivation superior to that which was attained by the English in those ages. as the superior qualities of Canute. on recent as well as more ancient injuries. they were delivered for ever from the dominion of foreigners. and the abilities. were the inventions of the monkish historians. had made her entirely indifferent to the memory of Ethelred. The study of the French tongue became general among the people. z a b c This powerful nobleman. And though the king’s prudence. of which his abilities rendered him not unworthy. soon rendered their language. a Norman also. and Hereford: And Harold. The court of England was soon filled with Normans. and Editha. The king. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . Robert. Edward’s hatred of the father was transferred to that princess. in a monastery at Winchester. equipage. had the counties of Kent and Sussex annexed to his government. would have found it difficult to support the dignity of the crown under such circumstances. that. and always regarded Hardicanute as her favourite. being distinguished both by the favour of Edward. and laws fashionable in the kingdom. as well as an affection for their manners. and at the same time governor of Essex. He confined her. The same reasons had probably made her unpopular in England.. The great authority of this family was supported by immense possessions and powerful alliances. Sweyn. contributed to render it still more dangerous. during the whole course d http://oll. two Normans. the church felt the influence and dominion of those strangers: Ulf and William. and had contracted many intimacies with the natives of that country. during the remainder of her life. who. she also gave the preference to her children of the second bed. the daughter of Godwin. but they soon found. and also of her justifying herself by treading barefoot. He remarked. the ecclesiastical preferments fell often to the share of the Normans. It is even pretended.. Edward’s animosity against him was grounded on personal as well as political considerations. He had hitherto lived on indifferent terms with that princess: He accused her of neglecting him and his brother during their adverse fortune. x y The English flattered themselves. had indeed married Editha. the nation was not. and as the latter possessed Edward’s confidence. over nine burning plough-shares. though possessed of many amiable accomplishments. could never acquire the confidence and affection of her husband. and always enjoyed the highest favour of his master. by the accession of Edward. was duke of East-Anglia. and entertainments: Even the lawyers employed a foreign language in their deeds and papers: But above all. The king had been educated in Normandy. Page 107 of 354 exposed to some more censure.Hume. that. his second without receiving any hurt. possessed the same authority in the counties of Oxford. were created bishops of Dorchester and London. met not with very general disapprobation. but this alliance became a fresh source of enmity between them. made him confer almost all the civil and military employments on the natives. that this evil was not yet entirely removed. but carried his rigour against her no farther. A prince of greater capacity and vigour than Edward. was promoted to the see of Canterbury. and as the haughty temper of Godwin made him often forget the respect due to his prince. Glocester. they had secretly a great influence on public affairs.html 4/7/2004 . that. who had formerly been the king’s chaplains. and were propagated and believed from the silly wonder of posterity. besides being duke or earl of Wessex. particularly of earl Godwin. displeased to see her stripped by Edward of immense treasures which she had amassed. and though her benefactions to the monks obtained her the favour of that order. in general. and his better treatment of her. of Godwin himself.libertyfund. or his want of authority. The stories of his accusing her of a participation in her son Alfred’s murder. in pursuance of his engagements.

He gave orders to Godwin. saw the necessity of exerting the royal authority.html 4/7/2004 . Under pretence of repressing some disorders on the Welsh frontier. and not sensible. He hurried immediately to court and complained of the usage he had met with: The king entered zealously into the quarrel. whose jealousy of Godwin’s greatness. to repair immediately to the place. was to complain of the influence of the Normans in the government. from whom he was descended. refused obedience. meanwhile. a tumult ensued. and finding the danger much greater than they had at first apprehended. and murdered the wounded townsman. that his conduct in this particular is highly celebrated by the monkish historians. Page 108 of 354 of her life. if he persisted in his disobedience to make him feel the utmost effects of his resentment. passed by Dover in his return: One of his train. that he ventured to take the field. and in the contest he wounded the master of the house. who thought the king entirely in his power. than repress. they issued orders for mustering all the forces within their respective governments. have felt so sensibly the insolence and animosity of his people. and greatly contributed to his acquiring the title of saint and confessor. he lost the favourable opportunity of rendering himself master of the government. he should be supported by his countrymen. while Godwin. attempted to make his way by force. duke of Northumberland. that he ought to have no farther reserve after he had proceeded so far. justice. and Leofric. and piety. touched in so sensible a point. without any just cause. It was not long before this animosity broke into action. it was likely. as he believed. They hastened to him with such of their followers as they could assemble on a sudden. and for marching them without delay to the defence of the king’s person and authority. Edward. engaged them to defend the king in this extremity. the popular discontents against foreigners. having paid a visit to the king. who desired rather to encourage.. should. bore him great affection on account of his humanity. whom he had invited over to his court. where. count of Bologne. and endeavoured to throw the whole blame of the riot on the count of he abstained from all commerce of love with her. without any military force. and without suspicion. and pleased to embark in a cause. who resided. and they hastened from all quarters to defend him from the present danger. though they had no high idea of Edward’s vigour and capacity. but having in f g http://oll. endeavoured to gain time by negociation. His army was now so considerable. which had been assigned him. The most popular pretence on which Godwin could ground his disaffection to the king and his administration. was obliged to save his life by flight from the fury of the populace. and his retinue. and was approaching the king. and he threatened Godwin. the count and his train took arms. and Eustace.libertyfund. he summoned a great council to judge of the rebellion of Godwin and his sons. perceiving a rupture to be unavoidable. duke of Mercia. Edward. The inhabitants revenged this insult by the death of the stranger. at Glocester. made preparations for his own defence. and to punish the inhabitants for the crime: But Godwin. as well as the long race of their native kings. near twenty persons were killed on each side. and who was willing to save appearances. two powerful noblemen. and marching to London. and a declared opposition had thence arisen between him and these favourites. as well as their duty to the crown. These noblemen pretended at first that they were willing to stand their trial. The English.. and such was the absurd admiration paid to an inviolable chastity during those ages. being overpowered by numbers. fell into the snare.Hume. or rather for an attack on Edward. Edward applied for protection to Siward. in whose government Dover lay. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . being refused entrance to a lodging. and was highly displeased that a stranger of such distinction. he secretly assembled a great army. Eustace. The earl. e 1048.

had equipped a considerable fleet. paved the way for his more easy admission. to assist him in procuring justice to himself. took shelter in which that nobleman had collected in Ireland.. at least. which had so long been subject to his government. The earl of Flanders permitted him to purchase and hire ships within his harbours. and Essex. but the interposition of the English nobility. and attempted to make a descent at Sandwich. much superior to that of the enemy. The king. who disclaimed all intentions of offering violence to his sovereign. and in the office of steward of the household. earl of Flanders. The king alone seemed resolute to defend himself to the last extremity. before their appearance. he proceeded. and Tosti. He was now master of the sea. while Godwin. seemed now to be totally supplanted and overthrown. By a modest and gentle demeanor. in a more silent. kept his men in readiness for action. they were obliged to disband the remains of their forces. allured by the present security. and the earl hastily. a place of great power. and from reducing Edward to He was succeeded in the government of Wessex. and summoned his followers in those counties. sensible that he had not power sufficient to secure Godwin’s hostages in England. softened that hatred which the prince had so long borne his family. He put to sea immediately. and desired only to justify himself by a fair and open trial. knew of no other expedient than that hazardous one. Sussex. that he should give hostages for his good behaviour. and the feigned humility of the earl. not to occasion farther disturbances. Sweyn. by his son. before the banishment of Harold. and Godwin. allowed the seamen to disband. he entered the Thames. and was superior to him in address. his family. and destitute of all vigorous counsels. The English court. The king. had belonged to the h i k NOTE [E] l http://oll. made Edward hearken to terms of accommodation. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . was invested with the government of East-Anglia. of raising him a rival in the family of Leofric. once so formidable. they offered to come to London. which happened soon after. having manned them with his followers. Algar. and entering every harbour in the southern coast. who was actuated by an ambition equal to that of his father. Godwin’s death.libertyfund. But Godwin had fixed his authority on too firm a basis. and sailed to the Isle of Wight. gave protection to Godwin and his three sons. which. expecting this event. and the fleet to go to decay. he seized all the ships. in insinuation. and gaining every day new partizans by his bounty and affability. prevented him from farther establishing the authority which he had acquired. and make new efforts for his re-establishment. made his retreat into the Flemish harbours. Page 109 of 354 vain endeavoured to make their adherents persist in rebellion. still greater subjection. provided they might receive hostages for their safety: This proposal being rejected.. whose son. put to sea. against the tyranny of foreigners. Reinforced by great numbers from all quarters. the young duke of Normandy. and he was too strongly supported by alliances both foreign and domestic. and have recourse to flight. Edward. but the authority of the crown was considerably impaired or rather entirely annihilated. who had not sufficient vigour directly to oppose his progress. and appearing before London. many of whom favoured Godwin’s pretensions. two others of his sons.Hume.html 4/7/2004 . to the encrease of his authority. It was stipulated. while he was sitting at table with the king. Gurth. duke of Mercia. he acquired the goodwill of Edward. Harold. and with free-booters of all nations. and his country. the latter of whom had married the daughter of that prince: Harold and Leofwin. the present danger of a civil war was obviated. sent them over to his kinsman. informed of his preparations. and that the primate and all the foreigners should be banished: By this treaty. Kent. Baldwin. and therefore a more dangerous manner. threw every thing into confusion. and in virtue. The estates of the father and sons were confiscated: Their governments were given to others: Queen Editha was confined in a monastery at Warewel: And the greatness of this family. where he was joined by Harold with a squadron.

He sent a deputation to Hungary. duke of Northumberland. whose succession to the crown would have been easy and undisputed. too young to be entrusted with the government of Northumberland. his death soon freed Harold from the pretensions of so dangerous a rival. on his father’s death. and his martial disposition. a powerful nobleman. but as he had lost his eldest son. Page 110 of 354 latter nobleman. Osbern. now worn out with cares and infirmities.html 4/7/2004 . whose daughter was married to Duncan. carried still farther his pestilent ambition: He put his sovereign to death. This peace was not of long duration: Harold.libertyfund. and Harold’s influence obtained that dukedom for his own brother Tosti. expelled Algar anew. which the king desired to establish between those potent families. surnamed Atheling. There are two circumstances related of Siward. by Edward’s orders. Macbeth. which happened a few days after his arrival. required a more steady hand to manage it than that of Edward.. but his death. his son and heir. he was inconsolable. Edgar. threw the king into new difficulties. That prince. embraced. and nearly allied to the crown. Siward. but the balance. This service. Walthoef. that the great power and ambition of Harold had tempted him to think of 1055. and naturally produced faction. which discover his high sense of honour. he restored Malcolm to the throne of his ancestors. had acquired honour to England. and that he had behaved with great gallantry in the action. that the wound was received in the breast. and so much infested by the intrigues and animosities of the great. declared. came to England with his children. The king. besides his other merits. felt himself far advanced in the decline of life. Siward. and usurped the crown. He saw. taking advantage of Leofric’s death. prince of Wales. the eldest son of Algar. Duncan. and the influence of Harold greatly preponderated. as well as by the power of his father. appeared. it proved in the issue fatal to his family. and the only remaining heir of the Saxon line. but possessed not the genius requisite for governing a country so turbulent. brought a great accession to the authority of Siward in the north. who had married his daughter. When intelligence was brought him of his son Osberne’s death. chaced Malcolm Kenmore. Edward. son of his elder brother. the only one worthy of a warrior. to invite over his nephew.Hume. Algar was soon after expelled his government by the intrigues and power of Harold. king of Scotland. with a spear in his hand. But this policy. When he found his own death approaching. in the action with Macbeth. His second son. and even civil broils. and banished him the kingdom: And though that nobleman made a fresh irruption into East-Anglia with an army of Norwegians. and having no issue himself. of balancing opposite parties. he would patiently await the fatal moment. m http://oll. was indeed advanced to the government of Mercia. by his successful conduct in the only foreign enterprize undertaken during the reign of Edward. and over-ran the country. and was reinstated in the government of added to his former connections with the royal family of Scotland. was wholly lost. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . Leofric. till he heard. Edward. and sitting erect on the couch. in that posture. which happened soon after. was a prince of a gentle disposition.. The death of Siward. he ordered his servants to clothe him in a complete suit of armour. and having defeated and killed Macbeth in battle. that. Margaret and Christina. among nobles of such mighty and independant authority. he obliged Harold to submit to an accommodation. not content with curbing the king’s authority. the protection of this distressed family: He marched an army into Scotland. made the way still more open to the ambition of that nobleman. but being protected by Griffith. began to think of appointing a successor to the kingdom. into England.

he assembled the states of the dutchy. as he had apprehended. which he might make in his favour. the claims of other branches of the ducal family. and by his valour and conduct prevailed in every action. and against foreign invaders. without which the laws in those ages became totally impotent. on account of his youth and inexperience. was very unfit to oppose the pretensions of so popular and enterprising a rival. thought the opportunity favourable for reducing the power of a vassal. as the only person whose power. He opposed himself on all sides against his rebellious subjects. think of an encrease of grandeur to a family. he expelled all pretenders to the sovereignty. gave encouragement to his friends. from which his birth seemed to have set him at so great a distance.Hume. died in his pilgrimage. and that Edgar. and was very early established in that grandeur. arising from the perpetual turbulency of the great. whom. found himself reduced to a very low condition. a fashionable act of devotion. and reputation. in case he should die in the pilgrimage. as it was attended with more difficulty and danger. As he was a prudent prince. Roger. could support any detestation. to the exclusion of Harold. which he had established in his dominions.libertyfund. and which. Before his departure. without extreme reluctance. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and this settlement of his succession. and Henry I. But the great qualities. and the minority of his son was attended with all those disorders. and carried those religious adventurers to the first sources of as he had no legitimate issue. which he had long borne to earl Godwin. and the young prince. king of France. The animosity. Page 111 of 354 obtaining possession of the throne on the first vacancy.html 4/7/2004 . the more important they were. and he could not. had contributed so much to the weakening of the Saxon line. to leave successor to his dominions. duke of Normandy. count of Toni. The regency established by Robert encountered great difficulties in supporting the government under this complication of dangers. count of Britanny. his brother. and he reduced his turbulent barons to pay submission to his authority. by the murder of Alfred. and capacity. and made the whole country a scene of war and devastation. William. and his family. and which. he could not but foresee the great inconveniences which must attend this journey. daughter of a tanner in Falaise. In this uncertainty. appeared to them more meritorious. he intended. his father had resolved to undertake a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. William duke of Normandy. n This famous prince was natural son of Robert. broke out into personal animosities against each other. he engaged them to swear allegiance to his natural son. by Harlotta. freed from the awe of sovereign authority.. which had taken place of the pilgrimages to Rome. and the power of the French monarch: But all these considerations were surmounted by the prevailing zeal for pilgrimages. which he soon displayed in the field and in the cabinet. and informing them of his design. He obliged the French king to grant him peace on reasonable terms. which had risen on the ruins of royal authority. The natural severity of his temper appeared in a rigorous administration of justice. and who had long appeared formidable to his sovereign. The licentious nobles. who had originally acquired his settlement in so violent and invidious a manner. which were almost unavoidable in that situation. made him averse to the succession of his son. he secretly cast his eye towards his kinsman. he regarded it as a fixed maxim. This prince. the more would Robert exult in sacrificing them to what he imagined to be his religious duty. and having found the happy effects of this plan of government. The tranquillity.. and Alain. had given William leisure to pay a o p q r s http://oll. and struck a terror into his enemies. and probably. advanced claims to the dominion of the state. While he was but nine years of age. that an inflexible conduct was the first duty of a sovereign. when he came to maturity. and to suspend their mutual animosities.

and he was afraid. after such a uniform trial of his obedience. had. Robert. with a numerous retinue. Harold.Hume. either by favours or menaces. He desired the assistance of Harold in perfecting that design. for greater security. and the expulsion of the Norman favourites. he extorted the king’s consent to release them. made him resume his former intentions in favour of the duke of Normandy. before his departure. William was immediately sensible of the importance of the incident. in delivering up the hostages. proceeded. a messenger to Guy. had. Harold. that such near relations should be detained prisoners in a foreign country. and the inexperience and unpromising qualities of young Edgar. that. in order to demand the liberty of his prisoner. who. and among the rest one son and one grandson. The death of his nephew.. from the age and infirmities of the king. he had met with this harsh treatment from the mercenary disposition of the count of Ponthieu. put Harold into the hands of the Norman. and that nobleman. and demanded an exorbitant sum for his ransom. and he was the first person that opened the mind of the prince to entertain those ambitious hopes. But there was still an obstacle. William received him with every demonstration of respect and friendship. to detain any longer those hostages.. appeared not very distant. and his esteem of the duke. he took an opportunity of disclosing to him the great secret. his steady duty to his prince. Harold found means to convey intelligence of his situation to the duke of Normandy. not daring to refuse so great a prince. invited his brother’s descendants from Hungary. He foresaw. had given hostages for his good behaviour. and to the obligations which that prince owed to his family. to the king. in establishing his power. he made professions of the t u http://oll. and Edward would meet with no farther obstacle in executing the favourable intentions. whom Edward. That prelate. But Edward. on his journey to Normandy. archbishop of Canterbury. He sent. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . in encreasing his popularity. irresolute and feeble in his purpose. and even to keep his purpose secret from all his ministers. persuaded Edward to think of adopting William as his successor. with a view of having them recognized heirs to the crown. which he had entertained in his behalf. which it was requisite for him previously to overcome. Earl Godwin.html 4/7/2004 . and in order to effect his purpose. though his aversion to hazardous enterprizes engaged him to postpone the execution. if he could once gain Harold. to the relation by which he was connected with Edward. as has been related. immediately detained him prisoner. his unfeigned submission to royal authority. his prepossessions for the Normans. and he was received in a manner suitable to the great reputation which he had acquired. in execution of a commission from the king of England. of his pretensions to the crown of England. On the return of therefore. that. and of the will which Edward intended to make in his favour.libertyfund. a counsel. mean while. enforced by his great power. lest William should. which was favoured by the king’s aversion to Godwin. retain these pledges as a check on the ambition of any other pretender. an event which. and after showing himself disposed to comply with his desire. had consigned to the custody of the duke of Normandy. being informed of his quality. and represented. and in preparing the way for his advancement on the first vacancy. in favour of Edgar. finding that the English would more easily acquiesce in that restoration of the Saxon line. in the mean time. By these topics. his way to the throne of England would be open. A tempest drove him on the territory of Guy count of Ponthieu. was uneasy. therefore. he immediately proceeded. who conducted him to Roüen. after a more open manner. who had been required on the first composing of civil discords. He represented. Page 112 of 354 visit to the king of England during the time of Godwin’s banishment. therefore. while he was proceeding to his court. received a commission to inform William of the king’s intentions in his favour. and the little necessity there was. though not aware of the duke’s being his competitor. when restored to his power and fortune.

Harold was surprized at this declaration of the duke. well suited to the ignorance and superstition of the age. and which. much less that of his brother and nephew.. brother of this nobleman. besides offering him one of his daughters in marriage. The English nobleman was astonished. Tosti. and more honourable for himself. to encrease the number of his partizans. He secretly conveyed under the altar. and chased him from his government. some cavalry to scour the open country. and professed his sincere intention of supporting the will of Edward. whose head they cut off. had acted with such cruelty and injustice. which he had already attained. and his name had become so terrible to the English. made no intermission in his assaults. and to encrease the character. required him to take an oath.libertyfund. The other incident was no less honourable to Harold. the reigning prince. had greatly distinguished himself in those incursions. renounced all hopes of the crown for himself. his ambition suggested casuistry sufficient to justify to him the violation of an oath. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . two brothers. Fortune. and seconding the pretensions of the duke of Normandy. William. that he would fulfil his promises. should receive new encrease from a successor. he renewed the same professions. where they were sheltered from the pursuit of their enemies. he employed an artifice. to revive their hatred of the Normans. and admonished him to observe religiously an engagement. they made a sacrifice of their prince. the reliques of some of the most revered martyrs. but dissembling his concern. to deter the timorous Edward from executing his intended destination in favour of William. The Welsh. who had been created duke of Northumberland. and they were content to receive as their sovereigns two Welsh noblemen appointed by Edward to rule over them. and were ready to seize the first favourable opportunity of renewing their depredations. Griffith. that the inhabitants rose in rebellion. to bind him faster to his interests. who would be so greatly beholden to him for his advancement. and was dismissed with all the marks of mutual confidence by the duke of Normandy. and a squadron of ships to attack the sea-coast. about this time. which supported itself with difficulty under the jealousy and hatred of Edward. and in order to render the oath more obligatory. if he refused the demand. He continued still to practise every art of popularity. he promised that the present grandeur of Harold’s family. Leofric.. tyrannical temper. he showed him the reliques. if fulfilled. concurred in the w http://oll. who possessed great power in those parts. had long been accustomed to infest the western borders. and at last reduced the enemy to such distress. Page 113 of 354 utmost gratitude in return for so great an obligation. but being sensible that he should never recover his own liberty. though a less formidable enemy than the Danes. He formed the plan of an expedition against Wales. that Harold found he could do nothing more acceptable to the public. and after committing spoil on the low countries. threw two incidents in his way. and when Harold had taken the oath. When Harold found himself at prosecuted his advantages with vigour. being of a violent. to reconcile the minds of the English to the idea of his succession. and by an ostentation of his power an influence. on which Harold agreed to swear. and sent to Harold. which had been extorted from him by fear. Morcar and Edwin. by which he was enabled to acquire general favour. and having prepared some light-armed foot to pursue the natives into their fastnesses. which had been ratified by so tremendous a sanction. and who were grandsons of the great duke. of virtue and abilities. that. than the suppressing of so dangerous an enemy.html 4/7/2004 . he employed at once all these forces against the Welsh. in order to prevent their total destruction. might be attended with the subjection of his native country to a foreign power. he feigned a compliance with William.Hume. they usually made a hasty retreat into their mountains.

endeavoured to justify his own conduct. This prince. on reflection.. But the English nobleman was now in such a situation. he took but feeble and irresolute steps for securing the While he continued in this uncertainty. that death was preferable to servitude. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . The most commendable circumstance of Edward’s government was his attention to the administration of justice. in his conduct towards the Northumbrians. enabled them while they were entrusted with authority. rather than suffer a renewal of those indignities. and had taken the field determined to perish. who. Harold broke all measures with the duke of Normandy. and the former. that almost all England was engaged in his interests. that Harold. This vigorous remonstrance was accompanied with such a detail of facts. on the fifth of January 1066. He even married the sister of that nobleman. broken with age and infirmities.html 4/7/2004 .libertyfund. that Tosti had behaved in a manner unworthy of the station to which he was advanced. in some degree. and his compiling for that purpose a body of laws. would effectually secure it against the dominion and tyranny of foreigners. of great power. saw the difficulties too great for him to encounter. Ina. would not defend in another that violent conduct. by the confession of all. as well as the power of these noblemen. and no one. attempted not those incursions. and William clearly perceived. He now openly aspired to the succession. and insisted. from which he himself. and regarding it as their birthright. in his own government. and his son Harold. and returning to Edward. could support such tyranny. well acquainted with the generous disposition of the English commander. given such a specimen of his moderation as had gained him the affections of his countrymen. which had been so troublesome to all his predecessors. Edward. which brought him to his grave. to set aside the royal family. while he himself possessed the government of Wessex. of approved courage and abilities. on account of the imbecility of Edgar. he owed his prosperity less to his own abilities than to the conjunctures of the times. that he deemed it no longer necessary to dissemble. being elected duke. though now lost (for the x NOTE [F] http://oll. as a nobleman. so well supported. and twenty-fifth of his reign. Tosti in rage departed the kingdom. who was commissioned by the king to reduce and chastise the Northumbrians. and took shelter in Flanders with earl Baldwin. was the last of the Saxon line. and they trusted. The Danes. his father-in-law. that the Northumbrians. to oppose Harold. surprised by sickness. but required a governor who would pay regard to their rights and privileges.. and Edwin that of Mercia. the sole surviving heir. This compilation. that they had been taught by their ancestors. of the infamy attending it. were willing to submit to the king. being a native of the kingdom. and the abilities. without participating. Morcar. in the sixtyfifth year of his age. Page 114 of 354 insurrection. accustomed to a legal administration. which he collected from the laws of Ethelbert. He had. and to confirm Morcar in the government. which he had extorted from him. and by his interest procured Edwin. not even a brother. there was no one so capable of filling the throne. employed in other enterprizes. had always kept at so great a distance. and though his inveterate prepossessions kept him from seconding the pretensions of Harold. to preserve domestic peace and tranquillity. of mature age. Though his reign was peaceable and fortunate. that. to be elected into the government of Mercia. of long experience. Morcar that of Northumberland. to whom the monks give the title of saint and confessor. Before the armies came to action.Hume. he was succession to the duke of Normandy. he persuaded him to pardon the Northumbrians. and fatal to some of them. He represented to Harold. and Alfred. He saw. The facility of his disposition made him acquiesce under the government of that ruled in England. that Harold found it prudent to abandon his brother’s cause. since it was necessary. advanced with an army. By this marriage. the younger brother. that he could no longer rely on the oaths and promises. to which they had so long been exposed.

The title of Edgar Atheling. he sent an embassy to England. who had married Matilda. came from abroad.Hume. willingly seconded his pretensions. and had even voluntarily sworn to support the http://oll. that he immediately stepped in to the vacant throne. by his counsels and forces. in order to rouze to arms the free-booters of that kingdom and to excite their hopes of reaping advantage from the unsettled state of affairs on the usurpation of the new king: And that he might render the combination more formidable. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . a private person. which he had suffered: He engaged the interest of that family against his brother: He endeavoured to form intrigues with some of the discontented nobles in England: He sent his emissaries to Norway. that it could no longer give amazement even to the populace. they were obliged to conceal their sentiments.. he filled the court of Baldwin with complaints of the injustice. when he first received intelligence of Harold’s intrigues and accession. Enraged at the successful ambition of Harold. connected with him by alliance or friendship. If any were averse to this measure. The whole nation seemed joyfully to acquiesce in his elevation. in revenge of his own wrongs. y HAROLD HAROLD had so well prepared matters before the death of Edward. received the crown from their hands. another daughter of Baldwin. taking a general silence for consent. or regularly submitting the question to their determination. It has been continued down to our time. would. and summoning him to resign immediately possession of the kingdom. who observed. The first symptoms of danger. without waiting for the free deliberation of the states. Edward the Confessor was the first that touched for the king’s evil: The opinion of his sanctity procured belief to this cure among the people: His successors regarded it as a part of their state and grandeur to uphold the same opinion. and if he. and his accession was attended with as little opposition and disturbance. assembling his partizans.libertyfund. with which he was reproached. either from the late king or the states of England. upbraiding that prince with his breach of faith. and was attended with ridicule in the eyes of all men of understanding. The citizens of London were his zealous partizans: The bishops and clergy had adopted his cause: And all the powerful nobility. in expectation that the duke. 1066.html 4/7/2004 . crowned and anointed King. who had submitted to a voluntary banishment in Flanders. January. and the new prince. and could never. by Aldred. had been extorted by the well-grounded fear of violence. Harold replied to the Norman ambassadors. z a The duke of Normandy. who alone could dispose of the crown. the projected invasion of England. which the king discovered. and the practice was first dropped by the present royal family. for that reason. but that he might give the better colour to his pretensions. he made a journey to Normandy. was. to make any tender of the succession to the duke of Normandy. was scarcely mentioned: Much archbishop of York. to which he himself had fallen a victim. which appeared unanimous. had been moved to the highest pitch of indignation. as well as those of Tosti. Page 115 of 354 laws that pass under Edward’s name were composed afterwards ) was long the object of affection to the English nation. be regarded as obligatory: That he had had no commission. on the day immediately succeeding Edward’s death.. as if he had succeeded by the most undoubted hereditary title. and founding his title on the supposed suffrages of the people. and from his own brother. the claim of the duke of Normandy: And Harold. Tosti. second. that the oath. had assumed so much authority.

revived their ancient fame. much more if shaken by any violent external impulse. and the Low A few Norman adventurers in Italy had acquired such an ascendant.. not only over the Italians and Greeks. and his ambition. and the most wonderful successes. that England. He saw that Harold. than by their own force and valour. and should prove himself totally unworthy of their favour. as it would astonish the enemy by the boldness of the enterprize. inseparable from an attack on a great kingdom by such inferior force.libertyfund. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and he saw only the circumstances. and which was likely to totter under him by its own instability. after such examples of fortune and valour. quitting his own country. many of them banished for faction and rebellion. which was dispersed in all the neighbouring states. though he had given proofs of vigour and bravery. besides exerting many acts of vigour under their present sovereign. And he hoped. besides his brave Normans. besides defending it against continual attempts of the French monarch and all its neighbours. that the very circumstance of his crossing the sea. sensible of the obligations imposed on him by his royal dignity. Consulting only his courage. He knew. as well as the right of arms. Besides acquiring by arms such a noble territory in France. These enterprizes of men. procured to themselves ample establishments. A military spirit had universally diffused itself throughout Europe. but must venture its whole fortune in one decisive action against a veteran enemy. and maintained their properties and privileges. should experience the power of an united nation. The Normans. and rouze them to sustain the reputation of the Norman arms. by the progress of the feudal institutions. but the Germans and Saracens. that it was entirely unprovided with fortified towns. about this very time. and its generals experience. who. the oath was unlawful. to be deterred from making an attack on a neighbouring country. as they had long been distinguished by valour among all the European nations. they had.. who. and laid the foundation of the opulent kingdom of Naples and Sicily. being once master of the field. in many respects. and the possessors. his resentment. that the same moment should put a period to his life and to his government. did he not strenuously maintain those national liberties. had enjoyed profound tranquillity. were divided and subdivided into many principalities and baronies. and he had previously fixed his resolution of making an attempt upon England. with whose protection they had entrusted him: And that the duke. b This answer was no other than William expected. he overlooked all the difficulties. where he could be supported by the whole force of his principality. and it would require time for its soldiers. Page 116 of 354 duke’s pretensions. from which he had excluded a very ancient royal family. as independant sovereigns. that.html 4/7/2004 . enervated by long peace. The situation also of Europe inspired William with hopes. who disdained. which he had acquired by faction. enjoying the civil jurisdiction within themselves. Germany. and it was his duty to seize the first opportunity of breaking it: That he had obtained the crown by the unanimous suffrages of the people. during a period of near fifty years. in the other extremity of Europe. He considered. would be in a condition to over-run the kingdom. by the most hazardous exploits. had newly mounted a throne. he might employ against England the flower of the military force. France. to learn discipline. acted. who were all of them vassals in Normandy. if he made any attempt by force of arms. less by the authority of laws. had at this time attained to the highest pitch of military glory. and the several leaders. ever since the accession of Canute. would inspirit his soldiers by despair. and leaving himself no hopes of retreat. that they expelled those foreigners. which would facilitate his enterprize. by which it could prolong the war. was determined. whose minds were elevated by their c http://oll. excited the ambition of the haughty William. conducted by a prince.Hume.

and he required. however loosely.libertyfund. whether instituted for civil deliberations. Henry IV. and in rejecting the offers of those. and in all assemblies. zealously seconded the duke’s views. Conan. the possession of that dutchy should devolve to him. hence their impatience of peace and tranquillity. in which all his neighbours were so deeply interested. and offered to do homage. having communicated his project to the council. and every one who desired to signalize himself by his address in military his father-in-law.Hume. to which they belonged. was indeed openly ordered to lay aside all thoughts of the enterprize. and hence their readiness to embark in any dangerous enterprize. was a minor.html 4/7/2004 . who were impatient to acquire fame under so renowned a leader. the prudence of his predecessor. and secretly encouraged the adventurous nobility to inlist under the standard of the duke of Normandy. he chose this conjuncture for reviving his claim to Normandy itself. which distinguished the age. Philip I. by their duty to one superior lord. favoured under-hand his levies. which he promised them in return for their concurrence in an expedition against England. greedily embraced the most hazardous enterprizes. which William owed to his personal valour and good conduct. his successor. The emperor. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . Alain Fergant. and thereby enabled him to employ his d e http://oll. But Conan died suddenly after making this demand. they desired to spread their fame each beyond his own district. and Hoel. the more it suited their romantic spirit: The fame of the intended invasion was already diffused every where: Multitudes crowded to tender to the duke their service. or his valour in action. but the earl of Flanders. than in chusing the most veteran forces. count of Britanny. and his abilities. Hence their genius for chivalry. though it might justly fear the aggrandizement of so dangerous a vassal. instead of adopting the malignity. they were prompted by a natural ambition to imitate those adventures. United. and by their connexions with the great body of the community.. The counts of Anjou and of Flanders encouraged their subjects to engage in the expedition. and being accustomed to nothing from their infancy but recitals of the success attending wars and battles. he was indebted to fortune for procuring him some assistance. and also for removing many obstacles. which so much engaged the attention of Europe. pursued not its interests on this occasion with sufficient vigour and resolution. for the crown of England. besides openly giving all his vassals permission to embark in this expedition. in case of his success. had long maintained a pre-eminence among those haughty chieftains. and even the court of France.. and William. the reigning monarch. by his power. for military expeditions. to outshine each other by the reputation of strength and prowess. promised his protection to the dutchy of Normandy during the absence of the prince. was his mortal enemy: In order to throw a damp upon the duke’s enterprize. Entertained with that hospitality and courtesy. and sent his eldest son. Page 117 of 354 princely situation. William. they had formed attachments with the prince. or merely for show and entertainment. and which were so much exaggerated by the credulity of the age. and greedily attended to the prospects of the signal glory and elevation. being at the head of the regency. with that of their vassals and retainers: And William found less difficulty in compleating his levies. having desired assistance. how little soever interested in its failure or success. or more properly speaking. his courage. Besides these advantages. to serve under him with a body of five thousand Bretons. in case of William’s success against England. had been ambitious of acquiring a reputation in the court and in the armies of Normandy. that. which it was natural for him to expect in an undertaking. The more grandeur there appeared in the attempt. which they heard so much celebrated.

he gradually engaged all of them to advance the sums demanded. The greatest difficulty. Hugh de Grantmesnil. count of Breteüil. which promised so much glory and advantage to their country. though at first converted by Romish missionaries. after stipulating that this concession should be no precedent. and a ring with one of St. The most celebrated were Eustace. But the most important ally. the lustre of the arms. after an insensible progress during several ages of darkness and ignorance. Geoffrey de Rotrou. that they would assist their prince to the utmost in his intended enterprize. endeavoured to bring over others. therefore. that the French and Norman barons. and bring the English churches to a nearer conformity with those of the continent. Page 118 of 354 whole force in the invasion of England. finding it dangerous to solicit them in a body. voted. and constable of the dutchy. from the high names of nobility who engaged under the banners of the duke of Normandy. Odo bishop of Baieux. called to them. and the more to encourage the duke of Normandy in his enterprize. That kingdom. as did the count of Mortaigne. and the accoutrements of both. and especially William Fitz-Osborne. the beauty and vigour of the horses. if successful in their enterprize. was the pope.Hume. and Geoffrey Giffard. conferred separately with the richest individuals in the province. and to set a precedent of performing their military service at a distance from their own country. when he himself was once engaged. Aimeri de Thouars.000 men from among those numerous supplies. from the discipline of the men. both to grant sums so much beyond the common measure of taxes in that age. William d’Evreux. He declared immediately in favour of William’s claim. but there were other advantages. Roger de Beaumont. which William had to encounter in his preparations.libertyfund. which supported the grandeur of the papacy. though it had afterwards advanced some farther steps towards subjection to Rome. Charles Martel. for embracing William’s quarrel. in the quarrels of the greatest monarchs. denounced excommunication against him and his adherents. Peter’s hairs in it. The Roman who had a mighty influence over the ancient barons. entirely separated from the rest of Europe. it had hitherto proved inaccessible to those exorbitant claims.. and beginning with those on whose affections he most relied. whom William gained by his negociations. Hugh d’Estaples. that pontiff foresaw. which. the reigning pope. William de Warenne. Alexander.. which from every quarter solicited to be received into his service. that there was the field. It was a sufficient motive to Alexander II. might import into that country a more devoted reverence to the holy see. to assume the office of a mediator. and supplies being demanded for the intended enterprize. began now to lift his head openly above all the princes of Europe.html 4/7/2004 . and to obtrude his dictates as sovereign laws on his obsequious disciples. or even an arbiter. count of Boulogne. must result from the conquest of England by the Norman arms. and rendered him umpire of the dispute between him and Harold. The camp bore a splendid. that he alone had made an appeal to his tribunal. arose from his own subjects in Normandy. and at last the states themselves. The states of the dutchy were assembled at Lislebonne. to interpose in all secular affairs. hoped. yet a martial appearance. Thus were all the ambition and violence of that invasion covered over safely with the broad mantle of religion. on which they must erect trophies to i k http://oll. but above all. no less devout in their religious principles than valorous in their military enterprizes. and pointing to the opposite shore. To these bold chieftains William held up the spoils of England as the prize of their valour. great and small. f g h William had now assembled a fleet of 3000 vessels. he sent him a consecrated banner. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . The duke. and forming a world within itself. Roger de Montgomery. and had selected an army of 60. pronounced Harold a perjured usurper. The count of Longueville seconded him in this negociation. maintained still a considerable independance in its ecclesiastical administration. there appeared a reluctance in many members. Every person.

his liberty. Valori. put to sea. who had the generosity to give prince Olave. excited the inveterate rancour of Tosti. l http://oll. some of them even to desert their colours. They flocked from all quarters to join his standard. and after committing some depredations on the south and east coasts. the tutelar saint of Normandy. and as soon as he reached the enemy at Standford. at the mouth of the small river Dive. the son of Halfager. on his receiving false intelligence. which had been conferred upon him. and disembarked the troops. and many of them began to mutiny. when the duke. fancying they saw the hand of heaven in all these concurring circumstances. but the winds proved long contrary. Page 119 of 354 their name. and expressed the utmost ardour to show himself worthy of the crown. informed of this defeat. when Morcar earl of Northumberland. that the English found no reason to repent the choice which they had made of a sovereign. the army began to imagine. the duke. but the victory was decisive on the side of Harold. in order to support their drooping hopes. Tosti. had employed every art of popularity to acquire the affections of the public. and he gave so many proofs of an equitable and prudent administration. they were destined to certain destruction. ventured to give them battle. were very subject to the dread of imaginary ones. arrived. The action ended in the defeat and flight of these two noblemen. however. having collected about sixty vessels in the ports of Flanders. who despised real dangers. September 25. and detained them in that harbour.libertyfund. The Norman fleet and army had been assembled. in concert with Harold Halfager. This prince. without any material loss. that heaven had declared against them. and which had cruized all summer off the Isle of Wight. together with the death of Tosti and Halfager. and ended in the total rout of the Norvegians. from the great combination against ordered a procession to be made with the reliques of St. and all the troops had been instantly embarked. and that. which Harold had assembled. that he might encrease the number of Harold’s enemies. the king’s brother-in-law. he found himself in a condition to give them battle. and was there joined by Halfager. had been dismissed. Michael. The combined fleets entered the Humber. There were. discouraged by contrary winds and other accidents. at Pevensey in Sussex. when at last the wind became favourable.Hume. Harold. that the duke of Normandy was landed with a great army in the south of England. having hastily collected some forces. who began to extend their depredations on all sides. he sailed to Northumberland. who came over with a great armament of three hundred sail. The wind instantly changed. Valori. to infest the coasts of England. and prayers to be said for more favourable weather. however. and encouraged him. had prevented any disorder. had laid aside his preparations. early in the summer. the soldiers. The authority. and as this incident happened on the eve of the feast of St. These bold warriors. proceeding in great order. hastened with an army to the protection of his people. of the duke. and fix their establishments. Even the Norvegian fleet fell into the hands of Harold. But he had scarcely time to rejoice for this victory. notwithstanding the pope’s benediction. While he was making these mighty preparations. that William. set out with the greatest alacrity: They met with no opposition on their passage: A great fleet. till they reached St.. the good discipline maintained among the seamen and soldiers.. when he received intelligence. and the great care in supplying them with provisions. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . several vessels lost in this short passage. The action was bloody. and allow him to depart with twenty vessels.html 4/7/2004 . king of Norway. and Edwin earl of Mercia. and as the wind again proved contrary. The Norman armament. and enabled them to sail along the coast. though he was not sensible of the full extent of his danger.

The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . but reserve. running to a neighbouring cottage. he drew near to the Normans. but had the presence of mind. that it would be better policy to prolong the war. a man of bravery and conduct. plucked some thatch. The victory of Harold. in case of disastrous accidents. or to hold it of him in fealty. on the other. requiring him either to resign the kingdom. were exposed from those rapacious invaders. must be regarded as formidable to the English: That if their first fire. He was so confident of success. who from fatigue and discontent secretly withdrew from their colours. by refusing to distribute the Norvegian spoils among them: A conduct which was little agreeable to his usual generosity of temper. though great and honourable. His brother Gurth. would fight to the last extremity. as well as stimulated by his native courage. at least. straitened in provisions. the English. which. sensible of the imminent danger. The duke himself. that he sent a message to the duke. that the God http://oll. to support the pretensions of the duke of Normandy. even when they heard of Harold’s great victory over the Norvegians: They seemed rather to wait with impatience the arrival of the enemy. happened to stumble and fall. as he leaped on shore. to which their properties. would hasten from all quarters to his assistance. to turn the omen to his advantage. and he disgusted the rest. who. He hastened by quick marches to reach this new invader. began to entertain apprehensions of the event. in his own country. but though he was reinforced at London and other places with fresh troops. but which his desire of sparing the people. and being the flower of all the warriors of the continent. had more certain and less dangerous means of ensuring to himself the victory: That the Norman troops. it is said.html 4/7/2004 . elated on the one hand with the highest he found himself also weakened by the desertion of his old soldiers. as well as liberties. might give the soldiers more assured hopes of a prosperous issue to the combat. at least.libertyfund. and that upon the holy reliques. that he had taken possession of the country.. it were better that the command of the army should be entrusted to another. but that the king of England. and William. by calling aloud. had probably occasioned. Harold replied. and fatigued with the bad weather and deep roads during the winter-season. Harold was deaf to all these remonstrances: Elated with his past prosperity. or to fight him in single combat. that they were nowise discouraged. that the desperate situation of the duke of Normandy made it requisite for that prince to bring matters to a speedy decision. not being bound by those sacred ties. he resolved to give battle in person.Hume. if he would depart the kingdom without effusion of blood: But his offer was rejected with disdain. he presented to his general. which is always the most dangerous. as to be constrained to swear. and would render his army invincible: That. sent him a message by some monks. promising him a sum of money. who had removed their camp and fleet to Hastings. The joy and alacrity of William and his whole army was so great. in the war that impended over him from the duke of Normandy. and put his whole fortune on the issue of a battle. He lost many of his bravest officers and soldiers in the action. some resource to the liberty and independance of the kingdom: And that having once been so unfortunate. to spare his own person in the action. where they fixed their quarters. And a soldier. he ought not to expose his own person. provided with every supply.. and seeing. not to be behind with his enemy in vaunting. Page 120 of 354 and the army quietly disembarked. He urged to him. had proved in the main prejudicial to his interest and may be regarded as the immediate cause of his ruin. were allowed to languish for want of action. beloved by his subjects. no resource in case of a discomfiture. they must fall an easy and a bloodless prey to their enemy: That if a general action were delayed. which was approaching. as if giving him seizine of the kingdom. if they were harassed with small skirmishes. or to submit their cause to the arbitration of the pope. and remonstrated with the king. and for that purpose. if he thought it necessary to hazard a battle.

which was very delicate in its management. on the night before the battle. or the inevitable destruction which must ensue upon their discomfiture: That if their martial and veteran bands could once break those raw soldiers. and would prognosticate to himself that fate which his multiplied crimes had so justly merited. and the commander of the enemy. and disorder. led by he http://oll. He ordered the signal of battle to be given. but the aspect of things. had given him just cause to hope for the favour of the Almighty.html 4/7/2004 . whether they considered the prize which would attend their victory. and singing the hymn or song of Roland. who had rashly dared to approach them. if they remitted in the least their wonted prowess. in order and with alacrity. and were so disposed. enemy. was very different in the two camps. overcome by the difficulty of the ground. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . renewed the attack with fresh forces and with redoubled courage. which remained long undecided.Hume.. placed himself at the head of his infantry.. the whole fortune of the war now depended on their swords. and would be decided in a single action: That never army had greater motives for exerting a vigorous courage. accompanied by his two valiant brothers. The first attack of the Normans was desperate. dismounting. began first to relax their vigour. commanded by Martel. and confusion was spreading among the ranks. but which seemed adviseable in his desperate situation. m The English and Normans now prepared themselves for this important decision. and conscious of his own breach of faith. The Kentish men were placed in the van. Finding. was composed of his bravest battalions. Page 121 of 354 of battles would soon be the arbiter of all their differences. His presence restored the action. he resolved to stand upon the defensive. and animated by the example of their prince. and flanked each wing of the army. the duke called together the most considerable of his commanders. and expressed his resolution to conquer or to perish in the action. they conquered a kingdom at one blow. would be struck with terror on their appearance. an enraged enemy hung upon their rear. he tried a stratagem. and after a furious combat. He represented to them. The second. by his criminal conduct. The duke next divided his army into three lines: The first. that the enemy. and hard pressed by the enemy. the Normans in silence and in prayer. he had ensured every human means of conquest. The English spent the time in riot.libertyfund. Gurth and Leofwin. a post which they had always claimed as their due: The Londoners guarded the standard: And the king himself. who found himself on the brink of destruction. in which he was inferior. and to avoid all action with the cavalry. and in the other functions of their religion. anathematized by the sovereign pontiff. and the whole army. 11th October. the former. and made them a speech suitable to the occasion. if he gained not a decisive victory. the sea met them in their retreat. then to retreat. the English were obliged to retire with loss. and an ignominious death was the certain punishment of their imprudent cowardice: That by collecting so numerous and brave a host. that the event. the famous peer of Charlemagne. and jollity. hastened with a select band. on the contrary. in whose hands alone lay the event of wars and battles: And that a perjured usurper. heavy armed. and ranged in close order: His cavalry. and having likewise drawn some trenches to secure his flanks. at whose head he placed himself. that they stretched beyond the infantry. when William. was approaching. to the relief of his dismayed forces. n o p q advanced. aided by the advantage of ground. where. but was received with equal valour by the English. which they and he had long wished for. On the morning. moving at once. towards the Harold had seized the advantage of a rising ground. and were justly entitled to all its possessions as the reward of their prosperous valour: That. consisted of archers and light armed infantry. and the duke ordering his second line to advance. still made a vigorous resistance. formed the third line.

where. p. for their victory: And the prince. The English were repulsed with great slaughter. and to allure the enemy from their ground by the appearance of flight. after a battle which was fought from morning till sunset. [z] Chron.libertyfund. 62. 429. by the heroic valour displayed by both armies and by both commanders. and was generously restored without ransom to his mother. 270. 128. p. which the surprize and terror of the enemy must give them in that critical and decisive moment. W. [d] Dudo. The dead body of Harold was brought to William.. By this disposition he at last prevailed: Harold was slain by an arrow. and attacking them in deep and miry ground. and there fell near fifteen thousand men on the side of the Normans: The loss was still more considerable on that of the vanquished. Sax. 62. Mailr. lib. Gemeticenis. having refreshed his troops. duke of Normandy. being rallied by the bravery of Harold. notwithstanding their loss. 2. placed behind. 71. p. maintaining themselves in firm array. 359. p. and driven back to the hill. 70.html 4/7/2004 . 127. The Norman army left not the field of battle without giving thanks to heaven. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . Sax.Hume. cap. ex edit. p. Chron. Gul. to decide the fate of a mighty kingdom. Malm. seemed determined to dispute the victory to the last extremity. p. they were able. and were pursued with great slaughter by the victorious Normans. precipitately followed the Normans into the plain. W. should gall the enemy. gave ground on all sides. [c] H. and darkness saved them from any farther pursuit by the enemy. Hunt. while his archers. Sax. in the most solemn manner. and discomfited English. The artifice succeeded against those unexperienced soldiers. the great and decisive victory of Hastings. but even after this double advantage. Higden. 126. 2. http://oll. and both of them pursue the advantage. p. ENDNOTES [y] Chron. William had three horses kllled under him. heated by the action and sanguine in their hopes. that at once the infantry should face about upon their pursuers. Thus was gained by William. who were exposed by the situation of the ground. William gave orders. The duke tried the same stratagem a second time with the same success. Malm. prepared to push to the utmost his advantage against the divided. and which seemed worthy. p. and the cavalry make an assault upon their wings. Duchesne. [b] Hoveden. He ordered his heavy-armed infantry to make an assault upon them. p. to maintain the post and continue the combat. and who were intent in defending themselves against the swords and spears of the assailants. while he was combating with great bravery at the head of his men: His two brothers shared the same fate: And the English. who.. 3. Page 122 of 354 was totally undone: He commanded his troops to make a hasty retreat. discouraged by the fall of those princes. 271. p. besides the death of the king and his two brothers. obtained some revenge for the slaughter and dishonour of the day. [a] Chron. p. 153. A few troops however of the vanquished had still the courage to turn upon their pursuers. But the appearance of the duke obliged them to seek their safety by flight. dismayed. he still found a great body of the English. Higden.

p. p. Sax. Hunt. 459. 459. 438. 76. [x] Anglia Sacra. 237. p. [w] Spellm. 73. Vitalis. [a] Ibid. Malm. W. Matth.html 4/7/2004 . p. p. p. 154. St. 74. vol. p. p. [t] Chron. [q] Chron. Gul. p. 161. In one of these ad Gul. 62. 19. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . p. cap. 4.600 hydes in England. Canute diverted the course of the Thames. 277. p. [n] Wallingford. p. Wigorn. 151. [g] Dudo. Brompton. [b] Chron. 374. Chron. Gemet. p. p. p. 275. 11. cap. p. [o] There were 243. [m] Order. 82. 2. Malm. [k] Gul. p. 17. cap. p. Gem. Glossary in verbo Hocday. p. 366. Neustr. Consequently the ships equipped must be 785. Flor. Malmes. I. Dun. [y] Higden. [r] W. Neust. Gemet. 7. lib. 39. Malmes. Petri di Burgo. [l] Order. p. p.libertyfund. [f] Gul. Page 123 of 354 [e] Dudo. 72. 20. 622. lib. p. lib. W. [h] Ypod. The cavalry was 30. 71. 547. 417. 21. cap. Hoveden. 118. [i] Gul. p. Sim. 179. 277. Gemet. Conq. in epist. p. Vitalis. lib. p. Sax. [u] H. Abbas Rieval. 209. Gul. lib. Beverl. [s] W. Gemet. Chron. [p] W. Sax.450 men. p. 434. 2. 935.. [z] Ingulf. Gem. and by that means brought his ships above London bridge. p. Gul. Higden. Alur. 6. http://oll. Ypod. Mailr. West. Higden. p 73. 2. p. p. 1. cap.. 365. Malm. 156.

[s] W. Mailr. 436. [r] W. p. p. 157. 948. West. 947. 196. vol. 95. p. [d] Chron.. 241. p. Anglia Sacra. 80. [k] Ibid. 31. p. 452. Hoveden. p. 2339. 68. [z] G. [e] W. 377. p. Thom. [p] W. 366. W. p. p. cap. 492. Malm. [q] Ypod. 79. p. West. p. 97. that Harold was regularly elected by the states: Some. p. Ingulf. p. Hunt. Buchanan. p. Hunt. Dun. M. MaIm. cap. 93. Chron. p. p. 449. p. 492. 366. p. [w] Wace. p. p. 166. p. [f] Chron. 21. Order. Page 124 of 354 [c] W. 279. Many of the historians say. [t] Hoveden. Wykes. [l] Brompton. p. p. Order. [u] Ingulf.. edit. p. 95. Gemet. Vitalis. 1. Malm. p. Hoveden. [x] Order. p. Chron. Sax. Ingulf. p. Gemet. p. [y] Spelm. Malm. in verbo Belliva. Malm. 158. Malm. Sax. p. p. p. Ypod. 277. 80. p. Higden. [m] W. Brompton. p. W. Vitalis. Higden. Knyghton. 1715. p. Malm. Gul. p. 157. Malm. [o] Brompton. 115.html 4/7/2004 . 186 [i] Chron. Chron. 81. 221. I. Brompton. [g] Chron. lib. 442. 910.libertyfund. Sax. lib. p. 957. 459. 93. Higden. p. penes Carte. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . Matth. Malm. H. H. http://oll. p. W. p. Vitalis. 492. that Edward left him his successor by will. 443. 65. Malm. 7. p. p.Hume. Neust. 7. W. MS. p. 221. p. 210. 460. p. 68. Gul. Pict. p. Sax. 279. 68. Neust. Abbas Rieval. 354. p. [h] Sim. Mailr. [n] Ingulf. 81. 163. p. 163.

This account given by Wallingford.Hume. incerto auctore. Brompton. Higden. p. Pict. p. 7. Malm. [NOTE [E]] The ingenious author of the article GODWIN.libertyfund. p. has http://oll. 286.. 101. 198. lib. Gemet. West. Gemet. [e] Gul. cap. cap.html 4/7/2004 . Malm. that it was these Danes only that were put to death. lib. 331. [p] Gul. p. p. 501. 34. This representation therefore of the matter is absolutely impossible. 22. Paris. Pictavensis. p. 1684. which was not the case. Great resistance must have been made. lib. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . [f] Gul. But the Danes were almost the sole inhabitants in the kingdoms of Northumberland and East Anglia. De Gest. Malm. Pict. 492. It seems probable. Page 125 of 354 [a] Order. 7. and violent wars ensued. 363. Gemet. [d] Gul. Order. 286. Matth. 212. [g] Baker. though he stands single. 2d edit. DeGest. ad Britann. who lives at other people’s expence. [i] Gul. introd. Parisis anno 1644. therefore. p. p. that the name Lurdane. [b] W. p. p. [NOTE [D]] Almost all the ancient historians speak of this massacre of the Danes as if it had been universal. 201. and were very numerous in Mercia. [m] Higden. p. Vitalis. Gibs. 222. edit. lord Dane. We are told. p. 33. [h] Camden. p. cap. [o] H. 332. Pict. Higden.. 223. 201. p. p. p. came from the conduct of the Danes. 198. p. p. [q] W. 99. 2. 285. and as if every individual of that nation throughout England had been put to death. edit. Vitalis. 30. Angel. p. p. Du Gange’s Glossary in verbo Cantilena Rolandi. 501. Gul. Hunt. But the English princes had been intirely masters for several generations. p. [n] W. Matth. who were put to death. 173. [l] Higden. p. for an idle lazy fellow. in the Biographia Britannica. 500. p. 101. 285. Matth. [k] Ordericus Vitalis. 7. Angl. [c] Gul. Verstegan. p. and only supported a military corps of that nation. 959. must be admitted as the only true one. Order West.

was unable to resist the vigorous efforts of a free people. but the doubtful and ambiguous manner in which he seems always to have mentioned it. had it been real. and that of all the northern nations. and Simeon of Durham. rekindled her ancient spirit. and really so just a title. as from a new epoch... vol. it is contradicted by a very curious and authentic monument lately discovered. Hickes. It is a tapestry. Hoveden. i. which he was desirous to call a will. see Histoire de l’Academie de Litterature. must have been agreed upon by all of them. which. affirm that Harold had no intention of going over to Normandy. But that this supposition has not much foundation. that there is a great difference and variation among historians. some historians. Harold is there represented as taking his departure from king Edward in execution of some commission. and is accordingly mentioned by Eadmer. It does not seem likely. may employ what pretence he pleases: It is sufficient to refute his pretences to observe. and is contradicted by most of the ancient historians. possessed of so much power. and shook http://oll. The will would have been known to all. who were hostages is the most likely cause that can be assigned. and destroyed every noble principle of science and virtue. The design of redeeming his brother and nephew. is told so differently by the ancient writers. upon the supposition. but that taking the air in a pleasure-boat on the coast. in the submission which they paid to their princes. where he calls himself rex hereditarius. APPENDIX I THE ANGLO-SAXON GOVERNMENT AND MANNERS First Saxon government — Succession of the Kings — The Wittenagemot — The aristocracy — The several orders of men — Courts of Justice — Criminal law — Rules of proof — Military force — Public revenue — Value of Money — Manners THE GOVERNMENT of the Germans. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . There is indeed a charter of the Conqueror preserved by Dr. preserved in the ducal palace of Roüen. which appeared to me the most consistent and who established themselves on the ruins of Rome. wife to the emperor: At least it is of very great antiquity. much less that he got it ratified by the states of the kingdom. that there are few important passages of the English history liable to so great uncertainty. had sunk the genius of men. [NOTE [F]] The whole story of the transactions between Edward. as is affirmed by some. which had taken place in the Roman empire. Page 126 of 354 endeavoured to clear the memory of that nobleman. and which. Again. appears hence. whom it was much more the interest of the Norman cause to blacken. and mounting his vessel with a great train. tom. particularly Malmsbury and Matthew of Westminster. and attended with so much success. I have followed the account. but a prince. were more guided by persuasion than authority. that all the English annals had been falsified by the Norman historians after the conquest. previously to the irruption of those conquerors.html 4/7/2004 . ix. with regard to a point. was always extremely free. accustomed to independance and enured to arms. and Europe. For a farther account of this piece of tapestry. Harold. and would have been produced by the Conqueror.libertyfund. he was driven over by stress of weather to the territories of Guy count of Ponthieu: But besides that this story is not probable in itself. and supposed to have been wrought by orders of Matilda. and those fierce people. that Edward ever executed a will in the duke’s favour. The military despotism. to whom it gave so plausible. and the duke of Normandy. that almost all these historians have given a very good character of his son Harold. meaning heir by will. that he could only plead the known intentions of that monarch in his favour. page 535.Hume. Brompton. proves.

would not be very strict in maintaining a regular succession of their princes. and cultivated by science. and ascribed to it an undisputed superiority. so far from being invested with arbitrary power. as they enjoyed great liberty in their own country. The free constitutions then established. and is so much fortified by the usual rule in transmitting private possessions... and superior to that paid for the life of a subject. which. The language was pure Saxon. or the next prince of the blood. was a sensible mark of his subordination to the community. or at least the tacit acquiescence of the people. rather than subdued the ancient inhabitants. which they had inherited from their ancestors. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . was more attended to than general principles. the manners and customs were wholly German. every vacancy made by the demise of the first magistrate.Hume. If any king left a son of an age and capacity fit for government. that an independant people. The king. or none that was steadily observed. will suit those founders of the English government. which is drawn by the masterly pencil of Tacitus. that the crown was considered as altogether elective. and the same picture of a fierce and bold liberty. was extremely apt to secure their obedience. was but feeble and imperfect. still preserve an air of independance and legal administration. was promoted to the government. which distinguish the European nations. by the suffrages of the people. he was even so far on a level with the people. and occurs so often in the history of the Anglo-Saxons. more properly than kings or princes) who commanded them in those military expeditions. even the names of places. The Saxons.html 4/7/2004 .libertyfund. that we cannot consistently entertain any other notion of their government. so little restrained by law. and every man is not as much qualified for exercising the First Saxon government. they either had no rule. obstinately retained that invaluable possession in their new settlement. The chieftains (for such they were. Page 127 of 354 off the base servitude to arbitrary will and authority. was only considered as the first among the citizens. which often remain while the tongue entirely changes. and as the Saxons exterminated. by taking previous measures with the leading men. and the idea of any right. however impaired by the encroachments of succeeding princes. and left the sceptre to his posterity: Any sovereign. and valour superior to the rest of mankind. and that a regular plan was traced by the constitution for supplying. though proportionate to his station. who subdued Britain. and if that part of the globe maintain sentiments of liberty. but possession. that a stated price was fixed for his head. and a legal fine was levied upon his murderer. still possessed a very limited authority. equity. however obtained. which does not exclude it by the refinements of a republican constitution. but preserved unaltered all their civil and military institutions. they were indeed transplanted into a new territory. were almost all affixed by the conquerors. We are not however to suppose. This is so much the case in all barbarous monarchies. required the express that it must retain a great influence on every society. his authority depended more on his personal qualities than on his station. under which she had so long laboured. Succession of the kings. and indeed the ordinary administration of government. which was once excluded. It is easy to imagine. in filling the vacant throne. But as there is a material difference between government and private possessions. his uncle. http://oll. in that emergency. honour. had it greatly in his power to appoint his successor: All these changes. and they imported into this island the same principles of independance. Though they paid great regard to the royal family. The idea of an hereditary succession in authority is so natural to men. the young prince naturally stepped into the throne: If he was a minor. and present convenience. it owes these advantages chiefly to the seeds implanted by those generous barbarians.

even were it examined impartially.html 4/7/2004 . and gave their consent to the public statutes. or what we now call the commons. and in all the kingdoms. (for that is the import of the term) whose consent was requisite for enacting laws. put this matter beyond controversy. The states by their suffrage may sometimes establish a sovereign. there is also mention of the wites or wise-men. It is confessed. and frequently to pass over the person.libertyfund. at all times. admitted into this council. It is agreed. Edmond. is not so clearly ascertained by the laws or the history of that period. that our knowledge of the Anglo-Saxon history and antiquities is too imperfect to afford us means of determining with certainty all the prerogatives of the crown and privileges of the people. and that it changed considerably during the course of six centuries. and Edward the Confessor. proceres. which elapsed from the first invasion of the Saxons till the Norman conquest. had he possessed the requisite years and abilities. Ina. overawed and influenced. would have been thought entitled to the sovereignty. The matter would probably be of difficult discussion. either elective or hereditary. that the Wittenagemot enacted statutes which regulated the ecclesiastical as well as civil government. strictly speaking. with their causes and effects. Our monarchical faction maintain. who. or men learned in the law: The popular faction assert them to be representatives of the boroughs. satrapae. but who these were. Ethelred. that. as a component part of the Wittenagemot. that the constitution might be somewhat different in the different kingdoms of the Heptarchy. Athelstan. employed by all ancient historians in mentioning the Wittenagemot. were often called earls. optimates. But besides the prelates and aldermen. these monarchies are not. r s t NOTE [G] u http://oll. that the aldermen or were governors of counties. The boroughs also. who. The expressions. and carry proofs every where of a limited and legal government. terms which seem to suppose an aristocracy. the more captious and deceitful. from the tenor of those ancient laws. but as our modern parties have chosen to divide on this point. and for ratifying the chief acts of public administration. were hitherto unknown to the Anglo-Saxons. Thus.. even those to the laws of Canute.Hume. were so small and so poor. and to exclude the commons. The preambles to all the laws of Ethelbert.. and the arguments on both sides have become. there was a national council. though a kind of conqueror. The members are almost always called the principes. that it seems nowise probable they would be admitted as a part of the national councils. Edward the Elder. magnates. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . but they more frequently recognize the person. whom they find established: A few great men take the lead. they can as little be regarded as wholly testamentary. that the bishops and abbots were an essential part. seem to contradict the latter supposition. are apt to make great leaps in the succession. or of giving an exact delineation of that government. and the reigning prince. But most of these differences and changes. that these wites or sapientes were the judges. and it is also evident. Page 128 of 354 one. on that account. by which the church is totally severed from the state. from the low state of commerce. are unknown to us: It only appears. acquiesce in the government. It is probable also. and the inhabitants lived in such dependance on the great men. the people. But who were the constituent members of this Wittenagemot has not been determined with certainty by antiquaries. called a Wittenagemot or assembly of the wise men. the question has been disputed with the greater obstinacy. provided he be of the royal Alfred. It also appears. a people. Edgar. and though the destination of a prince may often be followed in appointing his successor. as for enjoying the other. who are not sensible of the general advantages attending a fixed rule. The commons are well known to have had The Wittenagemot. passes undisputedly for the legal sovereign. and that those dangerous principles. after the Danish times.

which was brought before them. by which it appears. and to the practice of all the northern nations. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . there is some necessity for supposing. the Anglo-Saxon government.. that the Saxons. excepting some of the ecclesiastics. was become extremely aristocratical: The royal authority was very limited. that w x The Aristocracy.Hume. could only have place in small tribes. who controlled the authority of the kings. had there been no other legislative authority. Page 129 of 354 no share in the governments established by the Franks. after the abolition of the Heptarchy. we may conclude. Hence the immeasurable power assumed by Harold. We may. even one allied to the crown. and the judges or privy council. constituent members of the national assembly: There is reason to think. that this assembly consisted of other members than the prelates. that the public council would become disorderly or confused by admitting so great a multitude. and rendered themselves quite necessary in the government. Siward. when the king lived at a distance from the provinces. tenants. that the more considerable proprietors of land were. enemy still preserved their power and influence. For as all these. that those great proprietors. after the difference of property had formed distinctions more important than those which arose from personal strength and valour. were anciently appointed by the king. but he speaks not of representatives. there was no danger of the assembly’s becoming too numerous for the dispatch of the little business. We find a passage in an ancient author. at least. and over all the inhabitants of the neighbourhood. contrary to the tenor of all the historians. Nor need we imagine. would much augment their authority over their vassals and retainers. that the national assemblies must have been more limited in their number. the royal power had been in a great measure absolute. without any election. and other northern nations. The landed property of England was probably in few hands during the Saxon times. After principalities became extensive.libertyfund. Edric and Alfric. in whom. whatever we may determine concerning the constituent members of the Wittenagemot. Morcar. But though we must exclude the burgesses or commons from the Saxon Wittenagemot. that. mentioned by the Roman historian. among the ancient Germans. to share with them in the legislative authority. and we may conclude. and slaves: And it requires strong proof to convince us that they would admit any of a rank so much inferior as the burgesses. the consent of all the members of the community was required in every important deliberation. http://oll. that. was not esteemed a princeps (the term usually employed by ancient historians when the Wittenagemot is mentioned) till he had acquired a fortune of that amount. and we may therefore conclude. and this ancient practice. Tacitus indeed affirms. that forty hydes. The military profession alone was honourable among all those conquerors: The warriors subsisted by their possessions in land: They became considerable by their influence over their vassals. or between four and five thousand acres. abbots. Leofric. that a person of very noble birth. We have hints given us in historians of the great power and riches of particular noblemen: And it could not but happen. who remained longer barbarous and uncivilized than those tribes. who resided on their estates. even if admitted to that assembly. the people. The two latter. Burgundians. aldermen.. Godwin. and composed only of the more considerable citizens. were of little or no weight and consideration. retainers. with the king. therefore. in the period preceding the Norman conquest. would never think of conferring such an extraordinary privilege on trade and industry. was the estate requisite for entitling the possessor to this honourable privilege. It is certain. where every citizen might without inconvenience be assembled upon any extraordinary emergency. though detested by the people. on account of their joining a foreign. conclude.html 4/7/2004 . the legislature resided. during the later part of that period: And as men had hardly any ambition to attend those public councils.

and if he be negligent in protecting the person exposed to danger. Men. All the associates are there said to be gentlemen of Cambridgeshire. and there was a necessity. and composed a kind of separate community. those private wars and inroads turned to the advantage of the aldermen and nobles. in a manner. When any of the associates is murdered. the great offices went from father to son. a b c http://oll. who were of a more considerable rank. the half of that sum. When any of the associates is in danger. and to be faithful to each other: They promise to bury any of the associates who dies. unless he has the reasonable excuse of sickness. Dr. which rendered itself formidable to all aggressors. attending the invasions of the Danes. he binds himself to pay one pound. and so little enured to industry. If any of the associates kill any of his fellows. and to attend at his interment. but not powerful enough. they are to prosecute him for the sum at their joint expence. hereditary in the families . again. But where any of the associates kills a man. entered into formal confederacies with each other. besides flying to his succour. justice was commonly very ill administered. and in these alone. and who afforded them in return protection from any insult or injustice by strangers. that a general war. And we each to support himself by his own independant authority. Among that military and turbulent people. so averse to commerce and the arts. they engage to levy a fine of one pound upon him: If the president of the society himself be wanting in this particular. but on family rights and possessions. he must himself pay the fine. and which contains many particulars characteristical of the manners and customs of the times. If any of the associates. and great oppression and violence seem to have prevailed. though a freeman. For the same reason. and became. and whom they were obliged to consider as their sovereign. and if he refuse to pay it. Those free-booters made unexpected inroads on all quarters. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . if the fine be 700 shillings. the society are to contribute by a certain proportion to pay his fine. kill a man. they promise. that his murderer was obliged by law to pay a fine to the latter. whose patronage they purchased by annual payments. A mark a piece. had placed themselves under the clientship of some particular nobleman. wilfully and without provocation. if he be a Welshman. that in the later Saxon times. in whatever place he had appointed. who is called alderman of all England. that each county should resist them by its own force. and calls for the assistance of his fellows. managed by the united efforts of the whole state. and under the conduct of its own nobility and its own magistrates. Hickes has preserved a curious Saxon bond of this kind. as a compensation for his loss. contribute to encrease it.. that almost all the inhabitants even of towns. These disorders would be encreased by the exorbitant power of the aristocracy. they are to exact eight pounds from the murderer. in their turn. or of duty to his superior. whose orders they followed even to the disturbance of the government or the injury of their fellow-citizens. Brady has given us from Domesday. There is one Athelstan. who happens to be poor. to give information to the sheriff. though the monarch himself was a prince of valour and abilities. and they swear before the holy reliques to observe their confederacy.html 4/7/2004 . by the extracts which Dr.Hume. were obliged to devote themselves to the service of some chieftain. which he calls a Sodalitium. would also serve much to encrease the power of the principal nobility. commonly augments the power of the crown. and is said to be half-king.. Page 130 of 354 their authority was founded. not daring to rely on the guardianship of the laws. Hence we find. y z The circumstances. was supposed so much to belong to his patron. less if the person killed be a clown or ceorle. binds himself to pay a measure of honey. not on popularity. and whoever is wanting in this last duty. mentioned in the reign of the king of that name. Men. more than the king himself. in like manner as he paid a fine to the master for the murder of his slave. and would. to contribute to his funeral charges. or even the legislature. A client.

they will seek it by submission to superiors. the great body even of the free citizens. and as the commons had little trade or industry by which they could accumulate riches. which the laws and their own innocence were not alone able to insure to them. even though they were not separated by positive laws. and received protection chiefly from their personal valour. or renounce the benefit of it: In which case they bind themselves. The former was always much regarded by all the German nations even in their most barbarous and as the Saxon nobility. and by herding in some private confederacy. and from the assistance of their friends or patrons. distinction they brought over with them into Britain. It is not to be doubted. and the fine. to revenge such as are committed. a circumstance so e http://oll. and where they receive not protection from the laws and magistrate. never to eat or drink with him. that could gradually mix with their superiors..Hume. or alderman. he must pay eight pounds to the society. could scarcely burthen their estates with much debt. and to have received lands. which acts under the direction of a powerful leader. and oppressors. than where the execution of the laws is the most severe. the king’s thanes and lesser thanes. We know of no title. having little credit. the noble. The German Saxons. which raised any one to the rank of thane. really enjoyed much less true liberty. If by any extraordinary accident. And thus all anarchy is the immediate cause of tyranny.libertyfund. and where subjects are reduced to the strictest subordination and dependance on the civil magistrate. besides paying the usual fine to the relations of the deceased. except in the presence of the king. and the slaves. The reason is derived from the excess itself of that liberty. There are other regulations to protect themselves and their servants from all injuries. d The several orders of men. This The nobles were called thanes. in order to supply its place. a mean person acquired riches. but a confederacy of this kind must have been a great source of friendship and attachment. might remain long distinct. On the whole. except noble birth and the possession of land. in those ages. if not over the state. or attendance in peace and war. many private engagements were contracted. bishop. connexions were also more intimate. and insensibly procure to themselves honour and distinction. robbers. when men lived in perpetual danger from enemies. Men must guard themselves at any price against insults and injuries. whether voluntary or derived from blood: The most remote degree of propinquity was regarded: An indelible memory of benefits was preserved: Severe vengeance was taken for injuries. There were no middle rank of men. these two ranks of men. and the noble families continue many ages in opulence and splendor. and were of two kinds. both in going and returning. under the penalty of one pound. and to prevent their giving abusive language to each other. notwithstanding the seeming liberty or rather licentiousness of the Anglo-Saxons. for which they paid rent. the free. and to procure men that safety.html 4/7/2004 . The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . As animosities were then more violent. both from a point of honour. which they engage to pay for this last offence. and as the best means of future security: And the civil union being weak. were divided into three ranks of men. Page 131 of 354 in a like criminal manner. services. except they were notorious thieves and robbers. Security was provided by the Saxon laws to all members of the Wittenagemot. is a measure of honey.. The latter seem to have been dependant on the former. as the other nations of that continent. at least over many of the individuals.

even in France. in all the counties of England. which never was thoroughly united with the rest. This was not the case with the German nations. and became.. and the depredations of the Danes. except by courting the patronage of some great and were consequently incapable. and a bell. a kitchen. was that the latter built magnificent and stately castles.libertyfund. from a survey of Domesday-book. seem to have been the cause of this great alteration with the Anglo-Saxons. were powerful enough to disturb the execution of the laws. themselves. were then reduced to slavery. must have rendered those contracts very rare. that we may admit them as a necessary and infallible consequence of the situation of the kingdom during those ages. as far as we can collect from the account given us by Tacitus. n http://oll. and paying a large price for his safety. Malmesbury tells us that the great distinction between the Anglo-Saxon nobility and the French or Norman. Dr. The rents of farms were then chiefly paid in kind. the far greater part of the land was occupied by them. a greater number of idle servants and retainers lived about the great families. he became the object of envy. by which a merchant. a hall. and still more the socmen. contained then but 1418 families. and as these. they were chiefly employed in husbandry: Whence a ceorle. though it was always the second. There are two statutes among the Saxon laws. that the law could never overcome the reigning prejudices. of possessing any property. which seem calculated to confound those different ranks of men. as well as of indignation. Though we are not informed of any of these circumstances by ancient historians. and where they were industrious. f g The cities appear by Domesday-book to have been at the conquest little better than villages. who were tenants that could not be removed at pleasure. For there is little mention of leases among the Anglo-Saxons: The pride of the nobility. became in a manner synonimous terms. and had a chapel. at least the third city in England. that. which he was pleased to impose upon him. and thereby constrained his sovereign to accept of the conditions. whereas the former consumed their immense fortunes in riot and hospitality. that the arts in general were much less advanced in England than in France. and he would find it impossible to protect himself from oppression. When earl Godwin besieged the Confessor in London. The perpetual wars in the Heptarchy. the distinction between noble and base blood would still be indelible. by which a ceorle or husbandman. by which a merchant or ceorle could thus exalt himself above his rank. and that the husbandmen. and that of the same prince. Page 132 of 354 singular made him be known and remarked.Hume. they are so much founded on the nature of things. who had been able to purchase five hydes of land. or carried off in the frequent inroads. we may judge of the authority. The lower rank of freemen were denominated ceorles among the Anglo-Saxons. acquired by the aristocracy in England. and a husbandman. and must have kept the husband-men in a dependant condition.html 4/7/2004 . They cultivated the farms of the nobility or thanes for which they paid rent: and they seem to have been removeable at pleasure. was raised to the same distinction. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . he summoned from all parts his huscarles. We may thence infer. and in mean houses. and the well-born thanes would entertain the highest contempt for those legal and factitious ones. or houseceorles and retainers.. together with the general ignorance of writing. i k l m But the most numerous rank by far in the community seems to have been the slaves or villains. who had made three long sea-voyages on his own account. he would have great difficulty to defend what he had acquired. to all the nobles. Brady assures us. Prisoners taken in battle. But the opportunities were so few. were very few in comparison. and was the capital of a great province. was intitled to the quality of thane. h York itself. that of Athelstan. who were the property of their lords.

to the gentry or inferior nobility. after the manner of the Germans. and the bishop. without much pleading. which went to the king. slaves manumitted. and then by the County court. as it was among their ancestors. in particular. r s t The great lords and abbots among the Anglo-Saxons possessed a criminal jurisdiction within their territories and could punish without appeal any thieves or robbers whom they caught there. But though the general strain of the Anglo-Saxon government seems to have become aristocratical. by the courts of the Decennary. The aldermen received a third of the fines levied in those courts. Page 133 of 354 by right of war. there were still considerable remains of the ancient democracy.. there lay an appeal to the king’s court. by a majority of voices. The power of a master over his slaves was not unlimited among the Anglo-Saxons. which were not indeed sufficient to protect the lowest of the people. w x y but this was not practised on slight occasions. z a As the extreme ignorance of the age made deeds and writings very rare. and was continued by the Anglo-Saxons. but might give security. and even some degree of dignity. household slaves. but still more so. and must have discourage crimes and violence. which are at present to be met with in Poland.. or Any freeholder was fined who absented himself thrice from these courts. Where justice was denied during three sessions by the Hundred. They there decided all causes. and the bishop and alderman had no further authority than to keep order among the freeholders. The two thirds also. especially if joined to an irregular administration of justice. These latter resembled the serfs. this perquisite formed a considerable part of the profits belonging to his office. There were two kinds of slaves among the Anglo-Saxons. the slave recovered his liberty: o p q If he killed him. if the practice of slavery be admitted. The administration of justice. institution must have had a very contrary effect to that which was intended. but also the power which the laws give them over their slaves and villains. ecclesiastical as well as civil. entirely at the disposal of their lords. and some parts of Germany.html 4/7/2004 . and interpose with their opinion. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . he paid a fine to the king. provided the slave died within a day after the wound or blow: Otherwise it passed unpunished . Great property in the nobles. for a private man to remain altogether free and independant. Denmark. in order to preserve the memory of them. It then becomes difficult. the County or Hundred court was the place where the most remarkable civil transactions were finished. formality. and to restrain the power of the nobles.libertyfund. The affair was determined in a summary manner. all the freeholders were assembled twice a-year. presided over them.Hume. and as most of the punishments were then pecuniary. for greater security. without the patronage of some great lord. and the County. was well calculated to defend general liberty. and has become very common. and prevent all future disputes. If a man beat out his slave’s eye or teeth. the most considerable of these deeds were inserted in the blank leaves of the parish http://oll. u This procured robbers a sure protection on the lands of such noblemen as did not sincerely mean to Courts of justice. after the manner of the ancients. made no contemptible part of the public revenue. and sometimes. bargains of sale concluded. the Hundred. The selling of themselves or children to slavery was always the practice among the German nations. In the county courts or shiremotes. and almost impossible. together with the alderman or earl. naturally favours the power of the aristocracy. and received appeals from the inferior courts. The nobility not only possess the influence which always attends riches. and praedial or rustic. Here testaments were promulgated.

Hume. There were few or no taxes imposed by the states: There were few statutes enacted. than by customs. the total want of a middling rank of men.libertyfund. as by small incidents in history. that they were not exposed to great danger. by his own clan. for which it is difficult to obtain redress in courts of justice. the loose execution of the laws.. the extent of the monarchy. would naturally have begotten those controversies. which thus became a kind of register. the quarrel was spread still wider. to revenge his death. but it was not till very lately that the common people could in fact enjoy these privileges. and bred endless disorders in the nation. the continued disorders and convulsions of the state. and sometimes by the reason and nature of things. and the methods of proof employed in all causes. The Frisians. The Highlands of Scotland have long been entitled by law to every privilege of British subjects. and the nation was less governed by laws. that the ancient Germans were little removed from the original state of nature: The social confederacy among them was more martial than civil: They had chiefly in view the means of attack or defence against public enemies. the power of injuring or serving by immediate force and violence. formed a wide basis for the government. therefore. appear somewhat singular. b Among a people.. and were no contemptible checks on the aristocracy. where the execution of the laws is feeble. But the great influence of the lords over their slaves and tenants. that the Wittenagemot was altogether composed of the principal nobility. which admitted a great latitude of interpretation. and the degree of it which prevails.html 4/7/2004 . and which regulated all the daily occurrences of life. and are very different from those which prevail at present among all civilized nations. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and the natural bravery of the people made every man trust to himself and to his particular friends for his defence or vengeance. But there is another power still more important than either the judicial or legislative. the clientship of the burghers. be allowed. This defect in the political union drew much closer the knot of particular confederacies: An insult upon any man was regarded by all his relations and associates as a common injury: They were bound by honour. c http://oll. where all the free-holders were admitted. the judicial power is always of greater importance than the legislative. In all extensive governments. Both the punishments inflicted by the Anglo-Saxon courts of judicature. It was not unusual to add to the deed an imprecation on all such as should be guilty of that crime. by particular customs. and the events. cannot be determined so much by the public statutes. or any violence which he had suffered: They retaliated on the aggressor by like acts of violence. had never advanced beyond this wild and imperfect state of society. that the Anglo-Saxon government became at last extremely aristocratical. the too sacred to be falsified. and the right of private revenge still remained among them unlimited and uncontrouled. as well as by a sense of common interest. Though it should. even though faction had never entered into the question. a tribe of the Germans. during the period immediately preceding the conquest. We must conceive. Page 134 of 354 Bible. and if he were protected. confirm this inference or conjecture. this power naturally falls into the hands of the principal nobility. as was natural and usual. not those of protection against their fellow-citizens: Their possessions were so slender and so equal. all these circumstances evince. Criminal law. who lived in so simple a manner as the Anglo-Saxons. to wit. The powers of all the members of the Anglo-Saxon government are disputed among historians and antiquaries: The extreme obscurity of the subject.

till after this supreme magistrate has refused assistance. may be judged of by the collection of ancient laws. that. when he reaped such immediate advantage from them. g This short abstract contains the history of the criminal jurisprudence of the northern nations for several centuries.Hume. the chief property of those rude and uncultivated nations. A slave may fight in his master’s quarrel: A father may fight in his son’s with any one. d e f But when the German nations had been settled some time in the provinces of the Roman empire. and besides the compensation to the person who suffered. after doing him an injury. till he require compensation for the injury. but only to regulate and moderate them. The magistrate. The laws of Alfred enjoin. but is afterwards obliged to restore him safe to his kindred. and be content with the compensation. and their criminal justice gradually improved and refined itself. the assailant must have recourse to the king: And he is not allowed to assault the house. the magistrate had acquired a right of interposing in the quarrel. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . he shall not fight him. resolves to keep within his own house and his own lands. If any one meet with his enemy. h i http://oll. as a compensation for the injury. he may do it for seven days without attacking him. A present of this kind gratified the revenge of the injured family by the loss which the aggressor suffered: It satisfied their pride by the submission which it expressed: It diminished their regret for the loss or injury of a kinsman by their acquisition of new property. The numerous fines which were levied. in the age of Tacitus. before he attack him. they made still another step towards a more cultivated life. Where the assailant has not force sufficient to besiege the criminal in his house. that sanctuary must not be violated. require him to surrender himself prisoner. or to his family. which is so natural. to accept of a present from the aggressor and his relations. and that injuries would be less frequent. if any one know.libertyfund.html 4/7/2004 . and if the aggressor be willing. during that time. in which case he may detain him thirty days: But if he refuse to deliver up his arms. That the accommodation of one quarrel might not be the source of more. and the relations of one killed. this present was fixed and certain. He obliged the person maimed or injured. augmented that revenue of the king: And the people were sensible. The chief purport of these laws is not to prevent or entirely suppress private quarrels. conceived himself to be injured by every injury done to any of his people. If he be strong enough to besiege him in his house. and if the alderman refuse aid. Though it still continued to be an indispensable point of honour for every clan to revenge the death or injury of a member. called the whose office it was to guard public peace and to suppress private animosities. besides compensation to the person injured. Page 135 of 354 But the other German nations. and thus general peace was for a moment restored to the society. he must. and as reward for the pains which he had taken in accommodating the quarrel.. and to drop all farther prosecution of revenge. The state of England in this particular. published by Lambard and Wilkins. to surrender himself and his arms.. and be ignorant that he was resolved to keep within his own lands. and deliver up his arms. his adversary must detain him thirty days. that he would be more vigilant in interposing with his good offices. that his enemy or aggressor. it is then lawful to fight him. they were exposed to this additional penalty. he thought himself entitled to exact a fine. when. according to the rank of the person killed or injured. and of accommodating the difference. had made one step farther towards completing the political or civil union. which the legislator knew to be impossible. was once suggested. as an atonement for the breach of peace. When this idea. it was willingly received both by sovereign and people. If the criminal fly to the temple. during the period of the Anglo-Saxons. except with his master. he must apply to the alderman for assistance. and was commonly paid in cattle.

that his house shall give no protection to murderers. or give him assistance.libertyfund. that the fine for murder shall never be remitted by the king.000 thrimsas. The price of the prince’s head was 15. and they are declared to be enemies to the king and all his friends. any man might. His own kindred are free from the feud. a conspiracy against the life of the king might be redeemed by a fine. or any of the king’s o p The method appointed for transacting this composition is found in the same These attempts of Edmond. There is indeed a law of Alfred’s which makes wilful murder capital. These prices were fixed by the laws of the Angles. Such respect was then paid to the ecclesiastics! It must be understood. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . as it was then called. and the king himself r s Some antiquaries have thought.. but on condition that they neither converse with the criminal. were contrary to the ancient spirit of the northern barbarians. By the laws of the same prince. the price of the archbishop’s head was higher than that of the king’s. but this seems only to have been an attempt of that great legislator towards establishing a better police in the kingdom.html 4/7/2004 . and he was deprived of all right of succession. that. and if they abandon him. By the laws of Kent. he may. with the assistance of his kindred. that. and by that curious monument above mentioned of Saxon antiquity. nor supply him with meat or other necessaries: If any of them. l m towns. near 1300 pounds of present money. t u w x y The price of all kinds of wounds was likewise fixed by the Saxon laws: A wound of an inch long http://oll. as the punishment of his cowardice. and are involved in the feud. and were a step towards a more regular administration of justice. pay within a twelvemonth the fine of his crime. all their property is forfeited. q The price of the king’s head. If the kindred of the murdered person take revenge on any but the criminal himself. occasioned by the multiplicity of private feuds and battles. that of a thane’s six times as much.Hume. after he is abandoned by his kindred. by a public declaration. a thane’s or clergyman’s 2000. by that of the ancient Germans. preserved by Hickes. to contract and diminish the feuds. in the preamble to his laws. that no man should take revenge for an injury till he had first demanded compensation.000 thrimsas. the price of a ceorle’s head was 200 shillings. exempt himself from his family quarrels: But then he was considered by the law as no longer belonging to the family. He ordains. law. was by law 30. k King Edmond. that these compensations were only given for man-slaughter. he was put out of the protection of law and the kindred of the deceased had liberty to punish him as they thought proper. till they have satisfied the church by their pennance. and it probably remained without execution. after renouncing him. where a person was unable or unwilling to pay the fine. By the Mercian law. and it is contradicted by the practice of all the other barbarous nations. by making compensation.. if any one commit murder. By the Salic law. It is also ordained. that of a bishop’s or alderman’s 8000. he shall alone sustain the deadly feud or quarrel with the kindred of the murdered person. they are finable to the king. a sheriff’s 4000. a ceorle’s 266. mentions the general misery. or his weregild. receive him into their house. and he establishes several expedients for remedying this grievance. not for wilful murder: But no such distinction appears in the laws. that of a king’s six times more. and the kindred of the deceased. and had been refused it. n and that no criminal shall be killed who flies to the church. Page 136 of 354 It was enacted by king Ina.

. nor is founded on steady principles of honour. and were also the natural result of the situation of those people. than among civilized nations: Virtue. to whatever excess it was carried. any one who committed adultery with his neighbour’s wife was obliged to pay him a fine. Compositions for murder are mentioned in Nestor’s speech to Achilles in the ninth Iliad. according to the dignity of the person. and the price of a man’s head was called among them his eric. Whatever we may imagine concerning the usual truth and sincerity of men. Hence the ridiculous practice of obliging men to bring compurgators. is but a poor supply for the defects in knowledge and education: Our European ancestors.libertyfund. and are called αποιναι. not weigh.html 4/7/2004 . The practice also of single combat was employed by most nations on the continent as a k l http://oll. except where a good education becomes general. treachery. two shillings: Thirty shillings for the loss of an ear. it was ordained. never flourishes to any degree. who live in a rude and barbarous state. By the laws of The legislators. was to be called a turma. who. and so forth. were less honourable in all engagements than their posterity. the testimony of the witnesses. and any quarrels that arose there were more severely punished than elsewhere. expressed upon oath. but none of them capital. who never had any connections with the German nations. and these compurgators were in some cases multiplied to the number of three hundred. c d e f g Rebellion. and every bargain of sale must be executed before witnesses. as they did not pretend to know any thing of the fact. but might be redeemed by a sum of money. An alehouse too seems to have been considered as a privileged place. Gangs of robbers much disturbed the peace of the country. there is much more falsehood. The same custom seems also to have prevailed among the Jews. consisting of between seven and thirty-five persons. h i Rules of proof. or troop: Any greater company was denominated an army. except in open market. z a These institutions are not peculiar to the ancient Germans. only imposed a higher fine on breaches of the peace committed in the king’s court. adopted the same practice till very lately. If the manner of punishing crimes among the Anglo-Saxons appear singular. the latter was obliged to show the tracks out of it. and the law determined. b Theft and robbery were frequent among the Anglo-Saxons. They seem to be the necessary progress of criminal jurisprudence among every free people. and where men are taught the pernicious consequences of vice. and even perjury among them. If any man could track his stolen cattle into another’s ground. and buy him another wife. and were obliged to number.. that no man should sell or buy any thing above twenty pence value. who employed every moment the expedient of swearing on extraordinary crosses and reliques. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . that a tribe of banditti. In order to impose some check upon these crimes. which is nothing but a more enlarged and more cultivated reason. and immorality. Even superstition.Hume. The punishments for this crime were various. the proofs were not less so. that they believed the person spoke true. was not capital. There seems not to have been any difference made. The Irish. knowing it impossible to prevent all disorders. though more prevalent among ignorant nations. or pay their value. who from experience have omitted those ineffectual securities. as we learn from Sir John Davis. Page 137 of 354 under the hair was paid with one shilling: One of a like size in the face. We find them among the ancient Greeks during the time of the Trojan war. who could not discuss an intricate evidence. or before an alderman or bishop. This general proneness to perjury was much encreased by the usual want of discernment in judges. where the will of the sovereign is not implicitly obeyed.

One of them was the decision by the cross: It was practised in this manner. was abolished by it in or the burthen of military expeditions. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . if otherwise. as it was called. how any innocent person could ever escape by the one trial. The feudal law. and he was attended by eleven compurgators. no marks of burning. He next took two pieces of wood. was not certainly extended over all the landed property. if otherwise. It was practised either by boiling water or red-hot iron. says he. but lest that sacred figure. The trouble and expence of defending the state in England lay equally upon all the land. and other burthens.libertyfund. who had confidence enough to try it. a priest. prohibited that method of trial. When any controversy about a fact became too intricate for those ignorant judges to unravel. which were inseparable from it in the kingdoms of the continent. or in his stead some unexperienced youth. one of which was marked with the sign of the cross. This practice. or any criminal be convicted by the other. or carried the iron to a certain distance. Page 138 of 354 remedy against false evidence. they had recourse to what they called the judgment of God. masses. he was guilty. The former was appropriated to the common people. the person was pronounced innocent. and which still prevailed among the Anglo-Saxons. he was pronounced innocent. was inseparable from x y http://oll.Hume. of the cross should be prostituted in common disputes and controversies o p q The ordeal was another established method of trial among the Anglo-Saxons. called a corsned. he placed them on the altar. and his hand being wrapped up. m n It became at last a species of jurisprudence: The cases were determined by law. took up one of the pieces of wood. A consecrated cake. if it had place at all among the Anglo-Saxons.. from the opposition of the clergy. After solemn prayers for the success of the experiment. and of building and supporting bridges. and exorcisms. always in readiness to suppress any insurrection among the conquered people. The trial by cold water was different: The person was thrown into consecrated water. When a person was accused of any crime. not because it was uncertain. and it was usual for every five hides to equip a man for the service. they planted themselves in this island on the same footing with their ancestors in Germany. on examining it. not attended with those consequences of homage. It is difficult for us to conceive. the person accused either took up a stone sunk in the water to a certain depth. if there appeared. fastings. or on some celebrated relique. that is.. of repairing highways. after which. The water or iron was consecrated by many prayers. The trinoda necessitas. which is doubtful. and wrapping both up in wool. and found no occasion for the feudal institutions. Lewis the Debonnaire. wardship. which if the person could swallow and digest. it was continually revived.html 4/7/2004 . The emperor. as it arose from superstition. and though it was frequently dropped. which were calculated to maintain a kind of standing army. which had formerly been practised among those barbarous nations. innocent. he first cleared himself by oath. But there was another usage admirably calculated for allowing every criminal to escape. or the judge himself: And though these customs were absurd. they were rather an improvement on the methods of trial. the latter to the nobility. marriage. and if he happened upon that which was marked with the figure of the cross. and the covering sealed for three days. reliefs. guilty. and was r s t u w Military force. or the witnesses. was produced. if he sunk. to fortune: Their methods of consulting this oracle were various. from experience of the falsehood attending the testimony of witnesses. if he swam. guilty. in which the party might challenge his adversary. As the Saxons expelled or almost entirely destroyed the ancient Britons. he was pronounced innocent.

The ceorles or husbandmen were provided with arms. g consequently a Saxon shilling was near a fifth heavier than ours. like the ancients. p q A palfrey was sold for twelve shillings about the year 966. bread which would suffice a hundred men for a day was rated at three shillings. either for payment of the sums exacted by the Danes. fifteen-pence of our money. that money was then near ten times of greater value. If we suppose. together with a cow’s pasture in summer.html 4/7/2004 . and five pence in a shilling. He could not alienate any part of the crown lands. and so of other things in proportion. A sheep by the laws of Athelstan was estimated at a shilling.. The Saxon pound. h i k l m n William of Malmesbury mentions it as a remarkably high price that William Rufus gave fifteen marks for a horse. that is. Gervas of Tilbury says. who were called Sithcun-men. and were possessed only during pleasure. no doubt. which indeed appears to have been the usual price. were not so large as they are at present in England. without the consent of the states. a mare a third less. to pay either sixpence or four hens. a greater number might be assembled. for it is thought that soon after the conquest a pound sterling was divided into twenty shillings: A sheep was rated at a shilling. which were large. compared to commodities. that the cattle in that age.libertyfund. the abbot of St. Silk and cotton were quite unknown: Linen was not much used.. and a cow at four. and to other offices. or about thirty pounds of our present money.600 hides in England. Ednoth bought a hide of land for about 118 shillings of present money. if any of them died on the road. The tenants of Shireburn were obliged. or a shilling of that age. that in Henry I. but these probably were not of great extent. The revenue of the king seems to have consisted chiefly in his demesnes. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . on extraordinary occasions. There were computed to be 243. and were obliged to take their turn in military duty. The fleece was two-fifths of the value of the whole sheep. A man at three pounds.’s time. at their choice. was near three times the weight of our present money: There were forty-eight shillings in the pound. Albans. we may compute. This was little more than a shilling an acre. hired seven handsome stout horses. that the Saxons. or for putting the kingdom in a posture of defence against those invaders . The board-wages of a child the first year was eight shillings. even though it belonged to the church or monasteries. much above its present estimation. imposed by the states. though. As to the value of money in those times. or four-pence Saxon. to pay the owner 30 shillings a piece of our present s t u http://oll. and in the tolls and imposts which he probably levied at discretion on the boroughs and sea-ports.720 men. and a Saxon penny near three times as heavy. An ox was computed at six times the value of a sheep. In Athelstan’s time a ram was valued at a shilling.Hume. The king and nobility had some military tenants. or thirty Saxon shillings. going on a journey. and the reason probably was. A horse was valued at about thirty-six shillings of our money. and an ox’s in winter. were little acquainted with any clothing but what was made of wool. there are some. Page 139 of 354 landed property. that lay within his demesnes. as likewise that which was coined for some centuries after the conquest. unless exempted by a particular charter. consequently the ordinary military force of the kingdom consisted of 48. d e f Value of money. z a b c Public revenue. though not very certain. About 1232. Danegelt was a land-tax of a shilling a hide. a cow about six shillings. means of computation. from the defects in husbandry. even to religious uses. The value of an r ox in king Ethelred’s time was between seven and eight shillings. And there were some lands annexed to the office of aldermen. as in the commencement of the feudal law in other countries of Europe. as we may learn from other accounts. o Between the years 900 and 1000.

The first attempt. in so much that a quarter of wheat rose to sixty pennies. addicted to intemperance. by which all disputes among the clergy were ordered to be carried before the bishop. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . in the same manner that a sum. when a quarter of wheat was sold for four and three times more people than it had at the conquest and for some reigns after that period. Consequently it was as dear as if it now cost seven pounds ten shillings. and can produce greater effects on such a small community. which were then to be found in every European kingdom. With regard to the manners of the Anglo-Saxons we can say little. by which a pound has been reduced to the third part of its ancient weight in silver. than on England. appears strongly in the history of their later period. such as Bavaria. than it does in our times. which we find in England to separate the ecclesiastical from the civil jurisdiction. and defended to the heirs of the possessor. This last difference is not easy to be calculated: But allowing. a hundred thousand pounds for instance. riot. the raising of corn. that commodity always bore a higher price. which yet was not supported by discipline or conduct. untamed to submission under law and government. Land was chiefly of two kinds. is at present more difficult to levy in a small state. unskilled in the mechanical arts.Hume. or fifteen shillings of our present money. and disorder.html 4/7/2004 . and caused any sum to have more than thirty times greater weight and influence both abroad and at home. w x y z a The pennances were then very severe. The Saxon Chronicle tells us. Money in this last period was nearly of the same value as in our time. they lay easy upon the rich. These severe famines are a certain proof of bad husbandry. Even the Norman historians. The practice of entails is to be found in those times. uncultivated people. ignorant of letters.. or might substitute others to perform them. we are. according to the custom of Gavelkind. to conceive taking all circumstances together. but that they were in general a rude. compared to cattle. that in all ancient times. especially wheat. First the change of denomination. On the whole. and were indeed only tenants during the will of their lords. which was regarded as full property. land was divided equally among all the male-children of the deceased. upon that supposition. It is to be remarked. every sum of money mentioned by historians. In the Saxon times. and their want of humanity in all their history. notwithstanding the low state of the arts in their own country. and consequently a pound sterling to the thirtieth part of the ancient value. or to any trust reposed in them. but as a man could buy them off with money. Their want of fidelity to the prince. as if it were multiplied more than a hundred fold above a sum of the same denomination at present. compared to commodities. speak of them as barbarians. This much exceeds the great famine in the end of queen Elizabeth.. that in the reign of Edward the Confessor there was the most terrible famine ever known. b Manners. Their best quality was their military courage. or land held by book or charter. and folkland. wherever a sum of money is mentioned in ancient times. the fewer people and less industry. This circumstance made even the thirtieth part of the sum more difficult to levy. Thirdly. being a species of manufactory. that England has now six times more industry. than in our times. was that law of Edgar. there are three things to be considered. Page 140 of 354 money. who were removeable at pleasure. the change in value by the greater plenty of money. when they mention the invasion made upon them by the duke of Normandy. Secondly. bookland.libertyfund. The conquest put the c http://oll. or the land held by the ceorles and common people. which has reduced the same weight of silver to ten times less value.

& c.Hume. and which had already produced there its full effect. Gloss. and confirmed by the king. aldermen and sheriffs of the counties. Nam ex materno sanguine attinebat ad eum honor illius comitatus. [t] Wilkins passim.libertyfund. and where all the freeholders swore allegiance to the king. [y] Hist. giving the reason why William the Conqueror made Cospatric earl of Northumberland. Eddius. which took place. cap.. 8. Asser. which was assembled once ayear. say expressly. 40. & c. lib.. in verbo parliamentum. and only reserved to himself the ratification. to his hist. The case was the same with the freemen in the country. p. and the sheriffs were chosen by the freeholders in the folkmote. § 3. Eliensis. at least. p. ENDNOTES [r] We know of one change. 40. and appointed men of more capacity in their place: Yet the laws of Edward the Confessor. [b] LL. 2. 10. 5. Dun. says. & c. they often sign the king’s charters or grants. filia Uthredi comitis. p. [u] Brady’s treatise of English boroughs. [d] Nithard. inform us. the rudiments of science and cultivation. We see in those instances. [s] Sometimes abbesses were admitted. on the continent. Feus and Tenures. 9. [e] Spelm. 4. hist. 205. Edw. http://oll. informs us. 21. that Alfred deposed all the ignorant aldermen. a county court. that it was in early times the prerogative of the king to name the dukes.html 4/7/2004 . 3. apud Ingulf. This destination was afterwards frequently violated. a writer contemporary to the conquest. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . cap. See pref. § 35. p. 4. 3. p. as we learn from Ingulf. [a] Brady’s treatise of boroughs. p. and of correcting their rough and licentious manners. a contemporary writer. though Edgar gave the monks the election. from abroad. 387. [x] Hist. 49. that the bishops were sometimes chosen by the Wittenagemot. The Saxon Annals. that the heretoghs or dukes. [z] Roger Hoveden. during a more early period. 2. p. the same tendency towards rendering offices hereditary. Spellm. and the abbots as well as bishops were afterwards all appointed by the king. Page 141 of 354 people in a situation of receiving slowly. [w] There is some reason to think. The abbots in the monasteries of royal foundation were anciently named by the king. Conf. See also Sim. lib. earls. [c] Dissert. Erat enim ex matre Algitha. not inconsiderable in the Saxon Rames. § 8. Epist. 5. 4.

[k] Brady’s treatise of boroughs. Edw. 415. § 20. Aelf. There were six wards. cap. Bath. apud Spellm. § 12. p. 10. besides the archbishop’s palace. p. Gloss. [z] LL. Inae. LL. [y] LL. 7. LL. Angl. lib. § 17. i. § 5. 3. Canterbury. Edg. 6. 2. p. LL. Hertford. 70. p. Inae. Gul. and five of these wards contained the number of families here mentioned. § 14. Aelf. [t] LL. [o] LL. p. vol. p.. in verb.libertyfund. LL. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . Canut. § 20. [r] Ibid. 315. p. § 26. § 70. Pict. Northampton. § 17. [u] Higden. 7. Servus. 3. 9. was anciently a considerable city. being the capital of the West Saxon monarchy. [w] LL. 4. 210. but it is difficult to convert it into modern measures. http://oll. & c. p. Ipswich. p. Haligemot et Infangenthef. 333. 50. § 2. 102. 471. 262. 6o. p. Wilkins. § 18. 5. Conc. [x] Hickes Dissert. Wilkins. 136. These are the most considerable he mentions. 225..Hume. [a] LL. [h] Winchester. 78. p. Exeter. 538. Canut. [q] LL. p. & c. de morib. 8. p. See Brady of Boroughs. 64. § 31. Conc. [l] P. Ethelst. which at the rate of five persons to a family makes about 7000 souls. 136. [n] General preface to his hist. These laws fixed the rents for a hyde. 71. i. 84. Epist. 146. Edw. 8. See also de Gest. Wilkins. vol. § 11. 6. Spellm. Page 142 of 354 [f] Wilkins. [g] Selden. [s] Tacit. Southampton. The sixth ward was laid waste.html 4/7/2004 . 5. 4. p. apud Wilkins. Germ. [m] LL. Warwick. Titles of honour. Conf. The account of them is extracted from Domesday-book. Gloss. Wilkins. Edg. 515. [p] Spellm. in verb. p. Conf. Edg. [i] Norwich contained 738 houses. i.

vol. apud Wilkins. Aelfr. [w] Tac. Elthredi. [l] LL. Page 143 of 354 [b] Hickes Dissert. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . 366. 110. § 1. 73. See Spell. [p] LL. apud 71. [m] LL. Edm. [h] The addition of these last words in Italics appears necessary from what follows in the same law. p. vol. which must have been by the laws and the interposition of the magistrates. p. Edm. Epist. [f] Tacit de morib.. § 9. § 3. 63. § 27. the murderer was also obliged to pay the master of a slave or vassal a sum as a compensation for his loss. Aethelb. p.libertyfund. passim. [e] Called by the Saxons maegbota. Gloss. Manbot. § 4. Fredum. § 7. p. Edm. that the price of the composition was fixed. Fris. committed by one who has no declared feud with another. [c] LL. p. [r] Wilkins. [g] Besides paying money to the relations of the deceased and to the king. § 12. It is probable. Edm. § 2. Aelf. [i] LL. http://oll. Wilkins. 29. i. p. in verb. 43. Inae. [n] LL. Germ. [s] LL. 72. Germ. [t] Tyrrel introduct. 2. [o] LL.html 4/7/2004 . Wilkins. § 23. § 28. The author says. de mor. [q] Tit. Edm. Aelf. i. LL. 126. [x] LL. tit. [k] LL. that by wilful murder Alfred means a treacherous murder. [u] Lindenbrogius. 491.Hume.. Carte. p. p. This was called the Manbote. Wilkins. [d] LL.

Nicol. in verb. Aelf. [b] Exod. 72. each of whose lives was only valued at twenty shillings.. § 22. See also LL. Ordealium. § 32. 12. Wilkins. [s] LL. cap. 35. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . tit. [t] Sometimes the person accused walked barefoot over red hot iron. LL. Page 144 of 354 [y] LL. cap. 55. 155. 2. Lomb. p. 13. Burgund. Ordeal. p. & Eadm. [u] Spellman in verb. p. 63. § 77. 45. Inae. apud Wilkins. [q] Du Gange in verb. Aethelst. [e] LL. apud Wilkins. lib. § 34. 14. [r] Spellm. Ethelr. 35. p. ad Wilkins. 29. [f] LL. lib. cap. Parker. p. http://oll. Crux. p. & c.. tit. xxi. § 10. apud Lindenb. 496.Hume. [i] LL. See Wilkins. Hloth. 103. 34. Aethelst. Aelf. 117. [h] LL. tit. Longob. A man whose life was estimated at 120 shillings counterbalanced six ceorles. Inae. p. Canut. § 4. Hloth. 55. [p] LL. Aethelst. p. LL. [d] LL. apud Lindenbrogium. § 37. [g] LL. Wilkins. and his oath was esteemed equivalent to that of all the six. 11. Ethelb. § 4. 110. Aelf.html 4/7/2004 . Lindenbrog.libertyfund. & Eadm. [o] See Desfontaines and Beaumanoir. 80. 2. [l] Praef. [n] LL. Wilkins. [m] LL. § 12. § 16. 661. p. [z] LL. Ethelb. § 4 apud Wilkins. Frison. cap. p. LL. Ethelredi. Inae. p. § 40. Ethelredi. LL. p. 1299. p. 30. § 2. [c] LL. apud Wilkins. [a] LL. LL. [k] Sometimes the laws fixed easy general rules for weighing the credibility of witnesses. Edg. § 12. § 12. 23.

p.libertyfund. § 51. [b] Spellm. See more fully Spellman of feuds and tenures. [k] Wilkins. Conc. there was a payment made to the king of his best arms. p. [q] Hist. p. § 12. http://oll. Con. p. [e] Chron. rer. Conc. [c] Spellm. Sax. i. Text. 7. [g] LL. Aelf. 126. Roffens. [n] LL. p. See Spellm. § 38. [m] Ibid. vol. p. 126. 340. of tenures. & c. 128. in verb. and Craigius dejure feud. [a] Inae. 16. 66. 2. i. domin. p. Parker. [r] Hist. a greater or lesser thane. Inae. [o] P. Conc. [i] LL. [s] Wilkins. Pretiosum. [p] Hist. Eliens. p. lib.. 1. 195. § 40.Hume. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . vol. 256. [y] Bracton de Acqu. Inae. 28. 27. 17. 156. p. § 69. [h] Fleetwood’s Chron. dieg. [l] Ibid. 415. 2. i. 121. 473. and this was called his heriot: But this was not of the nature of a relief. The value of this heriot was fixed by Canute’s laws. § 69. vol. lib. p. of feuds and [z] Spellm. [x] On the death of an alderman. p. 471. Corsned. 33. [d] Spellm. Rames.. [f] LL. p. p. Eliens. p. cap. Page 145 of 354 [w] Spellm. Edw. p.html 4/7/2004 .

p. 406. 96. and has made them imagine that an earl was superior to an alderman. Conc. alderman in Saxon. [y] P. the death 1066. Page 146 of 354 [t] Wilkins. (see Spelm. that comes in Latin. He is therefore the same who is called earl in the former law. 604) that the term of earl was in the age of Athelstan just beginning to be in use in England. 528. § 37. and stood at that time for the atheling or prince of the blood.libertyfund. Conc. as well as from all the ancient historians. Consequences of http://oll. The weregild or the price of an earl’s blood is there fixed at 15. p. 83.. 71. Paris. 56. 157. [a] Wilkins. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution .) which has stumbled some antiquaries. 43. p. IV WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR Consequences of the battle of Hastings — Submission of the English — Settlement of the government — King’s return to Normandy — Discontents of the English — Their insurrections — Rigours of the Norman government — New insurrections — New rigours of the government — Introduction of the feudal law — Innovation in ecclesiastical government — Insurrection of the Norman barons — Dispute about investitures — Revolt of prince Robert — Doomsday book — The New forest — War with France — Death — and character of William the Conqueror NOTHING COULD exceed the consternation which seized the English. and from king Alfred’s translation of Bede. ii. [w] Mat. [c] Gul.html 4/7/2004 . whereas that of a bishop and alderman is only 8000 thrimsas. There is only a clause in a law of king Athelstan’s. chap. p. 96.000 thrimsas.. p.000 603. To solve this difficulty we must have recourse to Selden’s conjecture. [b] Ibid. [z] LL. 83. equal to that of an archbishop. p. This he confirms by a law of Canute. heir to the crown. Spell. In another law of the same Athelstan the weregild of the prince or atheling is said to be 15. 473. v. 97. p. 202. p. § 55.Hume. 98. [NOTE [G]] It appears from the ancient translations of the Saxon annals and laws. p. See Wilkins. [u] Monast. p. apud Wilkins. Aelf. when they received intelligence of the unfortunate battle of Hastings. 94. Anglic. and earl in Dano-Saxon were quite synonimous. (see his Titles of Honour. Pict. p. where an atheling and an archbishop are put upon the same footing. [x] Fleetwood. vol.

which nothing but celerity and vigour could render finally successful. d e http://oll. archbishop of Canterbury. however. or by a mistake in their course: And foreseeing that his conquest of England might still be attended with many difficulties and with much opposition. desirous to conciliate the minds of the English by an appearance of lenity and justice. by the continued efforts of the Romans.html 4/7/2004 and as the Normans. and have obliged the duke of Normandy to divide his army. and by their late election of Harold. and resolved to prosecute an enterprize. and deemed the inconveniences of submission less formidable than those of bloodshed. Page 147 of 354 of their king. for many years. and every resolution proposed was hasty. though numerous and well provided. before he should advance farther into the country. who could have assembled their retainers. the slaughter of their principal nobility and of their bravest warriors. and encourage them to resist the Normans. be altogether wanting to themselves in this extreme necessity. as unfit to govern them even in times of order and tranquillity. and endeavoured to put the people in a posture of defence. to make himself master of Dover.. by their recent and long subjection to the Danes. and uniting themselves against the common enemy. and equal difficulties might have been apprehended by William in this bold and hazardous enterprize. they proclaimed Edgar. and the near neighbourhood of the invaders. tumultuary. That they might not. and where there resided so many powerful noblemen in every province. the English took some steps towards adjusting their disjointed government. and as Canute had. immediately put himself in motion after his victory. who had fled to London with the remains of the broken army. inseparable from great revolutions. encreased the confusion. or to withstand the victorious arms of the duke of Normandy. and had governed them equitably by their own laws. William.Hume. But though the loss. which rendered it difficult for the English to defend their liberties in so critical an emergency. disconcerted by fear or faction. And as they had long been accustomed to regard Edgar Atheling. they could entertain small hopes of his being able to repair such great losses as they had sustained. and resistance. The people had in a great measure lost all national pride and spirit. that his enemies might have no leisure to recover from their consternation or unite their counsels. much abated the rigors of conquest. in the course of his administration. on account of their cruel treatment of some Norman seamen and soldiers. who had been carried thither by stress of weather. Edwin and Morcar. and probably to waste it in a variety of actions and rencounters. The terror diffused by his victory at Hastings was so great. that the garrison of Dover. which they had sustained in that fatal action. they regarded with the less terror the ignominy of a foreign yoke. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and of ample revenues. But there were several vices in the Anglo-Saxon constitution. and the rout and dispersion of the remainder. took the lead on this occasion: In concert with Stigand. the only heir of the Saxon line. was considerable. But the terror of the late defeat. it might have been repaired by a great nation.libertyfund. William. ill planned. whose inhabitants he severely punished. His first attempt was against Romney. Saxons. hastily set fire to some of the houses. fluctuating. war. and had been gradually subdued. he deemed it necessary. a man possessed of great authority. immediately capitulated. and afford him a safe landing-place for such supplies as might be requisite for pushing his advantages. its invaders. and worse executed. rushing in to take possession of the town. or their acquiescence in his usurpation. The two potent earls. where the people were the battle of Hastings generally armed. It was thus that the kingdom had formerly resisted. which would both secure him a retreat in case of adverse fortune. and Danes. Their attachment also to the ancient royal family had been much weakened by their habits of submission to the Danish princes.

therefore. and conferred this honour on Aldred. came into his Submission of the English. They requested him to mount their throne. the new elected king. and by his approach encreased the confusions. which were already so prevalent in the English counsels. and Edgar Atheling himself. Westminster abbey was the place appointed for that magnificent ceremony. whose capacity was deemed so mean. the example of their ancestors. archbishop of York. The ecclesiastics in particular. he feigned to deliberate on the offer. and for prudence in council. advanced with quick marches towards London. who was himself an usurper. was but ill qualified to resist the impression.. that. the easy submission of all the inhabitants of Kent was an additional discouragement to them. but as he was yet afraid to place entire confidence in the Londoners. remonstrating with him on the danger of delay in so critical a conjuncture. as they had always been ruled by regal power. renewed in the city the terror of the great defeat at Hastings. and accepted of the crown which was tendered him. attended the duke on this occasion. began to declare in his favour. he wished to obtain a more explicit and formal consent of the English nation: But Aimar of Aquitain. Page 148 of 354 made compensation to the inhabitants for their losses. f The Norman army. being much distressed with a dysentery. Edwin and Morcar. the Norman.libertyfund. and because he possessed such influence and authority over the English as might be dangerous to a new established monarch. he meanwhile commanded fortresses to be erected in order to curb the inhabitants.Hume. both because he had intruded into the see on the expulsion of Robert. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and reached Berkhamstead. and to secure his person and government. and knew of no one more worthy than himself to hold the reins of government.. which they now considered as vacant. to which the duke’s enterprize tended. was obliged to remain here eight days. and a young prince. which they made on the minds of the people. whose influence was great over the people. which. at first. retired with their troops to their own provinces. Even the earls. he laid aside all farther scruples. the burning of Southwark before their eyes made them dread a like fate to their own city. both English and who were numerous and warlike. whether they agreed l http://oll. like Edgar. in despair of making effectual resistance. made submissions to him: Before he came within sight of the city. and no man any longer entertained thoughts but of immediate safety and of self-preservation. and declared their intention of yielding to his authority. and the people thenceforth disposed themselves unanimously to yield to the victor. which a body of Londoners received from five hundred Norman horse. the primate.html 4/7/2004 . during the Confessor’s reign. Orders were immediately issued to prepare every thing for the ceremony of his coronation. A repulse. of preserving the appearance of a legal administration. The superior learning of those prelates. Aldred in a short speech asked the former. refused to be consecrated by him. g h Though this was the great object. by which his enterprize was avowed and hallowed. made their opinions be received with implicit faith. had raised them above the ignorant Saxons. William. in this particular. i k Stigand was not much in the duke’s favour. all the chief nobility. and being desirous. was now openly insisted on as a reason for general submission. a man equally respected for valour in the field. As soon as he passed the Thames at Wallingford. on their recovery. and as most of the bishops and dignified clergymen were even then Frenchmen or Normans. pretending that the primate had obtained his pall in an irregular manner from pope Benedict IX. Stigand. but the duke. the most considerable of the nobility. they desired to follow. the pope’s bull. and declared to him. camp.

which they had expected from his enterprize. The Norman soldiers. came and swore fealty to him. and William had no other occupation than to give contentment to the foreigners who had assisted him to mount the throne. and all his new subjects who approached his person were received with affability and regard. earl Coxo. Settlement of the government. there burst forth the strongest symptoms of the jealousy and animosity which prevailed between the nations. n o 1067. but still more by force of arms. and it was with difficulty that William himself was able to appease the tumult. The king. His army in particular was governed with severe discipline. full of apprehensions. The king appeared solicitous to unite in an amicable manner the Normans and the English. the bishop of Coutance put the same question to the latter. and for that of Harold. No signs of suspicion t http://oll. who were placed without in order to guard the church. both at home and abroad. He had got possession of the treasure of Harold. had much forwarded his success. with the other principal noblemen of England. p q r s He introduced into England that strict execution of justice. to administer justice. were received into favour. a man famous for bravery. where prayers had been put up for his success. Page 149 of 354 to accept of William as their king. and set fire to the neighbouring houses. and which continually encreased during the reign of this prince. and by an irregular election of the people.Hume. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . which was considerable. and by this liberality gave them hopes of obtaining at length those more durable establishments. Every thing bore the appearance of peace and tranquillity.. and they immediately assaulted the populace. on pretence of supporting monks to pray for his own soul. who had not attended his coronation. accompanied with many valuable presents: All the considerable monasteries and churches in France.html 4/7/2004 . retired from London to Berking in Essex. earls of Mercia and Northumberland. he distributed great sums among his troops. for which his administration had been much celebrated in Normandy. to express his gratitude and devotion in the manner which was most acceptable to them: He sent Harold’s standard to the pope. m 26th Dec. and to his new subjects. The ecclesiastics. and he failed not. and being also supplied with rich presents from the opulent men in all parts of England. and even during this violent revolution. both English and Normans. and both being answered with acclamations. The alarm was conveyed to the nobility who surrounded the prince. and to repress violence: He then anointed him and put the crown upon his head. who had so readily submitted to him. now tasted of his bounty: The English monks found him well disposed to favour their order: And he built a new convent near Hastings. by which he bound himself to protect the church. There appeared nothing but joy in the countenance of the spectators: But in that very moment. and were confirmed in the possession of their estates and dignities. and which. rushed out to secure themselves from the present danger. by intermarriages and alliances. thus possessed of the throne by a pretended destination of king Edward.libertyfund. every disorder or oppression met with rigorous punishment. even Edwin and Morcar. who were solicitous to gain the favour of their new sovereign. in return. which he called BattleAbbey. and there received the submissions of all the nobility. fancied that the English were offering violence to their duke.. grand-nephew to that Edric so noted for his repeated acts of perfidy during the reigns of Ethelred and Edmond. served as a lasting memorial of his victory. care was taken to give as little offence as possible to the jealousy of the vanquished. Edric. Aldred administered to the duke the usual coronation oath. sirnamed the Forester. hearing the shouts and notwithstanding the insolence of victory.

he had owed his advancement to sovereign authority. who had carried arms against him. were Edgar Atheling. By this mixture. he seemed willing to admit of every plausible excuse for past opposition to his pretensions. the earls Edwin and Morcar. which struck the foreigners with astonishment. and of those who had fought in the battle of Hastings on the side of that prince. and building citadels in that capital. King’s return to Normandy. the king took care to place all real power in the hands of his Normans. He was visited at the abbey of Fescamp. and of William Fitz Osberne.Hume. http://oll. Page 150 of 354 appeared. William of Poictiers. and he expresses himself in such terms. which appeared most warlike and populous. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . but the succession only of their sovereigns. not the form of their government. The better to reconcile his new subjects to his authority. u workmanship of their silver plate. whom he represented as an usurper. who reserved to himself. uncle to the king of Stigand the primate. That their authority might be exposed to less danger. attentive to the first steps of their new sovereign. and still to keep possession of the sword. the power of assuming that character. to which. as tend much to exalt our idea of the opulence and cultivation of the people. and appeared desirous of replacing every thing on ancient establishments. He left the administration in the hands of his uterine brother. a Norman historian. whom William confirmed in the honours of earl of Oxford. Odo. already struck with his military fame. and besides a splendid court and majestic presence.html 4/7/2004 . Hereford. a matter which gave them small concern.. Though he confiscated the estates of Harold. which overawed the people. and the English began to flatter themselves. He confirmed the liberties and immunities of London and the other cities of England. He disarmed the city of London and other places. an art in which the English w But though every thing bore the face of joy and festivity. the costliness of their embroideries. that they had changed. outvyed each other in equipages and entertainments. Among these. that he thought he might safely revisit his native country. who. while his civil administration carried the face of a legal magistrate. eminent for the greatness of their fortunes and families. which he expressed for the English. and enjoy the triumph and congratulation of his ancient subjects. and by many powerful princes and nobles. the heir of the ancient royal family. were in reality hostages for the fidelity of the nation. by Rodulph. he bore the semblance of the lawful prince. willing to ingratiate themselves with their new sovereign. bishop of Baieux. who. the size and then excelled. In his whole administration. and made a display of riches. with others. while they served to grace his court by their presence and magnificent retinues. at least of one. conferred on him by Harold. he quartered Norman soldiers in all of them. His English courtiers. the appearance of his clemency and justice gained the approbation of the wise. the son of the brave earl Siward. his great friend and benefactor. not of the conqueror. not even towards Edgar Atheling. He bestowed the forfeited estates on the most eminent of his captains. and established funds for the payment of his soldiers. of vigour and lenity. and left no where any power able to resist or oppose him. as nephew to the Confessor. and he received many into favour.libertyfund. March. whenever he pleased. William made a progress through some parts of England. who was present. he was sensible. however. where he resided during some time. and the cities best situated for commanding the kingdom. and whom he affected to treat with the highest kindness. speaks with admiration of the beauty of their persons. Waltheof. as well as in Winchester. he had so soothed the minds of the English. or for their ecclesiastical and civil dignities. he carried over with him all the most considerable nobility of England. And thus. were desirous of participating in the joy and advantages of its success. his military institutions were those of a master and tyrant.. But amidst this confidence and friendship. having contributed to his enterprize.

by which they expected to acquire new confiscations and forfeitures. and grudging the restraints imposed upon their own rapine. and seizing the possessions of the English. while he detained all the principal nobility in Normandy. and should so long leave his jealous subjects at the mercy of an insolent and licentious army. which were never appeased. with more probability. it was the immediate cause of all the calamities which the English endured during this and the subsequent reigns. But whether we are to account for that measure from the king’s vanity or from his policy. secret conspiracies were entered into against the government.. The historian above mentioned. he thought. in less than three months after the conquest of a great. hostilities were already begun in many places. must be ascribed to the departure of William. But as no ancient writer has ascribed this tyrannical purpose to William. were desirous of provoking them to a rebellion. and while he himself was so near to suppress any tumult or rebellion. It is therefore more natural to believe. who had also been disgusted by the Normans.. Discontents of the English. and that. and gave rise to those mutual jealousies and animosities between them and the Normans. though he had thought proper at first to allure the people to submission by the semblance of a legal administration. he endeavoured. where they considered themselves as led in triumph by their ostentatious conqueror. envying their riches. to throw such an imputation upon him. But other historians. which. who was alone able to curb the violence of his captains. they made an attempt. he found. The inhabitants of it scarcely seems allowable. he was guided by a concealed policy. that he could neither satisfy his rapacious captains. In order to have a pretext for this violence. throws the blame entirely on the fickle and mutinous disposition of the English. than that this prince. while a great and victorious army was quartered in England. and highly celebrates the justice and lenity of Odo’s and Fitz Osberne’s administration. should absent himself. and the English nobles derived little satisfaction from those entertainments. could never prove dangerous. without farther exerting the rights of conquest. http://oll. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . Nothing indeed appears more strange. though without success. who is a panegyrist of his master. nor secure his unstable government. without discovering his intentions. to provoke and allure them into insurrections. and was not menaced by any of its neighbours. x y It is evident. from conjecture alone. and made them one people. and turbulent nation. Discontents and complaints multiplied every where. Page 151 of 354 and William himself treated his new courtiers with great appearance of kindness. impute the cause chiefly to the Normans. till a long tract of time had gradually united the two nations. which remained in profound tranquillity. that. which rendered him impatient to display his pomp and magnificence among his ancient subjects.html 4/7/2004 . in order to revisit his own country. who had first submitted to the Conqueror. and to gratify those unbounded hopes. and to overawe the mutinies of the people. Were we not assured of the solidity of his genius.libertyfund. and every thing seemed to menace a revolution as rapid as that which had placed William on the throne. that the chief reason of this alteration in the sentiments of the English. and in confederacy with Eustace. we might ascribe this measure to a vain ostentation. in so extraordinary a step. were the first that attempted to throw off the yoke. warlike. on Their insurrections. despising a people that had so easily submitted to the yoke. which they had formed in entering on this enterprize. it was impossible altogether to prevent the insolence of the Normans. count of Bologne. In England affairs took still a worse turn during the absence of the sovereign. who.Hume. and the good sense displayed in all other circumstances of his conduct.

sensible of the unequal contest. and which had always been extremely odious to the nation. Edric. Githa escaped with her treasures to Flanders. which he put under the command of Baldwin. while it encreased the number of malcontents. A sudden mutiny of the populace broke this agreement. and supplicated his clemency and forgiveness. persuaded the people to submit.libertyfund. being provoked at the depredations of some Norman captains in his neighbourhood. put him to death as a traitor to his country. who had not z a Decemb. As the vigilance of William overawed the malcontents. if they persevered in their revolt. that the vassals of earl Coxo. by flying or concealing themselves. The inhabitants were anew seized with terror. and betaking themselves to arms. and met with like treatment: And the king. and the confiscation of their estates. or was more fully confirmed in the resolution. with their assistance. he imposed a general tax on the people. and to preserve still some appearance of justice in his oppressions. and to deliver hostages for their obedience. A secret conspiracy was entered into to perpetrate in one day a general massacre of the Normans. in order to prevent the rapacity and insolence of his soldiery. and the vigorous measures which he pursued. and began already to experience those insults and injuries. hastened over to England. than of any regular conspiracy. appearing before the walls. which had been abolished by the Confessor. He was here joined by his wife. The malcontents of Cornwal imitated the example of Exeter. But though these open hostilities were not very considerable. and by his presence. were strengthened by the accession of the neighbouring inhabitants of Devonshire and Cornwal. the Forester. and he set guards on all the gates.. William was not destitute of generosity. having built a citadel in that city. and on his approach. informed of these dangerous discontents. instigated by Githa. disconcerted all the schemes of the conspirators. returned to Winchester. and finding him resolute in maintaining his fidelity to William. 6. which a nation must always expect. and dispersed his army into their quarters. to repel force by force. two Welsh princes. Page 152 of 354 the garrison of Dover. having desired him to head them in an insurrection. he had art enough to conceal his intention. which could give them a rational hope of success against the established power of the Normans. Matilda. and gave them the prospect of new forfeitures and attainders. that of Danegelt. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and the quarrel was become so general and national. who had been arbitrarily expelled by the Normans.. He ordered all the English. and surrendering at discretion. The king hastened with his forces to chastize this revolt. b c 1068.Hume. whose possessions lay on the banks of the Severne. and William. and thenceforth either embraced. The king. that allows itself to be reduced to that abject situation. threw themselves at the king’s feet.html 4/7/2004 . when his temper was not hardened either by policy or passion: He was prevailed on to pardon the rebels. d e f http://oll. The king began to regard all his English subjects as inveterate and irreclaimable enemies. though too late. mother to king Harold. refused to admit a Norman garrison. The inhabitants of Exeter. which the rebels must expect. who had become sensible. ordered the eyes of one of the hostages to be put out. during his absence. of their defenceless condition. as an earnest of that severity. their insurrections were more the result of an impatient humour in the people. the wiser and more considerable citizens. to be restored to their estates: But at the same time. formed an alliance with Blethyn and Rowallan. Such of them as had been more violent in their mutiny betrayed their guilt. and of reducing them to the most abject slavery. both enabled William to gratify farther the rapacity of his Norman captains. Though the natural violence and severity of his temper made him incapable of feeling any remorse in the execution of this tyrannical purpose. and endeavoured. the disaffection was general among the son of earl Gilbert. like that which had formerly been executed upon the Danes. of seizing their possessions.

imitated their example. A peace. left Edwin and Morcar. was very different from that which fell to the share of their followers. except a small reinforcement from Wales. she brought him an accession to his family. to keep possession of their estates. from Malcolm. being inflicted on men who had never http://oll. Besides the general discontent. He reached York before the rebels were in any condition for resistance. His three elder sons.libertyfund. to deprive them of all prospect of foreign assistance. had. Page 153 of 354 before visited England. which he committed to the custody of William Peverell. at the same time. committed and suffered on both sides. therefore. and the injuries. destitute of all support. separate or assembled in small bodies. king of Denmark. The insolence of victorious masters. whenever he should think proper to command their ruin. and ready to fall. still resided in Normandy. Richard. whom he named Henry. promised his daughter in marriage to Edwin. and seemed to threaten more important consequences. while he enraged the whole nation. the discontents of his English subjects augmented daily. or were joined by any of the foreign succours. Edwin and Morcar appeared at the head of this which had seized the English. and gave away their lands to his foreign adventurers. and gratified their vengeance by the slaughter of their enemies. and having his troops always in readiness. which they expected. and where-ever they found the Normans. On his march he gave orders to fortify the castle of Warwic. When Edwin. seemed. But an insurrection in the north drew thither the general attention. rendered the quarrel between them and the Normans absolutely incurable. which he made with Malcolm. Soon after. stipulated for foreign succours. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . of which he left Henry de Beaumont governor. and delivered his son as a hostage for his fidelity. seemed intolerable to the natives. dispersed throughout the kingdom. they secretly set upon them.html 4/7/2004 .Hume. he gave him an absolute denial. but either he had never seriously intended to perform this engagement. to a tyrant and a conqueror. but having recourse to the clemency of the victor. another Norman captain. induced that nobleman and his brother to concur with their incensed countrymen. without resistance. and the two earls found no means of safety. and in possession of the military power. in order to insure them to his interests. before they took arms. Archil. for the present. William knew the importance of celerity in quelling an insurrection. nor were the people. planted throughout the whole country. These. He observed religiously the terms. on his accession. from their nephew Blethin. which he had granted to the former. which William gave the chiefs. who did him homage for Cumberland. king of Scotland. and that of Nottingham. by the birth of a fourth son. thus deserted by their leaders. and to make one general effort for the recovery of their ancient liberties. a potent nobleman in those parts. whom he pretended to spare. But though the king appeared thus fortunate both in public and domestic life. and this disappointment. but he extended the rigors of his confiscations over the latter. he thought it was to little purpose. he advanced by great journies to the north. and allowed them. and these potent noblemen.. and that. and from Sweyn. supported by such powerful leaders. prince of North-Wales. and so agreeable to the wishes of the people. instead of a sovereign. they had tamely surrendered themselves. and William. Though the early confiscation of Harold’s followers might seem iniquitous. and whom he now ordered to be crowned by archbishop Aldred. Robert. renewed his applications. or having changed his plan of administration in England from clemency to rigour. g h i k l Rigors of the Norman government. able to make any farther resistance. But the treatment. added to so many other reasons of disgust. the two earls were incited to this revolt by private injuries. The English were now sensible that their final destruction was intended. whom they had hoped to gain by their submission. William. if he gained one family.

The easy submission of the kingdom on its first invasion had exposed the natives to contempt. or was entrusted with any command or authority. as the necessary result of this destructive plan of administration. he gave great countenance to all the English exiles. that the king intended to rely entirely on the support and affections of foreigners. excused on account of the urgent necessities of the prince. the subsequent proofs of their animosity and resentment had made them the object of hatred. and he carried thither his two sisters Margaret and Christina. with an intention of passing their lives abroad free from oppression. that they should thenceforth enjoy without molestation their possessions and their dignities. immediately after the defeat at Hastings. and keep them in readiness to suppress every commencement of domestic rebellion or foreign invasion. and Wales. Impressed with the sense of this dismal situation. desired to be dismissed the service. whom a rigorous discipline could have but ill restrained. to escape with him into Scotland. But the successive destruction of so many other families convinced them. They were well received by Malcolm. was persuaded by Cospatric. three sons of Harold. But William’s bounty to his followers could not fail of alluring many new adventurers into his service. or of returning on a favourable opportunity to assist their friends in the recovery of their native liberties. they projected an invasion on England. dreading the insidious caresses of William. and menaced them with still more bloody effects of the public resentment. and partly with a view of strengthening his kingdom by the accession of so many strangers. would at once commence hostilities. attainders. they were obliged to retreat to their ships.. and being defeated in several actions. m n 1069. New insurrections. even the foreigners were not much at their ease. Many of them settled there. and the rage of the vanquished English served only to excite the attention of the king and those warlike chiefs. but finding themselves surrounded on all hands by enraged enemies. and Magnus. While the English suffered under these oppressions. and which he punished by the confiscation of all their possessions in England. assisted by forces from these several countries. and who only fought in defence of the government. and they foresaw new forfeitures. Edmond.Hume. hoped. and that the strangers. They observed. ready to oppose them. by which they could hope to make themselves either regarded or beloved by their sovereign. and they hoped that all the exiles from Denmark.html 4/7/2004 . and to return with great loss to Ireland. Godwin. and rouze the indignation of the English against their haughty conquerors. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . were encouraged in their insolence and tyranny against them.. the elder sister. who were ignorant of his They landed in Devonshire. and some others imitated their example: A desertion which was highly resented by the king. Page 154 of 354 sworn fealty to the duke of Normandy. had. who took every advantage against them. which they themselves had established in their own country: Yet were these rigors. o The efforts of the Normans were http://oll. however contrary to the ancient Saxon laws. son of the count of Britanny. though entrusted with great commands. that no Englishman possessed his confidence. having met with a kind reception from Dermot and other princes of that country. and they were now deprived of every expedient. but found Brian. Edgar Atheling himself. a powerful Northumbrian. who soon after espoused Margaret. many Englishmen fled into foreign countries. sought a retreat in Ireland. It was not long before they found occupation for their prowess and military conduct. and Humphry de Teliol. and those who were not involved in the present ruin. and laid the foundation of families which afterwards made a figure in that country. where. Scotland. and acts of violence. Hugh de Grentmesnil. they began to wish again for the tranquillity and security of their native country.libertyfund. partly in hopes of employing them against the growing power of William. at the head of some foreign troops.

but this expedient proved the immediate cause of his destruction. William. brother to king Sweyn. and received forgiveness. with seven hundred of his followers. who was appointed governor of Durham. and he engaged Osberne. who long defended York with great courage. Page 155 of 354 now directed to the north. p This success animated the inhabitants of York. where affairs had fallen into the utmost confusion. before his approach. the Norman governor. and made head against earl Brient and Fitz-Osberne. which lay contiguous. which they carried by assault. who. Bearne. seemed determined to make by concert one great effort for the recovery of their liberties. except Hereward. by detaching the Danes from them. that he might better provide for the defence of the citadel of York. Hereward. slew Robert Fitz-Richard. The more impatient of the Northumbrians had attacked Robert de Comyn. with his followers. Merleswain. Cospatric also. partly from the hopes which they gave of Scottish succours. Mallet. set fire to some houses. Malcolm. still remained faithful to him. Siward. who commanded in those quarters. two sons of that monarch. and whose defeat he knew would strike a terror into all the other malcontents.html 4/7/2004 . they put him to death in that city. assembled his followers. and other leaders. and for the expulsion of their oppressors. and paying a sum of money as an atonement for his insurrection. and left the Normans undisputed masters of the kingdom.Hume. q r This success proved a signal to many other parts of England. a nobleman in East-Anglia. The flames. and besieged in the castle William Mallet. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . whom he regarded as the most formidable. celebrated for valour. easily persuaded the warlike and discontented Northumbrians to join the insurrection. who still kept in his fastnesses. and by offering him the liberty of plundering the sea-coast. Edric. and brought along with him Cospatric. and gaining the advantage over him from his negligence. to weaken the enemy. was entrusted with the command of these forces. and as William knew how to esteem valour even in an enemy. The English in the counties of Somerset and Dorset rose in arms. and animating them with the prospect of new confiscations and forfeitures. rising in arms. repenting their former easy submission. and he was accompanied by Harold and Canute.. the forester. s t u w http://oll. undismayed amidst this scene of confusion. which was soon after followed by some degree of trust and favour. he marched against the rebels in the north. and even invested with the earldom of Northumberland. by large presents. Waltheof. made his peace with the king. to retire. Even Edric. Adelin. and the garrison. who. compelled by necessity. into Denmark. he tried. Waltheof. aided by the Danes. Edgar Atheling appeared from Scotland. sought again a retreat in Scotland from the pursuit of his enemies. Edgar Atheling. was put to the sword without mercy. and gave the people an opportunity of showing their malevolence to the Normans. and taking shelter in the Isle of Ely.libertyfund. without committing farther hostilities. dispersed themselves. and assaulted Montacute. assembled his forces. on whom the command now devolved. in despair of success. laid siege to Shrewsbury. from the memory of William’s clemency. while the inhabitants of Cornwal and Devon invested Exeter. reduced the whole city to ashes: The enraged inhabitants. that nobleman had no reason to repent of this confidence. spreading into the neighbouring streets. The English every where. was allured with this appearance of clemency. the Danish troops landed from 300 vessels: Osberne. partly from their authority in those parts. their governor. to the number of 3000 men. A little after. Joining policy to force. coming too late to support his took advantage of the confusion to attack the castle. made inroads on all the neighbouring country. calling in the assistance of the Welsh. which. was received into favour.. submitted to the Conqueror. and all the English rebels in other parts. was constrained to retire.

took also care to retain for ever the military authority in those hands. or if they lingered in England. the Northumbrians. this revolution alone gave great security to the foreigners. The houses were reduced to ashes by the merciless Normans. Ancient and honourable families were reduced to beggary. which led either to riches or preferment. Their lives were indeed commonly spared. beside the royal demesnes. the cattle seized and driven away. These great barons. or from his esteem of individuals: His heart was hardened against all compassion towards the people. for the extent of sixty miles. shared out a great part of their lands to other foreigners. who had given him such sensible proofs of their impotent rage and animosity now resolved to proceed to extremities against all the natives of England. and which. concurring with the rapacity of foreign adventurers. the laws of forfeiture and attainder. produced almost a total revolution in the landed property of the kingdom. with the utmost rigour. Sensible of the restless disposition of 1070. He divided all the lands of England.. which seemed requisite to support his plan of tyrannical administration. who were denominated knights or vassals. and he issued orders for laying entirely waste that fertile country. and he scrupled no measure. and who paid their lord the same duty and submission in peace http://oll. lies between the Humber and the Tees. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . He introduced into England the feudal law. which. however violent or severe. they perished miserably in the woods from cold and hunger. It was crime sufficient in an Englishman to be opulent or noble or powerful. was the foundation both of the stability and of the disorders. Page 156 of 354 But the seeming clemency of William towards the English leaders proceeded only from artifice. and either annexed to the royal demesnes. which had enabled him to subdue the kingdom. New rigors of the government.libertyfund. While the king’s declared intention was to depress or rather entirely extirpate the English gentry. more or less. in the guilt of treason. The insurrections and conspiracies in so many parts of the kingdom had involved the bulk of the landed proprietors. during that age. which he found established in France and Normandy. As power naturally follows property. they had the mortification of seeing their castles and manors possessed by Normans of the meanest birth and lowest stations. The lives of a hundred thousand persons are computed to have been sacrificed to this stroke of barbarous policy. with the reservation of stated services and payments. into baronies. found themselves carefully excluded from every road. on the most considerable of his adventurers. the instruments of husbandry destroyed. who held immediately of the from a reluctance to abandon their ancient habitations. x y z a it is easy to believe that scarcely the form of justice would be observed in those violent proceedings. thus inflicted a lasting wound on the power and populousness of the nation. by seeking a remedy for a temporary evil. and the inhabitants compelled either to seek for a subsistence in the southern parts of Scotland. in which they should no longer be formidable to his government. with very few exceptions. NOTE [H] b and they NOTE [I] Introduction of the feudal law. finding himself entirely master of a people. but their estates were confiscated. and that any suspicions served as the most undoubted proofs of guilt against a people thus devoted to destruction. and he conferred these. or conferred with the most profuse bounty on the Normans and other foreigners.Hume. the nobles themselves were every where treated with ignominy and contempt. by the new institutions which he established. and the king took advantage of executing against them.. he determined to incapacitate them ever after from giving him disturbance. but William. and the policy of the king. But William.html 4/7/2004 . which. and to reduce them to a condition. in most of the monarchial governments of Europe.

who c d e f g Innovation in ecclesiastical government. The small mixture of English. archbishop of Canterbury. the same reverence for his sacred character. gave jealousy to the king. he now subjected it to services.Hume. in case of failure. The better to unite the parts of the government. and even before the period of the conquest. and to avoid giving him farther offence till the opportunity should offer of effecting his final destruction. and of advancing foreigners in their place.html 4/7/2004 . as well as by the dignity of his office. which the clergy regarded as a grievous slavery. and to bind them into one system. notwithstanding these great advantages. were glad to be received into the second. and for the support of domestic tranquillity.. and his authority among the English. Page 157 of 354 and war. Though William had. by the greatness of his family and alliances. that superstition itself. who. the few. which he himself owed to his sovereign. and under the protection of some powerful Norman. The suppression of the late rebellions. by employing the archbishop of York to officiate at his consecration. on his accession. who retained their landed property. however violent. The bishops and abbots were obliged. who had assisted William in his conquests. proportioned to the extent of property possessed by each see or abbey. but under cover of a new superstition. as well as civil independency of the Saxons. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . which he was the great instrument of introducing into England. had gradually diffused itself from the city and court of Rome. and though he had courted the church on his invasion and accession. which exalted the papacy above all human power. for estates which they had received free from their ancestors.. William reduced the ecclesiastical revenues under the same feudal law. when required. But as the great body of the clergy were still natives. to furnish to the king during war a number of knights or military tenants. would be covered by his great successes. But among these was Stigand. scarcely more than six or seven of the prelates were natives of the country. Pope Alexander.libertyfund. on other occasions. by the extent of his possessions. The whole kingdom contained about 700 chief tenants. that the Norman dominion seemed now to be fixed on the most durable basis. it had promoted them to many of the sees in a man. The partiality of the Confessor towards the Normans had been so great. by his address and vigour. which affected so deeply the property and liberty of the kingdom.215 knights-fees. who held every thing from his bounty. during that age. to load themselves and their posterity with this grievous burthen. affronted this prelate. that. to the same penalties which were exacted from the laity. the king had much reason to dread the effects of their resentment: He therefore used the precaution of expelling the English from all the considerable dignities. The doctrine. and the total subjection of the English. was constrained to bend under his superior influence. and to defy all the efforts of its enemies. and as none of the native English were admitted into the first rank. and 60. aided by their superior learning. that the French and Normans would import into England. much more prevalent in the southern than in the northern kingdoms of Europe. and be overlooked amidst the other important revolutions. and as totally unbefitting their profession. and would break the spiritual. that an attempt against Stigand. he did not think it safe to violate the reverence usually paid to the primate. The pope and the ecclesiastics exclaimed against this tyranny. (for it partook of both species) was so restrained by subordination under the foreigners. with which they were impressed in their own country. http://oll. but the king’s authority was so well established over the army. as they called it. when it was most prevalent. Yet. and was. made him hope. which entered into this civil or military fabric. he was careful. to load him with honours and caresses. which might serve both for defence against foreigners. naturally expected. and they were liable. even in that age.

of Elmham. He summoned. and of degrading those English prelates. especially those who lay at a distance. that the more violent the exertion of power. and Agelmare. as is usual. during the remainder of his life. a man of an inoffensive character. the Pope dispatched Ermenfroy. and this prelate was the first that had ever appeared with that character in any part of the British islands. and met with proportionable success. therefore. Peter and John.libertyfund. his predecessor. who was afterwards deposed for symony.Hume. Page 158 of 354 had hitherto conducted their ecclesiastical government. a Norman monk. Hence Lanfranc’s zeal in promoting the interests of the papacy. and after a long process before the pope. by which he himself augmented his own authority. to employ the incident as a means of serving his political purposes. These crimes of Stigand were mere pretences. as well as by the monastic establishments formerly introduced by Edred and by Edgar. of Worcester. Stigand’s ruin. and being less checked by knowledge and a liberal education. who had been appointed to the see of York. promoted Lanfranc. had died a little before of grief and vexation. bishop of Sion. This prelate was rigid in defending the prerogatives of his station. at which it had. but without much idea of its title to dominion or authority. archbishop of Canterbury. was the only English prelate that escaped this general proscription. were deposed by the legate.. and as Benedict was the only pope who then officiated. civil. and was prosecuted with great severity. however. with an acknowledgment indeed of primacy in the see of Rome. fled the kingdom: Wulstan. Many considerable abbots shared the same fate: Egelwin. it is the most incurable and inflexible of all human passions. all the prelates of the church. to answer for his conduct. to the vacant see. which were l m http://oll. was resolved on. under the appearance of principle. as the Norman prince seemed fully established on the throne. he cited before him Stigand. on account of the breach of his coronation oath. where he continued. the more certainly did it confirm the authority of that court. a Milanese monk. and thought. archbishop of York. in poverty and want. since the first had been a practice not unusual in It afterwards went much farther. as his legate into England. The king therefore. and the having received his own pall from Benedict IX. and being favoured by the sentiments of the conquerors. and for intrusion into the papacy. bishop of Durham. bishop of Selesey. to acknowledge the primacy of the archbishop of Canterbury. who were become obnoxious to him. were excusable for making their applications to him. and of the extreme tyranny with which. was indefatigable.html 4/7/2004 . and his acts were never repealed. h i k It was a fixed maxim in this reign.. the second was a pure ceremonial. As soon. Aldred. The king. celebrated for his learning and piety. therefore. the officiating in the pall of Robert. he obliged Thomas. though he was probably led by principle to pay this submission to Rome. and being assisted by two cardinals. which had at first obstructed its progress. determined. and cast him into prison. upon Stigand’s deposition. from which he derived his commission. The devoted attachment to Rome continually encreased in England. and imprisoned by the king. The primate was accused of three crimes. who had set the crown on William’s head. or military. and remained in possession of his dignity. The legate submitted to become the instrument of his tyranny. stood in France and Italy. even to the person himself. he saw. as well as in some of the subsequent. and was never any where subjected to a higher penalty than a resignation of one of the sees. The legate degraded him from his dignity: The king confiscated his estate. the holding of the see of Winchester together with that of Canterbury. being favoured by that very remote situation. ecclesiastical. and had left his malediction to that prince. that no native of the island should ever be advanced to any dignity. a council of the prelates and abbots at Winchester. it soon reached the same height. Where ambition can be so happy as to cover its enterprizes. he was determined to treat his English subjects. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . during some time. Like rigour was exercised against the other English prelates: Agelric.

secured by the inaccessible situation of the place. r The s NOTE [J] 1071. however acquired or however extended. But this attempt served only to accelerate the ruin of the few English. they determined. as well as his lay subjects. which is at present to be found in the English tongue. But the English had the cruel mortification to find. and his extensive authority over the foreigners. The situation of the two great earls. had an immediate tendency to separate. and an unusual mark of complaisance in their imperious conquerors. He retained the church in great subjection. voted in any synod. attended with every circumstance of insult and indignity. He prohibited his subjects from acknowledging any one for pope whom he himself had not previously received: He required. with a view of commencing an insurrection. While Edwin retired to his estate in the north. in all schools throughout the kingdom. the youth should be instructed in the French tongue. The pleadings in the supreme courts of judicature were in French: p was deliberately formed by the prince. and would allow none. as a memorial of their ancient government. for that purpose. became now very disagreeable. and be ratified by his authority: Even bulls or letters from Rome could not legally be produced. that. till he himself had given his consent to their excommunication. a practice which was continued from custom till after the reign of Edward III. during this general insurrection of their countrymen.libertyfund. the king. who. Sensible that they had entirely lost their dignity. q deeds were often drawn in the same language: The laws were composed in that idiom: No other tongue was used at court: It became the language of all fashionable company. though too late. should first be laid before him. that their king’s authority. long annexed to the crown of England. Though they had retained their allegiance. and they found themselves exposed to the malignity of the courtiers. and from the extensive foreign dominions. and which composes the greatest and best part of our language. These regulations were worthy of a sovereign. was all employed in their oppression. and that the scheme of their subjection. n o and wantonly prosecuted by his followers. and was never indeed totally discontinued in England. who envied them on account of their opulence and greatness. till they received the same sanction: And none of his ministers or barons. and the English themselves. and could not even hope to remain long in safety. From this attention of William.html 4/7/2004 . he ordered. still defended himself against the Normans. kept him from feeling any immediate inconveniencies from it. whatever offences they were guilty of. and at the same time involved them in that general contempt which they entertained for the English. that all the ecclesiastical canons. moved by the remonstrances of some of his prelates. proceeded that mixture of French. Morcar and Edwin. The prevalence of this superstitious spirit became dangerous to some of William’s successors.Hume. to share the same fate with their countrymen. and incommodious to most of them: But the arbitrary sway of this king over the English. and by the earnest desires of the people. to dispute his sovereign will and pleasure. William had even entertained the difficult project of totally abolishing the English language. restored a few of the laws of king Edward. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . though seemingly of no great importance towards the protection of general liberty. which.. which the principles. Page 159 of 354 still somewhat more common in the southern countries. But amidst those endeavours to depress the English nation. gave them extreme satisfaction. affected to excel in that foreign dialect. could be subjected to spiritual censures. and. Morcar took shelter in the Isle of Ely with the brave who had http://oll. of whatever character. and kept united the civil and ecclesiastical powers. they had not gained the king’s confidence. introduced by this prince himself. ashamed of their own country..

and joining them to some troops levied in Normandy. 1074. and receiving a decent pension for his subsistence. to the arbitrary will of one man. had 1073. and the count of Anjou relinquished his pretensions. The full settlement of England afforded him leisure to punish this insult on his authority. encouraged by his absolute dominion over the English. The king’s military conduct. but which their late easy subjection under the Normans had somewhat degraded and obscured. through the enemy. despairing of success. To complete the king’s prosperity. Page 160 of 354 hitherto been able to preserve their rank or fortune during the past convulsions. and the eyes to be put out. whom he had taken in the Isle of Ely. to submit. he carried over a considerable army. was betrayed by some of his followers. and weary of a fugitive life. who had engaged with their duke in the conquest of England.html 4/7/2004 .. and though they obeyed their leader in the field. and Egelwin. bishop of Durham. The king of Scotland. The province of Maine in France had. fallen under the dominion of William some years before his conquest of England. had fallen upon the northern counties. and expelled the magistrates. and having surrounded it with flatbottomed boats. he entered the revolted province. and to pay the usual homage to the English submitted to his enemy. they would have regarded with disdain the richest acquisitions. as monuments of his severity. and of retrieving that character of valour.Hume. seconded by these brave troops. by William’s rigour against the inferior malcontents. and he dispersed them in that miserable condition throughout the country.libertyfund. as usual. till at last William. Edwin. sword in hand. he obliged the rebels to surrender at discretion. now rose in rebellion. http://oll. by like means. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and made a causeway through the morasses to the extent of two miles. which had long been national among them. dissatisfied with the Norman government. and restored him to his estate. the government of England was greatly disturbed. The English appeared ambitious of distinguishing themselves on this occasion. gained the affections of Canute.. attempting to make his escape into Scotland. who had joined the malcontents. by the will of Hebert. charmed with his bravery. as their ancestors had formerly. had they been required. Edgar Atheling himself. were men of the most independant spirit. William employed all his endeavours to subdue the Isle of Ely. in their civil government. and instigated by Fulk count of Anjou. he was glad to make peace. composed almost entirely of English. Insurrection of the Norman barons. Perhaps too they hoped that. and the latter soon after died in confinement. soon overcame all opposition in Maine: The inhabitants were obliged to submit. in hopes of profiting by these convulsions. and who were the sole object of his friendship and regard. but on the approach of William he retired. and was killed by a party of Normans. they might recover the confidence of their sovereign. who paid a tribute of generous tears to the memory of this gallant and beautiful youth. But the imperious character of William. received him into favour. was permitted to live in England unmolested. and that too by those very foreigners. to the great affliction of the English. Hereward alone forced his way. He ordered the hands to be lopt off. But these acts of generosity towards the leaders were disgraced. Earl Morcar. the last count. and might conquer his inveterate prejudices in favour of his own countrymen. but the inhabitants. of many of the prisoners. and still continued his hostilities by sea against the Normans. but being unwilling to remove his Norman forces from this island. whom the king had placed over them. and when the king entered his country. by their zeal and activity. and even to that of William. The Norman barons. in return. who owed every thing to the king’s bounty. But during these transactions. who had some pretensions to the succession. were thrown into prison. and often impelled by the necessity of his affairs.

. She conveyed intelligence of the conspiracy to the king. would tend to incense him against Waltheof. that the slavery of the English. discovered the t u w x secret in confession to Lanfranc. she believed. Cospatric. But as he was a man of generous principles. the earl. Tormented with these reflections. by a solemn engagement.html 4/7/2004 . inconsiderately expressed his approbation of the conspiracy. Page 161 of 354 prompted him to stretch his authority over the Normans themselves beyond what the free genius of that victorious people could easily bear. Even earl Waltheof. he opened his mind to his wife. the certain prospect of success in a revolt. The discontents were become general among those haughty nobles. had even married Judith. instead of being alleviated by that event. where he received the earldom of Dunbar from the bounty of Malcolm. earl of Norfolk. but who. here prepared measures for a revolt. The two earls. they opened the design to their guests. while the fumes of the liquor. son and heir of Fitz-Osberne. had thought it his duty to inform the king of his purpose. and the ardour of the company. and during the gaiety of the festival. entered. that he owed no fidelity to those rebellious barons. it is probable. or if it did. and even Roger. niece to that prince. When a prospect. had. the indignity of submitting to a bastard was not forgotten. but meeting with a refusal. disgusted by the denial of their request. would become more grievous. into the design of shaking off the royal authority. possessed any power or authority. was insisted on. under a multitude of foreign leaders. and to desire the royal consent. he proceeded nevertheless to complete the nuptials. which he could reap from his own grandeur and advancement. factious and ambitious. retired into Scotland. of whose fidelity he entertained no suspicion. who had by surprise gained his consent to a crime. who. Waltheof was appointed his successor in that important command. But after his cool judgment returned. and dreading William’s resentment for their disobedience. took this opportunity of ruining her easy and credulous husband. and earl of Northumberland. by revealing it. which. and render him absolutely implacable. earl of Hereford. the king’s chief favourite. he hastily embraced it. whose union and whose discord would be equally oppressive to the people. and had been promoted to the earldoms of Huntingdon and Northampton. Meanwhile. intending to marry his sister to Ralph de Guader. and his apparent intention of reducing the victors and the vanquished to a like ignominious servitude. whom they affected on this occasion to commiserate. on whose probity and judgment he had a great reliance: He was persuaded by the prelate. still dubious with regard to the part which he should act. for some generations. Judith. on some new disgust from William. that the tyranny exercised over the English lay heavy upon his mind. the temerity of the conspirators was so great. This nobleman. the last of the English. prevented him from reflecting on the consequences of that rash attempt. Amidst their complaints. and those of Guader. and seemed still to possess the confidence and friendship of his sovereign. that they would give some http://oll. having secretly fixed her affections on another. They inveighed against the arbitrary conduct of the king. while the company was heated with wine. therefore. who was present. that the conspiracy of those discontented barons was not likely to prove successful against the established power of William. his imperious behaviour to his barons of the noblest birth. that his first duty was to his sovereign and benefactor. was opened of retrieving their liberty. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and assembled all his friends. been received into favour by the Conqueror. and destroyed all the satisfaction. inflamed with the same sentiments. and aggravated every circumstance. having.Hume. and promised his concurrence towards its success. after his capitulation at York. was strongly infected with them. and the whole company. This nobleman. his tyranny over the English. to attend the solemnity. he foresaw. if he seized not the opportunity of making atonement for his guilt. by the assistance of the Danes and the discontented English. and warmed by the jollity of the entertainment. and loved his country.. his next to himself and his family.libertyfund.

except two ecclesiastical synods. supported by the bishop of Worcester and the abbot of Evesham. or advancing into the heart of the kingdom. and nothing remarkable occurred. Ralph was so well supported both by the earl of Britanny and the King of France. had not Roger. and brought him intelligence. others their hands cut off. The conspirators. and they flew to arms. and the seat of some of them was removed from small villages to the most considerable town within the diocese. in order to suppress the insurrection. The king seemed even disposed to remit this last part of the punishment. assisted by Richard de Bienfaite. convinced by these arguments. as well as by his rapacious courtiers. Waltheof. the regent. the earl of Hereford. the precedency among the episcopal sees was settled. agreeably to his usual maxims. the account. where he possessed a large estate. Ralph retired in despair to Britanny. which were summoned. was abandoned by all the world. in whose aid they placed their chief confidence. and make with those powerful princes a peace. In the second was transacted a business of more importance. ordered him to be tried. hearing of Waltheof’s departure. where the Danish fleet. remained in tranquillity. was not treated with so much humanity. though he was well received by the king. who. y z 1075.. who longed for so rich a forfeiture. was atoned for by an early repentance and return to his duty. But though the contest seemed very unequal between a private nobleman and the king of England. and passed the rest of her life in contempt. that nothing remained but the punishment of the criminals. and he hastened over to Normandy. and fancied that miracles were wrought by his reliques. In the former. But William. raised some forces. remorse. as a testimony of his innocence and sanctity. grievously lamented his fate. or taken prisoners. The king. and had destroyed all the merit of her husband’s repentance. and thanked for his fidelity. and before the arrival of the Danes. Page 162 of 354 other person the means of acquiring the merit of the discovery. by a fresh insolence. immediately concluded their design to be betrayed. showed more lenity to their leader. The infamous Judith. as a punishment of their treason: The earl himself escaped to Norwich. went over to Normandy. William. The earl of Norfolk was defeated at Fagadun. and executed. England. and extensive jurisdictions. in order to gratify his vengeance on that criminal. that William. after besieging him for some time in Dol. instigated by his niece. though his guilt. another at Winchester. during his absence. had sunk deep into William’s mind. and to imprisonment during pleasure. The earl of Hereford was checked by Walter de Lacy. The prisoners taken in this action had their right foot cut off. thence to Denmark. one at London. 29th April. The English. some had their eyes put out. who hastened over to England..libertyfund.html 4/7/2004 . the two and misery. soon after arrived. previously transmitted by Judith. before their schemes were ripe for execution. found.Hume. that all his confederates were suppressed and were either killed. always much inferior to that of the other conspirators. But Waltheof. a great baron in those parts. which he executed with great severity. but. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . in which Ralph himself was included. and William de Warrenne. which had made an unsuccessful attempt upon the coast of England. Nothing remained to complete William’s satisfaction but the punishment of Ralph de Guader. who considered this nobleman as the last resource of their nation. and prevented the earl from passing the Severne. condemned. was obliged to abandon the enterprize. being an Englishman. by Odo. http://oll. provoked him to render his confinement perpetual. falling soon after under the king’s displeasure. banished. near Cambridge. Many of the rebels were hanged. who was only condemned to a forfeiture of his estate.

. especially Italy and Germany. tumults. Princes themselves. defended this prerogative of his crown with a vigour and resolution suitable to its importance. b c But the bold spirit of Gregory. which he had http://oll. Europe. Henry V. and other spiritual dignities. though he himself could not expect ever 1076. to reap any benefit from them. he undertook the arduous task of entirely disjoining the ecclesiastical from the civil forgetting all the ties of nature. but on the people. with which the popes had been treasuring up powers and pretensions during so many ages of ignorance. Superstition. The few offices. and well knowing the nature of mankind.libertyfund. Every minister. he seemed determined to set no bounds to the spiritual. the reigning emperor. the most enterprising pontiff that had ever filled that chair. at least of ratifying his election. to which they gave rise. and convulsions. abbies. even beyond the great extent of power and property which belonged to them. and eighteen in that of his successor. of the church had come to such maturity as to embolden her to attempt extorting the right of investitures from the temporal power. and of excluding profane laymen from the right which they had assumed. which the feudal institutions left the sovereign the power of bestowing. to free his subjects from their oaths of allegiance. their interposition became requisite in all civil business. especially as the general ignorance of the age bestowed a consequence on the ecclesiastical offices. therefore. who received any disgust. Page 163 of 354 The industry and perseverance are surprising.. and even the mother of this monarch. Not content with shaking off the yoke of the emperors. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . who had long exercised this power. whose blind astonishment ever inclines them to yield to the most impudent pretensions. a The sovereigns. covered his rebellion under the pretence of principle.html 4/7/2004 . and the least restrained by fear. Besides numberless assassinations. not dismayed with the vigorous opposition. either civil or military. and the pope and the emperor waged implacable war on each other. servant. and a real usefulness in common life was thus superadded to the spiritual sanctity of their character. to pronounce him rightfully deposed. made the prerogative of conferring the pastoral ring and staff the most valuable jewel of the royal diadem. employed them for their present purposes: And the controversy. decency. was thrown into the most violent convulsions. to whom it originally belonged. or rather temporal monarchy. he found the stupid people ready to second his most exorbitant pretensions. made great opposition to this claim of the court of Rome. was seduced to countenance the insolence of his enemies. and cherished all claims which might turn to the advantage of his successors. the child of ignorance. When the usurpations. and who had acquired it. Dispute about investitures. Gregory dared to fulminate the sentence of excommunication against Henry and his adherents. instead of shocking mankind by this gross encroachment on the civil authority. when the claims of the sovereign pontiff finally prevailed. invested the clergy with an authority almost sacred. and. not by encroachments on the church. not attentive to the pernicious consequences of those papal claims. and as they ingrossed the little learning of the age. which he met with from the emperor. while each pontiff employed every fraud for advancing purposes of imaginary piety. or vassal of the emperor. engendered the parties of Guelf and Ghibbelin. All this immense store of spiritual and civil authority was now devolved on Gregory VII. of filling the vacancies of bishoprics. who had hitherto exercised the power of appointing the pope on every vacancy. of the name of Hildebrand. spreading into every city of Italy.Hume. and Henry IV. the most durable and most inveterate factions that ever arose from the mixture of ambition and religious zeal. it is computed that the quarrel occasioned no less than sixty battles in the reign of Henry IV. or moderation. extended his usurpations all over Europe.

when such profane priests officiated at the altar. William allowed the pope’s legate to assemble. and he parcelled it out amongst adventurers. according to the usual practice of the Romish court. in his opinion. who had acquired the dominion of Naples. nor was it in the least his purpose to impose that servitude on his state. He had issued a decree prohibiting the marriage of priests.html 4/7/2004 . a synod at Winchester. king of Poland. he meant Peter’s pence. to center all authority in the sovereign pontiff. which. but that neither had he promised to do homage to Rome. who undertook to conquer it from the Saracens. Gregory. and the most vigorous prince in Europe. excommunicating all clergymen who retained their wives. the most potent. in order to establish the celibacy of the clergy.. to be a badge of subjection acknowledged by the kingdom. and even the chaste pleasures of the marriage-bed were inconsistent. with the sanctity of the sacerdotal character. which that pontiff had summoned against his enemies. and that the chief reluctance appeared in those who were more advanced in years: An event so little consonant to men’s natural expectations. under colour of strictness in religion. that the money should be remitted as usual. g h http://oll. d e f William the Conqueror. to refuse to the English bishops the liberty of attending a general council. and it cost them infinitely more pains to establish it than the propagation of any speculative absurdity. even in that blind and superstitious age. notwithstanding the frequent complaints of the pope. Robert Guiscard. from the rank of king. he was infected with the general superstition of the age. And the better to show Gregory his independance. affected an anxious care for the purity of manners.. requiring him to fulfil his promise in doing homage for the kingdom of England to the see of Rome. should be obliged to separate from their wives. which they had ever attempted to introduce. But though the king displayed this vigour in supporting the royal dignity. and to hold it in vassalage under the see of Rome: Even the Christian bishops. which he had employed against the emperor: He pretended to the entire property and dominion of Spain. that none.Hume. Gregory wrote him a letter. William replied. declaring such unlawful commerce to be fornication. and it was there constantly remarked. which. Page 164 of 354 undertaken to erect. emperor of the East. This point was a great object in the politics of the Roman and he did not perceive the ambitious scope of those institutions. he ventured. but the church of England could not yet be carried the whole length expected. was not. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . that the younger clergymen complied chearfully with the pope’s decrees in this particular. in his absence. He pronounced the sentence of excommunication against Nicephorus. saw that he was determined to reduce them to servitude. that the bishops should not thenceforth ordain any priests or deacons without exacting from them a promise of celibacy. and by assuming the whole legislative and judicial power of the church.libertyfund. was interpreted. except those who belonged to collegiate or cathedral churches. were introduced or promoted by the court of Rome. was attacked by the same dangerous weapon: He degraded Boleslas. By the tribute. that it could not fail to be glossed on. and even deprived Poland of the title of a kingdom: He attempted to treat Philip king of France with the same rigour. which all his predecessors had been accustomed to pay to the vicar of Christ. the adventurous Norman. but they enacted. The synod was content with decreeing. while he was throwing all Europe into combustion by his violence and impostures. though at first a charitable donation of the Saxon princes. on whose aid he relied for subduing the temporal princes. before it was finally settled. and to send him over that tribute. the most haughty. amidst all his splendid successes. Many synods were summoned in different parts of Europe. secure from the attacks of this enterprizing pontiff. and rendering it criminal in the laity to attend divine worship.

The whole castle was filled with tumult. the greatest trifle sufficed to produce a rupture between them. and was suspected of secretly instigating the king of France and the earl of Britanny to the opposition. but without that policy and dissimulation. were one day engaged in sport together. whom William had formerly deprived m n o The young man. a powerful Norman baron. son of that Hugh de Grentmesnil. complaining of his partiality. this prince could endure no controul even from his imperious father. Page 165 of 354 The king passed some years in Normandy. The three princes. that he never intended to throw off his cloaths. (for Richard was killed in hunting. he had promised the inhabitants. Robert proceeded to entertain a strong jealousy of his two surviving brothers. had acquired the affections of their father. and a similarity of manners. ran up stairs. But he could by no means appease the resentment of his eldest son. and before he undertook the expedition against England. impatient of contradiction. by a stag) who. drawing his sword. and by the encouragement which she gave his partizans. by greater submission and complaisance. persuaded the prince.html 4/7/2004 . found some difficulty to appease. and hastened to Roüen. he had endeavoured to appease the jealousy of his neighbours. engaged all the young nobility of Normandy and Maine. and fancying that no proper atonement had been made him for the insult. declared in his enmities. sirnamed Gambaron or Courthose. from his own family. declared him his successor in Normandy. to take part with him. which they made to William. as well as some circumstances in his situation. when that baron deserted him during his greatest difficulties in England.. but his long residence there was not entirely owing to his declared preference of that dutchy: His presence was also necessary for composing those disturbances. till he went to bed. The popular character of the prince. as affording them a prospect of separating England from his dominions on the continent. strongly invited him. who gave him protection in his castles. whose favourite he was. had it not been for the suggestions of his fortunes. that Robert should be their prince. left the court that very evening. Robert openly declared his discontent. which the king himself. his eldest son. he fled to Hugh de Neufchatel. by which his father was so much distinguished. Robert. which he would naturally have regarded as innocent. with an intention of seizing the citadel of that place. and had obliged the barons of that dutchy to do him homage as their future sovereign. i k l of Alberic de Grentmesnil. which it behoved him in honour to resent. but when Robert demanded of him the execution of those engagements. on both sides. that this action was meant as a public affront. the two younger took a fancy of throwing over some water on Robert as he passed through the court on leaving their apartment. and openly aspired to that independance. But being disappointed in this view by the precaution and vigilance of Roger de Ivery. And as the quarrel still augmented. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and after some mirth and jollity. to which his temper. and which had formerly frustrated his attempts upon the town of Dol. and he openly levied war against his father. and told him. who inherited all the bravery of his family and nation. and it was suspected that Matilda. with an intention of taking revenge on his brothers. had contributed to his great successes. according to the homely saying. Greedy of fame. as well as of Anjou and Britanny. supported him in his rebellion by secret remittances of money. By this artifice. from his short legs.Hume. residing with their father in the castle of l’Aigle in Normandy. a frolic..libertyfund. which had arisen in that favourite territory. without reserve in his friendships. the governor. and which. on the application of the French court. who hastened from his apartment. When William first received the submissions of the province of Maine. William and Henry. and the choleric Robert. he had. no less than his military valour. was a prince. mindful of the injury. he gave him an absolute refusal. his mother. who. and which had even originally proceeded Revolt of prince Robert. In this disposition.

He called over an army of English under his ancient captains. and restored the authority of the sovereign in all his dominions. and to retaliate by a like inroad into that country. about the same time. There passed under the walls of this place many rencounters. harboured by William. On his calling out for assistance. unable to resist William’s power. The Welsh. departed for his own camp. Domesday-book. is still preserved in the Exchequer. This monument. and slaves of all denominations. craved pardon for his offences. Robert happened to engage the king. The great Alfred had finished a like survey of the kingdom in his time which was long kept at Winchester. a fierce combat ensued. necessitated to pay a compensation for their incursions. where he intrusted him with the command of an army. his voice discovered him to his son. Page 166 of 354 All the hereditary provinces of William. and after a labour of six years (for the work was so long in finishing) brought him an exact account of all the landed property of his kingdom. instantly threw himself at his father’s feet. it serves to illustrate to us in many particulars the ancient state of England. and he was at last obliged to have recourse to England. wood. This state of affairs gave William leisure to begin and finish an undertaking. In this fortress he was closely besieged by his father. and arable land. that he even took Robert with him into England. their proprietors. having a strong garrison. and astonished with the apprehensions of one much greater. were during several years thrown into convulsions by this war. it was merely because he had rendered himself universal proprietor of http://oll. and every thing was reduced to full tranquillity on this island. and in some counties the number of tenants. The resentment. and offered to purchase forgiveness by any atonement. till at last the young prince wounded his father in the arm. and unhorsed him. who entered every particular in their register by the verdict of juries. value. and which probably served as a model to William in this undertaking. and though no prince had ever been more bountiful to his officers and servants. government.html 4/7/2004 . which he had established. as well as his family. which they contained. their extent in each district. which resembled more the single combats of chivalry. were. on Robert’s horse. and does honour to his memory: It was a general survey of all the lands in the kingdom. but one of them was remarkable for its circumstances and its event. was so implacable.. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . that he did not immediately correspond to this dutiful submission of his son with like tenderness. cottagers. who was concealed by his helmet. gave him greater authority than the ancient feudal institutions permitted him to exercise in Normandy. which the king of France. and though only some extracts of it have hitherto been published. than the military actions of armies. who. but giving him his malediction. which he had so nearly incurred. He soon after raised the siege. who secretly fomented all these dissensions.Hume. who soon expelled Robert and his adherents from their retreats. against whom. The young prince was obliged to take shelter in the castle of Gerberoy in the Beauvoisis. which proves his extensive genius.. which that prince had assisted him to mount. tenures. the quantity of meadow. he made an obstinate defence. q r The king was naturally a great economist. The king seemed so fully appeased. who lived upon them. where the interposition of the queen and other common friends brought about a reconcilement. and both of them being valiant. struck with remorse for his past guilt. and marched with his army to Normandy. in order to repel an inroad of Malcolm king of Scotland. He appointed commissioners for this purpose. and by the returning sense of his past misconduct. the most valuable piece of antiquity possessed by any nation. called Domesday-book.libertyfund. which was probably not a little forwarded by the generosity of the son’s behaviour in this action. had provided for him. where that species of military 1079. p 1081.

and entrusted with a great share of power during his whole reign. or could bestow more on his pleasures or in liberalities to his servants and favourites. was not of advanced years. and as that prince had neither fleet nor army to support. w http://oll. The king.libertyfund. he began to regard his present acquisitions but as a step to farther grandeur. An ancient historian computes. There was one pleasure. when the killing of a man could be atoned for by paying a moderate fine or composition. he enacted new laws.Hume. and that. he laid waste the country in Hampshire for an extent of thirty miles. which paid him rent either in money. and agreeably to the usual progress of human wishes. and that at a time. from whom s t u The new forest. to remit all his riches to Italy. we can scarcely be guilty of any error in asserting. and other casual profits to a great value. He reserved an ample revenue for the crown. as we have already observed. amounted to near 400. in hopes. and the same weight of silver. having by the sword rendered himself master of all the lands in the kingdom. the former being only an occasional expence. by the most probable computation. The transactions. the king’s uterine brother. and the latter being maintained. seized their property. as well as all the Normans and ancient Saxons. which former kings possessed in all parts of England. whose interests he always disregarded. than as national events. and the usual produce of the soil. expelled the inhabitants from their houses. to which William. was punished with the loss of the delinquent’s eyes. he resolved to make a new forest near Winchester. had amassed immense riches. than to the loss or diminution of his own revenue. he had persuaded many considerable barons. can be compared to the Conqueror for opulence and riches. though. reliefs. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and upon attaining. that when he should mount the papal throne. This leads us to suspect a great mistake in the computation of the historian. Hugh earl of Chester. contained three times the weight of silver that it does at present. may be considered more as domestic therefore. by his military vassals. which concern the prince. besides escheats. a sum. whom he had created earl of Kent. though not in the same proportion of the finer manufactures. and that was hunting: But this pleasure he indulged more at the expence of his unhappy subjects. and among the rest. he would bestow on them more considerable establishments in that country. and though Gregory. we must thence conclude. that no emperor or prince. the prelate had confided so much in the predictions of an astrologer. and had a whole kingdom to bestow. he would certainly in the partition retain a great proportion for his own share. without any charge to him. the usual place of his residence: And for that purpose.html 4/7/2004 . and in the general distribution of land among his followers. was more able to support by his revenue the splendor and magnificence of a court. by which he prohibited all his subjects from hunting in any of his forests. or even a hare. to take the same course. the reigning pope. if all circumstances be attended to. therefore. of William would be equal to at least nine or ten millions at present. was extremely addicted. Resolving. cattle.000 pounds a-year. A pound in that age. He had formed the chimerical project of buying the papacy. would purchase near ten times more of the necessaries of life. and rendered the penalties more severe than ever had been inflicted for such offences. The killing of a deer or boar.. Not content with those large forests. which regard England.. At the same time. which. bishop of Baieux. will appear wholly incredible. in any age or nation. and made the sufferers no compensation for the injury. Odo. if we consider that avarice is always imputed to William as one of his vices. by his own intrigues and money. fines. or in corn. that his annual fixed income. Page 167 of 354 England. that he reckoned upon the pontiff’s death. recorded during the remainder of this reign. even demolished churches and convents. he kept possession of no less than 1422 manors in different parts of Engiand. that perhaps no king of England was ever more opulent. that envied state of greatness. This revenue.

http://oll. He was even prevailed on..Hume. but foretold. and other English prisoners. which he reduced to ashes. not as bishop of Baieux. he discovered at last the vanity of all human grandeur. He left Normandy and Maine to his eldest son. and he issued orders. His displeasure was encreased by the account he received of some railleries which that monarch had thrown out against him. whom he tenderly loved. with his dying breath. Robert: He wrote to Lanfranc. William. Odo. Matilda. Death and character of William the Conqueror. and carried with him Edgar Atheling. to consent. he led an army into L’Isle de France. had been detained in bed some time by sickness. and notwithstanding the remonstrances and menaces of Gregory. though not without reluctance. His horse starting aside of a sudden. his consort. War with France. that these barons durst not have provoked his indignation. to release his brother. Page 168 of 354 all these projects had been carefully concealed. that. had they not been assured of the countenance and protection of Philip. He took the town of Mante. It was little in the power of princes at that time to restrain their licentious nobility.libertyfund. was detained in custody during the remainder of this reign. in the attainment and defence of it. till the king himself was obliged in person to seize him. He expired in the sixty-third year of his age. Finding his illness encrease. that he arrested him. He was detained on the continent by a misunderstanding. which soon after put an end to William’s life. at last got intelligence of the design. alluding to the usual practice at that time of women after child-birth. desiring him to crown William king of England: He bequeathed to Henry nothing but the possessions of his mother. and in the fifty-fourth of that over he had committed during the course of his reign over England. as well as somewhat advanced in years. should be set at liberty. scrupled to execute the command. from respect to the immunities. which the ecclesiastics now assumed. and ordered himself to be carried in a litter to the monastery of St. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . from the abilities and the vigour of mind which he displayed in all his conduct. he bruised his belly on the pommel of the saddle. that earl Morcar. and ordered Odo to be arrested. 9th Sept. but William suspected. that he would one day surpass both his brothers in power and opulence. as would perhaps give little pleasure to the king of France. He was sent prisoner to Normandy. and when Odo insisted that he was a prelate. as soon as he was up. who was become corpulent. He endeavoured to make atonement by presents to churches and monasteries. and exempt from all temporal jurisdiction. 1083. and being in a bad habit of body. and laid every thing waste with fire and sword. which. to whom he willingly granted permission to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Another domestic event gave the king much more concern: It was the death of Matilda. and being sensible of the approach of death. William replied. His spirit was bold 1082. and which was occasioned by inroads made into Normandy by some French barons on the frontiers. But the progress of these hostilities was stopped by an accident.. Few princes have been more fortunate than this great monarch. he would present so many lights at Notre-dame. Immediately on his recovery. Gervas. Three years afterwards he passed into Normandy. and for whom he had ever preserved the most sincere friendship.html 4/7/2004 . 1087. which broke out between him and the king of France. in the twenty-first year of his reign over England. or were better entitled to grandeur and prosperity. Siward Bearne. he began to apprehend the consequences. upon which Philip expressed his surprise that his brother of England should be so long in being delivered of his big belly. against whom he was extremely incensed. and was struck with remorse for those horrible cruelties and acts of violence. His officers. but as earl of Kent. The king sent him word.

and the throne is still filled by his descendants: A proof. the period was very short. was obliged to make. which spread its dominion over Europe. have fixed to the several states of Christendom. to proceed even to the extermination x y http://oll. His attempt against England was the last great enterprize of the kind.. and partly from the ascendant of his vehement character. who subdued the Roman empire.Hume. whose interests and affections he totally disregarded. while he seemed only to gratify the present passion. Though not insensible to generosity. have always been denominated conquests. must necessarily degenerate into a dispute of words. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . that the word is sometimes in old books applied to such as make an acquisition of territory by any means. both in history and in common language. It is needless to enter into a controversy. he was yet able to direct them to his purposes. while they made the vanquished kingdom the seat of government. which they knew neither how to cultivate nor enjoy. which. Some writers have been desirous of refusing to this prince the title of Conqueror. Born in an age when the minds of men were intractable and unacquainted with submission. to the advantage of the former. which was exorbitant. found a part only of the land sufficient to supply all their wants.. and those civilized conquerors. It suffices to say. But the Normans and other foreigners. but might have been useful. untouched.html 4/7/2004 .org/Texts/Hume0129/History/0011-1_Bk. of his inclination to his present policy. and on pretence. during the course of seven hundred years. that his subsequent administration was entirely supported by arms. Though he rendered himself infinitely odious to his English subjects. and that. yet guided by prudence: His ambition. and that if there was an interval when he assumed the appearance of a legal sovereign. and lay little under the restraints of justice. he was hardened against compassion. found. in a great measure. and the force of his genius broke through those limits. as has been the case with most conquerors. Except the former conquest of England by the Saxons themselves. that they could draw most advantage from the subjected provinces. they pushed the rights of conquest (very extensive in the eyes of avarice and ambition. The maxims of his administration were austere. which. who followed the standard of William. and they were not tempted to seize extensive possessions. to establish an unlimited authority. has fully succeeded in Europe. yet being accustomed to a rude uncultivated life. by right of war. still less under those of humanity. which. that the foundations which he laid were firm and solid. appear equally violent. which first the feudal institutions. The Roman state. that in the very frame of his laws he made a distinction between the Normans and English. or were attended with so sudden an alteration both of power and property. partly from art and dissimulation.libertyfund. which. which he. who were induced. The barbarians. by peculiar circumstances. left the rights of individuals. amidst all his violence. are inseparable from conquest. and having totally subdued the natives. ever submitted to the dictates of sound policy. he had still an eye towards futurity. while they made their own country the seat of empire. that he acted in every thing as absolute master over the natives. had they been solely employed to preserve order in an established government: They were ill calculated for softening the rigours. by securing to the natives the free enjoyment of their own laws and of their private possessions. then the refined policy of princes. they are willing to reject William’s title. Page 169 of 354 and enterprising. Scarce any of those revolutions. and he seemed equally ostentatious and equally ambitious of show and parade in his clemency and in his severity. and was nothing but a temporary sacrifice. in the sense which that term commonly bears. he transmitted his power to his posterity. were yet so far advanced in arts as to be acquainted with the advantages of a large property. though they settled in the conquered countries. however narrow in those of reason) to the utmost extremity against them. that the duke of Normandy’s first invasion of the island was hostile. to the crown of England. by the terms of it. under the most gentle management.

205. http://oll.) Alice. 205. which passed seven hundred years ago. by whom she had four sons. Order. but was betrothed to the king of Gallicia. considering the circumstances of the times. that none would have been tempted to deny or elude them. p. p. (5.html 4/7/2004 . Hoveden. all ancient authors. five She died on her journey thither. p. 634. Flor. Ord.) Adela. unanimously speak of the Norman dominion as a conquest by war and arms. 502. Page 170 of 354 of the natives. to wit. William. Vital. Knyghton. p. 450. [h] Gul. Wigorn. earl of Britanny. [g] Hoveden. p. p. 2343. 503. Vital. who are a mixture of English and Normans. says. from the fear of imaginary consequences.libertyfund. it would be difficult to find in all history a revolution more destructive. and several generations elapsed before one family of Saxon pedigree was raised to any considerable honours. and as who lived nearest the time. p. and Stephen. before she joined her bridegroom. These facts are so apparent from the whole tenor of the English history. Pict. Pictav. 6. married to Alan Fergant. (2. or could so much as attain the rank of baron of the realm. z a NOTE [K] ENDNOTES [d] Gul. p. that the English name became a term of reproach. a nun in the monastery of Feschamp. She died without issue. that he also promised to govern the Normans and English by equal laws. p. King William had issue. afterwards abbess in the holy Trinity at Caen. Henry.Hume. [m] Order. contracted to Harold. who survived him. on account of the imbecillity of his understanding. 205.. besides his three sons. p. Pictav. who died a virgin. [k] Ibid. earl of Blois. that the present rights and privileges of the people. no reasonable man. 503. of whom the elder was neglected.) Cicily. But it is evident. 449. [i] Gul. Pictav. (4. married to Stephen. Theobald.) Agatha. were they not heated by the controversies of faction. [l] Eadmer. will ever be tempted to reject their concurring and undoubted testimony. Contumely seems even to have been wantonly added to oppression. can never be affected by a transaction. or attended with a more complete subjection of the antient inhabitants. (1. 204. and best knew the state of the country. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . 271. p. Vitalis.. [e] Gul. which they saw the other party inclined to draw from this event. and the natives were universally reduced to such a state of meanness and poverty. [n] Malmesbury.) Constantia. and this addition to the usual oath seems not improbable. [f] Ibid. where she died in 1127. p. while one party was absurdly afraid of those absurd consequences. p. (3.

Gemet. Sim. 1. [c] Hoveden. Order. Chron. [d] Order. Pict. [i] Ibid. p. p. [f] Ibid. 226.libertyfund. 288. 226. [x] P. Diceto.Hume. 511. Alur. 245. 503. p. p. Vital. 506. Pict. 9. 508. [u] P. Sax. p. and consequently. p. Vital. p. Order. West. p. p. [y] Pictav. 197. Ang. [h] Order. Gemet. p. 482. 289. Paris. p. [w] As the historian chiefly insists on the silver plate. http://oll. 312. Order Vitalis. Monast. p. 197.html 4/7/2004 . 511. p. p. Sax. West. and was more than twenty times more rare than at present. 311. 206. This convent was freed by him from all episcopal jurisdiction. Dunelm. Vital. p. Pict. [z] Gul. 127. 189. M. Order. Dunelm. his panegyrics on the English magnificence shows only how incompetent a judge he was of the matter. Vital. Anglia Sacra. Page 171 of 354 [o] Gul. 206. plate must have been the rarest. 450. p. 212. 450. that the Normans had committed great injustice. Sim. of all species of luxury. Silver was then of ten times the value. [b] Chron. [a] Hoveden. 212. Vital. [s] Gul. p. p. [r] Ibid. 506. 211. Beverl. p. 208. 507. [g] Order. M. p. tom. [q] Gul. p.. Vital. vol. p. [e] Ibid. 208. p. Vital. This fact is a full proof. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . p. 510. [k] Ibid.. p. [t] Gul. [p] Gul. 173. M. p. and were the real cause of the insurrections of the English. i.

St. 5. p. p. 104. vol. 248. 2. p. 116. [n] Order. p. p. p. Vital. p. M. M. [d] M. 512. [u] Hoveden. 4. 512. p. p. vol. [w] Malmes. [g] Ibid. p. Dun. Dun. [f] Parker. St. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . p. p.libertyfund. Chron. 198. p. Gemet. Dun. [o] Gul. Diceto. p. Dun. 5. [q] Order. p. Abb. p. n. p. p. 199. 369. Anglia Sacra. p. Vital. 513. p. Hunt. West. [t] Order. Paris. [b] Order. 71. 1. 702. p. p. Sim. p. 515. p. 104. Paris. Vital. 1. Titles of Honour. Brompton. p. p. Anglia Sacra. cap. [a] H. Chron. 513. Sim. p. 370. Spellm. [c] Order. 229. Paris. p. 523. 451. p. Chron. num. Vital. 225. [s] Ingulf. [x] Chron. p. 451. St. Knyghton. p. p. 164. 225. p. p. p. 1. vol. Abb. M. p. Sax. p. 47. p.. p. apud Selden. Secretum Abbatis. p. p. i. 174. [r] Order. Page 172 of 354 [l] Ibid. in verboFeodum. Anglia Sacra. 512. 5. p. 514. cap. 2345.Hume. vol. p. Gloss. Order. [z] Malmes. p. 521. H. Bracton. Vital. http://oll. Knyghton. Abb. Ingulf. Sim. Chron. [y] Order. 2344. Vitalis. p. Hoveden. p. Vital. Petri de Burgo. 103. 47. 573. Vitalis. 8. 4. [m] Order. 47. 79. Paris. Petri di Burgo. 6. lib. [h] Hoveden. 5. M. Hunt. 11. 246. Sir Robert Cotton. 161. p. 966. 290. Hoveden. Ypod. Vital. i. 450. M. Fleta.html 4/7/2004 . Hoveden.. p. [p] Order. p. Malmes. p. p. de Mailr. 451. Petri de Burgo. [e] M. West. 482. Anglia Sacra. i. 453. M. Vital. Sim. lib. Paris. 197. i. 199. 508.

[y] Chron. 15. p. p.. Camden in Richmondshire. 523. 438. 2355. 71. Hunt. Knyghton. Lanfranc wrote in defence of the real presence against Berengarius. Hoveden. [o] Order. that Wulstan was also deprived by the synod. 228. [m] M. 2. 370. 71. Page 173 of 354 Neust. he was greatly applauded for that performance. p. See also the Annals of Burton. 154. p. ad Eadmer. 371. Paris. 6. p. Gloss. Spellm. 205. [c] Padre Paolo sopra benef.Hume. [i] Brompton relates. M. [s] Ingulf. by Malcolm. [t] William was so little ashamed of his birth. p. 372.. and struck the staff so deeply into the stone. [u] Order. eccles. [n] Eadmer. 70. H. 30. cap. 600. D. [p] Ingulf. 10. leg. p. Pont. 522. Hoveden. p. tom. where they were protected. p. p. [a] L’Abbe Conc. p. eccles. in verb. which are found at present in that country. 88. 536. [w] Sim. A. http://oll.libertyfund. 1066. p. p. p. instead of many. Dun. [k] Malmes. that none but himself was able to pull it out: Upon which he was allowed to keep his bishopric. p. West. 982. Bastardus. p. and in these ages of stupidity and ignorance. 284. com. 48. [l] Ingulf. 454. p. Vital. Rothom. 189. [q] 36 Ed. Vital. de gest. p. p. Brompton. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . p. p. [b] Padre Paolo sopra benef. Fortescue de laud. cap. p. This instance may serve. [z] Many of the fugitive Normans are supposed to have fled into Scotland. that he assumed the appellation of Bastard in some of his letters and charters. Angl. [r] Chron. as a specimen of the monkish miracles. p. Vital. [x] Order. but refusing to deliver his pastoral staff and ring to any but the person from whom he first received it. III. Sax. he went immediately to king Edward’s tomb. as well as the fugitive English. 113. 4/7/2004 . 7. Selden Spicileg. Whence come the many French and Norman families.

[q] Chron. 51. [a] So late as the reign of king Stephen. Hoveden. 7. 35. H. p. p. Sim. The more northern counties were not comprehended in this survey. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . i. p. p. Flor. 639. 980. Hunt. Chron.libertyfund. vol. [f] Greg. 106. 523. epist. Greg. VII. 5. 641.Hume. Seldeni ad Eadmer. M. [w] Malmes. St. 32. West. [o] Order Vital. 8. p. p. Wigorn.. He says 1060 pounds and some odd shillings and pence a-day [u] Fortescue. 160. Wig. p 457. epist. [p] Malmes. p. [x] M. 55. 545. West. p. 23. H. 2. 229. uncultivated state. Diceto. Epist. Petri de Burgo. p. p. Flor. 369. 8. p. [h] Hoveden. p. 487. Sax. [l] Order. [n] Ibid. p. Concil. Tykes. 258. [i] Order. Page 174 of 354 [d] Epist. p. 1076. the earl of Albemarle. Chron. 639. p. de Mailr. reg. 135. Ingulf. Wigorn. [g] Spicileg. p. Hoveden. Hunt. lib. Knyghton. 210. p. Dun. lib. 111. 457. epist. Hunt. [m] Ibid. de Dom. p. 545. Anglia Sacra. Dun. p. 370. p. Flor. p 4. i. D. Flor. p. p. lib. http://oll. Anglia Sacra. [e] Epist. H. 2. Sim. 287. 190. epist. p. Vital. p. p. 2351. Beverl. p. Vital. Greg. VII. 258. before the battle of the Standard. p. 545. A. 24. 370. p. I suppose because of their wild. Diceto. p. [r] Ingulf. [t] Order. [z] H. Brompton. 230. vol. T. [y] Hoveden. 3. & politic. [s] West’s enquiry into the manner of creating peers.. p. p. Hoveden. 460. Alur. 600. 457. 731. p. [k] Chron. 210. 455. M. Paris. p. p. p. cap. 1. p.html 4/7/2004 . Abb. p. Spell. fol. Hoveden. Vital. p. 638. Wigorn. 457. Hunt. 79.

i. Hist. St. 666. Elyensis. Brompton. 124. St. which pretends. Hunt. dicere. H. [NOTE [K]] Ingulf. patria pulsos. p. (see Baron. p. 9. 206. quid in principes Anglorum. M. Neub. 118. to Petyt. though a pertinacious defender of his party notions (see his hist. Malmes. Gul. 1026. 276. p. 86. p. in Ang.. p. cap. Sacra. de Normandie. vol. Burgor. p. Wigorn. is much disputed by antiquaries. that Ivo de Taillebois plundered the monastery of Croyland of a great part of its land. 516. upon the sounding of a bell. omitto. It is probable. 2354. 413. vol. 248. 197. p. p. vol. p. 357. & genere Normanni. Simili modo utilitate carere existimo dicere quid in minorem populum. 225. Gul. Paris. Page 175 of 354 addressed the officers of his army in these terms.) Ingulf. Epist. Thom. Chron. M. that the English meant the common law.) it is proved by Dr. Camb. 333. lib.Hume. Knyghton. The words of this last historian. Brompton. Beverl. The collection of laws in Wilkins. vel caeteris amputatis membris. p. i. ii. p. p. [NOTE [J]] What these laws were of Edward the Confessor. West. 370. p. 11. 521. p. is represented by Polydore Virgil. 801. aut certe miserrime afflictos. Textus Roffensis apud Seld. and our ignorance of them seems one of the greatest defects in the ancient English history. Gul. p. p. p. Quid enim prodesset. Flor. p. Rex itaque factus Willielmus. 967. opprobrium hominum factos. cum id dictu sciamus http://oll. in verbo Drenges) and Dugdale. 51. Though this paper was able to impose on such great antiquaries as Spellman (see Gloss. p. Roff. and could not obtain redress. 980. But this was a law of police. Spicileg. We are told by Ingulf. 160. Diceto. was restored upon proving their innocence. The same law had place in Scotland. p. as a mark of the servitude of the English. but so imperfect. 57. Sim. Abb. which William had previously established in Normandy. See farther Abbas Rieval. William even plundered the monasteries. p. sed a suis actum sit. p. Rudborne in Ang. 482. &c. Beverl. was turned out of all his estate. Girald. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . p. i. p. vol.libertyfund. p. desire so passionately to have restored. Those to be found in Ingulf are genuine. Ordericus Vitalis. aut effossis oculis. Dun. and contain so few clauses favourable to the subject. that that family. p.. 73. Alur. hist. 206. aut exhaeredatos. p. p. which were in the same situation. p. Angl. as it prevailed during the reign of Edward. M. The most material articles of it were afterwards comprehended in Magna Charta. Paris. which was Saxon. De gest. Thom. [NOTE [I]] The obliging of all the inhabitants to put out their fires and lights at certain hours. which the English. Sacra. sed omnes aut in gravem paupertatis aerumnam detrusos. arid no redress could be obtained. si nec unum in toto regno de illis dicerem pristina potestate uti permissum. [NOTE [H]] There is a paper or record of the family of Sharneborne. every reign during a century and a half. 130. 70 tells us. p. 636. vita privatos. cum nihil prosit. Brady (see Answ. which we may conjecture to have been more indulgent to liberty than the Norman institutions. lib. 1161. though absent during the time of the conquest. All the barons and military men of England still called themselves Normans. ad Eadm. that we see no great reason for their contending for them so vehemently. 339. and worth transcribing. Edmer. in eadem. 4. introd. 16. and is allowed as such by Tyrrel. Petri de Burgo. Pict. who is very ancient. p. ii. fecerit. 12. p. vol. non solum ab eo. 2344. 110. &c. are plainly a posterior and an ignorant compilation. Proceres Angliae clarissimi. 48. 200. are remarkable. cap. Gervase Tilb. Dun. that very early Hereward. LL. Sim. ii. See du Moulin.html 4/7/2004 . Knyghton. p. Monach.) to have been a forgery. Brompton. as well as other Saxon families. qui tantae cladi superesse poterant. called the courfeu. 853. which pass under the name of Edward. Alured. 52. 70. 5. p. 962. p.

whose situation rendered them of the greatest importance. sincere. sirnamed Rufus or the Red. was violent. had no sooner procured his father’s recommendatory letter to Lanfranc. there remained in England many causes of discontent. Accession of William Rufus. he arrived in England. took peaceable possession of that dutchy.html 4/7/2004 . At the same time. The barons. They communicated 1087. Having assembled some bishops and some of the principal nobility. and being connected with him by these the primate. and submitted with reluctance to a vigorous administration in their sovereign.. and he got possession of the royal treasure at Winchester. enforced all these motives with their partizans. who alone had any pretensions to unite these states. and probably deeming his pretensions just. V WILLIAM RUFUS Accession of William Rufus — Conspiracy against the King — Invasion of Normandy — The Crusades — Acquisition of Normandy — Quarrel with Anselm. had been entrusted with the care of his education. Gervais. and Hastings. he trusted entirely for success to his own celerity. that a deed so unformal. Odo. by which he hoped to encourage and encrease his partizans. that. who affected independance. Sensible. The duke was brave. and Robert earl of Mortaigne. which seemed to menace that kingdom with a sudden revolution. and had conferred on him the honour of knighthood. while William was breathing his last. were uneasy at the separation of those territories. the primate — Death — and character of William Rufus WILLIAM. and by this dispatch endeavoured to prevent all faction and resistance. his extreme indolence and facility. f http://oll. envying the great credit of Lanfranc. they must necessarily resign either their ancient patrimony or their new acquisitions. Robert’s title to the dutchy they esteemed incontestible.libertyfund. tyrannical. he secured the fortresses of Dover. who had been already acknowledged successor to Normandy.. haughty. and so little prepared. bishop of Baieux. amounting to the sum of sixty thousand pounds. might meet with great opposition. b c d e Conspiracy against the king. before intelligence of his father’s death had reached that kingdom. A comparison also of the personal qualities of the two brothers led them to give the preference to the elder. open. whose rank and reputation in the kingdom gave him great authority. which was encreased by his late services.Hume. The primate. his claim to the kingdom plausible. and foresaw. Robert. et ob immanem crudelitatem fortassis incredibile. as it would be impossible for them to preserve long their allegiance to two masters. which violated Robert’s right of primogeniture. Pevensey. were not disagreeable to those haughty barons. declared that he would pay a willing obedience to the last will of the Conqueror. from the colour of his hair. and having left St. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . his friend and benefactor. should be put in possession of both. Pretending orders from the king. than he hastened to take measures for securing to himself the government of England. generous: Even his predominant faults. and engaged them in a formal conspiracy to dethrone the king. he instantly proceeded to the ceremony of crowning the new king. Page 176 of 354 difficile. though equally brave. maternal brothers of the conqueror. and seemed disposed to govern more by the fear than by the love of his subjects. and they all desired that this prince. The king. who generally possessed large estates both in England and in Normandy. But though this partition appeared to have been made without any violence or opposition.

Hugh de Grentmesnil. all the other rebels found no resource but in flight or submission. As that people were now so thoroughly subdued that they no longer aspired to the recovery of their ancient liberties. and as he knew the danger of delay. Even the privileges of the church. he delayed the appointing of successors to those dignities. took little care of fulfilling his promises to the English. sensible of his perilous situation. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . who still found themselves exposed to the same oppressions. his eldest son. retained every one in subjection and preserved general tranquillity in England. where his uncles had already seized the fortresses of Pevensey and Rochester. but the greater part were attainted and the king bestowed their estates on the Norman barons. which they had undergone during the reign of the Conqueror.Hume. who had embraced his cause. and all orders of men found reason to complain of an arbitrary and illegal administration. freed from the danger of these insurrections. who retained great influence over him. and were content with the prospect of some mitigation in the tyranny of the Norman princes. and Robert Fitz William.. and banished them the kingdom. and he openly set to sale such sees and abbies as he thought proper to dispose of. This success gave authority to his negotiations with Roger earl of Shrewsbury. held sacred in those days. 1090. and expecting to be soon supported by a powerful army from Normandy. and their mutual quarrels and devastations had rendered that whole territory a scene of violence and outrage. prevented the arrival of the Norman succours. king of France. endeavoured to engage the affections of the native English. Walter and Odo. The conspirators. they zealously embraced William’s cause.html 4/7/2004 . confirmed by the suppression of the late insurrections. while Philip. Roger Bigod. was.libertyfund. he bestowed some of the church-lands in property on his captains and favourites. The king even thought himself enabled to disturb his brother in the possession of Normandy. gave soon after a full career to his tyranny. they had already begun hostilities in many places. he suddenly marched into Kent. Valori and Albemarle into his hands: Others soon after imitated the example of revolt. rose high against this grievance. Some of them received a pardon. were a feeble rampart against his usurpations. who ought to have protected his vassal in the possession of his fief. the terror of William’s authority. Invasion of Normandy.. These places he successively reduced by famine. count of Bologne. retiring to their castles. William bishop of Durham. to spare the lives of the rebels. joined to the indolent conduct of Robert. upon receiving general promises of good treatment. were bribed by William to deliver the fortresses of St. and which were rather augmented by the violent. The death of Lanfranc. impetuous temper of the present monarch. Robert de Moubray. that he might the longer enjoy the profits of their revenue. The king. hastened to put themselves in a military posture. engaged by large presents to remain neuter. William de Warrenne. He seized the temporalities of all the vacant bishoprics and abbies. whom he detached from the confederates: And as his powerful fleet. The duke had also reason to apprehend danger from the intrigues of g 1089. and of enjoying the licence of hunting in the royal forests. which were quickly propagated to the nation. who had remained faithful to him. Two of them. The loose and negligent administration of that prince had emboldened the Norman barons to affect a great independancy. Though the murmurs of the ecclesiastics. http://oll. and they easily procured the assent of these potent noblemen. Page 177 of 354 their design to Eustace. The king was soon in a situation to take the field. after making some efforts in his favour. Roger earl of Shrewsbury and Arundel. and though he was prevailed on by the earl of Chester. Robert Belesme. he confiscated all their estates.

The king appeared in Normandy at the head of an army. which had rebelled. that so little care had been taken of his interests in this accommodation. on the demise of either without issue.html 4/7/2004 . he was attacked by two soldiers. the survivor should inherit all his dominions.. which was less suitable to his character. and were attended with no memorable event. he now gave Henry his liberty. and obliged Malcolm to accept of peace and do homage to the crown of England. This peace was not more durable. with expressions of respect. interposed and mediated an accommodation. Page 178 of 354 his brother Henry. The chief advantage of this treaty accrued to William. he laid siege to Alnwic. and even made use of his assistance in suppressing the insurrections of his rebellious subjects. that. and raising the king from the ground. The soldier suspended his blow. invaded England. had furnished Robert. levying an army. which comprehended near a third of the dutchy of Normandy. Fescamp. performed an act of generosity. http://oll. The two brothers also stipulated. Conan. wandered about for some time with very few attendants. while he was making his preparations against England. and often in great poverty. carried the traitor up to a high tower. Being reproved by William for this ill-timed generosity. received a handsome reward. 1093. to take a survey of the fortress. Malcolm.libertyfund. Robert and William with their joint forces besieged him in this place. and dreading the conjunction of the two brothers against him. two years after. strongly connected by interest and alliances. a rich burgess of Roüen. Michael’s Mount. and with his own hands flung him from the battlements. should be restored to their estates in England. produced little bloodshed. Prince Henry was soon after obliged to capitulate. One of them drew his sword in order to dispatch him. who obtained possession of the territory of Eu. Robert afterwards upon some suspicion threw him into prison. and infested the neighbourhood with his incursions. but finding himself exposed to invasion from the king of England. had been put in possession of the Cotentin. disgusted. What. who had inherited nothing of his father’s great possessions but some of his during this siege. and after ravaging Northumberland. retired to St. a sharp action ensued. granted him permission to supply himself. that they would employ their power to insure the effectual execution of the whole treaty: of the nobles in those ages! h A strong proof of the great independance and authority Prince Henry.Hume. when the elder. and was taken into his service. had entered into a conspiracy to deliver that city to William. and affairs seemed to have come to extremity between the brothers. which was so soon concluded. The continued intestine discord among the barons was alone in that age destructive: The public wars were commonly short and feeble. This young prince. when he is gone? The king also. in which Malcolm was slain. which were not of longer duration. Robert here commanded his brother’s army. and had nearly reduced him by the scarcity of water. hearing of his distress.. he replied. To this Norman war. Hold knave! I am the king of England. when the nobility on both sides. and twelve of the most powerful barons on each side swore. and dismounted. attainted in Robert’s cause. with the sum of three thousand marks. and also sent him some pipes of wine for his own table. a strong fortress on the coast of Normandy. and being despoiled of all his patrimony. Riding out one day alone. but Henry. that he would assist his brother in subduing Maine. on the detection of his guilt. This 1091. when the king exclaimed. the towns of Aumale. and other places: But in return he promised. and that the Norman barons. and in return for so slender a supply. shall I suffer my brother to die of thirst? Where shall we find another. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . there succeeded hostilities with Scotland. where a party of earl Moubray’s troops falling upon him by surprize.

earl of Northumberland. the king’s minister. natural son of Malcolm. to the Streights of Gibraltar. and the chief instrument of his extortions. and he daily bribed the Norman barons to desert his service: But was prevented from pushing his advantages by an incursion of the Welsh. they made deep impression on the eastern empire. consecrated by the presence of their religious founder. count of Aumalc. another conspirator. and the other places. in a few years. and to have his eyes put out. supported by greater power. exacted ten shillings a piece from them. as if they were instantly to be embarked. the original monument of their faith. Donald. when he was sentenced to be hanged. The purpose of the conspirators was to dethrone the king. was supposed to be treated with more rigour.libertyfund. who accused him. Stephen. having gone over to Normandy to support his partizans.Hume. in the presence of the court at Windsor. But the noise of these petty wars and commotions was quite sunk in the tumult of the Crusades. open. He engaged the French king by new presents to depart from the protection of Robert. by its situation. Though Malcolm left legitimate sons. William de Alderi. made himself master of the kingdom. After Mahomet had. he was condemned to be castrated. Roger de Lacey. was still encroaching on his brother’s possessions. This money was so skilfully employed by William. A conspiracy of his own barons. remiss temper of Robert was ill-fitted to withstand the interested. that they had no leisure for theological controversy: And though the Alcoran. and the Christians had the mortification to see the holy sepulchre. was attainted. rapacious character of William. was at the head of this combination. ordered an army of twenty thousand men to be levied in England. as the most signal and most durable monument of human folly. became one of their most early conquests. and then dismissed them into their several counties. and supported by the vigour of their new government. The frank. fallen into the possession of infidels. a duel with Geoffrey Bainard. and engrossed all his attention. But being worsted in the combat. 1096. which obliged him to return to England. by which they spread their empire. where he died about thirty years He found no difficulty in repelling the enemy. http://oll. The king. by means of his pretended revelations. guarded by its mountainous situation. that has yet appeared in any age or nation. fought. and instigating his turbulent barons to rebellion against him. but kept not long possession of it. with regard both to military discipline and to civil policy.. but being taken prisoner. and he engaged in it the count d’Eu. they were much less infected 1094. united the dispersed Arabians under one head. Page 179 of 354 incident interrupted for some years the regular succession to the Scottish crown. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . they issued forth from their desarts in great multitudes. and to advance in his stead. in lieu of their service. The count d’Eu denied his concurrence in the plot. that it rendered him better service than he could have expected from the army. and many others. Here Ralph Flambard. and to be conducted to the sea-coast. seems to contain some violent precepts. nephew to the Conqueror. on account of the youth of these princes. and being animated with zeal for their new religion. and thrown into confinement. and disconcerted the conspirators. and to justify himself. which was far in the decline. and have ever since engaged the curiosity of mankind. Jerusalem. William’s dispatch prevented the design from taking effect. who. The Crusades. Moubray made some resistance. which now engrossed the attention of Europe. New broils ensued with Normandy. Robert Moubray. but was not able to make any considerable impression on a country. appeared a more serious concern. Richard de Tunbridge.html 4/7/2004 . 1095. which was detected at this time.. But the Arabians or Saracens were so employed in military enterprizes. was advanced to the throne. and being assisted by William with a small force. Duncan. his brother. formed a conspiracy against him. from the banks of the Ganges.

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with the spirit of bigotry and persecution than the indolent and speculative Greeks, who were continually refining on the several articles of their religious system. They gave little disturbance to those zealous pilgrims, who daily flocked to Jerusalem; and they allowed every man, after paying a moderate tribute, to visit the holy sepulchre, to perform his religious duties, and to return in peace. But the Turcomans or Turks, a tribe of Tartars, who had embraced Mahometanism, having wrested Syria from the Saracens, and having in the year 1065 made themselves masters of Jerusalem, rendered the pilgrimage much more difficult and dangerous to the Christians. The barbarity of their manners, and the confusions attending their unsettled government, exposed the pilgrims to many insults, robberies, and extortions; and these zealots, returning from their meritorious fatigues and sufferings, filled all Christendom with indignation against the infidels, who profaned the holy city by their presence, and derided the sacred mysteries in the very place of their completion. Gregory VII. among the other vast ideas which he entertained, had formed the design of uniting all the western Christians against the Mahometans; but the egregious and violent invasions of that pontiff on the civil power of princes, had created him so many enemies, and had rendered his schemes so suspicious, that he was not able to make great progress in this undertaking. The work was reserved for a meaner instrument, whose low condition in life exposed him to no jealousy, and whose folly was well calculated to coincide with the prevailing principles of the times. Peter, commonly called the Hermit, a native of Amiens in Picardy, had made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Being deeply affected with the dangers, to which that act of piety now exposed the pilgrims, as well as with the instances of oppression, under which the eastern Christians laboured, he entertained the bold, and in all appearance, impracticable project of leading into Asia, from the farthest extremities of the West, armies sufficient to subdue those potent and warlike nations, which now held the holy city in subjection. He proposed his views to Martin II. who filled the papal chair, and who, though sensible of the advantages, which the head of the Christian religion must reap from a religious war, and though he esteemed the blind zeal of Peter a proper means for effecting the purpose, resolved not to interpose his authority, till he saw a greater probability of success. He summoned a council at Placentia, which consisted of four thousand ecclesiastics and thirty thousand seculars; and which was so numerous, that no hall could contain the multitude, and it was necessary to hold the assembly in a plain. The harangues of the pope, and of Peter himself, representing the dismal situation of their brethren in the east, and the indignity, suffered by the Christian name, in allowing the holy city to remain in the hands of infidels, here found the minds of men so well prepared, that the whole multitude, suddenly and violently, declared for the war, and solemnly devoted themselves to perform this service, so meritorious, as they believed it, to God and religion. But though Italy seemed thus to have zealously embraced the enterprize, Martin knew, that, in order to insure success, it was necessary to inlist the greater and more warlike nations in the same engagement; and having previously exhorted Peter to visit the chief cities and sovereigns of Christendom, he summoned another council at Clermont in Auvergne. The fame of this great and pious design, being now universally diffused, procured the attendance of the greatest prelates, nobles, and princes; and when the pope and the hermit renewed their pathetic exhortations, the whole assembly, as if impelled by an immediate inspiration, not moved by their preceding impressions, exclaimed with one voice, It is the will of God, It is the will of God: Words deemed so memorable, and so much the result of a divine influence, that they were employed as the signal of rendezvous and battle in all the future exploits of those adventurers.





Men of all ranks


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flew to arms with the utmost ardour; and an exterior symbol too, a circumstance of chief moment, was here chosen by the devoted combatants. The sign of the cross, which had been hitherto so much revered among Christians, and which, the more it was an object of reproach among the pagan world, was the more passionately cherished by them, became the badge of union, and was affixed to their right shoulder, by all who enlisted themselves in this sacred warfare.


Europe was at this time sunk into profound ignorance and superstition: The ecclesiastics had acquired the greatest ascendant over the human mind: The people, who, being little restrained by honour, and less by law, abandoned themselves to the worst crimes and disorders, knew of no other expiation than the observances imposed on them by their spiritual pastors: and it was easy to represent the holy war as an equivalent for all penances, and an atonement for every violation of justice and humanity. But amidst the abject superstition, which now prevailed, the military spirit also had universally diffused itself; and though not supported by art or discipline, was become the general passion of the nations, governed by the feudal law. All the great lords possessed the right of peace and war: They were engaged in perpetual hostilities with each other: The open country was become a scene of outrage and disorder: The cities, still mean and poor, were neither guarded by walls, nor protected by privileges, and were exposed to every insult: Individuals were obliged to depend for safety on their own force, or their private alliances: And valour was the only excellence, which was held in esteem, or gave one man the preeminence above another. When all the particular superstitions, therefore, were here united in one great object, the ardour for military enterprizes took the same direction; and Europe, impelled by its two ruling passions, was loosened, as it were, from its foundations, and seemed to precipitate itself in one united body upon the east. All orders of men, deeming the crusades the only road to heaven, enlisted themselves under these sacred banners, and were impatient to open the way with their sword to the holy city. Nobles, artizans, peasants, even priests inrolled their names; and to decline this meritorious service was branded with the reproach of impiety, or what perhaps was esteemed still more disgraceful, of cowardice and pusillanimity. The infirm and aged contributed to the expedition by presents and money; and many of them, not satisfied with the merit of this atonement, attended it in person, and were determined, if possible, to breathe their last, in sight of that city where their Saviour had died for them. Women themselves, concealing their sex under the disguise of armour, attended the camp; and commonly forgot still more the duty of their sex, by prostituting themselves, without reserve, to the army. The greatest criminals were forward in a service, which they regarded as a propitiation for all crimes; and the most enormous disorders were, during the course of those expeditions, committed by men, enured to wickedness, encouraged by example, and impelled by necessity. The multitude of the adventurers soon became so great, that their more sagacious leaders, Hugh count of Vermandois, brother to the French king, Raymond count of Toulouse, Godfrey of Boüillon, prince of Brabant, and Stephen count of Blois, became apprehensive lest the greatness itself of the armament should disappoint its purpose; and they permitted an undisciplined multitude, computed at 300,000 men, to go before them, under the command of Peter the Hermit, and Walter the Moneyless. These men took the road towards Constantinople through Hungary and Bulgaria; and trusting, that Heaven, by supernatural assistance, would supply all their necessities, they made no provision for subsistence on their march. They soon found themselves obliged to obtain by plunder what they had vainly expected from miracles; and the enraged inhabitants of the countries through which they passed, gathering








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together in arms, attacked the disorderly multitude, and put them to slaughter without resistance. The more disciplined armies followed after; and passing the streights at Constantinople, they were mustered in the plains of Asia, and amounted in the whole to the number of 700,000 combatants.


Amidst this universal frenzy, which spread itself by contagion throughout Europe, especially in France and Germany, men were not entirely forgetful of their present interest; and both those who went on this expedition, and those who stayed behind, entertained schemes of gratifying, by its means, their avarice or their ambition. The nobles who enlisted themselves were moved, from the romantic spirit of the age, to hope for opulent establishments in the east, the chief seat of arts and commerce during those ages; and in pursuit of these chimerical projects, they sold at the lowest price their ancient castles and inheritances, which had now lost all value in their eyes. The greater princes, who remained at home, besides establishing peace in their dominions by giving occupation abroad to the inquietude and martial disposition of their subjects, took the opportunity of annexing to their crown many considerable fiefs, either by purchase or by the extinction of heirs. The pope frequently turned the zeal of the crusaders from the infidels against his own enemies, whom he represented as equally criminal with the enemies of Christ. The convents and other religious societies bought the possessions of the adventurers; and as the contributions of the faithful were commonly entrusted to their management, they often diverted to this purpose what was intended to be employed against the infidels. But no one was a more immediate gainer by this epidemic fury than the king of England, who kept aloof from all connections with those fanatical and romantic warriors. Robert, duke of Normandy, impelled by the bravery and mistaken generosity of his spirit, had early enlisted himself in the crusade; but being always unprovided with money, he found, that it would be impracticable for him to appear in a manner suitable to his rank and station, at the head of his numerous vassals and subjects, who, transported with the general rage, were determined to follow him into Asia. He resolved, therefore, to mortgage or rather to sell his dominions, which he had not talents to govern; and he offered them to his brother William, for the very unequal sum of ten thousand marks. The bargain was soon concluded: The king raised the money by violent extortions on his subjects of all ranks, even on the convents, who were obliged to melt their plate in order to furnish the quota demanded of them: He was put in possession of Normandy and Maine; and Robert, providing himself with a magnificent train, set out for the Holy Land, in pursuit of glory, and in full confidence of securing his eternal salvation. The smallness of this sum, with the difficulties which William found in raising it, suffices alone to refute the account which is heedlessly adopted by historians, of the enormous revenue of the conqueror. Is it credible, that Robert would consign to the rapacious hands of his brother such considerable dominions, for a sum, which, according to that account, made not a week’s income of his father’s English revenue alone? Or that the king of England could not on demand, without oppressing his subjects, have been able to pay him the money? The conqueror, it is agreed, was frugal as well as rapacious; yet his treasure, at his death, exceeded not 60,000 pounds, which hardly amounted to his income for two months: Another certain refutation of that exaggerated account.


Acquisition of Normandy.




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The fury of the crusades, during this age, less infected England than the neighbouring kingdoms; probably because the Norman conquerors, finding their settlement in that kingdom still somewhat precarious, durst not abandon their homes, in quest of distant adventures. The selfish interested spirit also of the king, which kept him from kindling in the general flame, checked its progress among his subjects; and as he is accused of open profaneness, and was endued with a sharp wit, it is likely that he made the romantic chivalry of the crusaders the object of his perpetual raillery. As an instance of his irreligion, we are told, that he once accepted of sixty marks from a Jew, whose son had been converted to Christianity, and who engaged him by that present to assist him in bringing back the youth to Judaism. William employed both menaces and persuasion for that purpose; but finding the convert obstinate in his new faith, he sent for the father, and told him, that as he had not succeeded, it was not just that he should keep the present; but as he had done his utmost, it was but equitable that he should be paid for his pains; and he would therefore retain only thirty marks of the money. At another time, it is said, he sent for some learned Christian theologians and some rabbies, and bade them fairly dispute the question of their religion in his presence: He was perfectly indifferent between them; had his ears open to reason and conviction; and would embrace that doctrine, which upon comparison should be found supported by the most solid arguments. If this story be true, it is probable that he meant only to amuse himself by turning both into ridicule: But we must be cautious of admitting every thing related by the monkish historians to the disadvantage of this prince: He had the misfortune to be engaged in quarrels with the ecclesiastics, particularly with Anselm, commonly called St. Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury; and it is no wonder his memory should be blackened by the historians of that order. After the death of Lanfranc, the king, for several years, retained in his own hands the revenues of Canterbury, as he did those of many other vacant bishoprics: but falling into a dangerous sickness, he was seized with remorse, and the clergy represented to him, that he was in danger of eternal perdition, if before his death he did not make atonement for those multiplied impieties and sacrileges, of which he had been guilty. He resolved therefore to supply instantly the vacancy of Canterbury; and for that purpose he sent for Anselm, a Piedmontese by birth, abbot of Bec in Normandy, who was much celebrated for his learning and piety. The abbot earnestly refused the dignity, fell on his knees, wept, and entreated the king to change his purpose; and when he found the prince obstinate in forcing the pastoral staff upon him, he kept his fist so fast clenched, that it required the utmost violence of the bystanders to open it, and force him to receive that ensign of spiritual dignity. William soon after recovered; and his passions regaining their wonted vigour, he returned to his former violence and rapine. He detained in prison several persons whom he had ordered to be freed during the time of his penitence; he still preyed upon the ecclesiastical benefices; the sale of spiritual dignities continued as open as ever; and he kept possession of a considerable part of the revenues belonging to the see of Canterbury. But he found in Anselm that persevering opposition, which he had reason to expect from the ostentatious humility, which that prelate had displayed in refusing his promotion. The opposition, made by Anselm, was the more dangerous on account of the character of piety, which he soon acquired in England, by his great zeal against all abuses, particularly those in dress and ornament. There was a mode, which, in that age, prevailed throughout Europe, both among men and women, to give an enormous length to their shoes, to draw the toe to a sharp point, and





Quarrel with Anselm, the primate.






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to affix to it the figure of a bird’s bill, or some such ornament, which was turned upwards, and which was often sustained by gold or silver chains tied to the knee. The ecclesiastics took exception at this ornament, which, they said, was an attempt to bely the Scripture, where it is affirmed, that no man can add a cubit to his stature; and they declaimed against it with great vehemence, nay assembled some synods, who absolutely condemned it. But, such are the strange contradictions in human nature! Though the clergy, at that time, could overturn thrones, and had authority sufficient to send above a million of men on their errand to the desarts of Asia, they could never prevail against these long-pointed shoes: On the contrary, that caprice, contrary to all other modes, maintained its ground during several centuries; and if the clergy had not at last desisted from their persecution of it, it might still have been the prevailing fashion in Europe. But Anselm was more fortunate in decrying the particular mode, which was the object of his aversion, and which probably had not taken such fast hold of the affections of the people. He preached zealously against the long hair and curled locks, which were then fashionable among the courtiers; he refused the ashes on Ash-Wednesday to those who were so accoutered; and his authority and eloquence had such influence, that the young men universally abandoned that ornament, and appeared in the cropt hair, which was recommended to them by the sermons of the primate. The noted historian of Anselm, who was also his companion and secretary, celebrates highly this effort of his zeal and piety.



When William’s profaneness therefore returned to him with his health, he was soon engaged in controversies with this austere prelate. There was at that time a schism in the church, between Urban and Clement, who both pretended to the papacy; and Anselm, who, as abbot of Bec, had already acknowledged the former, was determined, without the king’s consent, to introduce his authority into Engiand. William, who, imitating his father’s example, had prohibited his subjects from recognizing any pope, whom he had not previously received, was enraged at this attempt; and summoned a synod at Rockingham, with an intention of deposing Anselm: But the prelate’s suffragans declared, that, without the papal authority, they knew of no expedient for inflicting that punishment on their primate. The king was at last engaged by other motives to give the preference to Urban’s title; Anselm received the pall from that pontiff; and matters seemed to be accommodated between the king and the primate, when the quarrel broke out afresh from a new cause. William had undertaken an expedition against Wales, and required the archbishop to furnish his quota of soldiers for that service; but Anselm, who regarded the demand as an oppression on the church, and yet durst not refuse compliance, sent them so miserably accoutered, that the king was extremely displeased, and threatened him with a prosecution. Anselm, on the other hand, demanded positively that all the revenues of his see should be restored to him; appealed to Rome against the king’s injustice; and affairs came to such extremities, that the primate, finding it dangerous to remain in the kingdom, desired and obtained the king’s permission to retire beyond sea. All his temporalities were seized; but he was received with great respect by Urban, who considered him as a martyr in the cause of religion, and even menaced the king, on account of his proceedings against the primate and the church, with the sentence of excommunication. Anselm assisted at the council of Bari, where, besides fixing the controversy between the Greek and Latin churches, concerning the procession of the Holy Ghost, the right of election to church preferments was declared to belong to the clergy alone, and spiritual censures were denounced against all ecclesiastics, who did homage to laymen for their sees or benefices, and against all laymen who exacted it. The rite of homage,











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by the feudal customs, was, that the vassal should throw himself on his knees, should put his joined hands between those of his superior, and should in that posture swear fealty to him. But the council declared it execrable, that pure hands, which could create God, and could offer him up as a sacrifice for the salvation of mankind, should be put, after this humiliating manner, between profane hands, which, besides being inured to rapine and bloodshed, were employed day and night in impure purposes and obscene contacts. Such were the reasonings prevalent in that age; reasonings, which, though they cannot be passed over in silence, without omitting the most curious and, perhaps, not the least instructive part of history, can scarcely be delivered with the requisite decency and gravity. The cession of Normandy and Maine by duke Robert encreased the king’s territories; but brought him no great encrease of power, because of the unsettled state of those countries, the mutinous disposition of the barons, and the vicinity of the French king, who supported them in all their insurrections. Even Helie, lord of la Fleche, a small town in Anjou, was able to give him inquietude; and this great monarch was obliged to make several expeditions abroad, without being able to prevail over so petty a baron, who had acquired the confidence and affections of the inhabitants of Maine. He was, however, so fortunate, as at last to take him prisoner in a rencounter; but having released him, at the intercession of the French king and the count of Anjou, he found the province of Maine still exposed to his intrigues and incursions. Helie, being introduced by the citizens into the town of Mans, besieged the garrison in the citadel: William, who was hunting in the new forest, when he received intelligence of this hostile attempt, was so provoked, that he immediately turned his horse, and galloped to the sea-shore at Dartmouth; declaring, that he would not stop a moment till he had taken vengeance for the offence. He found the weather so cloudy and tempestuous, that the mariners thought it dangerous to put to sea: But the king hurried on board, and ordered them to set sail instantly; telling them that they never yet heard of a king that was drowned. By this vigour and celerity, he delivered the citadel of Mans from its present danger; and pursuing Helie into his own territories, he laid siege to Majol, a small castle in those parts: But a wound, which he received before this place, obliged him to raise the siege; and he returned to England. The weakness of the greatest monarchs, during this age, in their military expeditions against their nearest neighbours, appears the more surprising, when we consider the prodigious numbers, which even petty princes, seconding the enthusiastic rage of the people, were able to assemble, and to conduct in dangerous enterprizes to the remote provinces of Asia. William, earl of Poitiers and duke of Guienne, enflamed with the glory, and not discouraged by the misfortunes, which had attended the former adventurers in the crusades, had put himself at the head of an immense multitude, computed by some historians to amount to 60,000 horse, and a much greater number of foot, and he purposed to lead them into the Holy Land against the infidels. He wanted money to forward the preparations requisite for this expedition, and he offered to mortgage all his dominions to William, without entertaining any scruple on account of that rapacious and iniquitous hand, to which he resolved to consign them. The king accepted the offer; and had prepared a fleet, and an army, in order to escort the money, and take possession of the rich provinces of Guienne and Poictou; when an accident put an end to his life, and to all his ambitious projects. He was engaged in hunting, the sole amusement, and indeed the chief occupation of princes in those rude times, when society was little cultivated, and the arts afforded few objects









3d August.


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worthy of attention. Walter Tyrrel, a French gentleman, remarkable for his address in archery, attended him in this recreation, of which the new forest was the scene; and as William had dismounted after a chace, Tyrrel, impatient to show his dexterity, let fly an arrow at a stag, which suddenly started before him. The arrow, glancing from a tree, struck the king in the breast, and instantly slew him; while Tyrrel, without informing any one of the accident, put spurs to his horse, hastened to the sea-shore, embarked for France, and joined the Death and crusade in an expedition to Jerusalem; a pennance which he imposed on himself for this involuntary crime. The body of William was found in the forest by the country-people, and was buried without any pomp or ceremony at Winchester. His courtiers were negligent in performing the last duties to a master who was so little beloved; and every one was too much occupied in the interesting object of fixing his successor, to attend the funerals of a dead sovereign. The memory of this monarch is transmitted to us with little advantage by the churchmen, whom he had offended; and though we may suspect in general, that their account of his vices is somewhat exaggerated, his conduct affords little reason for contradicting the character which they have assigned him, or for attributing to him any very estimable qualities. He seems to have been a violent and tyrannical prince; a perfidious, encroaching, and dangerous neighbour; an unkind and ungenerous relation. He was equally prodigal and rapacious in the management of his treasury; and if he possessed abilities, he lay so much under the government of impetuous passions, that he made little use of them in his administration; and he indulged, without reserve, that domineering policy, which suited his temper, and which, if supported, as it was in him, with courage and vigour, proves often more successful in disorderly times, than the deepest foresight and most refined artifice. The monuments which remained of this prince in England are the Tower, Westminster-hall, and London-bridge, which he built. The most laudable foreign enterprize which he undertook, was the sending of Edgar Atheling, three years before his death, into Scotland with a small army, to restore prince Edgar the true heir of that kingdom, son of Malcolm, and of Margaret, sister of Edgar Atheling; and the enterprize proved successful. It was remarked in that age, that Richard, an elder brother of William’s, perished by an accident in the new forest; Richard, his nephew, natural son of duke Robert, lost his life in the same place, after the same manner: And all men, upon the king’s fate, exclaimed, that, as the Conqueror had been guilty of extreme violence, in expelling all the inhabitants of that large district, to make room for his game, the just vengeance of heaven was signalized, in the same place, by the slaughter of his posterity. William was killed in the thirteenth year of his reign, and about the fortieth of his age. As he was never married, he left no legitimate issue. In the eleventh year of this reign, Magnus king of Norway made a descent on the isle of Anglesea; but was repulsed by Hugh, earl of Shrewsbury. This is the last attempt made by the northern nations upon England. That restless people seem about this time to have learned the practice of tillage, which thenceforth kept them at home, and freed the other nations of Europe from the devastations spread over them by those pyratical invaders. This proved one great cause of the subsequent settlement and improvement of the southern nations.


character of William Rufus.



Vital. West. Mus. Bell. Thom. p. cap. 648. [m] Historia Bell. Vital. 137. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . 467. M. Malmes. W. 121. W. 35. p. 666. Malm. [k] Gul. p. 10. p. 17. Sim. Rudborne. 292. 192.. Sim. Waverl. Hoveden. p. p. p.html 4/7/2004 . p. i. lib. delle benef. 233. p. p. Flor. p. p. Sacri. Concil. 13. 983. [p] Order. 133. i. M. Matth. Vitalis. 461. [e] Hoveden. 10. [g] Chron. Tyrius. 463. 2364. p. p. p. 720. p. W. Paris. Sacri. 467. [y] Eadmer. p. [i] Gul. Vital. p. tom. i. M. p. Knyghton. Clarom. x. 123. p. Annal. Dunelm. Musaei Ital. 128. [l] Concil. p. Malmes. Heming. ecclesiast. p. Paris. 222. p. W. 216. lib. Vital. 720. W. Paris. cap.Chron. M. Dunelm. Brompton. Heming. Tyrius. p. 222. 16. [h] Chron. p. Sax. 11. [o] Order. Paris. Newbr. 24. p. [r] Vertot Hist. [d] W. p. p. Paris. Sax. 263. 462. de Chev. M. Gemet. [z] G. 17. p. p. p. Wykes. 11. 195. p. Page 187 of 354 [b] W.Hume. Malm. p. 197. [x] W. i. p. tom. 721. Malm. Wig. [c] Chron. Sax. T. Ital. [u] Matth.. W. Annal. 21. [q] W. p. p. Brompton. 986. 120. p. tom. 20. Malm. [t] Matth. 139. vol. 358. [w] Padre Paolo Hist. p.libertyfund. 120. Dunelm. 668. 46. Paris. Order. [n] Hist. [f] Order. Waverl. [s] Sim. 1. p. 123. Paris. p. Heming. http://oll. p. p. de Malte. Order.

Ypod. M. p. 43. p. [f] Eadmer. p. [o] Eadmer.libertyfund.Hume. 43. p. p. 178. 37. 110. [i] Eadmer. p. 199. p. Dunelm. 994. 37. p. p. [m] Eadmer. 198. Dun. 36. [z] W. p. Sax. p. p.html 4/7/2004 . Hominium. Chron. [w] W. p. 494. p. p. 442. Flor. p. to amount to 300.. Sim. [n] Diceto. H. p. p. 40. 224. 17. 789. 2369. 121. [c] W. 49. 495. 13. M. p. http://oll. 13.. 16. 14. 149. p. W. [g] Eadmer. Vital. Spelm. Malm. 124. Malm. 30. p. p. Paris. 127. 682. 19. Malmes. Du Cange. Diceto. 125. Chron. Knyghton. p. Brompton. ii. p. Parker. 463. p. [s] M. [u] W. Heming.000 men. Wigorn. Page 188 of 354 [a] W. Diceto. [h] Order. p. Paris. 23. Hunt. [r] Eadmer. Malmes. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . vol. 13. p. p. Paris. 47. 224. M. 467. Malm. 18. p. p. The whole is said by Order. [y] W. p. Sax. Hunt. in verb. 494. [p] Ibid. [b] Eadmer. Petr. M. [e] Eadmer. [q] M. Paris. Malm. Paris. 649. Neust. 123. p. p. 378. Bles. [t] Spellman. p. p. p. [x] W. [k] Hoveden. Sim. Conc. Paris. 16. 123. p. p. 378. p. p. Vital. p. p. Malm. p. [l] Eadmer. [d] Eadmer. 25. H.

despised his subjects as unwarlike. which they had ever received from his predecessors. he secretly regarded those imperious allies as more dangerous than the open enemies. he endeavoured to divert the torrent. civilities. and entirely broke the force of the Turks. the primate — Compromise with him — Wars abroad — Death of prince William — King’s second marriage — Death — and character of Henry AFTER THE ADVENTURERS in the holy war were assembled on the banks of the Bosphorus. however. and seeming services towards the leaders of the crusade. and detested them as heretical. and on his refusal. which they regarded as the consummation of their labours. http://oll. entertained hopes. they were diminished to the number of twenty thousand foot and 1100. might enable him to repulse the enemy: But he was extremely astonished to see his dominions overwhelmed. The soldan of Egypt. the soldan was required to yield up the city to the Christians. and determined enemies to civil authority and submission. they took Nice. by whom his empire had been formerly invaded. and their irresistible force still carried them forward. on a sudden. who were not united under one head. caresses. opposite to Constantinople. whose alliance they had hitherto courted. as. by such an inundation of licentious barbarians. the excesses of fatigue. even if they had foreseen them. that. who had applied to the western Christians for succour against the Turks.. and the disasters which they had undergone. Page 189 of 354 VI HENRY I The Crusades — Accession of Henry — Marriage of the king — Invasion by duke Robert — Accommodation with Robert — Attack of Normandy — Conquest of Normandy — Continuation of the quarrel with Anselm. they made themselves masters of Antioch. his power. impelled to war by less powerful motives. it would have been almost impossible to provide a remedy. for disappointing the enterprize. they defeated Soliman in two great battles. and that all Christian pilgrims. he entered into a private correspondence with Soliman. Having effected that difficult point of disembarking them safely in Asia. recovered. unacquainted with military discipline. joined to the want of concert in their operations. By the detachments which they had made. The offer was rejected. or his situation enabled him to employ. the influence of unknown climates. but while he employed professions. and to the sword of a warlike enemy. destroyed the adventurers by thousands. if they came disarmed to that city. who had so long retained those countries in subjection. Their zeal. By all the arts of policy.Hume. and he informed them by his ambassadors. which his genius. on the fall of the Turkish power. inseparable from so vast a multitude. After an obstinate siege. Alexis Comnenus. who should thenceforth visit the holy sepulchre. and practised every insidious art. The crusades. His dangerous policy was seconded by the disorders. they might now perform their religious vows. emperor of the Turks. and were conducted by leaders of the most independant. though they pretended friendship. but immediately experienced those difficulties. and discouraging the Latins from making thenceforward any such prodigious migrations. the champions of the cross advanced to the siege of Jerusalem. The Greek emperor. might expect the same good treatment. acting under his command. of obtaining such a moderate supply. which their zeal had hitherto concealed from them. in which he excelled. their bravery. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . they proceeded on their enterprize.html 4/7/2004 .. and continually advanced them to the great end of their enterprize. and for which. and would have abated the ardour of men.libertyfund. intractable spirit. his former authority in Jerusalem. The scarcity of provisions. and those but feeble ones. the seat of the Turkish empire.

and the obedience.libertyfund. he lost the kingdom of England. from their valour. who implored for mercy: Even a multitude. and he told the prince. when intelligence of that monarch’s death was brought him. and qualify a prince to shine in a military life. as well as his undoubted title.html 4/7/2004 . both with the most heroic courage. arrived. and being sensible of the advantage attending the conjuncture. after chusing Godfrey of Boüillion king of Jerusalem. and that he himself. But Henry. their experience. they put the numerous garrison and inhabitants to the sword without distinction. and by the preceding agreement with his deceased brother. had he been present. The Christian princes and nobles. a streets of Jerusalem were covered with dead bodies. he became acquainted with Sibylla. he lingered a twelvemonth in that delicious climate.. impelled by a mixture of military and religious rage. while some of them returned to Europe. than he hastened to take care of his charge. a young lady of great beauty and merit. keeper of the treasure.. so overcame their fury. after the fatigues of so many rough campaigns. Neither arms defended the valiant. had no sooner heard of his master’s death. This nobleman. threatened him with instant death. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . who had there purchased their salvation by his death and agony: And their devotion. drawing his sword. who. with the sentiments of humiliation and contrition. who was now his sovereign. as well as the crown. have infallibly secured to him. he hurried to Winchester. immediately turned themselves. who had been engaged in the same party of hunting. duke of Normandy. as well as by that affable disposition and unbounded generosity. and with the fiercest barbarity! This great event happened on the fifth of July in the last year of the eleventh century. was Robert. and opposed himself to Henry’s pretensions. Prince Henry was hunting with Rufus in the new forest. By this delay. in order to enjoy at home that glory. still streaming with blood: They advanced with reclined bodies. Among these. but these were still formidable. In passing through Italy. which their valour had acquired them in this popular and meritorious enterprize. He had scarcely reached the place when William de Breteuil. and were promised which. and the triumphant warriors. nor submission the timorous: No age or sex was spared: Infants on the breast were pierced by the same blow with their mothers. for his part. to the number of ten thousand persons. belonged to his elder brother. enlivened by the presence of the place where he had suffered. They threw aside their arms.Hume. After a siege of five weeks. who had surrendered themselves prisoners. would. daughter of the count of Conversana. as well as fond of enjoying ease and pleasure. both by birth. they took Jerusalem by assault. was determined. were butchered in cool blood by those ferocious conquerors. in spite of all other pretensions. whom he espoused: Indulging himself in this new passion. in order to secure the royal treasure. and bore the appearance of every soft and tender sentiment. which the great fame he had acquired during the crusades. and naked feet and heads to that sacred monument: They sung anthems to their Saviour. towards the holy sepulchre. after every enemy was subdued and slaughtered. as he had relinquished the greatest dominions of any prince that attended the crusade. Page 190 of 354 fifteen hundred horse. if he dared to b The Accession of Henry. and. to maintain his allegiance to him. had all along distinguished himself by the most intrepid courage. began to settle themselves in their new conquests. which he knew to be a necessary implement for facilitating his designs on the crown. from past calamities. that they dissolved in tears. http://oll. they had learned to pay to their leaders. So inconsistent is human nature with itself! And so easily does the most effeminate superstition ally. and though his friends in the north looked every moment for his arrival none of them knew when they could with certainty expect it. which gain the hearts of soldiers. that this treasure.

Besides taking the usual coronation-oath to maintain the laws and execute justice. could now. He promised. hastened with the money to London. to whom it was purposed to marry her. or rather saluted king. or military tenant. who was persuaded to officiate on that occasion. he was suddenly elected. whom his address. as well as the people. upon the death of any earl. he never would seize the revenues of the see or abbey during the vacancy. nor dispose of it for money. thus. usurped against all rules of justice. which was indeed founded on plain usurpation: And the barons.libertyfund. on paying a just and lawful relief. sister. gained to his side. After this concession to the church. should happen to be his enemy: He granted his barons and military tenants the power of bequeathing by will their money or personal estates. nor ever to refuse permission.html 4/7/2004 . which the barons retained in their own hands: He made some general professions of moderating fines. be opposed through the perils alone of civil war and rebellion. during his reign. by fair professions at least. who should be answerable for the trust: He promised not to dispose of any heiress in marriage.Hume. at the death of any bishop or Page 191 of 354 disobey him. and he promised a general confirmation and observance of the laws of king Edward. as if desirous that it should be exposed to the view of all his subjects. he resolved. or abilities. that. and allowed guardians to be appointed. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . in marriage. his heir should be admitted to the possession of his estate. and if they neglected to make a will. baron. without losing a moment. who promised to take no money for his consent. by his courage and celerity. the ceremony of his coronation was performed by Maurice. niece. they found. that the vassals of the barons should enjoy the same privileges. that. he offered a pardon for all offences. which he granted to his own barons. without being exposed to such violent exactions as had been usual during the late reigns: He remitted the wardship of minors. he never once thought. e f g To give greater authenticity to these concessions. to gain the affections of all his subjects. This is the substance of the chief articles contained in that famous charter. Henry lodged a copy of his charter in some abbey of each county. he intruded himself into the vacant throne.. that. he passed a charter. would sit unsteady on his head. which he purposed to redress. he proceeded to enumerate the civil grievances. whose favour was of so great importance. and if any baron intended to give his daughter. c Henry. that their heirs should succeed to them: He renounced the right of imposing moneyage. and of levying taxes at pleasure on the farms. and he remitted all debts due to the crown: He required. and as others of the late king’s retinue. In less than three days after his brother’s death. acquiesced in a claim. or kinswoman. bishop of London. and immediately proceeded to the exercise of royal authority. of observing one http://oll. and to acquiesce in this violence. unless the person. which had been complained of during the reigns of his father and brother. that a crown.. though it could neither be justified nor comprehended. and that he would never let to farm any ecclesiastical benefice. it should only be necessary for him to consult the king. or presents. He there promised. But as Henry foresaw. which. joined the prince’s party. which was calculated to remedy many of the grievous oppressions. and remain a perpetual rule for the limitation and direction of his government: Yet it is certain. No one had d and sufficient spirit or sense of duty to appear in defence of the absent prince: All men were seduced or intimidated: Present possession supplied the apparent defects in Henry’s title. after the present purpose was served. who came every moment to Winchester. and having assembled some noblemen and prelates. but would leave the whole to be reaped by the successor. Breteuil was obliged to withdraw his opposition. but by the advice of all the barons. he promised.

and during that time retained possession of all its revenues. during this age. were never effectually fixed till the time of Magna Charta. that. The oppression of wardship and marriage was perpetuated even till the reign of Charles II. rather than the people of England. Henry. as can only be the result of reflection and experience. Page 192 of 354 single article of it. Reliefs of heirs. finding that greater opposition was often made to him when he enforced the laws.. they were still continued in their full extent. But as to the grievances here meant to be redressed.libertyfund. The prince. so licentious a people. and debar him from any considerable interest or convenience. in the following century. than the rights of those whom he might injure. The very form of this charter of Henry proves. an accident which must have been very frequent. the hereditary succession. than when he violated them. and the royal authority. It is an act of his sole power. and left their posterity sufficient power. which Anselm had acquired by his character of piety. they could with difficulty find a copy of it in the kingdom.html 4/7/2004 . contains some articles which bind others as well as himself. is the result of his free grace. degraded and committed to prison Ralph Flambard. which prevented the establishment of a total despotism. where any man died intestate. so insensible to the rights of their sovereign. and was a bad prognostic of his sincere intentions to observe it: He kept the see of Durham vacant for five years. in order to give security to the subject. desired to make it the model of the great charter. the famous justiciary of Henry II. that the Norman barons (for they. are chiefly concerned in it) were totally ignorant of the nature of limited monarchy. which requires such improvement in knowledge and morals. and by the persecutions which he had undergone from William.Hume. which they exacted from king John. in all those particulars. ought to have been reduced to more precision.. lay under no manner of restriction. Sensible of the great authority. and to exclude every heir. The Normans indeed. to assume true liberty: But their turbulent disposition frequently prompted them to make such use of their arms. pretended to seize all the moveables. without necessity. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . On the arrival of the prelate. in conjunction with their sovereign. and on every emergence to consider more the power of the persons whom he might offend. or the lord of the fief. and it is evident. and invited him to return and take possession of his dignities. who had been the chief instrument of oppression under his brother: But this act was followed by another. as to disjoint. and were ill qualified to conduct. when the barons. whenever they should attain a sufficient degree of reason. bishop of Durham. the machine of government. and who was guilty of no crime but being absent. or allow his engagements to fetter his power. he h i k l http://oll. that the general promise here given. which was a direct violation of his own charter. where he resided. in his time. and is therefore unfit to be the deed of any one who possesses not the whole legislative power. who had heard an obscure tradition of it. that that prince would pay any greater regard to their privileges. were. whom they esteemed. and must grow to perfection during several ages of settled and established government. the king. was apt to render his own will and pleasure the sole rule of government. and who may not at pleasure revoke all his concessions. than to stop the career of violence and oppression. A people. and permit a younger brother to intrude himself into the place of the elder. even the children of the deceased: A sure mark of a tyrannical and arbitrary government. farther to encrease his popularity. so capital an article. who domineered in England. could not expect. that they were more fitted to obstruct the execution of justice.: And it appears from Glanville. that they may be pronounced incapable of any true or regular liberty. when the art of writing was so little known. They had indeed arms in their hands. he sent repeated messages to him at that. and the whole fell so much into neglect and oblivion. of accepting a just and lawful relief.

but as she had worn the veil. but merely in consequence of a custom. http://oll. by Henry’s intrigues. and gave the king an absolute refusal. and tended more to establish him on the throne. king of Scotland. at which he himself had assisted. which had appeared on the accession of William. been so unjustly defrauded. Robert de Belesme. in which the king was obliged to have recourse to the authority of Anselm. The council. had. was not heir of the Saxon line. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and educated under her aunt. which. No act of the king’s reign rendered him equally popular with his English subjects. she was become very dear to the English on account of her connexions with it: And that people. had felt so severely the tyranny of the Normans. during the life of her uncle and brothers. durst not insist on his demand: He only desired that the controversy might be suspended. Yvo de 1101. ran great hazard of being frustrated by the sudden appearance of Robert. n o p and her espousals with Henry were celebrated by Anselm with great pomp and solemnity. and he declared. daughter of Malcolm III. during his absence. q Invasion by duke Robert.libertyfund. Matilda. But the policy and prudence of Henry. who expected. which was summoned at Lambeth: Matilda there proved. who protected their chastity from the brutal violence of the Normans. He took possession. that. in order to accommodate matters with the pope. Robert de Pontefract. to reap great advantages from the authority and popularity of Anselm. and hoped for a more equal and mild administration. Page 193 of 354 proposed to him the renewal of that homage which he had done his brother and which had never been refused by any English bishop: But Anselm had acquired other sentiments by his journey to Rome. and it behoved him to be very careful not to shock. There immediately occurred an important affair. that Matilda was still free to marry.Hume. though never taken the vows. Robert de Mallet. sensible that even a princess had otherwise no security for her honour. The great fame. when the blood of their native princes should be mingled with that of their new sovereigns. and the subsequent revolutions in the Scottish government. in the nunnery of would have secured him possession of the crown. of that dutchy. he would not so much as communicate with any ecclesiastic. This princess Henry purposed to marry. which amidst the horrible licentiousness of the times. of which. who returned to Normandy about a month after the death of his brother William. expressed the same discontent at the separation of the dutchy and kingdom. had fallen into a kind of indifference towards their ancient royal family. Walter Giffard. and the Norman barons. that they reflected with extreme regret on their former liberty..html 4/7/2004 . sensible of the consequences. and that messengers might be sent to Rome. on her father’s death. was yet generally revered. without opposition. been brought to England. who paid that submission or who accepted of investitures from laymen. and niece to Edgar Atheling. earl of Shrewsbury and Arundel. in his present delicate situation. admitted this reason as valid: They pronounced. He objected the decrees of the council of Bari. in any particular. familiar to the English ladies. the religious prejudices of his subjects. forwarded his pretensions. he had. before the conquest. doubts might arise concerning the lawfulness of the act. Though Matilda. which he had acquired in the East. that she had put on the veil. m Marriage of the king.. Arnulf de Montgomery. and immediately made preparations for recovering England. William de la Warrenne. by taking shelter under that habit. not with a view of entering into a religious life. Christina. earl of Surrey. so far from doing homage for his spiritual dignity. The affair was examined by Anselm in a council of the prelates and nobles. who. if time had been allowed for these virtues to produce their full effect. and obtain his confirmation of the laws and customs of England. Henry.

the army was retained in the king’s interest. The two armies lay in sight of each other for some days without coming to powerful barons. professed a great attachment to Rome. he was banished the kingdom. to join him with all their forces. Henry. who had both inclination and ability to disturb his government. the other should succeed to his dominions. He began with the earl of Shrewsbury. He consulted him in all difficult emergencies. Even the seamen were affected with the general popularity of his name. on his landing. with seeming union and firmness. receive. s 1102. and then indicted on a charge. and authority with the barons. that the adherents of each should be pardoned. Anselm scrupled not to assure the nobles of the king’s sincerity in those professions which he made. He paid diligent court to Anselm. and had recourse to the superstition of the people. but was secretly determined. whose influence over the people. though calculated so much for Henry’s advantage. promised a strict regard to ecclesiastical privileges. knowing his own guilt. and both princes. should not long remain unmolested in their present opulence and grandeur. By this expedient. who still adhered to the present government. and marched. After employing some negociation.. who had landed with his forces at Portsmouth. in this extremity. which would probably be decisive. Richard de Redvers. and the power of his prosecutor. that noblemen so powerful and so ill affected. as well as for his crown. who had distinguished themselves among Robert’s adherents.html 4/7/2004 . began to be apprehensive for his life. His ruin involved that of his two brothers. in order to oppose their sentiment of justice.Hume. as well as the prejudices of his judges. who was watched for some time by spies. http://oll. he was the first to violate. seemed to be governed by him in every measure. By these caresses and declarations.libertyfund. joined to the influence of the earls of Warwic and Mellent. which had been equipped to oppose his passage. or protect the enemies of the other. Arnulf de Montgomery. and they carried over to him the greater part of a fleet. being apprehensive of the event. he entirely gained the confidence of the primate. of Roger Bigod. and promised. and that neither Robert nor Henry should thenceforth encourage. in his present situation. r Accomodation with Robert. William de Warenne was the next victim: Even William earl of Cornwal. the king’s uncle. if either of the princes died without issue. and receive in lieu of them an annual pension of 300 marks. This turbulent nobleman. Page 194 of 354 Grentmesnil.. Soon after followed the prosecution and condemnation of Robert de Pontefract and Robert de Mallet. whose sanctity and wisdom he pretended to revere. and Robert Fitz-Hamon. and to the will of the sovereign pontiff. and many others of the principal nobility. invited Robert to make an attempt upon England. recommended to the soldiers the defence of their prince. of avoiding the tyrannical and oppressive government of his father and brother: He even rode through the ranks of the army. had recourse to arms for defence: But being soon suppressed by the activity and address of Henry. son of the earl of Mortaigne. This treaty. and restored to all their possessions either in Normandy or England. and Roger earl of Lancaster. it was agreed. consisting of forty-five articles. represented the duty of keeping their oaths of allegiance. to oppose Robert. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . having given matter of suspicion 1103. that Robert should resign his pretensions to England. that. hearkened the more willingly to the counsels of Anselm and the other great men. He restored indeed the estates of all Robert’s adherents. and his great estate was confiscated. and prognosticated to them the greatest happiness from the government of so wise and just a sovereign. and a resolution of persevering in an implicit obedience to the decrees of councils. who mediated an accommodation between them. were of the utmost service to him.

he raised a considerable army. and it became evident. This prince. Alternately abandoned to dissolute pleasures and to womanish superstition. imprudently ventured to come into England. and had nearly obtained the victory. and he fell into contempt among those who approached his person. and all Normandy. from his preparation and progress. pronounced against these noblemen. or to redress the grievances of the Normans. in one decisive the king’s inveterate enemies. or were subjected to his authority. Though the usual violence and tyranny of the Norman barons afforded a plausible pretence for those prosecutions.libertyfund. Conquest of Normandy. by resigning his pension. Robert. than all the vigour of his mind relaxed. enraged at the fate of his friends. stole from him his very clothes. 1106. The indiscretion of Robert soon exposed him to more fatal injuries. He took Bayeux by storm after an obstinate siege: He made himself master of Caen by the voluntary submission of the inhabitants: But being repulsed at Falaise. Page 195 of 354 against him. and enjoyment of peace. 1105. that the nobility were more disposed to pay submission to him than to their legal sovereign. was wholly iniquituous. by arbitrary extortions on England. and returned next year to Normandy. a great army and treasure. and it is probable that none of the sentences. that his servants pillaged his money with impunity. in severe terms. and they thereby afforded him a pretence for interposing in the affairs of Normandy. he was only attentive to support his own partizans. and approached his brother’s camp. against this breach of treaty: But met with so bad a reception. intrigue. with a view of finishing. whose bravery and candor procured him respect. and was glad to purchase an escape.Hume. that he intended to usurp the entire possession of Normandy. and to encrease their number by every art of bribery. among whom was duke Robert himself. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . while at a distance. he returned into England.. he collected. when the flight of Bellesme spread a panic among the Normans. He was now entered on that scene of action. applied to him. was become a scene of violence and depredation. the quarrel between them. and inveterate animosities against each other. made near ten thousand prisoners. and proceeded thence to practise every species of extortion on his defenceless subjects. Having found. after giving assurances to his adherents. men easily saw or conjectured. whom a severe administration alone could have restrained. that he might use his authority for the suppression of these disorders. during the reign of this benign prince. in which alone he was qualified to excel. and all the most considerable barons. either by violence or corruption. The barons. the dominion of that province. had no sooner attained the possession of power. had been able to establish in England. and insinuation. that the chief part of their guilt was not the injustice or illegality of their conduct. and occasioned their total defeat. that he began to apprehend danger to his own liberty. to render his brother’s government respectable. and he remonstrated with his brother. he was so remiss. both in the care of his treasure and the exercise of his government. in a situation to obtain. Next year he opened the campaign with the siege of Tenchebray. lost all the vast acquisitions of his family in England. and obliged. which he made to that dutchy. t http://oll. that they threw the English into disorder. gave reins to their unbounded rapine upon their vassals. that he would persevere in supporting and protecting them. which Henry. Instead of employing his mediation. Henry. Robert was at last rouzed from his lethargy. to raise the siege. The Normans at last. by the winter season. in a visit.. who Attack of Normandy. and being supported by the earl of Mortaigne and Robert de Belesme. besides doing great execution on the enemy. notwithstanding his usurped title. observing the regular government. and he so animated his troops by his example.html 4/7/2004 .

which had been long depending between him and the pope.libertyfund. yet the authority of Lanfranc. he extricated himself from the difficulty on easier terms than most princes. was so far unfortunate to the king’s pretensions. x http://oll. Edgar Atheling. a more dangerous instrument in the hands of politicians. and dismantled the castles.. while they made him cautious not to offend that powerful body. which his brother. beyond what was usual in those ages. with which he retired. had made of Anselm.. and who had lived with him ever since in Normandy. were so unhappy as to be engaged in disputes with the apostolic see. and settled a small pension on him. in the beginning of his reign. u w 1107. Continuation of the quarrel with Anselm the primate. Saen. and to check the ecclesiastics in that independance to which they visibly aspired. These recent examples. That unfortunate prince was detained in custody during the remainder of his life. in order to preserve the most invaluable jewel of it. which he was not qualified either to hold or exercise. that. lately built. though the rights of primogeniture were then violated. and who. during the reigns of so many violent and jealous usurpers. notwithstanding he possessed the affections of the English. He had seen. and settled the government of that province. Henry gave him his liberty. was another illustrious prisoner. and by this acquisition. Prince William was committed to the care of Helie de St. which he had reaped from the zealous friendship of that prelate. at the same time. afforded an instance. This prince was distinguished by personal bravery: But nothing can be a stronger proof of his mean talents in every other respect. and go to his grave in peace. he was allowed. who. he returned into England. and the inclinations of almost all the barons thwarted. Page 196 of 354 adhered to his interest.html 4/7/2004 . totally neglected and forgotten. on that very account. A little after Henry had completed the conquest of Normandy. than that. with regard to the investitures in ecclesiastical benefices. and having received the homage of all the vassals of the dutchy. obliged him to pay great court to Anselm: The advantages. opened its gates. besides rendering himself master of an important fortress. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . The prudence and temper of the king appear in nothing more conspicuous than in the management of this delicate affair. happy after some negotiation. The king’s situation. who had married Robert’s natural daughter. the primate. This victory was followed by the final reduction of Normandy: Roüen immediately submitted to the conqueror: Falaise. had prevailed over all other considerations: His own case. to live unmolested. and carried along with him the duke as prisoner. and he died in the castle of Cardiff in Glamorganshire. had made him sensible how prone the minds of his people were to superstition. he could have relinquished that power. being a man of probity and honour.Hume. and he lived to a good old age in England. in which the clergy had more evidently shown their influence and authority. that this prelate was celebrated for his piety and zeal and austerity of manners. which was still more unfavourable. and though he was here obliged to relinquish some of the ancient rights of the crown. and though his monkish devotion and narrow principles prognosticated no great knowledge of the world or depth of policy. having settled the government. without losing his liberty. and what an ascendant the ecclesiastics had been able to assume over them. convinced him. where he was always sensible that it had become necessary for him to risque his whole crown. which was no less than twenty-eight years. in that age. on the accession of his brother Rufus. The choice. revoked his brother’s donations. executed the trust with great affection and fidelity. he was. the only son of Robert: He assembled the states of Normandy. he got into his hands prince William. and enjoyed the only legal title to the throne. in a fit of penitence. and retained a greater ascendant over the bigotted populace. taken in the battle of Tenchebray. who had followed Robert in the expedition to Jerusalem. he finished a controversy. that it was extremely his interest to retain the former prerogative of the crown in filling offices of such vast importance.

that.html 4/7/2004 . that Pascal had assured them in private of his good intentions towards Henry. in order to lay the case before the sovereign pontiff. But Anselm. and the king. not through the civil magistrate. “that a son should pretend to beget his father. and he thence inferred. he thought. finding how odious they were become. returned with an absolute refusal of the king’s demands. Henry. as being the vicars of God: And will you. desired leave to make a journey to Rome. or any profane laymen. notwithstanding the prudence and moderation of his temper. that he should be able.. or a man to create his God: Priests are called Gods in scripture. that all ecclesiastics must enter into the church through Christ alone. assume the right of creating them. well pleased to rid himself without violence of so inflexible an antagonist. but even to communicate with them. sensible of his own dangerous situation. e f g The king. not only monks and clergymen. and to persuade the three bishops to prevaricate. however. while Anselm sent two messengers of his own.” added the pontiff. to be more fully assured of the pope’s intentions.. though he himself scrupled to give this assurance under his hand. and perhaps. was not urged with the best grace by the Roman pontiff. at least to delay. Pascal quoted the scriptures to prove that Christ was the door.” y z a But how convincing soever these arguments. and to invest the new bishops in the usual manner. http://oll. that the pretension of kings to confer benefices was the source of all simony. gave no credit to the asseveration of the king’s messengers. upon their episcopal faith. The prelate was attended to the shore by infinite multitudes. b c d Henry had now no other expedient than to suppress the letter addressed to himself. Page 197 of 354 Anselm had no sooner returned from banishment. who was the spouse of Christ. proceeded to fill the sees of Hereford and Salisbury. he committed a kind of spiritual adultery with the church. and the bishops themselves. who were monks. urging to the former. as he had good reason. they could not persuade Henry to resign so important a prerogative.libertyfund. by promising to send a messenger. The messenger. and that fortified by many reasons. lest other princes should copy the example and assume a like privilege. which were well qualified to operate on the understandings of men in those ages. who scrupled not in this manner to declare for their primate against their sovereign. readily granted him permission. by your abominable pretensions to grant them their investiture. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . who. to attain some composition with Pascal. he dispatched three bishops to Rome. seized all the revenues of his see. and who regarded his departure as the final abolition of religion and true piety in the kingdom.Hume. The quarrel every-day encreased between the king and the primate: The former. as he was possessed of great reflection and learning. he persuaded Anselm. Anselm’s two messengers. by farther as if he had finally gained his cause. affirmed to him. threw out menaces against such as should pretend to oppose him in exerting the ancient prerogatives of his crown: And Anselm. and insisting with the latter. and who must not admit of such a commerce with any other person. who then filled the papal throne. which Henry evaded at that critical juncture. even allowing priests to be gods. returned to Henry the ensigns of their dignity. and of his resolution not to resent any future exertion of his prerogative in granting investitures. that it was impossible this story could have any foundation: But their word was not deemed equal to that of three bishops. But as he desired still to avoid. by assuming the right of investitures. “It is monstrous. that the absurdity of a man’s creating his God. and for that purpose. but people of all ranks. in order to compound the matter with Pascal II. than his refusal to do homage to the king raised a dispute. and assert. Pascal wrote back letters equally positive and arrogant both to the king and primate. a topic which had but too much foundation in those ages. as was probably foreseen. refused not only to consecrate them. the coming to any dangerous extremity with the church.

if unfortunate.Hume.” replied Pascal. The total extinction. besides restoring to him the revenues of his see.libertyfund. unless he resolved to conform himself to the laws and usages of the kingdom. the power of the church daily made a sensible progress in Europe. The clergy. and he was obliged. and interests. Pascal himself. The instrument. and all events thus turned out equally to the advantage of clerical usurpations. without sense of shame or fear of punishment. when invaded in any particular country: The monks. the ignorance and superstition of the people. and could never have place in nature. tempers. the reigning pope. “And I. was. by a formal of religion and Christianity was likely to ensue from the want of his fatherly care: The most shocking customs prevail in England: And the dread of his severity being now removed. Soon after. with which they wrought. have bestowed the highest eulogies on that prudence by which a power.” Henry secretly prohibited Anselm from returning. of such universal prevalence. But the wisdom of so long a succession of men. that his master would rather lose his crown than part with the right of granting investitures. to establish an universal and almost absolute monarchy in Europe. Nonsense passed for demonstration: The most criminal means were sanctified by the piety of the end: Treaties were not supposed to be binding. and who were of such different ages. who being removed from the fear of the civil authority. that had been so unfortunate as to fall into a like situation.html 4/7/2004 . from such slender beginnings. in order to soften his opposition. he was permitted to return to his monastery at Bec in Normandy. “would rather lose my head than allow him to retain it. treated him with the greatest respect. h i k The policy of the court of Rome has commonly been much admired. feeling the necessity. were well pleased to adhere to a foreign head. which would have drawn disgrace and ruin on any temporal prince. in expectation. and these enormities openly appear every where. Page 198 of 354 and sent William de Warelwast to negociate with Pascal. they told him. and held several conferences with him. that it may be successful even in the most unskilful hands. and necessitated to follow a conduct. could freely employ the power of the whole church in defending her ancient or usurped properties and privileges. where the interests of God were concerned: The ancient laws and customs of states had no authority against a divine right: Impudent forgeries were received as authentic monuments of antiquity: And the champions of holy church. desirous of an independance on their diocesans. and bend him to submission. and scarce any indiscretion can frustrate its operations. sodomy and the practice of wearing long hair gain ground among all ranks of men. were inclined to blame their primate for absenting himself so long from his charge. judging by success. if successful. were worshipped as martyrs. who thought all differences now accommodated.. that the king would at last be obliged to yield the point. could advance. even while it was torn with schisms and factions. or vigour of the laws. While the court of Rome was openly abandoned to the most flagrant disorders. of being protected against the violence of princes. is so gross an engine. indeed. who filled the papal throne. and the temerity of Gregory and caution of Pascal were equally fortunate in promoting it. The English minister told Pascal. without force of arms. and the primate took up his residence at Lyons. representing the necessity of his speedy return. to resign to http://oll. His person was seized by the emperor Henry V. which they lay under. The people of England. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and he daily received letters from his partizans. and so little liable to accident or disorder.. and Henry. and to find some means of accommodation in this delicate affair. involved in circumstances. is not intelligible. in the course of this very controversy concerning investitures. and men. professed a still more devoted attachment to the triple crown. which they could oppose to the most exorbitant pretensions. and the stupid people possessed no science or reason. were celebrated as heroes. which was the present object of controversy between them.

it was the more easy to bring about an accommodation between them. both to grant the investiture and to receive the homage.. who. one half of which was given to the prince. to make any distinction be admitted between them: The interposition of profane laymen. The pope allowed Anselm to communicate with the prelates. and to yield up all his pretensions. the other taken by the pontiff: The most tremendous imprecations were publicly denounced on either of them who should violate the treaty: Yet no sooner did Pascal recover his liberty. While Pascal and Henry thus stood mutually in awe of each other.html 4/7/2004 . in the election of prelates.libertyfund. and Pascal was for the present satisfied with his resigning the right of granting investitures. and finally prevail in the contest. and the other ministers of Henry. who had already received investitures from the crown. which had been enjoyed by all his predecessors. had equally deprived laymen of the rights of granting investiture and of receiving homage: The emperors never were able.. seemed determined to run all hazards. Henry. by all their wars and negociations. anxious to procure an escape from a very dangerous situation. by some canons of the middle age. Urban II. though a more precarious authority. and it seemed probable. than he revoked all his concessions. and he allowed the bishops to do homage for their temporal properties and privileges. he hoped. and he suspended the blow only to give him leisure to prevent it by a timely submission. which were required of vassals by the rites of the feudal law. a princess of piety. q r http://oll. and this was called their investiture: They also made those submissions to the prince. The pontiff was well pleased to have made this acquisition. Page 199 of 354 that monarch. that he might be able to sustain his rights. it was not difficult to adjust the other differences. And as the king might refuse. in any particular. After the principal controversy was accommodated. and pronounced the sentence of excommunication against the emperor. The malcontents waited impatiently for the opportunity of disturbing his government by conspiracies and insurrections: The king’s best friends were anxious at the prospect of an incident. which he never could resume. was content to retain some. was affrightened with the danger of her brother’s eternal damnation. been endowed with the right of election. the emperor and pope communicated together on the same hoste. his sister. they had formerly been accustomed to pass through two ceremonies: They received from the hands of the sovereign a ring and crosier. and he only required of them some submissions for their n o p Compromise with Anselm. In order to add greater solemnity to this agreement. from his great prudence and abilities. and which received the name of homage. for which they had so long contended. Before bishops took possession of their dignities. as symbols of their office. the sovereign had in reality the sole power of appointing prelates. would in time involve the whole: And the king. the right of granting investitures. in such a situation as gave greater weight to his negotiations. which. in the end. But Henry had put England. in which they might agree. which would set their religious and civil duties at variance: And the countess of Blois. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . who had great influence over him.Hume. by which the spiritual dignity was supposed to be conferred. was still represented as impious and abominable: And the church openly aspired to a total independance on the state. though the chapter had. on the other hand. who were instrumental in supporting his pretensions: He daily menaced the king himself with a like sentence. l m The king of England had very nearly fallen into the same dangerous situation: Pascal had already excommunicated the earl of Mallont. rather than resign a prerogative of such importance. was obliged to submit to the terms required of him. as well as and to find a medium.

Lewis the Gross. who sat on the papal throne. was at this time king of France..Hume. Henry. When the king went to Normandy. and who subsisted by absurdities and nonsense. during the life-time of his father. a point which it was still found very difficult to carry into execution: And even laymen were not allowed to marry within the seventh degree of affinity. was to prevent all malignant suspicions. By this contrivance. in order to defend his foreign in case any accident should befal the life of the young prince. of which all the historians of that age unanimously complain. and it is probable. a brave and generous prince. found himself obliged to z http://oll. willingly parted with his hair: He cut it in the form which they required of him. where the king. the pope augmented the profits. he discovered virtues becoming his birth. but when he desired to recover possession of William’s person.. who found his interest to be in so many particulars opposite to those of the English monarch. prohibiting the laity from wearing long hair. who. In proportion as the prince grew up to man’s estate. Saen. and parish registers were not regularly kept. might arise from the barbarousness of the country. and the only territory. and wandering through different courts of Europe. had been protected by Henry. and to oblige the people to poll their hair in a decent form. the bishop of Seeze. y 1110. having been obliged. which he reaped from granting dispensations. He joined. than that a man. and any man. a synod was held at Westminster. the counts of Anjou and Flanders in giving disquiet to Henry’s government. The aversion of the clergy to this mode was not confined to England. allowed some canons of less importance to be enacted. and obliged all the courtiers to imitate his example. intent only on the main dispute. who gave him protection. and likewise those from divorces. might obtain a divorce. was but six years of age. William. earnestly exhorted him to redress the manifold disorders under which the government laboured. Such was the idea which the popes then entertained of the English: and nothing can be a stronger proof of the miserable ignorance in which that people were then plunged. Page 200 of 354 past misconduct. when he committed him to the care of Helie de St. count of Anjou. he excited the friendly compassion of many princes. being the ancient patrimony of his family. During the course of these controversies. Fulk. and raised a general indignation against his uncle. that his reason for intrusting that important charge to a man of so unblemished a character. while in his possession. involved him in frequent wars. He soon repented of his choice. which. His nephew. Helie withdrew his pupil. He also granted Anselm a plenary power of remedying every other disorder. who had money sufficient to pay for it. which tended to promote the usurpations of the clergy. The synod also passed a vote.html 4/7/2004 . which. on pretence that his wife was more nearly related to him than was permitted by the canons. he said. The acquisition of Normandy was a great point of Henry’s ambition. and obliged him to impose on his English subjects those many heavy and arbitrary taxes. son of Philip. and carried him to the court of s t u w x Wars abroad. in a formal harangue. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . For as the art of writing was then rare. and had thence conceived a personal friendship for him. But these ties were soon dissolved after the accession of Lewis. it was not easy to ascertain the degrees of affinity even among people of rank. gave him any weight or consideration on the continent: But the injustice of his usurpation was the source of great inquietude. should think himself intitled to treat them as barbarians. though he would not resign his prerogatives to the church. The celibacy of priests was enjoined. to fly into England. before he had conquered that province. who had so unjustly bereaved him of his inheritance. and this monarch.libertyfund. therefore. and who became sensible of the danger attending the annexation of Normandy to England. in order to escape the persecutions of his step-mother Bertrude.

There were nine hundred horsemen. and suddenly attacked the French at Brenneville. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . This peace was not of long duration.” said he to them. a gallant Norman officer. he immediately beat his antagonist to the ground. where he resided two years. he was determined to adhere to the laws and customs of England. by that very quality. joined the party. His nephew. of applying to the spiritual power. “Go. and obliged the others to come to an accommodation with him. if any farther claims were started by the pope or the ecclesiastics. The war which ensued among those princes was attended with no memorable event. which he had the same summer with Henry. and the king himself was in the most imminent danger. after a conference. William. whenever their subjects were not rouzed by some great and urgent occasion. worn by the cavalry in those times. William. Henry. The complaints of the Norman prince were thenceforth heard with great coldness by the council. and represented the enormity of detaining in captivity so brave a prince as Robert. The dignity of the persons. presented the Norman prince to them. a b An accommodation soon after ensued between the http://oll. was placed under the immediate protection of the holy see. to the daughter of Fulk. but Henry. and of affording the ecclesiastics a pretence to interpose in the temporal concerns of princes. 1118. gave some respite to Henry. He had laid a scheme for surprising Noyon. beyond comparison. marched to the relief of the place. who had followed the fortunes of William. hear his apostolical precepts. and yet with dexterity. craved the assistance of the church for reinstating the true heir in his dominions.. and produced only slight skirmishes on the frontiers. however. who was slain in an action near Eu. who fought on both sides. and when that prince probably renewed his presents. that.” Finding. that. rendered it the most memorable action of the war: For in other respects. having soon after. At last the death of Baldwin. one of the most eminent champions of the cross. for other reasons. had recourse to the dangerous expedient. having received intelligence of the design. yet were there only two persons slain. He had sent over the English bishops to this synod. he gave his ambassadors orders to gain the pope and his favourites by liberal presents and promises. where prince William behaved with great bravery. and so encouraged his troops by the example. by contracting his eldest son. whom he had ever yet been acquainted with. Henry knew how to defend the rights of his crown with vigour. and enabled him to carry on war with more advantage against his enemies. of all men. he was.. The warlike measures of Lewis proved as ineffectual as his intrigues. He carried young William to a general that they put the French to total rout. A sharp conflict ensued. Lewis. agreeably to the weak condition of the sovereigns in that age.libertyfund. and who.Hume. but at the same time had warned them. Page 201 of 354 go over to Normandy. engaged in this skirmish. which was assembled at Rheims by pope Calixtus II. and had very nearly taken their king prisoner.html 4/7/2004 . The rest were defended by that heavy armour. earl of Flanders. but take care to bring none of his new inventions into my kingdom. which produced no event more memorable than had attended the former. and Calixtus confessed. and maintain the prerogatives transmitted to him by his predecessors. the most eloquent and persuasive. that it would be easier for him to elude than oppose the efforts of Calixtus. 1119. and the king of France. a new war was kindled in Normandy. as they were advancing towards it. who espoused his cause. He was wounded in the head by Crispin. but being rather animated than terrified by the blow. “salute the pope in my name. finding himself unable to wrest Normandy from the king by force of arms. complained of the manifest usurpation and injustice of Henry. it was not of great importance. detached that prince from the alliance. retired to the court of Baldwin.

and had been heard to threaten. and it was remarked. forms a presumption. were so flustered. and impresses us with no very favourable idea of the Anglo-Saxon manners. Prince William left no children. Henry entertained hopes for three days. because it was the immediate source of those civil wars. and was taken up next morning by fishermen. and whom he had then sent over to be educated in Germany. These prepossessions he inherited from his father. who was now a widower. having spent the interval in drinking. nor ever recovered his wonted chearfulness. when he should be king. he fainted away. as a native of England. that he might receive the homage of the barons of that dutchy. a young princess of an amiable person. and had carried him over to Normandy. Henry. His only son. were denied them during this whole reign.. he would make them draw the plough. Death of prince William. 1121. of the principal families of England and Normandy. who then crowded in. to ecclesiastical as well as civil dignities. Thomas Fitz-Stephens. from the facility with which he himself had usurped the crown. this inveterate antipathy. except one daughter. and the king. William was put into the long-boat. but being informed by the butcher. in 1110. when it might serve his purpose. Above a hundred and forty young noblemen. and had got clear of the ship. who was NOTE [L] to the King’s second marriage. where she immediately foundered. and the interests of young William were entirely neglected in it. showed. and the prince with all his retinue perished. had taken care to have him recognized successor by the states of the kingdom. 1120. and the prince. and he threw himself headlong into the sea. however ignorant or worthless. though he was wont. duke of Lovaine. and his sailors. that prince William had perished. in the course of his government. and would turn them into beasts of burthen. But as her absence from the kingdom. dreading that a like revolution might subvert his family. after the demise of the king. might endanger the succession. had now reached his eighteenth year. and he made his addresses to Adelais. that the young prince had entertained a violent aversion to the natives. i http://oll. c d e The death of William may be regarded. which befel him.libertyfund. as well as their captain. daughter of Godfrey. The king. when hearing the cries of his natural sister. f g h emperor Henry V. that. Page 202 of 354 kings of France and England. Matilda. A butcher of Roüen was the only person on board who escaped: He clung to the mast. that. though only eight years of age. set sail from Barfleur. But Adelais brought him no children. that his son had put into some distant port of England: But when certain intelligence of the calamity was brought him. who. was sure to have the preference in every competition.html 4/7/2004 . in a prince of so much temper as well as penetration. the countess of Perche. he said. on his return. which.. and her marriage into a foreign family. All hopes of preferment. they heedlessly carried the ship on a rock. he ordered the seamen to row back in hopes of saving her: But the numbers. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . were lost on this occasion. was induced to marry in hopes of having male heirs. that he would not survive the disaster. that he never after was seen to smile. and niece of pope Calixtus. William. that the English of that age were still a rude and barbarous people even compared to the Normans. and the king had not now any legitimate issue. The prince was detained by some accident.Hume. and any foreigner. being in a hurry to follow the king. to value himself on his birth. as a misfortune to the English. he had betrothed. But this public prosperity of Henry was much overbalanced by a domestic calamity. an extreme prejudice against that and was soon carried by a fair wind out of sight of land. soon sunk the boat. whom. in one respect. As the English had given no disturbance to the government during the course of fifty years. Fitz-Stephens also took hold of the mast. caused such confusion in the kingdom: But it is remarkable.

The mutinous barons were retained in subjection. to the jealousy and inquietude of Henry. being assassinated during the celebration of divine service. was still protected in the French court. and historians mention in particular the levying of purveyance. He wanted not attention to the redress of grievances. from their neighbours.html 4/7/2004 . where they long maintained a different language. the eldest son of Fulk. and reduce their country to the rank of a province: But the barons were displeased. when they heard of the approach of the court. But William survived a very little time this piece of good fortune. that his nephew’s party might gain force from the encrease of the malcontents: An accession of power. recovered hopes of subverting his rival. William. his son-in-law. and punished the persons guilty of them by cutting off their hands. earl of Flanders. who had successively seized all his patrimonial dominions. not to dread the effects of their resentment. which that prince acquired a little after. and obliging the barons both of Normandy and England to swear fealty to her. that a step so material to national interests had been taken without consulting them. by forming anew with him a nearer connexion than the former. king Lewis immediately put the young prince in possession of that county. the son of duke Robert. He hoped. tended to render his pretensions still more dangerous. Fulk joined the party of the unfortunate prince. often deserted their houses. by having her recognized heir to all his dominions. and endeavoured to ensure her succession. But the prerogative was perpetual. and was as little oppressive as the necessity of his affairs would permit. which he established and maintained throughout all his dominions during the greater part of his reign. gave him his daughter in marriage. and Henry had too sensibly experienced the turbulence of their disposition. and levied in so licentious a manner. legs. It seemed 1128. in the right of his grandmother Matilda. k l m http://oll. his competitor for Flanders. The emperor. dying without issue. and one more material to the interests of that count’s family.libertyfund. for the present. and his neighbours. The tenants in the king’s demesne lands were at that time obliged to supply gratis the court with provisions. to which he had pretensions. The chief merit of this monarch’s government consists in the profound as securing them from the danger of falling under the dominion of a great and distant potentate. Page 203 of 354 most likely to dispute the succession. and customs. and aided him in raising disturbances in Normandy. or other members. Though his government seems to have been arbitrary in England. and as Henry’s connections with the count of Anjou were broken off by the death of his son. which he endeavoured to moderate and restrain. that the farmers. as if an enemy had invaded the country. 1127. and manners. and to furnish carriages on the same hard terms. probable. and threatened a quick return of like abuses. and settled them in Pembrokeshire. and sheltered their persons and families in the woods. into any of the counties. who might bring them into subjection. In order to repress the incursions of the Welsh. wife to the Conqueror. But Henry found the means of drawing off the count of Anjou. found him so well prepared.Hume.. These exactions were so grievous. it was judicious and prudent. that the choice of this husband would be more agreeable to all his subjects than that of the emperor. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . from the insults of the king’s retinue. Charles. in every attempt which they made upon him. as he did frequently. and his death put an end. and even the immediate possession of the crown. so far from giving security to the people. the remedy applied by Henry was temporary. when the king made a progress.. which seemed to open the way to still farther prosperity. he bestowed his daughter on Geoffrey. that they were discouraged from continuing or renewing their enterprizes. and the violence itself of this remedy. He was killed in a skirmish with the landgrave of Alsace. he brought over some Flemings in the year 1111. Henry prohibited those enormities. was only a proof of the ferocity of the government.

and Henry in particular. which they had already sworn to her. found himself at that time in a dangerous situation. who were glad to avoid any immediate contest of so dangerous a nature. abbot o p q r s t [M] 1131. as legate into Britain. who received the name of Henry. when he found that he could not prevail in any pretension. giving the king that authority. had passed a bull. and the satisfaction which he reaped from his daughter’s company. was obliged to submit to the exercise of this commission. in a public harangue..Hume. A synod was called by the legate at London. Notwithstanding this engagement. who was then in the commencement of his reign. had sent Guy. that princess was delivered of a son.. Anselm. were entirely derived from the indulgence of the apostolic see. the pope. He made the archbishop of Canterbury his legate. Some time after. and pope Calixtus. to grant princes or states a power which they had always exercised. But in the year 1116. renewed his commission from time to time. and the king. that the very next night. by reason of the pretensions of Gregory. and protecting the liberties of the church of England. and still pretended. that he immediately stole out of the kingdom: The synod broke up. As every thing in England remained in tranquillity. who by reason of his nephew’s intrigues and invasions. Sabas.html 4/7/2004 . sent William. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . 1132. u http://oll. granted the cardinal de Crema a legantine commission over the kingdom. that a priest should dare to consecrate and touch the body of Christ immediately after he had risen from the side of a strumpet: For that was the decent appellation which he gave to the wives of the clergy. an incident which threw such ridicule upon him. to which he was invited. The pope. the officers of justice. and to pretend. that he never would for the future. as well by his affection for that country. Henry. who in his turn was then labouring under many difficulties. that the civil magistrate had possessed the authority only from a special indulgence of the Roman pontiff. except when solicited by the king himself. But it happened. and was involved in many difficulties. enacting severe penalties on the marriages of the clergy. archbishop of Vienne. and the canons against the marriage of clergymen were worse executed than ever. an antipope. send any legate into England. breaking into a disorderly house. in the year 1101. was obliged to promise. The English princes. where. and his commission gave general surprize. It was a usual maxim with every pope. was prohibited from entering the kingdom. Page 204 of 354 One great and difficult object of the king’s prudence was the guarding against the encroachments of the court of Rome. to resume at a proper juncture the claim which seemed to be resigned. The cardinal. declared it to be an unpardonable enormity. farther to ensure her succession. who was always his favourite. who bore n was obliged to submit to this encroachment on his authority. the empress Matilda. and the king. The joy of this event. and he now practised a like invention to elude the complaints of the king of England. as by his tenderness for his daughter. who was coming over with a like legantine commission. found the cardinal in bed with a courtezan. made all the nobility of England and Normandy renew the oath of fealty. as soon as he had suppressed his antagonist.libertyfund. that the rights. After this manner. of Henry took the opportunity of paying a visit to Normandy. in order to prevent this alternate revolution of concessions and encroachments. the king. finding that the French nations would not admit his claim of granting investitures. and to assert the liberties of the English church. commonly acquiesced by their silence in these pretensions of the court of Rome. to remonstrate with the court of Rome against those abuses. a vote passed. which that prelate had ever exercised as metropolitan. the pope. and though he was the first that for many years had appeared there in that character. then archbishop of Canterbury. among other canons.

The affability of his address encouraged those who might be overawed by the sense of his dignity or of his wisdom. had not his conduct towards his brother and nephew showed that he was too much disposed to sacrifice to it all the maxims of justice and equity. without making any mention of her husband Geoffrey. which his better judgment and sounder principles would otherwise have induced him to reject with warmth and indignation. and that with rigour. He died in the sixtyseventh year of his age. There is a code. they were grateful to the people. and possessed all the great qualities both of body and mind. His superior eloquence and judgment would have given him an ascendant even had he been born in a private station. which were then so prevalent among men of letters.. Stealing was first made capital in this reign: False coining. Page 205 of 354 successively two other sons. made his residence in Normandy very agreeable to him. abated nothing of the activity and vigilance of his government. To kill a stag was as criminal as to murder a man: He made all the dogs be mutilated. But the total incapacity of Robert for government afforded his younger brother a reason or pretence for seizing the scepter both of England and Normandy. and though these punishments seem to have been exercised in a manner somewhat arbitrary. and by which the money had been z a b c extremely debased. Matilda. and his personal bravery would have procured him respect. he knew how to temper it with discretion. Hunting was also one of his favourite amusements. from eating too plentifully of lampreys. Death and character of Henry. and historians mention no less than seven illegitimate sons and six daughters born to him. necessity obliges a prince to continue in the same criminal course. his eyes clear. and penetrating. more attentive to present advantages. In other respects.html 4/7/2004 . but was seized with a sudden illness at St. his countenance engaging. heir of all his dominions. and though the learning of that age was better fitted to corrupt than improve the understanding. Dennis le Forment. His person was manly. and his ambition. King Henry was much addicted to women. leaving by will his daughter. By his great progress in literature. he acquired the name of Beau-clerc or the scholar: But his application to those sedentary pursuits. and when violence and usurpation are once begun. was severely punished by Henry. which could fit him for the high station. and engages him in measures. y This prince was one of the most accomplished that has filled the English throne. Near fifty criminals of this kind were at one time hanged or mutilated. or even cutting their own woods. though high. and he exercised great rigour against those who encroached on the royal forests. natural and acquired. w 1135. His temper was susceptible of the sentiments as well of friendship as of resentment. though their number and extent were already too great. when an incursion of the Welsh obliged him to think of returning into England. and he seemed determined to pass the remainder of his days in that country. which passes under the name of Henry d http://oll. who had given him several causes of displeasure. he executed justice. than jealous of general laws. the best maxim which a prince in that age could follow. He was preparing for the journey.. though it had been less supported by art and policy. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and though he often indulged his facetious humour.libertyfund. a food which always agreed better with his palate than his constitution.Hume. and the thirty-fifth year of his which was then a very common crime. might be deemed moderate and reasonable. which were kept on the borders of his forest: And he sometimes deprived his subjects of the liberty of hunting on their own lands. and ever kept at a distance from all indecent familiarities with his courtiers. x 1st of Dec. his natural good sense preserved itself untainted both from the pedantry and superstition. which were augmented during his reign. to which he attained. serene.

granted a charter to London. 34. 208. and were not yet wholly illegal. Paris. p.. Dunelm. [d] Chron. 782. p. but the best antiquaries have agreed to think it spurious. 2.libertyfund. 208. was enacted. it is remarkable that the re-union of the civil and ecclesiastical courts. Hoveden. seems to have been the heriot. Paris. remained without effect.html 4/7/2004 . ratified by the http://oll. 57. Sax. p. that a great distinction was then made between the English and Normans. It is however a very ancient compilation. Order. with a confirmation of the privileges of their court of Hustings. which was more easily remitted to the Exchequer. Order. What is called a relief in the Conqueror’s laws. p. f Among the laws. [g] Matth. i ENDNOTES [a] Vertot.Hume. 38. as in the Saxon times. since reliefs. p. cap. i. Hagulstad. and common halls. 498. Sax. By this charter. 225. Danegelt. into money. which had been avowed by the Saxon laws. why the ancient kings of England so frequently changed their place of abode: They carried their court from one palace to another. whose laws these originally were. [i] Lib. the city was empowered to keep the farm of Middlesex at three hundred pounds a year. 783. 7. Brompton. 1021. much to the advantage of the latter. [f] See Appendix II. 468. Page 206 of 354 I. We learn from it. like the articles of his charter. Henry. [b] M. p. lib. changed the rents of his demesnes. e The deadly feuds and the liberty of private revenge. [e] Chron. cap. as well as the other burdens of the feudal law. But the great scarcity of coin would render that commutation difficult to be executed. g h It is said. were still continued. Vital. 36. and their liberty of hunting in Middlesex and Surrey. p. p. wardmotes. [h] Glanv. and lodging the king’s retinue. to elect its own sheriff and justiciary and to hold pleas of the crown. Vital. are the chief articles of this charter. Sim. p. This practice was contrary to the laws of king Edward. granted on the king’s accession. p. from indulgence to his tenants. on his accession. p.. [c] Order. 16. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and may be useful to instruct us in the manners and customs of the times. and it was exempted from Scot. were unknown in the age of the Confessor. that they might consume upon the spot the revenue of their several demesnes. while at the same time provisions could not be sent to a distant quarter of the kingdom. p. which seems to have been the first step towards rendering that city a corporation. preserved by Ingulf. This affords a probable reason. that this prince. But this law. trials by combat. 310. Diceto. p. vol. probably from the opposition of archbishop Anselm. Vital. which were formerly paid in kind. 756.

[y] W. Thom. p. p. Matth.libertyfund. [e] Eadmer. [k] Chron. p. p. 64. Paris. 209. [p] Hoveden. Malm. Sax. Chron. 61. Vital. Sax.. p. p. [f] Eadmer. p. 60. 39. W. Yet it passed current in those ages. p. p. http://oll. [r] Order. p. Malm. Paris. p. Vital. p. p. [x] Eadmer. [n] Eadmer. Paris. p. See Epist. W. p. [d] Eadmer. Hunt. [q] M. Malm. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . Dunelm. This topic is farther enforced in p. Waverl. 163. p. [o] Ibid. p. Malm. p. Vital. p. 90. 73. Malmes. W. Beverl. 43. W. Sim. 821. [s] Chron. Brompton. Malm. [m] W. Sax. Ann. p. 208. p. [b] Eadmer. 225. [t] H. Paris. 225. p. 225. 66. 56. 63. 225. p. 156. 468. 57. p. p. [a] Eadmer. But laws had at that time very little influence: Power and violence governed every thing. 40. 39. [u] Eadmer. 228. Matth. Sax. Sax. p. p. p. W. p. I much suspect. p. Rudborne. p. 144. 379. 785. 214. p. 66. p. 1002. 273.. 91. 74. Malm. Page 207 of 354 Conqueror. 169. 214. Malm. p. p. p. that this text of scripture is a forgery of his holiness: For I have not been able to find it.html 4/7/2004 . p. 65. [l] Chron. 156. 62. [c] Eadmer. 144. See also W. 208. as we learn from Ingulf. Hoveden. p. Order. p. 225 [z] Eadmer. and was often quoted by the clergy as the foundation of their power. [w] Chron. Alur. M. p.Hume. St. 469. Order. 783.

H. p. p. 47. 303. 226. Chron. Dunelm. [q] Eadmer. [y] Eadmer. p. p. p. M. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . Malm. 71. p. [i] Hoveden. [u] Eadmer. p. Paris. 868. T. 170. 227. 163. 220. W. 79. p. 91. 81. p. 211. [p] Ibid. p. Diceto. 230. http://oll. [s] Eadmer. Malmes. p. [z] Order. 148. 68. 112.libertyfund. 91. vol.. Dunelm. Hunt. 219. Page 208 of 354 [g] Eadmer. p. p.. p. p. [b] Order. Vital. p. p. [x] Order. p. [c] Sim. [d] Order. p. p. p. Vital. W. Chron. ii. p. 242 Alured Beverl. p. W. [h] Eadmer. [l] W. 1000. Malm. p. Sax. 164. Dunelm. p. 503. W. Hoveden. p. 80. Vital.Hume. Dunst. p. p. Conc. 274. Abb. 228. 380. [t] Ibid. [r] Eadmer. 91. Hunt. 381. [a] H. 816. p. 63. p. 167. Chron. Petri de Burgo. M. Sim. Malm. [k] Eadmer. Malm. Rudb. p. p. p. p. [n] Eadmer. 471. p. p. 22. [o] Ibid. 73. 471. p. p. 21. [w] Eadmer. St.html 4/7/2004 . p. 79. 233. Paris. Ann. p. 40. p. Hoveden. 143. p. Brompton. Paris. 67. p. 43. Sim. Wilkins. 83. 212. 87. Spelm. 213. eccles. M. Vital. 837. 854. Waverl. 68. [m] Padre Paolo sopra benef. 470.

34. 229. but says. p. The annals of Waverly. p. Page 209 of 354 [e] Hoveden. p. 234. cap. 1. [i] Chron. 165. p. Malm. [f] Gul. [z] Order. 315. p. p. Vital. [h] Chron. Conc. Hunt. [u] W. 94. say. 125. p. 476. W. 94. p. lib. p. 474. vol.. 177. Chron. p. [s] Hoveden. Sax. 869. that this last writer. p. cap. Hunt. 385. [q] Chron. Vital. p. p. p. p. who was a clergyman as well as the others. Paris. Malm. [x] H. 166. [g] Eadmer. Malm. It is remarkable. Matth. [y] W. and ought not to be concealed. [k] W. p. H. [b] W. p. Sax. lib. p. W. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . Order. that the fact was notorious. p. 83. Gemet. p. 48. West. Paris.libertyfund. p. Sax. [t] Chron. Vital. Malm. 382. Order. http://oll. [a] Gul. 8. 3. Huntingdon. p. [o] Hoveden. 478. p. 50. p. 58. p.Hume. ad ann. 223. 178. [r] Spelm. 805. 212. M. [m] Eadmer. 150.. [n] Ibid. [p] Eadmer. [w] H. p. Neub. Malm. 215. p. makes an apology for using such freedom with the fathers of the church. 175. Sax. ii. 29. p. 179. 1125. 137. [l] Eadmer. 138. Malm. Sax. that the king asked and obtained the consent of all the barons. p. M.html 4/7/2004 .

which had the least pretence of holding of any thing spiritual. Dunelm. VII STEPHEN Accession of Stephen—War with Scotland—Insurrection in favour of Matilda— Stephen taken prisoner—Matilda crowned—Stephen released—Restored to the crown—Continuation of the civil wars—Compromise between the king and prince Henry—Death of the king IN THE PROGRESS and settlement of the feudal law.. Dunelm. of which there were about 60. [h] Lambardi Archaionomia ex edit.000 pounds.libertyfund. p. Page 210 of 354 [c] Sim.§ 82. were a kind of delegates. 305. were brought into the spiritual court. Hoveden. They nominated to all vacant benefices. See Rudburne.html 4/7/2004 . The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution .600 hydes in England. and were anxious to maintain ecclesiastical privileges. [d] Sim. and he exacted three shillings a hyde on all England. because the connexions of that prelate with the kingdom tended to moderate his measures. [f] LL. 75. as marriages. Twisden Wilkins. p. Flor. vol. 149. he was sure to maintain the papal claims with the utmost rigour: But it was an advantage to the king to have the archbishop of Canterbury appointed legate. 1. [NOTE [M]] The legates a latere. http://oll. Wigorn. who possessed the full power of the pope in all the provinces committed to their charge. p. was intitled to levy a tax for the marrying of his eldest daughter. and were very busy in extending.. Waverl. as well as exercising it. 7. 2. 270.000 pounds of our present money: But it could not exceed 135. de Scaccario. Hunt. testaments. 379. Brompton. and estates. These were the established laws of the church. 1000. which never could be fully protected without incroachments on the civil power.000.) heedlessly make this sum amount to above 800. § 18.000 hydes. 70. the male succession to fiefs had taken place some time before the female was admitted. 231. and could not be canvassed before a civil magistrate. Annal. p. being considered as military benefices. p. [i] Dial. and Tyrrel. Hen. p. 63. 1. as they were called. [NOTE [L]] cap. p. and at the rate of three shillings a hyde. vol. Coke. made a knight’s fee. Hoveden. there were only computed 243. 653. sometimes less. promissory oaths. Inst. 235. p. In the Saxon times. ii. it was always supposed that the civil power was to give way: Every deed. 182. iii. consequently near 300. or 135. p. p. Brompton. p. lib.000 in England. Five hydes. Some historians (Brady. [g] Spellm. Hen.000 of our present money. [e] LL. p. 471. 1000. and where a legate was sent immediately from Rome. 231. 257. H.Hume. p. Blackstone. the sum would amount to 45. 471. If there were the least concurrence or opposition. p. by the feudal customs. assembled synods. p.

he continued to cultivate. By his bravery. who was daughter and heir of Eustace count of Boulogne. had been married to Stephen. he presumed. were transmitted to such only as could serve in the armies. was created abbot of Glastenbury and bishop of Winchester. Stephen also by this marriage acquired a new connexion with the royal family of England. even k l m http://oll. and many virtues. might have instructed him. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . some invasion of his daughter’s title. naturally introduced their succession to government and authority. that. he might in time be able to open his way to the throne. favoured the success of his intentions. insensible to all the ties of gratitude and fidelity. which. of male-heirs to the kingdom of England and dutchy of Page 211 of 354 not as property. during some 1135. and as Henry had made all his vassals in both states swear fealty to her. the friendship of the English nation. Meanwhile. that. that neither his Norman nor English subjects were as yet capable of adhering to a strict rule of government. from his uncle’s liberality. besides that feudal sovereignty in France. count of Blois. when the barons swore fealty to that princess. which procured them the inheritance of private estates. the reigning king of Scotland. Adela. and by an affable and familiar address. And though he dared not to take any steps towards his farther grandeur. in which he himself had acquired the crown. The failure. took pleasure in enriching him by the grant of new possessions. particularly of the Londoners. which he had taken such pains to establish. the two youngest. that had been so fortunate as to acquire his favour and good opinion.. and he conferred on him the great estate forfeited by Robert Mallet in England and that forfeited by the earl of Montaigne in Normandy. and appeared so zealous for the succession of Matilda. that he strengthened the interests of his family by the aggrandizement of Stephen. an immense property in England. in return. still imagining. and mother of the empress. Stephen had. in a great measure.libertyfund. But the irregular manner. and the same revolution of principles. lest he should expose himself to the jealousy of so penetrating a prince as Henry. which that prince bore to every one. he acquired the esteem of the barons: By his generosity. earl of Glocester. than Stephen.. he still hoped. as Mary. had been invited over to England by the late king. riches. The king had married him to Matilda. and had received great honours. by accumulating riches and power. who should first be admitted to give her this testimony of devoted zeal and fidelity. by every art of popularity. among whom. obliterated the primitive idea. even from his own family. and blind to danger. No sooner had Henry breathed his last. professed great attachment to his uncle. his wife’s mother. and who brought him. had. that they would not easily be induced to depart at once from her hereditary right. and by acquiring popularity. Stephen and Henry.html 4/7/2004 . to the empress Matilda. who had betaken himself to the ecclesiastical profession. without a rival. in the distribution of lands. therefore. daughter of William the conqueror. he contended with Robert. he had reason to dread. was sister to David. But when the continuance of rights. and trusted. and had brought him several sons. that. in the same family. the females were gradually admitted to the possession of feudal property. activity and vigour. and as every precedent of this kind seems to give authority to new usurpations. and from their own reiterated oaths and engagements. Stephen. seemed to leave the succession open. he obtained the affections of the people. the king’s natural son. attained establishments still more solid and durable. Henry. unusual in that age among men of his high quality. had been conferred by the conqueror on the family of Boulogne. generations.Hume. and preferment from the zealous friendship. and though these dignities were considerable. The king. the first wife of Henry. with which he seemed to be endowed. gave full reins to his criminal ambition. and perform in person the conditions upon which they were originally granted. and to Matilda.

But none opposed his usurpation. steward of the household. who. the usurper insured the compliance. which. Page 212 of 354 without any previous intrigue. has often little efficacy in fortifying the duties of civil society. taken in favour of Matilda. Hugh Bigod. which ratified his title. William. to the clergy. to give the royal unction to Stephen. The sentiment of religion. that the late king. immediately saluted him king. with whom every country in Europe. had shown a dissatisfaction with his daughter Matilda. it would not be easy afterwards to expel him. on his deathbed. and who had received from the primate the rite of royal unction and consecration. that he might also overawe all malcontents by new and additional terrors of religion. and from this religious ceremony. apprized of his purpose. very readily granted him. was not affected by the multiplied oaths.Hume. was allowed to proceed to the n 22d Decem. The late king had a great treasure at Winchester. but not trusting to this frail security. and though the citizens of Dover. anointed Stephen. passed a charter. he invited over from the continent. and those of Canterbury. and Stephen. and which the pope. that he would speedily fill all vacant benefices. great numbers of those bravoes or disorderly soldiers. where some of the lower rank. refused to perform this ceremony. p Stephen. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and to the people. as all the others. and would never levy the rents of any of them during the vacancy. By means of this money. were as unfortunate in Normandy as http://oll. and by performing the ceremony of his coronation.. bishop of Salisbury. made oath before the primate. had sworn fealty to Matilda. in which he made liberal promises to all orders of men. if corrupted into superstition. of the principal clergy and nobility. shut their gates against him. though not the attachment. immediately turned against Henry’s family the precaution. he stopped not till he arrived at London. that he would remit the tax of Danegelt and restore the laws of king Edward. and required him. q r s Matilda and her husband Geoffrey. particularly from Britanny and Flanders. instigated by his emissaries. that he would reduce the royal forests to their ancient boundaries. in conjunction with that prelate. the bishop of Winchester. to William. was useful to him in these capital articles: Having gained Roger. either believing or feigning to believe Bigod’s testimony. which naturally attends the policy of amassing treasures.. to the nobility. to put himself in possession of the throne. and pleased with an appeal to his authority in secular controversies. and had expressed his intention of leaving the count of Boulogne heir to all his dominions. that he might farther secure his tottering throne. he was confident.html 4/7/2004 . who. His next point was to acquire the good will of the clergy.libertyfund. from which. and to the rights of their sovereign. and correct all encroachments. Very few barons attended his coronation. preserved no sense of gratitude to that prince’s family. which the English and Normans in that age bore to the laws. as well as moved by his general popularity. though he owed a great fortune and advancement to the favour of the late king. and only rendered the people obedient to a prince. by the terrors of the sword. the celerity of his enterprize and the boldness of his attempt might overcome the weak attachment. however unjust or flagrant. o exercise of sovereign authority. He hastened over to England. His brother. by seizing this money. amounting to a hundred thousand pounds: And Stephen. procured a bull from Rome. that prince. and put the crown upon his head. by reason of the general ill police and turbulent government. which that prince had employed for their grandeur and security: An event. he applied. extremely abounded. who was countenanced by the clergy. in virtue of his These mercenary troops guarded his throne. but his opposition was overcome by an expedient equally dishonourable with the other steps by which this revolution was effected. without any shadow either of hereditary title or consent of the nobility or people. The primate. seeing this prince in possession of the throne. archbishop of Canterbury.

for their immediate safety. that they were only bound so long as the king defended the ecclesiastical liberties. and be totally incapacitated from serving the royal family. and zealous for the lineal succession. The Norman nobility. first applied to Theobald.libertyfund. count of Blois. and Geoffrey himself was obliged to conclude a truce for two years with Stephen. The clergy. which had with difficulty been restrained by law.. Robert. the barons even assumed the right of coining money. and of putting themselves in a posture of defence. to pay court to some neighbouring chieftain. the reigning king of France. Lewis the younger. who was in Normandy when he received intelligence of Stephen’s accession. for protection and assistance. by the numerous friends and retainers of that nobleman. to receive him on those terms. so unusual in itself. was meant only to afford Robert a pretence for a revolt on the first favourable opportunity. that this reserve. imitated that dangerous example: They annexed to their oaths of allegiance this condition. to the young prince. was a man of honour and abilities. he betrothed his sister. Stephen. on condition of the king’s paying him. and so unbefitting the duty of a subject.html 4/7/2004 . it was chiefly from his intrigues and resistance. and a breach of his oath to Matilda: To refuse giving this pledge of his fidelity was to banish himself from England. and received in lieu of them. This nobleman. but hearing 1136. a pension of five thousand. and supported the discipline of the church. and of exercising. and even those who obtained not the king’s permission. Stephen’s eldest son. every act of jurisdiction. Unbounded rapine was exercised upon the people for the maintenance of these troops. and to purchase his protection both by submitting to his exactions. Stephen’s elder brother. moved by an hereditary animosity against the Angevins. who had taken a journey to Normandy. and should never invade any of Robert’s rights or dignities: And Stephen. and put him in possession of their government. that Stephen had got possession of the English crown. Constantia. or with licentious soldiers. exacted terms still more destructive of public The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and the more to corroborate his connexions with that family. they transferred their allegiance to Stephen. or contributing to their restoration. by the great principle of self-preservation. The barons. finding no defence from the laws. to put themselves on an equal footing http://oll. at this time. and private animosities. though sensible. who flocked to them from all quarters. and soon after returned to England. The erection of one castle proved the immediate cause of building many others. who could scarcely. Matilda. All England was immediately filled with those fortresses which the noblemen garrisoned either with their vassals. found himself much embarrassed concerning the measures. and by assisting him in his rapine upon others. that the king had reason to dread a new revolution of government. finished all these transactions in person. were obliged. earl of Glocester. be deemed subjects to the crown. that the king should maintain all his stipulations. an annual pension of two thousand marks. thought that they were entitled. now breaking out without controul. which he should pursue in that difficult emergency. was obliged. To swear allegiance to the usurper appeared to him dishonourable. without appeal. afterwards. during that time. during this total t u w x y z dissolution of sovereign authority. He offered Stephen to do him homage and to take the oath of fealty. The count of Blois resigned all his pretensions. and the king found himself totally unable to refuse his consent to this exorbitant demand. but with an express condition. for the dutchy. rendered England a scene of uninterrupted violence and devastation. and having many of them the same reasons as formerly for desiring a continuance of their union with that kingdom. natural son of the late king. in return for their submission. and as he was much attached to the interests of his sister. as well as the people. accepted the homage of Eustace. Page 213 of 354 they had been in England. as well as of royal authority: Many of them required the right of fortifying their castles. and the inferior gentry. Wars between the nobles were carried on with the utmost fury in every quarter.Hume.

had now risen to its utmost height. another at the Devizes. he seized both that prelate and the bishop of Lincoln. having now settled with his friends the plan of an insurrection.Hume. during the reign of a prince. But Stephen was not of a disposition to submit long to these usurpations. whether. and penetrating into Yorkshire. Robert de Brus. Making pretence of a fray. retired beyond sea. he was also tempted to make his power the sole measure of his conduct. which had been annexed to the oath of fealty. The mercenary soldiers. Though the great power of the church. and thereby often encreased those both in the hands of the prince and nobles. Robert de Ferrers. who by their function seemed less intitled than the barons to such military securities. and that men were taught to pay regard to some principles and privileges. on some occasions. subsisted by depredations. Alexander. David. in ancient times. it may be doubted. sent the king a defiance. who was now sensible from experience of the mischiefs attending these multiplied citadels. and every place was filled with the best grounded complaints against the government. This success over-awed the malcontents in England. The earl of Glocester. which it was their duty to repress. employed military power against their sovereign or their neighbours. which is usually so oppressive in the feudal governments. and awaited the arrival of the enemy. The chief misfortune was. from a high crucifix. which he himself had made on his accession. and might have given some stability to Stephen’s throne. bishop of Lincoln. having exhausted the royal treasure. resolved to begin with destroying those of the clergy. had built two strong castles. one at Sherborne. c http://oll. Page 214 of 354 with their neighbours. who might otherwise have been inclined to join him. it was not rather advantageous that some limits were set to the power of the sword. as well as the ancient privileges of his subjects. appeared at the head of an army in defence of his niece’s title. The aristocratical power. in imitation of the nobility. and had laid the foundations of a third at Malmesbury: His nephew. to which he himself had been beholden for his sovereignty. sworn by that nobleman. that the prelates. A great battle was here fought.. and upbraided him with the breach of those conditions. had usurped the throne without the pretence of a title. The king of Scots was defeated. and he himself. and to violate all those concessions. powerful barons in those parts. narrowly escaped falling into the hands of the English..libertyfund. Roger Moubray. without making some effort for the recovery of royal authority. who commonly were also their enemies and rivals. The fury of his massacres and ravages enraged the northern nobility. The bishop of Salisbury.html 4/7/2004 . committed the most barbarous devastations on that country. 22d August. and interrupted the course of the laws. Ilbert Lacy. which had arisen in court between the retinue of the bishop of Salisbury and that of the earl of Britanny. William Piercy. threw them into prison. acted entirely as barons. who. with which they encamped at North-Allerton. as well as his son Henry. solemnly renounced his allegiance. king of Scotland. 1139. weakened the authority of the crown. who were at that time an overmatch for any monarch. in ages of such violence and outrage. and William earl of Albemarle. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . who chiefly supported his authority. though endowed with vigour and abilities. b 1138. called the battle of the Standard. erected by the English on a waggon. Finding that the legal prerogatives of the crown were resisted and abridged. had erected a fortress at Newark: And Stephen. and carried along with the army as a military ensign. assembled an army. had he not been so elated with prosperity as to engage in a controversy with the clergy. and obliged them by menaces to deliver up those places of strength which they had lately a 1137. War with Scotland. Walter l’Espec. and who was necessitated to tolerate in others the same violence.

Geoffrey Talbot. thence to Glocester. and many other barons. frustrated their rapacity of its purpose. e The synod ventured to send a summons to the king. who had embraced her cause. being armed with a legantine commission. It suffices to say. and had not awaited the sentence of a spiritual court. Soon after. William Fitz-John. carried on their devastations with redoubled fury. affairs had instantly come to extremity between the crown and the mitre. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . could afford neither instruction nor entertainment to the reader. to ease her of her fears.libertyfund. after they had pillaged them of everything valuable. and Matilda. Ralph Lovel. De Vere accused the two prelates of treason and sedition. and even on the cities. and the property and persons f g h 22d Sept. and secretly encouraged by the legate himself. it would be easy to swell our accounts of this reign into a large volume: But those incidents. the queen-dowager. if their conduct had any wise merited censure or punishment. earl of Sussex. in order to make them reveal their and so confused both in time and place. sent Aubrey de Vere to plead his cause before that assembly. The bishop of Salisbury declared. leading them to commit wanton destruction. committed spoil on the open country. landed in England. in a great measure. seemed every day to gain ground upon that of her antagonist.. encreased the discontents among the people. whose gates were opened to her by Adelais. he pretended. and Stephen. sallying forth day and night. who had already shaken off. invited by the opportunity. and a retinue of a hundred and forty knights. having now obtained the pretence of a public cause. He assembled a synod at Westminster. of which they had been dispossessed. charging him to appear before them. and even shown a disposition of executing violence by the hands of the soldiery. and set fire to their houses. put the captives to torture. and to justify his measures. now conceived himself to be an ecclesiastical sovereign no less powerful than the civil. who had employed violence against the dignitaries of the church. were previously restored to them. Paganell. Page 215 of 354 erected. the Empress. The fierceness of their disposition. While this quarrel. the restraint of government. that the war was spread into every quarter. Were we to relate all the military events transmitted to us by contemporary and authentic historians. The castles of the nobility were become receptacles of licensed robbers. they could lawfully be tried and condemned. instead of resenting this indignity. and set no bounds to their oppressions over the people. William Fitz-Alan. on the villages. or examine their conduct. and she excited by messengers her partizans to take arms in every county of England. and there complained of the impiety of Stephen’s measures. became apprehensive of danger. Adelais. a gallant nobleman in those parts. which. and had not Stephen and his partizans employed menaces. which was generally favoured in the kingdom. till those castles. he affirmed. by which alone. that he would appeal to the pope. and her party. William Mohun. sold their persons to slavery. declared for her. 30th Aug. but the synod refused to try the cause. he resolved to vindicate the clerical privileges. who. Insurrection in favour of Matilda. and forgetting the ties of blood which connected him with the king. were here openly violated. She fixed her residence at Arundel castle. who had expected that her daughter-in-law would have invaded the kingdom with a much greater force. now married to William de Albini. exercised implacable vengeance on each other. which belonged to her brother Robert.. so little memorable in themselves.Hume. the king’s brother. and that those turbulent barons. where she remained under the protection of Milo. d Henry.html 4/7/2004 . joined to so many other grievances. bishop of Winchester. removed first to Bristol. with Robert earl of Glocester. http://oll.

soon after came also to court. became guarantees for her observing these engagements. Milo of Glocester. seemed necessarily to require. which seemed to promise some end of the public calamities. The legate. and that her title to the throne should there be acknowledged. but the citizens. After a violent shock. the instruments of husbandry were destroyed or abandoned. the natural result of those disorders. was at last. if he would acknowledge her for sovereign. k l m Matilda crowned. William de Roumara. she was content. addressing himself to the assembly. from necessity. to the most extreme want and indigence. unless she could gain the confidence of the clergy. and showed his intentions to have rather aimed at humbling his brother. she employed every endeavour to fix him in her interests. that. who were better affected to Stephen. generally so much was soon after. but that still burdened with the express condition. that prince laid close siege to the castle. The land was left untilled. told them. in the presence of many bishops and abbots. and instead of assembling the states of the kingdom. thrown into prison. Earl Robert. 2d Feb. She held a conference with him in an open plain near Winchester. on some suspicion. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . that she was not secure of success. and taken prisoner. which had laid waste the rest of the kingdom. He then conducted her to Winchester. which never interrupted these destructive hostilities. and as the conduct of the legate had been of late very ambiguous. dispose of all vacant bishoprics and abbies. informed of his approach. that the legate should summon an ecclesiastical synod. Brian Fitz-Count. was willing to receive the crown from their hands. surrounded by the enemy. Ralph. and Stephen himself. and would again submit to the allegiance. Stephen’s party was entirely broken by the captivity of their leader. would recognize her title as the sole descendant of the late king. having invited him to their aid. 1140. borne down by numbers. The princess. and swore allegiance to the empress.. partizans of Matilda.Hume. and reduced the spoilers. and loaded with irons. and did homage to Matilda. had sworn to her. where she promised upon oath. the measure which the constitution. Theobald. and though at first treated with humanity. he should in return be entire master of the administration and in particular should. had surprised the castle of Lincoln. After several fruitless negociations and treaties of peace. He was conducted to Glocester. than totally ruining him. earl of Chester.libertyfund. archbishop of Canterbury. and other great men. knew. and his half brother. took the field with a resolution of giving him battle. as well as the defenceless people. and a grievous famine. 1141. exposed to the same outrage. that. that she might farther ensure the attachment of the clergy. and with great solemnity. granted absolution to such as were obedient to her. had it been either fixed or regarded. in the absence of http://oll. and the prelate was at last induced to promise her allegiance.html 4/7/2004 . amidst all her prosperity. either by assault or by famine. the two wings of the royalists were put to flight. and Stephen. and excommunicated such as were rebellious. as well as the rest of the kingdom. and the barons came in daily from all quarters. which he. poured out blessings on those who blessed her. were at last. Matilda.. after exerting great efforts of valour. at his pleasure. however. in hopes of soon rendering himself master of the place. Page 216 of 354 even of the ecclesiastics. denounced curses against all those who cursed her. there happened at last an event. affected equally both parties. her brother. that she should on her part fulfil her promises. Stephen taken prisoner. led her in procession to the cathedral. The earl of Glocester hastened with an army to the relief of his friends.

But having assembled all his retainers. which decided the fate of the crown. and its attachment to Stephen. had formerly summoned the king before a council of bishops. had retired. seconded by many of the nobility. and knew not how to temper with affability the harshness of a refusal. or seemed to give. of honouring and exalting the church. desirous to save appearances. The whole assembly. and who had treated holy church with contumely. to take part with those barons.000 combatants. was of a passionate. had rather offended him by that expedient: That. his brother. on this condition. their late sovereign. and they said. had seduced them by many fair promises. might inherit Boulogne and the other patrimonial estates of his father: The Londoners applied for the establishment of king Edward’s laws. All these petitions were rejected in the most haughty and peremptory manner.Hume. n The only laymen summoned to this council. were not so passive: They insisted. not to give their opinion. that prince Eustace. were grievous and oppressive. and the object of his affections. must be regarded as subordinate to those of their heavenly father. public peace was interrupted. but were told by the legate. abbies were put to sale. She fled to Oxford: Soon after she went to Winchester. Stephen’s queen. and secretly instigated the Londoners to a revolt. which. that. besides the disadvantages of her sex. and having invoked the divine assistance. crimes were daily committed with impunity. that their king should be delivered from prison. in order to procure a redress of these grievances. and thrown him into the hands of his enemies: That it principally belonged to the clergy to elect and ordain kings. gave. he had summoned them together for that purpose. and watching the opportunity to ruin her cause. that that city could at this time bring into the field no less than 80. which weakened her influence over a turbulent and martial people. A conspiracy was entered into to seize the person of the empress. but instead of inducing him to amend his conduct. petitioned for the liberty of her husband. that it became not the Londoners. by their acclamations or silence. previously to his ascending the throne. The legate desired. how much soever misguided. The princess. the only descendant of Henry.html 4/7/2004 . however. who had not yet evacuated the kingdom. Page 217 of 354 the empress. and her authority. being hard pressed by famine. a contemporary author. but his interests. who were regarded as noblemen in England. Stephen. bishops were thrown into prison and forced to surrender their possessions. that prince was still his brother. o p London. who had now rejected him. It is with reason that the citizens of London assumed so much authority. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and the most enormous disorders prevailed in the administration: That he himself. had been permitted to reign. but to submit to the decrees of the synod. who had basely forsaken their lord in battle. and retire into a convent. he openly joined his force to that of the Londoners. he should renounce the crown. churches were pillaged. however. of maintaining the laws. seemed to be established over the whole kingdom: But affairs remained not long in this situation. his nephew. instead of those of king Henry. and to Stephen’s mercenary troops. was at length obliged to submit to Matilda. what is related by Fitz-Stephen. whither the legate. and even these were required. The legate. q r http://oll.libertyfund. notwithstanding its great power.. That princess. The deputies of London. queen of England. he now pronounced Matilda. availed himself of the ill-humour excited by this imperious conduct. if it be true. by the prudent conduct of earl Robert. who had probably never been sincere in his compliance with Matilda’s government. and.. were the Londoners. and he besieged Matilda in Winchester. imperious spirit. and of reforming all abuses: That it grieved him to observe how much that prince had in every particular been wanting to his engagements. and she saved herself from the danger by a precipitate retreat. their assent to this declaration.

The death of her brother. which checked the course of Stephen’s prosperity. was now preached by St. and the empress. a ceremony which every gentleman in that age passed through before he was admitted to the use of arms. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . after former disappointments and misfortunes. 1146. and were little less dangerous than those which remained in the hands of the enemy. Henry. That pontiff also. finding no opportunity to exert their military ardor at home. Stephen took Oxford after a long siege: He was defeated by earl Robert at Wilton: And the empress.libertyfund. This prince. This expedient. though a subject. earl Robert. and which was even deemed requisite for the greatest princes. at last retired into Normandy. yet being harassed with a variety of good and bad fortune. refused them permission to attend. finding that the castles built by the noblemen of his own party encouraged the spirit of independance. archbishop of Canterbury. would have proved fatal to her interests. fell into the hands of the enemy. But an event soon after happened. This nobleman.. nominated five English bishops to represent that church. whither she had sent her son some time before. were augmented by a comparison with Matilda’s party. as had been usual. Eugenius III. which was conferred on Theobald. benefits of the sacred ordinances. Stephen released. who. went over to Normandy. who had reached his sixteenth year. sensible of his advantage in contending with a prince who reigned by a disputed title. Roger de Moubray. but in the flight. had mounted the papal throne. by making proper submissions to the see of Rome. which. The weakness of both sides. and others. and he persuaded Geoffrey to allow his eldest son. had not some incidents occurred. having produced a tacit cessation of arms in England. William de Warenne. sensible of his merit and importance. and alarmed with continual dangers to her person and family. The discontents of the royalists at being thrown into this situation. a young prince of great hopes. Stephen. had submitted to the earl of Anjou. consented to exchange the prisoners on equal terms. was desirous of receiving the honour of knighthood. Prince Henry. which happened nearly about the same time. The artillery also of the church. Continuation of the civil wars. and Stephen was at last obliged. after some interval. He w http://oll. during Stephen’s captivity. having summoned a general council at Rheims in Champagne. Earl Robert. was jealous of the rights of his crown. as Stephen was of the other. and appear at the head of his partizans. and the pope. endeavoured to extort from them a surrender of those fortresses. finding the successes on both sides nearly balanced.Hume. her brother. notwithstanding his present difficulties. The civil war was again kindled with greater fury than ever. instead of allowing the church of England. produced nothing decisive. joined the other party. had. Barnard. inlisted themselves in a new rather than any decrease of mutual animosity. who enjoyed all the 1147. was as much the life and soul of his own party. took revenge by laying all Stephen’s party under an interdict. and he alienated the affections of many of them by this equitable demand.. the enemy and rival of the former legate. which with surprising success. s t u 1148. to elect its own deputies. however. 1143. to take a journey into England. which his brother had brought over to his side. which threatened a revival of hostilities in England. though of a masculine spirit. the bishop of Winchester was deprived of the legantine commission. Page 218 of 354 made her escape. many of the nobility. to remove the reproach from his party. and required their attendance in the council.html 4/7/2004 . 1142.

during the course of the treaty. to have promoted the happiness and prosperity of his subjects.html 4/7/2004 . which brought him a great accession of power. by Matilda’s consent. procured a divorce from her. succeed to the kingdom. and made his escape beyond sea. Death if the king. and the prospect of his rising fortune. activity. on Stephen’s demise. he proceeded thence to throw succours into Wallingford. had been married sixteen years to Lewis VII. October 25. made incursions into England. Young Henry. and restored her those rich provinces. Stephen’s son. England suffered great miseries during the reign of this prince: But his personal character. that justice should be administered in his name. A decisive action was every day expected. the daughter and heir of William. and gave symptoms of those great qualities. 1153. Compromise between the king and prince Henry.Hume. made successful courtship to that princess. and earl of Poictou. and by his dexterity and vigour in all manly exercises. Soon after his return to Normandy. terrified at the prospect of farther bloodshed and confusion. and had attended him in a crusade. allowing for the temerity and injustice of his usurpation. facilitated its conclusion: An accommodation was settled. when the great men of both sides.. which the king had advanced with a superior army to besiege. neither discouraged by the inequality of years. more delicate than politic. he was. made an invasion on England: Having gained some advantage over Stephen at Malmesbury. which that monarch conducted against the infidels: But having there lost the affections of her husband. and. Geoffrey. and having taken that place. After all the barons had sworn to the observance of this treaty. Eleanor. 1152. 1150. and rendered him extremely formidable to his rival. and that this latter prince should. to Boulogne and his patrimonial estate. and the death of Stephen. He remained some time with the king of Scotland. and for that purpose he passed through England with a great retinue. nor by the reports of Eleanor’s gallantries. http://oll. desirous to ensure the crown to his son Eustace. and upon the death of his father. The lustre which he received from this acquisition. and was attended by the most considerable of his partizans. Lewis.libertyfund. prevented all those quarrels and jealousies. he rouzed the hopes of his party. and William. as to the heir of the crown. king of France. which by her marriage she had annexed to the crown of The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . by which it was agreed. that prince evacuated the kingdom. got possession of all her dominions as her dowry. and even fallen under some suspicion of gallantry with a handsome Saracen. and he seems to have been well qualified. 1154. after a short illness. appears not liable to any great exception. and done homage to Henry. he took possession both of Anjou and Maine. invested in that dutchy. Page 219 of 354 intended to receive his admission from his great-uncle. Henry. to avoid the violence and resentment of Stephen. that Stephen should possess the crown during his lifetime. informed of these dispositions in the people. required the archbishop of Canterbury to anoint that prince as his successor. the primate refused compliance. interposed with their good offices. and set on foot a negociation between the rival princes. duke of Guienne. when Stephen. even in the provinces which had submitted to Henry. and concluded a marriage. which happened in the subsequent year.. had such an effect in England. espousing her six weeks after her divorce. by his valour in war. which happened next year. The death of Eustace. which he afterwards displayed when he mounted the throne of England. which were likely to have ensued in so delicate a situation. had he succeeded by a just title. that. David king of Scotland. x He was possessed of industry. and his prudent conduct in every occurrence.

p. Paris. Malm. 928. 1023. 192. [t] M. and exercised all the powers of sovereignty. [x] W. p. p. His advancement to the throne procured him neither tranquillity nor happiness. 179. [s] Hagulstad.Hume. Paris. p. 51. p. Chron. 179. though he had for some time been in possession of the crown. [o] Brompton. p. p. he never indulged himself in the exercise of any cruelty or revenge. p. though not endowed with a sound judgment. M. The court of Rome was also permitted. p. her intestine disorders were to the last degree ruinous and destructive. 179. p. he had the talent of gaining men’s affections. 180. Gest. 180. M. 23.libertyfund. y z ENDNOTES [k] Gul. Dunst. Steph. p. Page 220 of 354 and courage. Malmes. p. [b] W. p. 1035.html 4/7/2004 . Hoveden. 180. Chron. during those civil wars. p. [a] W. [w] Ibid. Neubr. and notwithstanding his precarious situation. [y] Ibid. Paris. [l] W. and though the situation of England prevented the neighbouring states from taking any durable advantage of her confusions. to a great degree. p. p. Gul. p. p. p. 259. he was not deficient in abilities. Malm. [p] Such stress was formerly laid on the rite of coronation.. p. Diceto. 19. Malm. p. Malm. Brompton. p. 51. became now common in every ecclesiastical controversy. 179. Paris. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . 360. and appeals to the pope. 313. http://oll. 51. which had always been strictly prohibited by the English laws. Heming. [n] Matth. to make farther advances in her usurpations. 52. [u] Malmes. [m] Ibid. 372. Brompton. 482. [r] W. 179. p. 1023. till he is crowned. Malm. 487. [z] Trivet. that the monkish writers never give any prince the title of king. p.. [q] W. 505. Neub.

181.html 4/7/2004 . Gervase. This author. [w] Hagulst. 187. W. See Epist. [d] Chron. may be regarded as entirely genuine. Sax. 1355. [e] W. [r] Contin. [q] Brompton. Malmes. 185. Thorn. Thom. Malm. [s] Epist. W. which is much more likely. [t] Chron. This speech. 1807. Sax. [x] W. p. 180. 188. [k] W. p. p. proves only the great poverty of the other towns of the kingdom. p. Contin. [i] Chron. p. therefore. and says. [m] W. Malmes. Malm. But these loose calculations. p.. Sax. http://oll.Hume. Malm. deserve very little credit. p. p. [u] Epist. p. p. 226. p. and a man of sense. [p] P. [l] Chron. 53. and indeed of all the northern parts of Europe. 182. W. a judicious man. 151. p.183. 225. p. p. 188. a contemporary writer.. p. Malmes. 276.libertyfund. Wig. 677. 1031. Flor. p. [n] W. Flor. Were this account to be depended on. 182. was present. says there were then only forty thousand inhabitants in London. Malmes. 275. Malmes. p. p. Neubr. splendor and commerce of London. Malmes. 362. 676. Wig. [h] Ibid. [o] W. which is above double the number it contained at the death of queen Elizabeth. p. p. 238. St. p. Page 221 of 354 [c] Gul. [f] W. Thom. St.000 inhabitants. What Fitz-Stephen says of the prodigious riches. p. Gest. M. Paris. 242. 238. London must at that time have contained near 400. p. [g] W. p. Malm. 961. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution .4. 187. Peter of Blois. that he was very attentive to what passed. or rather guesses.

the English. State of Europe. archbishop of Canterbury — Quarrel between the king and Becket — Constitutions of Clarendon — Banishment of Becket — Compromise with him — His return from banishment — His murder — Grief — and submission of the king THE EXTENSIVE CONFEDERACIES. and was more indifferent about what passed among his neighbours. and which. [z] H. and the theory of foreign politics. each for his own defence. and their ignorance of each other’s situation. in another part of Europe. Religion alone. that they prevent any violent revolutions or conquests in particular states. Page 222 of 354 [y] M. and carried on their wars and negotiations. p. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . On the decline of the Carlovingian race. that he was obliged to confine his attention chiefly to his own state and his own system of were totally unknown in ancient ages. carried abroad the views of princes. in every province of France. Hagul. not politics. while it either fixed their thoughts on the Holy Land. happily confined at home. both in civil and military affairs. Hunt.libertyfund. VIII HENRY II State of Europe — of France — First acts of Henry’s government — Disputes between the civil and ecclesiastical powers — Thomas a Becket.html 4/7/2004 . this island was as much separated from the rest of the world in politics as in situation: and except from the inroads of the Danish pirates. p. finished in one campaign and often in one battle. and who was every day assuming more authority than they were willing to allow him. 395. by which the European potentates are now at once united and set in opposition to each other. without meeting either with opposition or support from the others. within very narrow limits. and while the opposite pretensions of the pope and emperor in Italy produced a continual intercourse between Germany and that country. had neither enemies nor allies on the continent. whose conquest and defence was deemed a point of common honour and interest. and had reduced. p. the turbulent spirit and independant situation of the barons or great vassals in each state gave so much occupation to the sovereign. made it impracticable for a great number of them to combine in one project or effort: And above all. Before the conquest of England by the duke of Normandy. and obliged to provide. were little affected by the movements of remote states: The imperfect communication among the kingdoms. against the ravages of the Norman freebooters. in each kingdom. 51. to whom they had yielded the direction of ecclesiastical affairs.. taking advantage of the weakness of the sovereign. an authority almost independant. http://oll. the two great monarchs of France and England formed. formed a speculation much less complicated and involved than at present..Hume. Paris. are at least attended with this advantage. the prerogative of their princes. had assumed. State of France. Commerce had not yet bound together the most distant nations in so close a chain: Wars. 312. The accession of Hugh 1154. a separate system. though they are apt to diffuse the least spark of dissention throughout the whole. the nobles. or engaged them in intrigues with the Roman pontiff. The foreign dominions of William connected them with the king and great vassals of France.

with the other immunities of the church. the last sovereign. there were six lay peerages. which were subjected to the immediate jurisdiction and government of the king. which. Lewis the Gross. He soon after annexed Britanny to his other states. Estampes. by annexing a great fief to the crown. Auvergne. Compiegne. on each other: They were even entitled. any obnoxious baron: And though the feudal institutions which prevailed in his kingdom. and a few places. to exalt the aristocracy. and as some of them had attained the power and authority of great princes. Poictou. and afford protection to the inferior barons. which. of Normandy and Maine. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . without appeal. as of himself to levy war against the prince. though considerable for a subject. and there had not hitherto arisen any baron so powerful. The vassal was here more powerful than his liege lord: The for a time. of Puiset. at one time. but if the king attempted to turn the force of the community against any mutinous vassal. Orleans. and were much superior. in that of his wife. but this fief. at another period. it required. in the right of his father. according to its present constitution. had been granted by Charles the Simple in vassalage to that formidable ravager. or by a judicial sentence. the Limousin. While such were the different situations of France and England. which had enabled Hugh Capet http://oll. over their tenants and inferior vassals: Their common jealousy of the crown easily united them against any attempt on their exorbitant privileges. a sense of common interest alone could. as in other states. the accession of Henry II. The authority of the English monarch was much more extensive within his kingdom. without his permission. Normandy. of Anjou. muster a mighty power: Yet was it very difficult to set that great machine in movement. He was master. if they conceived themselves injured. scattered over the northern provinces: In the rest of the kingdom. Perigord. cramped extremely the general execution of justice. in extent and opulence. which formed very extensive and puissant sovereignties. it was almost impossible to preserve harmony in its parts. on the first cession of Normandy to Rollo the Dane. and Touraine.. marched. to the French monarchy. His demesnes and revenue were large. and the disproportion much greater between him and the most powerful of his vassals.. to those territories. to turn their arms against their sovereign: They exercised all civil jurisdiction. a prince of great abilities. Toulouse. on urgent occasions. well or ill founded. to his frontiers against the Germans at the head of an army of two hundred thousand men. in that of his mother. Besides six ecclesiastical peerages. if not fatal. was able. Page 223 of 354 Capet. and the latter enjoyed so many advantages above the former. of Guienne. even the smallest baron was sure of immediate and effectual protection.libertyfund. Burgundy. had brought some addition to the royal dignity. and sufficient to break entirely the balance between the states. Angoumois. of Couci. a great combination of the vassals to oppose their sovereign lord.Hume. the prince’s authority was rather nominal than real: The vassals were accustomed. possessed of so many rich provinces on the continent. compared to the greatness of his state: He was accustomed to levy arbitrary exactions on his subjects: His courts of judicature extended their jurisdiction into every part of the kingdom: He could crush by his power. might appear an event dangerous.html 4/7/2004 . in England. and Champagne. The royal demesnes consisted only of Paris. And though the combination of all those princes and barons could. and was already possessed of the superiority over that province. had the same tendency. Guienne. and depress the monarchy. to set that prince at defiance. but a petty lord of Corbeil. unite them under their sovereign against a common enemy. Flanders. and to maintain open war against him. appeared a narrow basis of power for a prince who was placed at the head of so great a community. nay entitled to make war. the same sense of common interest made the others oppose themselves to the success of his pretensions. These provinces composed above a third of the whole French monarchy. Xaintonge.

or preventing the performance of those stipulations. and being engaged in the siege of a castle on the frontiers of Normandy. First acts http://oll. than to subdue a duke of Normandy or Guienne. who lived in their neighbourhood. and these different members. and any disorder in any part of his dispersed dominions gave advantages against him. disjoined in situation. But as these important consequences could not be foreseen by human wisdom. and had endeavoured to support the tottering fortunes of that bold usurper. the son of Stephen.. which they at present enjoy. And after reducing such extensive territories. he had ever maintained a strict union with Stephen. By this means. it was too late to think of opposing the succession of Henry. But in reality. Maine. during the course of so many years. a b 8th Decem. by excluding the lawful heir from the succession of their monarchy. who swore with pleasure the oath of fealty and allegiance to him. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . or Poictou. The first act of Henry’s government corresponded to the high idea 1155. which immediately incorporated with the body of the monarchy. they never entertained the least thoughts of resisting them. a count of Anjou. by its consequences. with the unanimous consent of the nation he had made with his predecessor. He was always at hand to invade them. harassed with civil wars. which were subjected to his government. the whole nation had had occasion to see the noble qualities with which he was endowed. Page 224 of 354 to depose the Carlovingian princes. both from his distant place of residence and from the incompatibility of interests. and his subjects on the continent considered their allegiance as more naturally due to their superior lord. and to compare them with the mean talents of William. was in no hurry to arrive in England. were never thoroughly cemented into one monarchy. the king of France found it more easy to conquer those numerous provinces from England. seemed to be renewed. and that with much greater advantages on the side of the vassal: And when England was added to so many provinces. had attended them. he found greater facility in uniting to the crown the other great fiefs. and were rather pleased to see the accession of so many foreign dominions to the crown of England. which still remained separate and independant. from this conjuncture. and disagreeing in laws. exalted them to that pitch of grandeur. The English. But after this prince’s death. till he had brought it to an issue. some great disaster to himself and to his family. when he received intelligence of Stephen’s death. which appeared so formidable. which would have arisen from the oppression of a covassal. and disgusted with the bloodshed and depredations. it was this circumstance. were little disposed to violate their oaths. The limited authority of the prince in the feudal constitutions prevented the king of England from employing with advantage the force of so many Henry himself. the French king had reason to apprehend. and were not affected with that jealousy. the king of France remarked with terror the rising grandeur of the house of Anjou or Plantagenet. he made it a point of honour not to depart from his enterprize.. who was of the same rank with themselves. language. and in order to retard its progress. The other powerful vassals of the French crown were rather pleased to see the expulsion of the English. and manners. and. Many of the most considerable fortresses were in the hands of his partizans. a kind of foreigner to his French dominions.html 4/7/2004 . He then set out on his journey. and as they were acquainted with his great power. He soon became. sensible of the advantages attending his present situation. their immediate lord was often at too great a distance to protect them. that saved the Capetian race. and who was acknowledged to be the supreme head of their nation. and was received in England with the acclamations of all orders of men.libertyfund.Hume. which. which.

Lest Lewis. them an accommodation with England. He was rigorous in the execution of justice. He revoked all the grants made by his predecessor. he took possession of the disputed territory. an annual pension of a thousand pounds. and he sent them abroad. the French king. and he went over to support his pretensions by force of arms. heir to the English monarchy. that an alliance was contracted between them. and had got possession of a On the king’s appearance. during his absence. and Roger. he caused all the new erected castles to be demolished. had advanced some pretensions to those provinces. and that he might restore authority to the laws. and he took proper measures against the return of a like abuse. and immediately on Geoffrey’s death. the hereditary standard-bearer. which had proved so many sanctuaries to freebooters and rebels. was put to rout: Henry de Essex. and led on his troops with great gallantry. and even brought him into danger. His vanguard. made no opposition to a measure so necessary for supporting the dignity of the crown. of which the kingdom had so long been bereaved. even the most frivolous. their leader. the friend and confident of Stephen. their prince. and in the suppression of robbery and violence. was vanquished in single combat. should be affianced to http://oll. to which of right it belonged. Geoffrey. had made an incursion into Anjou and Maine. which had been extremely debased during the reign of his predecessor. departed and took possession of the county of Nantz. where the natural fastnesses of the country occasioned him great difficulties.html 4/7/2004 . seized with a panic. Henry went abroad in order to oppose the attempts of his brother Geoffrey. and he himself was thrust into a convent. the son of Milo of Glocester. the consequences might have proved fatal to the whole Page 225 of 354 entertained of his abilities. Henry paid him a visit.libertyfund. which the inhabitants. occasion. people returned to their allegiance.. resigning his claim for d e f NOTE [N] 1157. duke or earl of Britanny (for these titles are given indifferently by historians to those princes) pretended that Nantz had been lately separated by rebellion from his principality. his estate was confiscated. the command to their generals. c together with William of Ypres. threw down the standard. should interpose in the controversy. and they agreed. took to flight. who. and prognosticated the re-establishment of justice and tranquillity. who had expelled count Hoei. and their feeble authority made it commonly impracticable for them to delegate.Hume. and that princess. and Geoffrey. than the voluntary submission or election of the inhabitants two years before. Every thing being restored to full tranquillity in England. and so allured him by caresses and civilities. of Henry’s government. the king’s brother. on 1158. being engaged in a narrow pass. The earl of Albemarle. were inclined to make some resistance to this salutary measure. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . that young Henry. had put into his hands. died soon after he had acquired possession of Nantz: Though he had no other title to that county. g h The submissions of the Welsh procured The martial disposition of the princes in that age engaged them to head their own armies in every enterprize. who had resigned her rights in favour of Henry. who had committed great disorders in the nation. Henry returned to England the following year: The incursions of the Welsh then provoked him to make an invasion upon them. but the approach of the king with his forces soon obliged them to submit. He immediately dismissed all those mercenary soldiers. Henry laid claim to the territory as devolved to him by hereditary right. even those which necessity had extorted from the empress Matilda. the considerable part of them. and exclaimed that the king was slain: And had not the prince immediately appeared in person. For this misbehaviour. Essex was afterwards accused of felony by Robert de Montfort. Conan.. Hugh Mortimer. He repaired the coin.

sensible of these inconveniencies. harassed with the turbulent disposition of his subjects. was the only issue of William IV. they were put to great expence. therefore. Assisted by Berenger. was still more advantageous to his English vassals. levied upon his vassals in Normandy and other provinces. and Henry. mother of Queen Eleanor. and because the commands were not given either by the choice of the sovereign or from the military capacity and experience of the officers. to Geoffrey. he now determined to defend. i * the military tenants willingly submitted. and other places. he levied an army which was more under his command. The king had a prospect of making still farther acquisitions.libertyfund. Conan. had asserted the justice of her claim. and annexed it for the present to his other great dominions. and the activity of his temper suffered no opportunity of that kind to escape him. count of Toulouse. grandson of Raymond de St. was commonly very intractable and undisciplined. the king’s third son. yet an infant. and he betrothed his daughter and only child.000 pounds on the knight’s fees. desirous of preserving the succession in the male-line. and whose service was more durable and constant. The duke of Britanny died about seven years after. and the first perhaps to be met with in history. Page 226 of 354 Margaret of France. which he had in vain asserted by arguments and manifestos. had not that prince. The able conduct of the king procured him farther and more important advantages from this incident. and this commutation. but his sentiments changing with his interest. By this means the title to the county of Toulouse came to be disputed between the male and female heirs. a sum of money in lieu of their service.html 4/7/2004 . advanced with his army into Britanny. Each baron conducted his own vassals: His rank was greater or less. was desirous of procuring to himself the support of so great a monarch. Henry.Hume. 1159. and that nothing but a formidable army could maintain a claim. advancing before the arrival of his main body. being mesne lord and also natural guardian to his son and daughter-in-law. he besieged the capital of the province. if the expedition were distant. conveyed the principality to his brother. whom he had gained to his party. Henry found. by his power and authority. by reason of the great distance. the title of Raymond. threw himself into the place with a small NOTE [O] http://oll. and on Henry’s reviving his wife’s claim. a commutation. put himself in possession of that principality. and had demanded possession of Toulouse. An army. Gilles. in despair of being able to make resistance. though it was unusual. this prince had recourse for protection to the king of France. proportioned to the extent of his property: Even the supreme command under the prince was often attached to birth: And as the military vassals were obliged to serve only forty days at their own charge. He imposed. and would have inherited his dominions. and Trincaval. Henry. now secure of meeting with no interruption on this side. the prince reaped little benefit from their attendance. he invaded the county of Toulouse. and after taking Verdun. though the former was only five years of age. and was likely to prevail in the enterprize. who was so much concerned in policy to prevent the farther aggrandizement of the English monarch. a scutage of 180. when Lewis. Raymond. count of Barcelona. to which. when married to Eleanor. was the reigning sovereign. and the one or the other. duchess of Guienne. by a contract of sale which was in that age regarded as fictitious and illusory. though. composed of feudal vassals. the latter was still in her cradle.. and with this money. which were remote from Toulouse.. delivered up the county of Nantz to him. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . that it would be requisite to support his pretensions against potent antagonists. Philippa. Gilles. count of Nismes. both because of the independant spirit of the persons who served in it. Lewis himself. Castlenau. and Conan. Raymond de as opportunities favoured them. who was of the same tender years. had obtained possession.

o encroachments of subjects. as well as of England. and they gave him such marks of respect. had been consigned by agreement to the knights templars. though both infants. and he engaged the grand-master of the templars. ordered the marriage to be solemnized k 1160. he had shown a fixed purpose to repress clerical usurpations. He marched into Normandy to protect that province against an incursion which the count of Dreux. and that followed by a peace. and conducted him in that submissive manner into the castle. were now become so rapid. for some time. involved him in danger. but produced no memorable event: It soon ended in a cessation of arms. it may be proper to observe. banished the templars. Page 227 of 354 reinforcement. The fortress of Gisors. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . was not likely long to pay a tame submission to the l m n 1162. to take Lewis prisoner.Hume. During the schism of the papacy between Alexander and Victor.libertyfund. between the prince and princess. which. should be sovereign of the kingdom. he would not attack a place defended by him in person. and resided at that time in France. to remain neuter: And when informed. Lewis resenting this fraudulent conduct. which retained his people in subjection. bred him great disquietude. that. The king.html 4/7/2004 . and was not concluded without some loss and dishonour. as was generally suspected. to put him in possession of Gisors. though he http://oll. The aspiring spirit of Henry. had made upon it. War was now openly carried on between the two monarchs. and men. which had at first been gradual. into that abject after the celebration of the nuptials. A spectacle. the year before. he was so enraged. had it not been for the mediation and authority of pope Alexander III. which gave inquietude to all his neighbours. From the commencement of his reign. The usurpations of the clergy. that both dismounted to receive him. and would have made war upon the king of England. and it became necessary to determine whether the king or the priests. and to impose his own terms in the pacification. cries Baronius in an ecstacy. to God. that he might have a pretence for immediately demanding the place. that the contest between the regale and pontificale was really arrived at a crisis in England. and had mounted to such a height. and holding each of them one of the reins of his bridle. acknowledged Alexander as legitimate pope. who had been chaced from Rome by the anti-pope. soon after he had accommodated his differences with Lewis by the pope’s mediation. and such as had never before been exhibited to the world! Henry. and as nothing opens the eyes of men so readily as their interest. angels. where he commenced an enterprize. 1161. he declared. returned to England. his brother. That we may form an idea of the authority possessed by the Roman pontiff during those ages.. instigated by king Lewis.. but he either thought it so much his interest to maintain the feudal principles. from their own authority. though required by sound policy. being part of the dowry stipulated to Margaret of France. that the archbishop of Roüen and the bishop of Mans had. that the two kings had. and he immediately raised the siege. attended with any confidence or good correspondence between those rival princes. in this respect. which had been transmitted to him by his predecessors. particularly the archbishop of Canterbury. and to maintain those prerogatives. he was in no danger of falling. in the government of his foreign dominions. by large presents. he had determined. or bore so much respect to his superior lord. and even conducted in the main with prudence. that. Henry was urged by some of his ministers to prosecute the siege. walked on foot by his side. by which his foreign dominions were secured. Victor IV. which was not. Disputes between the civil and ecclesiastical powers. on condition that it should be delivered into Henry’s hands. however. met the pope at the castle of Torci on the Loir.

from taking any measures against the multiplied encroachments of the clergy: But after his death. that he was promoted by his patron to the archdeaconry of Canterbury. who paid court to him. he thought. he was entitled to a place in council. and as he exercised also the office of secretary of state. among other particulars. the first man of English descent.. and on his return. he soon promoted him to the dignity of chancellor. together with his merits in refusing to put the crown on the head of Eustace.. and partook of the cavalier spirit. he was recommended to that monarch as worthy of farther preferment. even though he were not particularly summoned. he was entrusted with the education of Prince Henry. large baronies that had escheated to the crown: And to complete his grandeur.libertyfund. he immediately issued orders for overthrowing the houses of the bishop of Mans. an office of considerable trust and profit. the mild character and advanced years of Theobald. that his apartments were every day in winter covered with clean straw or hay. which had tended so much to facilitate his own advancement to the throne. the sumptuousness of his furniture. in that age. Henry. during the life-time of that primate. NOTE [P] June 3. lest the gentlemen. he was enabled to travel for improvement to Italy. and the king himself frequently vouchsafed to partake of his entertainments. which. Fitz-Stephens.html 4/7/2004 . had. dean of Hastings. and was concerned in the dispatch of every business of importance. the king resolved to exert himself with more activity. who. during the course of a whole century. should soil their fine cloaths by sitting on a dirty floor. p q r s http://oll. the greatest barons were proud of being received at his table. which usually enter into the councils of princes. archbishop of Canterbury. that his spirit and abilities entitled him to any trust. who knew that Becket had been instrumental in supporting that resolution of the archbishop. that he allowed that pontiff to exercise authority over any of his dominions. and letters-patent. all baronies which escheated to the crown were under his administration. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . A great number of knights were retained in his service. corresponded to these great preferments. by reason of their great number. one of the first civil offices in the kingdom. son of Stephen. the munificence of his presents. and that he might be secure against any opposition. the luxury of his table. where he studied the civil and canon law at Bologna. By their means. The chancellor. he could entirely depend.Hume. he appeared to have made such proficiency in knowledge. writs. The pomp of his retinue. He was afterwards employed with success by Theobald in transacting business at Rome. and obtained from that prelate some preferments and offices. and archdeacon of Roüen. was already prepossessed In his favour. he was a kind of prime minister. had possession of all vacant prelacies and abbies. Becket. his amusements and occupations were gay. on farther acquaintance. and it was not till he had deliberately examined the matter. he early insinuated himself into the favour of archbishop Theobald. and in summer with green rushes or boughs. on whose compliance. the king’s eldest son. find a place at table. he advanced to that dignity Becket. Thomas a Becket. or rather exceeded any thing that England had ever before seen in any subject. archbishop of Canterbury. In England. and it belonged to him to countersign all commissions. besides the custody of the great seal. was born of reputable parents in the city of London. was made provost of Beverley. prevented Henry. and on Henry’s accession. risen to any considerable station. Page 228 of 354 spared the archbishop on account of his great age. and heir of the monarchy. As his way of life was splendid and opulent. and finding. since the Norman conquest. by the favour of the king or archbishop. his chancellor. Thomas a Becket. his house was a place of education for the sons of the chief nobility. His historian and secretary. he was the guardian of all such minors and pupils as were the king’s tenants. and being endowed both with industry and capacity. and who could not. by those views. Besides exercising this high office. and constable of the Tower: He was put in possession of the honours of Eye and Berkham.

after a vehement struggle. who. Would it not be very praise-worthy. and whenever he was disposed to relax himself by sports of any kind. Henry. drew after it very unhappy consequences. his ancient pomp and lustre. that Becket. he was and four thousand of their train. He maintained. and lined with ermine. he immediately returned into his hands the commission of chancellor. immediately issued orders for electing him archbishop of Canterbury. surely.Hume. which. and always showed a ready disposition to comply with them.. cried the king: And seizing the skirt of the chancellor’s coat. would have an equal or a greater tendency to the same end. he maintained.libertyfund. at his own charge. Then he shall have one presently. which the king bestowed on the beggar. in his retinue and attendants alone. which was useful to strike the vulgar: In his own person he affected the greatest austerity. that it was filled with dirt and vermin: His usual diet was bread. with which he was entrusted. and they had both of them like to have tumbled off their horses in the street. The chancellor defended himself for some time. his drink water. which rendered him for life the second person in the kingdom. and never prince of so great penetration. He wore sack-cloth next his skin. He employed himself at leisure hours in hunting. or rather confining within the ancient bounds. as it shows the manners of the age. they observed a beggar. and endeavoured to acquire the character of sanctity. it may not be improper to relate. which. said the king. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . he admitted his chancellor to the party. that he must thenceforth detach himself from secular affairs. gaming. which. and many of the ministers. An instance of their familiarity is mentioned by Fitz-Stephens. he astonished that court by the number and magnificence of his retinue. of which his former busy and ostentatious course of life might. as the king and the chancellor were riding together in the streets of London. to give that poor man a warm coat in this severe season? It would. twelve hundred knights. which was taken contrary to the opinion of Matilda. when Becket. and by his industry and abilities useful. by his affected care to conceal it. pretending. No sooner was Becket installed in this high dignity. had rendered himself agreeable. Without consulting the king. in the issue. and most rigid mortification. began to pull it violently. have naturally bereaved him. and you do well. with some pretensions of aspiring to be the first. he did not think unbefitting his character. and horsemanship. all ecclesiastical privileges. was not a little surprised at the present. he carried over. as primate of England. he exposed his person in several military actions. But this resolution. and in an embassy to France. than he totally altered his demeanor and conduct. being ignorant of the quality of the persons. As he was well acquainted with the king’s intentions of retrenching. by his complaisance and good-humour. which was scarlet. Henry. who never expected any resistance from that quarter. and be solely employed in the exercise of his spiritual function. hawking. to his master.. appeared to him the fittest person for supplying the vacancy made by the death of Theobald. Sir. who. was necessarily the more remarked by all the world: He changed it so seldom.html 4/7/2004 . in the eyes of the people. appeared. let go his coat. but in reality. during forty days. in thinking of such good actions. besides committing all his more important business to Becket’s management. who was shivering with cold. was now become entirely a new personage. and apprise him. One day. honoured him with his friendship and intimacy. seven hundred knights to attend the king in his wars at Toulouse. which he even rendered farther unpalatable by the mixture of unsavoury herbs: He tore his back with the frequent y z a http://oll. that he might break off all connexions with Henry. t u w x Becket. to have so little understood the genius and character of his minister. Page 229 of 354 as he had only taken deacon’s orders. replied the chancellor. in the subsequent wars on the frontiers of Normandy.

by a messenger. Henry. The union of the civil and ecclesiastical power serves extremely. ever since the conquest. He summoned the earl of Clare to surrender the barony of Tunbridge. as it had formerly belonged to the see of Canterbury. one Laurence to that living. and returned full of panegyrics on the humility. b 1163. if the present favourable opportunity were neglected. had been formed by that prince: He was himself the aggressor. had remained in the family of that nobleman. without regard to William’s right. who made profession of sanctity. presented. who was a celebrated beauty. c William de Eynsford. his resolution of maintaining with vigour the rights. he knew. be subjected to that terrible sentence. Quarrel between the king and Becket. and mental recollection. and endeavoured to overawe the king by the intrepidity and boldness of his enterprizes.html 4/7/2004 . Becket pretended his predecessors were prohibited by the canons to alienate. He was entirely master of his extensive dominions: The prudence and vigour of his administration. besides the lustre which he derived from the greatness of his own birth. or in perusing religious discourses: His aspect wore the appearance of seriousness. contrary to the practice established by the Conqueror. but Becket. Page 230 of 354 discipline which he inflicted on it: He daily on his knees washed. sent him. that Becket. real or pretended. was induced to comply with the royal mandate. both judge and party. which belonged to a manor that held of the archbishop of Canterbury. without the previous consent of the sovereign. had farther extended his credit among the nobility. who held in capite of the crown. who was violently expelled by Eynsford. though he found himself thus grievously mistaken in the character of the person whom he had promoted to the primacy. was allied to all the principal families in the kingdom. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and Becket could not better discover. Henry. and maintained ever since by his successors. The primate. to d e f http://oll. issued in a summary manner. whom he afterwards dismissed with presents: He gained the affections of the monks by his frequent charities to the convents and hospitals: Every one. had raised his character above that of any of his predecessors: The papacy seemed to be weakened by a schism. in every civilized government. and that the ambition and ostentation of his character had turned itself towards a new and more dangerous object. The earl of Clare. should. which. and secret devotion: And all men of penetration plainly saw. of his see. that he. that. and the extent of his possessions. was admitted to his conversation. the crown must. from the prevalent superstition of the people. making himself. which divided all Europe: And he rightly judged. was patron of a living. be in danger of falling into an entire subordination under the mitre. attended with perpetual success.. though with the worst grace imaginable. Becket waited not till Henry should commence those projects against the ecclesiastical power. as well as on the piety and mortification. but received for answer.Hume. but which. that it belonged not to the king to inform him whom he should absolve and whom excommunicate: And it was not till after many remonstrances and menaces. who complained to the king. on a new and illegal pretext. than by attacking so powerful an interest. determined not to desist from his former intention of retrenching clerical usurpations. the sentence of excommunication against Eynsford. the feet of thirteen beggars. and was even supposed to have gained the king’s affections.. in imitation of Christ. which. a military tenant of the crown. as was usual in spiritual courts. his orders to absolve who had now broken off all personal intercourse with Becket. his sister. of the holy primate: He seemed to be perpetually employed in reciting prayers and pious lectures. that he was meditating some great design.

is not material: The superior weight. rapes. immediately after he was degraded. the state. The ecclesiastics. which temporal interests commonly bear in the apprehensions of men above spiritual. and it behoves the prince. Page 231 of 354 the maintenance of peace and order. for the future. Henry required. that. and it was natural to expect some extraordinary event to result from their conflict. both for his own interest. who unites these powers. the clergy had inculcated the necessity of pennance as an atonement for sin: and having again introduced the practice of paying them large sums as a commutation. had renounced all immediate subordination to the magistrate: They openly pretended to an exemption. to provide.libertyfund. and receive condign punishment from the magistrate. in criminal accusations. and in time prevents those gross impostures and bigotted persecutions. the sins of the people. for instance. in that age. and to require that the clerk should be delivered up. on enquiry. But during the progress of ecclesiastical usurpations. and affairs at last seemed to have come to a dangerous crisis: A sovereign of the greatest abilities was now on the throne: A prelate of the most inflexible and intrepid character was possessed of the primacy: The contending powers appeared to be armed with their full force. Among their other inventions to obtain money. and for the same offence. and the general indignation against this crime moved the king to attempt the remedy of an abuse which was become so palpable. murders. are often attended with the most dangerous consequences. resolved to push the clergy with regard to all their privileges. and holy orders were become a full protection for all enormities. were daily committed with impunity by the ecclesiastics. had. in time sufficient barriers against so dangerous and insidious a rival. renders the civil part of his character most prevalent. proceeded to murder the father. and to determine at once those http://oll. they levied more money upon his subjects. which they had raised to an enormous height. That he might ease the people of so heavy and arbitrary an imposition. which. that. confined the criminal in the bishop’s prison. and prevents those mutual incroachments.html 4/7/2004 .. laying hold of so plausible a pretence. is naturally thrown into convulsions. that it was iniquitous to try a man twice upon the same accusation. which. by these means. as there can be no ultimate judge between that no less than a hundred murders had. by the resistance of the civil magistrate.. lest he should be seized by the king’s officers.Hume. robberies. for the remission of those pennances. It had been found. Becket insisted on the privileges of the church. the primate asserted. than flowed. and were gradually introducing a like exemption in civil causes: Spiritual penalties alone could be inflicted on their offences: And as the clergy had extremely multiplied in England. had become a revenue to the priests. and for that of the public. maintained that no greater punishment could be inflicted on him than degradation: And when the king demanded. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . by all the funds and taxes. at this time. This precaution had hitherto been much neglected in England. receives the appellation of prince or prelate. crimes of the deepest dye. by this invention alone. Whether the supreme magistrate. adulteries. or species of atonement. who had never been called to account for these offences. since the king’s accession. g h i k Henry. as well as in other catholic countries. from a trial before courts of justice. A clerk in Worcestershire. having debauched a gentleman’s daughter. give his consent to every composition which was made with sinners for their spiritual offences. and many of them were consequently of very low characters. into the royal exchequer. are the chief foundation of clerical authority. been perpetrated by men of that profession. and should. that a civil officer of his appointment should be present in all ecclesiastical courts. he should be tried by the civil power. in all false religions. and the king computed.

Page 232 of 354 controversies. and could plead antiquity. to define expressly those customs. and expected still farther effects of his resentment. accused of any crime. After a gradual and insensible progress during many centuries. l m But Henry was not content with a declaration in these general terms: He resolved. with visible marks of his displeasure: He required the primate instantly to surrender the honours and castles of Eye and Berkham: The bishops were terrified. and for this purpose. and was provoked to the highest indignation. 25th Jan. that he may compel him by the civil 1164. Becket alone was inflexible. saving their own order: A device. were voted without opposition by this assembly. except with the king’s consent: That all appeals in spiritual causes should be carried from the archdeacon to the bishop. It was enacted. could have prevailed on him to retract the saving clause. and he put to them this concise and decisive question. Philip. and several ecclesiastical councils. who dreaded a breach with so powerful a prince at so unseasonable a juncture.Hume. to whom he submitted this great and important question. by which they thought to elude the present urgency of the king’s demand. as they already did a sacred authority. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . Whether or not they were willing to submit to the ancient laws and customs of the kingdom? The bishops unanimously replied. commonly called the Constitutions of Clarendon. be consulted. he summoned a general council of the nobility and prelates at Clarendon. from the bishop to the primate. n http://oll. before they were fully consolidated. between the civil and the ecclesiastical jurisdictions. He summoned an assembly of all the prelates of England. and should be carried no farther without the king’s consent: That if any law-suit arose between a layman and a clergyman concerning a tenant. The barons were all gained to the king’s party. which gave such general offence. the mask had at last been taken off. The claims of the church were open and visible. from him to the king. should depart the kingdom without the king’s licence: That excommunicated persons should not be bound to give security for continuing in their present place of abode: That laics should not be accused in spiritual courts. the power of resuming all their pretensions. had positively defined those privileges and immunities.libertyfund. belonging to the king’s fee. in their favour. particularly no clergyman of any rank. by their canons. which daily multiplied. with which he required compliance. it should first be determined by the verdict of twelve lawful men to what class it belonged. which were pretended to be irrevocable and infallible. ere it was too late.. except by legal and reputable promoters and witnesses: That no chief tenant of the crown should be excommunicated. and appeared so dangerous to the civil magistrate. nor his lands be put under an interdict. and nothing but the interposition of the pope’s legate and almoner. should not be granted in perpetuity without his consent: That clerks. or by his superior authority: The bishops were overawed by the general combination against them: And the following laws. He left the assembly. Henry therefore deemed it necessary to define with the same precision the limits of the civil power. the cause should finally be determined in the civil courts: That no inhabitant in demesne should be excommunicated for non-appearance in a spiritual court. yet reserve to themselves. where he resides. on a favourable opportunity.html 4/7/2004 . Constitutions of Clarendon. that all suits concerning the advowson and presentation of churches should be determined in the civil courts: That the churches. The king was sensible of the artifice. and give a general and absolute promise of observing the ancient customs. and if it be found to be a lay-fee. and to put a stop to clerical usurpations. till the chief officer of the that they were willing.. should be tried in the civil courts: That no person. to oppose his legal customs to their divine ordinances. and it be disputed whether the land be a lay or an ecclesiastical fee. to determine the exact boundaries of the rival jurisdictions. either by the reasons which he urged.

and by passing so many ecclesiastical ordinances in a national and civil assembly. But as he knew. should sit in the king’s chapel till they made the new election with his consent. and rejected them. which. by reducing those ancient customs of the realm to writing. and assist at all trials. which. for the sake of peace. and who was determined to take full revenge on every one. and by collecting them in a body. expressed the deepest sorrow for his compliance. that should dare to oppose him. finding himself deserted by all the world. that the bishops. though he had owed the most important obligations to the king. annulled. condemned them in the strongest terms. and should be bound to attend the king in his great councils. Henry. Becket. to the number of sixteen. had threatened the total destruction of the civil power. p q constitutions. Richard de Hastings. who was resolutely bent on his purpose. who then resided in France. should not be protected in churches or church-yards: That the clergy should no longer pretend to the right of enforcing payment of debts contracted by oath or promise.. obstinately withheld his assent. and to put an effectual stop to the usurpations of the church. the king should employ his authority in obliging him to make such submissions. should possess the privileges and be subjected to the burthens belonging to that rank. was at last obliged to comply. There were only six articles. he fully established the superiority of the legislature above all papal decrees or spiritual canons. equally with others. that these laws were calculated to establish the independancy of England on the papacy. sent the constitutions to pope Alexander. grand prior of the templars in England. in which he represented the interest and honour of God to be so deeply concerned. if he paid any regard. he resolved. who. but should leave these law-suits. and give a promise to observe them.html 4/7/2004 . Becket. forfeited to the king. that he might hope for support in an opposition. plainly saw. if any of them throw off his allegiance to the king. when he observed. till the sentence. either of death or loss of members. abrogated. the chapter. be given against the criminal: That the revenue of vacant sees should belong to the king. without the consent of their lord. and endeavoured to engage all the other bishops in a confederacy to adhere to their common rights. not to provoke. gradually stealing on. he was willing to ratify. would take the first favourable opportunity of denying the authority. endeavoured to prevent all future dispute with regard to them. and of the royal power on the clergy. except Becket. therefore. the indignation of a great monarch. though overawed by the present combination of the crown and the barons. to the determination of the civil courts: And that the sons of villains should not be ordained clerks. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . the barons of principal authority in the kingdom. thinking that he had now finally prevailed in this great enterprize. and he took an oath to that and he promised.Hume. legally. that they should all set their seal to them. None of the prelates dared to oppose his will. either to his own safety or that of the church. and that the bishop-elect should do homage to the crown: That if any baron or tenant in capite should refuse to submit to the spiritual courts. who. At last. The king. even by his own brethren.libertyfund. and he required that pontiff’s ratification of them: But Alexander. Page 233 of 354 authority to give satisfaction to the church: That the archbishops. and other spiritual dignitaries should be regarded as barons of the realm. by a fruitless opposition. o These articles. and gained a signal victory over the ecclesiastics. which had prevailed in ecclesiastical affairs. or such of them as he pleases to summon. and without fraud or reserve. with good faith. and with many tears. He redoubled his r to observe the http://oll. entreated him. the least important. though urged by the earls of Cornwal and Leicester. threw himself on his knees before him. were calculated to prevent the chief abuses. the prelates should assist the king with their censures in reducing him: That goods. bishops.. which had enacted these constitutions. and to the ecclesiastical privileges.

he was by law entitled to some greater indulgence than usual in the rate of his fine. he said. who undoubtedly bore a secret favour to Becket. determined to prosecute Becket to the utmost. by sending four knights to excuse his absence. from the sheriff’s testimony. but on the contrary. informed of his present dispositions. the laws had affixed a very slight penalty to that offence: And that. In vain did Becket urge. in consequence of the king’s summons. Henry. The barons. He applied to the pope. ready to justify his cause against the mareschal. that he had been guilty of non-appearance. and at the same time to excuse himself. which was readily granted him. as he was an inhabitant of Kent. and indignation against such signal ingratitude. and as wanting in the fealty which he had sworn to his sovereign. being escaped being sent to prison. would appear. On the day appointed for trying the cause. This slight offence (if it even deserve the name) was represented as a grievous contempt. Notwithstanding these pleas. The king had raised Becket from a low station to the highest offices. part of the manor of 4/7/2004 . all his goods and chattels were confiscated. in the design of oppressing their primate. and to appeal thence to the king’s court for justice. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and there seems to have entered more of passion than of justice. which he deemed so criminal. bishop http://oll. had honoured him with his countenance and friendship. transported him beyond all bounds of moderation. to represent certain irregularities in John’s appeal. that he should grant the commission of legate in his dominions to the archbishop of York. where his archiepiscopal palace was seated. that his court was proceeding with the utmost regularity and justice in trying the mareschal’s cause. endeavoured twice to escape secretly from the kingdom. personally appeared at present in the great council. though he granted the commission. and to submit his conduct to their enquiry and jurisdiction: That even should it be found.. Henry. and the bishops themselves. he was condemned as guilty of a contempt of the king’s court. Page 234 of 354 austerities in order to punish himself for his criminal assent to the constitutions of Clarendon: He proportioned his discipline to the enormity of his supposed offence: And he refused to exercise any part of his archiepiscopal function. notwithstanding. which he purposed to make the instrument of his vengeance against the inflexible prelate. and he attempted to crush him.. but was as often detained by contrary winds: And Henry hastened to make him feel the effects of an obstinacy. as offering falsehoods to the court. in this violent prosecution. however. s t The primate. rage at the disappointment. who found himself still exposed to the king’s indignation.Hume. that it should not impower the legate to execute any act in prejudice of the archbishop of Canterbury: And the king. He instigated John.libertyfund. as politic as he. or even of policy. sent back the commission by the same messenger that brought it. had virtually acknowledged its authority: That he also. and when he found him become of a sudden his most rigid opponent. and regarded him as the champion of their privileges. but Alexander. for not appearing personally that day in the court. in the great council voted whatever sentence he was pleased to dictate to them. to sue Becket in the archiepiscopal court for some lands. the four knights were menaced. u NOTE [Q] w x y and that this triumph over the church might be carried to the utmost. to be entirely unjust and iniquitous: That he himself had discovered no contempt of the king’s court. and with difficulty and Henry. annexed a clause. had trusted to his assistance in forwarding his favourite project against the clergy. the primate sent four knights. which however. by means of that very power which Becket made such merit in supporting. resolved to take vengeance for this refractory behaviour. concurred with the rest. summoned at Northampton a great council. on account of sickness. while every one beside complied with his will. mareschal of the exchequer. finding how fruitless such an authority would prove. till he should receive absolution from the pope.

and promised in that case to give satisfaction. Becket. So little precision was there at that time in the government and constitution! The king was not content with this sentence. and baronies. of a sudden. after premising that he was not obliged to answer to this suit. thus pushed to the utmost. Page 235 of 354 of Winchester. during that time. for which that prince had been surety for him to a Jew. which to us appears very palpable and flagrant. from the known character of Henry. that. and had in the main been calculated for his service. but he required a delay. The primate submitted to the The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . to g h i k http://oll.libertyfund. however violent and oppressive. and we may conclude.000 marks. no demand had during that time been made upon him. which had shown a determined resolution to ruin and oppress him. that. By the advice of the bishop of Winchester he offered two thousand marks as a general satisfaction for all demands: But this offer was rejected by the king. abbies. which he had met with. it was not till the quarrel arose concerning ecclesiastical privileges. in all his subsequent remonstrances with regard to the severe treatment. with some probability. bishop of London. never sounds any objection on an irregularity. became sureties for him. because it was not contained in his summons. d e f It is apparent. that the claim was started. that he ought to submit himself entirely to the king’s mercy: But the primate. which the primate had levied upon the honours of Eye and Berkham. and to pay the balance due from the revenues of all the prelacies.html 4/7/2004 . In the subsequent meeting. after remarking. that he should answer so boundless and uncertain a claim. to trust to the sacredness of his character for protection. was. while in his possession. in such a critical emergency. as this demand was totally unexpected. It is remarkable. he preferred a third of still greater importance: He required him to give in the accounts of his administration while chancellor. he affirmed. when he promoted Becket to the see of Canterbury. the king was satisfied that his expences were not blameable.. expressed however his resolution that money should not be any ground of quarrel between him and his sovereign: He agreed to pay the sum. on good grounds. with which he had entrusted him. and another sum to the same amount. For the contemporary historian. Some prelates exhorted him to resign his see. except Folliot. been subjected to his management. in spite of his remonstrances. and the primate was. The king insisted upon sureties. he demanded of Becket the sum of three hundred pounds. who has given us a full account of these transactions. Becket observed. was impracticable. and that. even if that prelate had dissipated money beyond the income of his place.Hume. on condition of receiving an acquittal: Others were of opinion. and all the prelates. that a like practice had prevailed in many of the great councils summoned since the conquest. Two years had since elapsed. and immediately gave sureties for it. obliged. and Becket. and Becket desired leave to consult his suffragans in a case of such importance. which. that he had expended more than that sum in the repairs of those castles. who paid court to the king by this singularity. and Becket’s suffragans were extremely at a loss what counsel to give him. required to produce accounts of such intricacy and extent before a tribunal. he had z a b c lent Becket during the war at Toulouse. and of the royal palace at London. the prelate who had been so powerful in the former reign. which had. he had not come prepared to answer it. does not mention this circumstance as any wise singular. had too much courage to sink under oppression: He determined to brave all his enemies. the king demanded five hundred marks. that several Norman barons voted in this council.. and from the usual vigilance of his government. he was. Next day. Immediately after these two claims. which in the king’s estimation amounted to 44. by order of the court. to pronounce the sentence against him. well pleased with his administration in the former high office. To find sureties.

such as the king’s demand upon Becket. legally. from assisting at any such trial. for a slight offence. or giving their sanction to any sentence against him. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . which must attend any violation of those laws. in resigning the ecclesiastical privileges.. Stephen. he pretended to shake off all subordination to the civil power. sitting apart from the bishops. Page 236 of 354 involve his cause with that of God and religion. could never be relinquished by their oaths and engagements: That if he and they had erred. and he sent some of the prelates to remonstrate with him on account of such audacious behaviour. where he had previously ordered. had been abolished by the constitutions of Clarendon. the total ruin of the inflexible primate. who. which the barons. the best atonement they could now make was to retract their consent. These prelates complained to Becket. himself. but an appeal in a civil cause. to effectuate. his sword could only kill the body. and marched in that posture into the royal apartments. could kill the soul. the storm had first broken upon him. and to follow the pope’s authority. who had solemnly annulled the constitutions of Clarendon. and had absolved them from all oaths which they had taken to observe them: That a determined resolution was evidently embraced to oppress the church. must prepare the way for the abrogation of all spiritual immunities: That he strictly inhibited them who were his suffragans. with good faith and without fraud or reserve. would probably have pushed the affair to the utmost extremity against him. was a practice altogether new and unprecedented. being connected with the cause of God and his church. the passage appointed for the martyrdom of St. but in these words was virtually implied a salvo for the rights of their order. and said mass. even in ecclesiastical causes. by his ruin.html 4/7/2004 . The king. he put himself and his see under the protection of the supreme pontiff. by subscribing. but Becket gave him no leisure to conduct the prosecution. and to stand the utmost efforts of royal indignation. when it was too late. except from the determined resolution. and could receive no colour of excuse. he had been tyrannically condemned to a grievous penalty. The king. who was in an inner having now obtained a pretext so much more plausible for his violence. Becket replied. and appealed to him against any penalty. to the constitutions of Clarendon. that he had indeed subscribed the constitutions of Clarendon. that the introit to the communion service should begin with these words. After a few days. a new and unheard-of claim was since started. and joined to some sheriffs and barons of the second rank. which his iniquitous judges might think proper to inflict upon him: And that however terrible the indignation of so great a monarch as Henry. Becket went to church. that. which. he had seduced them to imitate his example. tended directly to the subversion of the government. which was but too apparent. by which the primate seemed to menace him and his court with the sentence of excommunication.libertyfund. that he was the destined victim. in which he could expect no justice. and that now. but under colour of law. whom the primate thereby tacitly pretended to resemble in his sufferings for the sake of righteousness. and which too was falsely imputed to him. in Henry and the great council. He refused so much as to hear the sentence.Hume. had given upon the king’s claim: He departed from the palace. without justice. He went thence to court arrayed in his sacred vestments: As soon as he arrived within the palace-gate he took the cross into his own hands. and throw the disobedient into infinite and eternal perdition. Princes sat and spake against me. and he plainly saw. established by their consent and ratified by their subscriptions. was astonished at this parade. bore it aloft as his protection. l m n Appeals to the pope. which in such a case could never be obligatory. while that of the church. and were become criminal by law. entrusted into the hands of the primate. asked Henry’s immediate permission to leave o http://oll. spent in deliberation.. and appeared desirous of involving them in the guilt.

whither the prosperous state of his affairs now invited him. for the time. Henry. partly from remittances made him by the French monarch.. where he lived for some years in great magnificence. Page 237 of 354 Northampton. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . while Becket himself. wandered about in disguise for some time. pretended to abrogate by a bull the sentence. and his departure from all oaths and engagements. he affirmed. besides investing him anew with that dignity. which procured him countenance and protection in foreign countries. he banished all the primate’s relations and domestics. and punishable in secular clergymen. and menacing with sequestration and banishment the persons themselves. He issued orders to his justiciaries. who had come to Sens. that they would instantly join their patron. and Alexander in his turn. under severe penalties. after attempting in vain to procure a conference with the pope. in regulars by amputation of their feet. These were edicts of the utmost importance. made provisions against the consequences of that breach.libertyfund. dependant on the q and Lewis. inhibiting. jealous of the rising greatness of Henry. which might be esteemed arbitrary. lost its effect: The pope. forbidding any one to receive any mandates from them. Becket resigned into his hands the see of Canterbury. by the loss of their eyes and by castration. by the authority of the royal mandate. before their departure. when they arrived beyond sea. earl of Planders. and to make men overlook his former ingratitude towards the king. had there been at that time any regular check on royal authority. which the great council of England had passed against him. Philip. and upon meeting with a refusal. The spiritual powers. There were many other reasons. they affected to pity extremely the condition of the exiled primate. s http://oll. But this policy. which impended between his kingdom and the apostolic see. as well as the enormity of those ecclesiastical privileges. partly from a pension granted him on the revenues of that abbey. absolved them from their oath. to which. and were derived entirely from his will and pleasure. and at last took shipping and arrived safely at Gravelines.. were. or apply in any case to their authority. he had been uncanonically elected. The more to ingratiate himself with the pope. of which he affected to be the champion. The king. and the latter even honoured him with a visit at Soissons. and distributed them among the convents in France and Flanders: A residence was assigned to Becket himself in the convent of Pontigny. in a great measure. sequestered the revenues of Canterbury. in which city he had invited him to fix his residence. by which Henry endeavoured to reduce Becket sooner to necessity.Hume. all appeals to the pope or archbishop. king of r 1165. to the number of four hundred. the national religion. which. affected the lives and properties of all the subjects. The violent and unjust prosecution of Becket. as well as their had a natural tendency to turn the public favour on his side. he withdrew secretly. and in laics with death. in order to justify his cause before the sovereign pontiff. and even changed. by breaking off all communication with Rome: Yet were they enacted by the sole authority of the king. in revenge. were well pleased to give him disturbance in his government. and forgetting that this was the common cause of princes. Banishment of Becket. who should pay obedience to any such interdict: And he farther obliged all his subjects to swear to the observance of those orders. in the primitive church. whose interests were more immediately concerned in supporting him. and by a conduct.html 4/7/2004 . which Henry sent to accuse him. The pope. whom he obliged to swear. gave a cold reception to a magnificent embassy. who departed soon after for Rome. p France. was received with the greatest marks of distinction. declaring it treasonable to bring from either of them an interdict upon the kingdom.

he seemed still. and issued a censure. he discovered some intentions of acknowledging Pascal III. from the general favour borne him by the ecclesiastics.. whose authoriy he had himself attempted to abridge in this very article of appeals. as a point incontestible. z http://oll. from proceeding to extremities against him. which. In this attempt. only that the prince might avoid the blow by a timely repentance. but. the ecclesiastics. and which were still more strongly opposed by the prevailing opinions and sentiments of the age. more than by present interest. But as the ignorance of the age encouraged the ecclesiastics daily to extend their privileges. and in virtue of that authority. excommunicating the king’s chief ministers by name. who was at that time engaged in violent wars with pope Alexander. were beginning to be abolished by a contrary practice. that his cause was the cause of God: He assumed the character of champion for the patrimony of the divinity: He pretended to be the spiritual father of the king and all the people of England: He even told Henry. pushed matters to a decision. to attend him. by moderation on both sides. the controversy must soon. under pain of excommunication. and which he was for the future determined to maintain. Salisbury. and formally. he absolved all men from the oaths which they had taken to observe them. and he gave the pontiff such hopes of a speedy reconcilement between t u w x y 1166. that he might employ the weapons of temporal power remaining in his hands. he was led to re-establish customs. he made advances towards an alliance with the emperor. and he suspended the spiritual thunder over Henry himself. still more than the nature of the controversy. by a gradual progress. therefore. and by these expedients he endeavoured to terrify the enterprising. and which. had. which admitted of no appeal. in that imperfect and irregular manner which attends all human institutions. and comprehending in general all those who favoured or obeyed the constitutions of Clarendon: These constitutions he abrogated and annulled. have been decided against him. and though the limits of the two jurisdictions were difficult to ascertain or define. to be restored in two months to all their benefices. though ancient. kept affairs from remaining long in suspence between the parties. had the address to procure orders for suspending this sentence. The king. to have all the advantage in the argument. that he could employ no expedient for saving his ministers from this terrible censure. Principle.libertyfund. and even to advance maxims totally incompatible with civil government. it was not impossible. by the general defection of Henry’s subjects. Henry had thought it high time to put an end to their pretensions. The situation of Henry was so unhappy. and having recourse to a tribunal. to fix those powers which belonged to the magistrate. who had been condemned by a lay tribunal. That prelate. the present anti-pope. that kings reign solely by the authority of the church: And though he had thus torn off the veil more openly on the one side. But John of Oxford. He compared himself to Christ. government might still have been conducted. he summoned the bishops of London. though prudent pontiff. power on the other. the king’s agent with the pope. Becket. reached an equality and independance. and animated by the present glory attending his situation. Becket had obtained from the pope a legantine commission over England. and if the English had been actuated by conscience. filled all places with exclamations against the violence which he had suffered. stood on the one side.html 4/7/2004 . and others. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . instigated by revenge. Frederic Barbarossa.. but by appealing to the pope himself. But even this expedient was not likely to be long effectual. was so deeply engaged on the side of his adversary. But the violence of Becket.Hume. who was protected by that emperor. Page 238 of 354 civil. sequestered on his account. and who was crucified anew in the present oppressions under which his church laboured: He took it for granted. in order to forward this event. and he knew. suspended the payment of Peter’s pence. in a public council. than that prince had on the other.

gave great scandal both to Becket. but as both parties knew. rather than relinquish claims of such importance. in that age. he and his adherents should be restored to their possessions: And as the legates had no power to pronounce a definitive sentence on either side. that in the present situation of affairs. that Henry.libertyfund. William of Pavia and Otho. But this war was. to mitigate the pope. where the king then resided. by its situation. a b c 1168. Henry. than it was frivolous in its cause and object. and to his zealous patron. was terminated by a peace. the negotiation soon after came to nothing. Though the vigour of Henry’s government had confirmed his authority in all his dominions. might justly apprehend..html 4/7/2004 . the king had also the address to obtain a dispensation for the marriage of his third son. to some great revolution or convulsion. Geoffrey. He could not. ought to have been decided only before a court of judicature. But the pretensions of the parties were. his throne might be shaken by a sentence of excommunication. produced frequent attempts towards an accommodation. and to procure him every possible indulgence from the see of Rome. as yet. being still engaged in dangerous wars with the emperor Frederic.Hume. neither of them could expect a final and decisive victory over the other. which. that all the constitutions of Clarendon should be ratified: Becket. reasonably imagine. and they endeavoured to find expedients for that purpose. were sent to Normandy. and as the trials hitherto made of the spiritual weapons by Becket had not succeeded to his expectation. rendered the boundaries of power between the prince and his vassals. on the other hand. considering Henry’s demerits towards the church. and some insurrections among the barons of Poictou and Guienne. as usual. and every thing had remained quiet in all the king’s dominions. which he had hitherto maintained over the crown of France: An additional motive to him for accommodating those differences. in prosecution of some controversies. The pope and the king began at last to perceive. The terms of this peace were rather disadvantageous to Henry. that two legates. had there been any tribunal possessed of power to enforce their decrees. Pope Alexander. with the heiress of Britanny.. that previously to any agreement. Gratian and Vivian. on that account. for protection. that the essential articles of the dispute could not then be terminated. his French provinces at least. therefore. while he retained such a check upon him. http://oll. and if England itself could. a vassal of the dutchy of Guienne. no less feeble in its operations. and that they had more to fear than to hope from the duration of the controversy. and between one prince and another. The intricacies of the feudal law had. had invaded the territories of that nobleman. whose communication was open with the neighbouring states. would be much exposed. took care to protract the negotiation. and thereby kindled a war between the two would formally recognize the constitutions of Clarendon. his superior lord. who had recourse to the king of France. by the accounts which he sent of that prince’s conduct. in which he was involved with the count of Auvergne. nothing seemed impossible to the capacity and vigilance of so great a monarch. as uncertain as those between the crown and the mitre. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . lost the superiority. a concession. which. and all wars took their origin from disputes. About this time. that the pope. and prove. would join the party of his enemy. the king of France. and would give an example to other states of asserting a like independancy. and after occasioning some mutual depredations. and were anxious not to lose the least advantage in the negociation. by reason of his contest with the church. The nuncios. they entertained a perpetual jealousy of each other. be more easily guarded against the contagion of superstitious prejudices. too opposite to admit of an accommodation: The king required. having received a commission to endeavour a 1167. being much attached to Henry. resulting from these circumstances. The cardinal of Pavia also. that that prince had. Page 239 of 354 the king and Becket. The disposition of minds on both sides. which both put an end to papal pretensions in England.

some of less authority than myself: There have also been many arch bishops of Canterbury. and with an offer which Henry made to submit his cause to the French clergy. with a salvo to his royal dignity.html 4/7/2004 . in the end. and had been filled during the primate’s absence. among such jealous spirits. at which the French king was present. when all the terms were adjusted. met with the king in Normandy. Henry refused him that honour. that he could not forbear condemning the primate. which. if these hard conditions had not been complied with. with a salvo to the honour of God. and of preventing the interdict.” Lewis was so struck with this state of the case. for a like reason. and that even the possessors of such benefices as depended on the see of Canterbury. He was not required to give up any rights of the church. which the greatest of his predecessors have paid to the least of mine. became fruitless. A third conference. In one of these conferences. and their common animosity against Henry. and rendered the treaty abortive. without making farther submission. and even in a fourth treaty.Hume. by Becket’s insisting on a like reserve in his submissions. during his anger. that. that prince could not be prevailed on to depart from the resolution which he had taken. This formality served. 1169. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution .org/Texts/Hume0129/History/0011-1_Bk. or resign any of those pretensions. that the negotiation. but that Becket and his adherents should. and entitled to every kind of respect: Let Becket but act towards me with the same submission.libertyfund. Henry reaped only the advantage of seeing his ministers absolved from the sentence of excommunication pronounced against them. and Becket have liberty to supply the Vacancies. while he mounted. It was easy to see how much he dreaded that event.. under pretence. and withdrawing his friendship from him during some time: But the bigotry of that prince. and though the difficulty was attempted to be overcome by a dispensation which the pope granted to Henry from his vow. he had made a rash vow to that purpose. Henry said to that monarch: “There have been many kings of England. where Becket also offered to make his submissions. which it was usual for princes to grant in those times. It was agreed.. some of greater. d e f But the king attained not even that temporary tranquillity. on conditions which may be esteemed both honourable and advantageous to that prelate. and which was regarded as a sure pledge of forgiveness. Another negotiation was conducted at Montmirail. and there shall be no controversy between us. and after all differences seemed to be adjusted. and even on one occasion humiliated himself so far as to hold the stirrup of that haughty prelate. Page 240 of 354 reconciliation. and the king allowed Becket to return. 1170. which entrenched so deeply on the honour and dignity of the crown. to prevent the conclusion of the treaty. All difficulties were at last adjusted between the parties. that all these questions should be buried in oblivion. when a prince of so high a spirit could submit to terms so dishonourable. and the excommunications were renewed against the king’s ministers. was broken off. in presence of the king of France and the French prelates. So anxious was Henry to accommodate all differences. and to receive the kiss of peace. which. which he had hoped to reap from these http://oll. was extremely offensive to the king. and when the primate expected to be introduced to the king. holy and good men. should be expelled. which had been the original ground of the controversy. was ready to be laid on all his dominions. In return for concessions. and the liberties of the church. under the same mediation. which gave such umbrage to Becket. that he took the most extraordinary steps to flatter his vanity. in order to prevent it. Henry offered to sign the treaty. and to reconcile himself fully with Becket. soon produced a renewal of their former good correspondence. be restored to all their livings. Compromise with Becket. 22d July.

he met the archbishop of York and the bishops of London and Salisbury. and celebrated with hymns of joy his triumphant entrance. we g h Becket’s return from banishment. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . should at the same time receive the royal unction. he had thought it prudent to have his son. careful of his daughter’s establishment. On his arrival in England. jealous of his own dignity. During the heat of his quarrel with Becket. As he approached Southwark. and being desirous of obstructing all Henry’s measures. which. By this precaution. considering the many past irregularities in that point. who resided at Woodstoke. whether he meant to bring fire and sword into the kingdom? But the primate.libertyfund. and to the two bishops that of excommunication. by order of the young prince. he both ensured the succession of that prince. if the sentence of excommunication should have the effect which he dreaded. and Nigel de Sackville. daughter of that monarch. and for Becket. but as this prelate was also a man of acknowledged abilities. and by the victory which he had already obtained over his sovereign. Becket. and excusing it on account of the secrecy and dispatch requisite for conducting that This violent measure. with the more courage to dart his spiritual thunders: He issued the sentence of excommunication against Robert de Broc. before it was carried into execution. in the most ostentatious manner. as a farther satisfaction. after apologizing to Lewis for the omission with regard to Margaret. Page 241 of 354 expedients. who were on their journey to the king in Normandy: He notified to the archbishop the sentence of suspension. recover his rights by officiating in this coronation. http://oll. and he preserved at least his family on the throne. and all the towns through which he passed. that the royal unction was essential to the exercise of royal power: It was therefore natural both for the king of France. on hearing of this bold attempt. besides receiving the acknowledgments of Roger and the other bishops for the seeming affront put on the see of Canterbury. to demand. denounced war against the king himself. was not content with this voluntary compensation. some satisfaction in this essential point.Hume. and to make him be crowned king. associated with him in the royalty. or been active in the late persecution of the exiled clergy. heedless of the reproof. to officiate in the coronation. asked him.html 4/7/2004 . is commonly ascribed to the vindictive disposition and imperious character of Becket.. There prevailed in that age an opinion which was akin to its other superstitions. unless the princess. had procured from the pope a mandate to the same purpose. at his solicitation. while he was every day expecting an interdict to be laid on his kingdom. Though this design was conducted with expedition and secrecy. the laity. which he pretended to have suffered. and Gervase de Cornhill. a handle for taking revenge on all his enemies. But the violent spirit of Becket. to take possession of his diocese. and should make his subjects renounce their allegiance to him. could not but be esteemed somewhat precarious. elated by the power of the church. in effect. to return to his diocese. In Rochester. and a sentence of excommunication to be fulminated against his person. had got intelligence of it. And though he was obliged. when he reckoned upon the highest veneration of the public towards his person and his dignity. he was received with the shouts and acclamations of the populace. which. Reginald de Warenne. with many others. therefore. he found that he was not mistaken. by the hands of Roger archbishop of York. and had incited the king of France to protest against the coronation of young Henry. Henry. came forth to meet him. two of the king’s ministers. but resolved to make the injury. He proceeded. the clergy. proceeded. promised that the ceremony should be renewed in the persons both of the prince and princess: And he assured Becket. by which he. that. prince Henry. the pope had pronounced against them. in the treaty with Henry. the primate should. as well as anxious to prevent this affront to himself. who pretended to the sole right. who were employed on their duty in Kent.. men of all ranks and ages. as archbishop of Canterbury. who either had assisted at the coronation of the prince. he had inhibited all the prelates of England from assisting at this ceremony.

. and which. that his whole plan of operations was overthrown. a contest which he himself had first rouzed. Assured of support from Rome. which they had dropped. being vehemently agitated. the original ground of the quarrel. which his courage taught him to despise. even if attended with the most fatal consequences. be sufficient to teach him more reserve in his opposition: Or if any controversy arose. that Becket’s experience of a six years’ exile would. Hugh de Moreville. and to trust to his own abilities. the prosecution of Becket.html 4/7/2004 . where the king then resided. secretly withdrew from he was little intimidated by dangers. and Richard Brito. which was the utmost that princes. and to disconcert the cautious measures of the king.. foresaw. he said. were both the ancient customs and the present law of the realm: And though he knew. The four http://oll. and swearing to avenge their prince’s quarrel. was sensible. i k l m n When the suspended and excommunicated prelates arrived at Baieux. he instantly perceived the consequences. in those ages. William de Traci. that the constitutions of Clarendon. would serve only to gratify his ambition and thirst of glory. he was not displeased to undo that measure. could hope to attain in their disputes with the see of Rome. must come to an immediate and decisive issue. so long as Becket lived. had so long left him exposed to the enterprizes of that ungrateful and imperious prelate. that the papal clergy asserted them to be impious in themselves. he intended. The archbishop of York remarked to him. Conscious also of his own violence. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . determined not to betray the ecclesiastical privileges by his connivance. to look for the cause of his conduct. in his passions alone.libertyfund. as well as abrogated by the sentence of the sovereign pontiff. whose want of zeal. after his pride was fully gratified by his restoration. in defining all the branches of royal power. if allowed to proceed in his own way. resolved to take all the advantage which his present victory gave him. as well as from the pope. the ancient and undoubted customs of the kingdom against the usurpations of the clergy. But Becket. and the king dispatched a messenger after them. Reginald Fitz-Urse. that the dangerous contest between the civil and spiritual powers. His sagacity had led him to discover all Henry’s intentions. charging them to attempt nothing against the person of the primate: o p q But these orders arrived too late to prevent their fatal purpose. and he was thence thrown into the most violent commotion. and to the course of events. immediately communicated their thoughts to each other. might probably in the end prevail. by this bold and unexpected assault. in attempting to break or subdue the inflexible primate.Hume. He hoped. that his enterprize had been too bold. which had given his enemies such advantage against him. by all his late negociations and concessions. he still reserved to himself the right of maintaining. Some menacing expressions. in spite of their clamours. to appease. an express avowal of these disputed prerogatives. while the primate was now in his power. and he was contented. and he proposed. but which he had endeavoured. he could never expect to enjoy peace or tranquillity: The king himself. to prevent the execution of them. steadily to put those laws in execution. and in endeavouring to extort from the church of England. he expected thenceforth to engage in a more favourable cause. was become sensible. The king. Page 242 of 354 are not. that. and apprehensive lest a prince of such profound policy. in establishing the constitutions of Clarendon. taking these passionate expressions to be a hint for Becket’s death. and complained to him of the violent proceedings of Becket. from his experience of the dispositions of his people. when he proceeded to these extremities against his enemies. that the controversy should terminate in that ambiguous manner. and to maintain with advantage. by the vehemence and rigour of his own conduct. Though he dropped for the present. for success in that perilous enterprize. burst forth into an exclamation against his servants. gave a suspicion of their design. Four gentlemen of his household.

Interdicts and excommunications. or represented. to the world and probably to himself. surely. 29. and a disdain of their antagonists: Nor is there less cant and grimace in their stile. when employed in a cause so much calculated to work on the human passions. which he had reason to apprehend from so unexpected an event. The spirit of superstition was so prevalent. much more every one whose interest. if they still retained some share of understanding: Folly was possessed of all the schools as well as all the churches. or what was worse. we find. instead of forming a presumption of hypocrisy. would. http://oll. he immediately went to St. under the disguise of sanctity and of zeal for the interests of religion: An extraordinary personage. he foresaw. as superior to every civil and political consideration. had he been allowed to remain in his first station. and ambition. which he imagined. They found the primate. Thomas.. while his murderer would be ranked among the most bloody tyrants. no less than in himself. Henry. without using any precautions against their violence. the enterprizes of pride and ambition.. and her votaries assumed the garb of philosophers together with the ensigns of spiritual dignities. that ever were exposed to the hatred and detestation of mankind. the illusions of perverted science. and ambition. he was so incapable of fear. and on account of his zeal in maintaining ecclesiastical though they took different roads to England. This was the tragical end of Thomas a Becket. instead of being engaged. which accompanied their conduct. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . proceeded on no principles which they could pretend to justify: They were more indebted to their total want of instruction. weapons in themselves so terrible. had purposed to have him arrested. Throughout that large collection of letters. In vain would he plead Decemb. to hear vespers. who trusted entirely to the sacredness of his character. who enters into the genius of that age. violence. and honour. be armed with double force. Murder of Thomas a Becket. The spirit of revenge. in the exercise of his functions. they proceeded in great haste to the archiepiscopal palace. retired without meeting any opposition. very slenderly attended. that it infallibly caught every careless reasoner. and he was immediately sensible of the dangerous consequences. arrived nearly about the same time at Saltwoode near Canterbury. than when they compose manifestos for the perusal of the public. were engaged to support it. must attain the highest honours of martyrdom. attacked him before the altar. a prelate of the most lofty. which bears the name of St. who was able to cover. than to their knowledge. a most entire and absolute conviction of the reason and piety of their own party. Grief and submission of the king. by the prejudices of the times. and though they threw out many menaces and reproaches against him. on the first report of Becket’s violent measures. intrepid. Benedict’s church. and had directed the vehemence of his character to the support of law and justice. They followed him thither. when they address each other. and enveloped the face of nature: But those who preserved themselves untainted by the general contagion. and being there joined by some assistants. All the wretched literature of the times was inlisted on that side: Some faint glimmerings of common sense might sometimes pierce through the thick cloud of ignorance. in all the retainers of that aspiring prelate. An archbishop of reputed sanctity. that. which so much flattered these domineering passions. can reasonably doubt of this prelate’s sincerity. which had blotted out the sun.html 4/7/2004 . to sacrifice all private duties and public connexions to tyes. and having cloven his head with many blows. Page 243 of 354 assassins. and had already taken some steps towards the execution of that design: But the intelligence of his murder threw the prince into great consternation. are the surest pledges of their sincere attachment to a cause. assassinated before the altar. and inflexible spirit. But no man.Hume.libertyfund. and so peculiarly adapted to the eloquence of popular preachers and declaimers.

could not afterwards be easily recalled: The anathemas were only levelled in general against all the actors. the pope was so little revered at home that his inveterate enemies surrounded the gates of Rome itself. and orders were given them to perform their journey with the utmost expedition. with others of Henry’s ministers. The archbishop of Roüen. and it was expected. Though the name and authority of the court of Rome were so terrible in the remote countries of Europe. that the king of France had exhorted him to fulminate the most dreadful sentence against England. which he so justly apprehended from the murder of the primate. besides asserting their prince’s innocence. r s 1171. or rather abject submissions of the greatest potentate of the age. which might be dreaded from that sentence. should leave the rest behind. kept every one in suspence. But Barre found means to appease the pontiff. and as it was extremely his interest to clear himself from all suspicion. in order to prevent the fatal consequences which might ensue from any delay in giving satisfaction to his holiness. The terrible blow was thus artfully eluded. that should be required of him. Becket’s great partizan. that Henry should. that he would reap greater advantages from the submissions of England than from proceeding to extremities against that kingdom. and that the very mention of Henry’s name before the sacred college was received with every expression of horror and execration. and even controuled his government in that city.Hume. and were entirely unacquainted with its character and conduct.. be solemnly comprehended in the number. or rather. that Becket’s partizans were daily stimulating him to revenge. would be received with all the implicit credit. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . induced him to accept of nourishment. and make every submission. when it is customary for the pope to denounce annual curses against all his enemies. Page 244 of 354 his own innocence. and the archdeacons of Salisbury and one of their number. the bishops of Worcester and Evreux. he took no care to conceal the depth of his affliction.html 4/7/2004 . and occupied his leisure in taking precautions against the consequences. apprehending dangerous effects from his despair. and to throw themselves at his feet. made oath before the whole consistory. The Thursday before Easter was now approaching. were at last obliged to break in upon his solitude. that the monarch would easily exculpate himself from any concurrence in the guilt. that Alexander was already wrought up to the greatest rage against the king. that he would stand to the pope’s judgment in the affair. to persuade him. carried to him the humble. who soon after arrived. if the church thought proper to esteem him such: And his concurrence in Becket’s martyrdom. which belonged to the most established articles of faith. He found on his arrival. The point of chief importance to Henry was to convince the pope of his innocence. if it failed of success. and the pope’s legate in France. who. accomplices. from a distant extremity of Europe. which were sunk in profound ignorance. and abettors of Becket’s murder.libertyfund.. and they employed every topic of consolation. and the ambassadors. and even his total ignorance of the fact: He was sufficiently guilty. the cardinals Albert and Theodin were appointed legates to examine the cause. and though Henry’s foreign dominions were already laid under an interdict by the archbishop of Sens. It was at length agreed. and to deter him from a measure which. He shut himself up from the light of day and from all commerce with his servants: He even refused during three days all food and sustenance: The courtiers. and prevented all the bad consequences. that Richard Barre. The abbot of Valasse. with all the preparations peculiar to the discharge of that sacred artillery. were immediately dispatched to Rome. t u http://oll. the general expectation. with five persons of inferior quality. These considerations gave the king the most unaffected concern. and run all the hazards of the passage. and were ordered to proceed to Normandy for that purpose. becoming a religious opinion. found the utmost difficulty to make their way to him.

They seem to have been the first that ever suffered for heresy in England. that the king. which he had long projected. and in exalting him above all that devoted tribe. that. w x ENDNOTES http://oll. before we conclude this subject of Thomas a Becket. who. pilgrimages were performed to obtain his intercession with heaven. as are lavished on the memory of pretended saints. by their blood. was on every occasion more anxious than usual to express his zeal for religion. Two years after his death he was canonized by pope that the wisest legislator and most exalted genius. a solemn jubilee was established for celebrating his merits. than those which ever filled the legend of any confessor or martyr. to the last degree. and by which he hoped to recover his credit. when men hate you and persecute you. and were punished by being burned on the forehead. which received the name of Saladine’s tax. and this peculiar merit challenged. It is only a conqueror. and it was computed. and the unity of the church. but declared themselves ready to suffer for the tenets of their master. to give them the least relief. enriched with presents from all parts of Christendom. no one daring. It is probable. but Becket had sacrificed his life to the power and privileges of the clergy. He gave his consent to the imposing of a tax on all his dominions for the delivery of the holy land. in extolling the merits of his martyrdom. and not in vain. It is indeed a mortifying reflection to those who are actuated by the love of fame. there came over from Germany about thirty heretics of both sexes. under the direction of one Gerard. Page 245 of 354 The clergy. in several ages. Blessed are ye. a suitable acknowledgment to his memory. now threatened by the famous Saladine: This tax amounted to two-pence a pound for one year. were more numerous. a woman as ignorant as themselves.html 4/7/2004 . It may not be amiss to remark. that their departure from the standard of orthodoxy was still more subtile and minute. and more impudently attested. they were thrust out almost naked in the midst of winter. who could give no account of their faith. odious or contemptible. above a hundred thousand pilgrims arrived in Canterbury. cemented the fabric of the temple.Hume. and perished through cold and hunger. and whose industry was entirely directed to the pursuit of objects pernicious to mankind. more nonsensical. Almost all the princes of Europe laid a like imposition on their subjects. his body was removed to a magnificent shrine. that he was in no immediate dangers from the thunders of the Vatican. and to avoid all appearance of a profane negligence on that head. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . mean while.libertyfund. After they were whipped. Endless were the panegyrics on his virtues. sung the beatitude. yet they gave such umbrage to the clergy. he undertook an expedition against Ireland. whose whole conduct was probably. in one year. a personage no less intitled to our hatred. that they denied the efficacy of the sacraments. had. Other saints had only borne testimony by their sufferings to the general doctrines of Christianity. and paid their devotions at his tomb. and the miracles. We are ignorant of the particular tenets of these people: For it would be imprudent to rely on the representations left of them by the clergy. were not idle in magnifying the sanctity of Becket. They seemed to exult in their sufferings. a design.. somewhat impaired by his late transactions with the hierarchy. who can pretend to the attainment of equal renown and glory. and as they went along. so justly denominated the last infirmity of noble minds. simple ignorant people. that they were delivered over to the secular arm. During this period. can never expect such tributes of praise. As soon as Henry found. during his controversy with that prelate. and a penny a pound for the four subsequent. who affirm. They made only one convert in England.. that ever reformed or enlightened the world. and then whipped through the streets. though their rage was happily diverted from falling on the king. wrought by his reliques. or being willing.

.Hume. Madox. 381. p. 9. in summer. 48. p. Neubr. p. p. p. p. Heming. Neubr. Neubr. p. [f] Hoveden. 1450. p. 13. [b] Gul. [h] M. p. [m] Since the first publication of this history. Paris. [o] Fitz-Stephen. 381. 383. and two grey geese. by the service of finding litter for the king’s bed. 27. M. straw and three eels. 532. [t] Fitz-Steph. p. Paris. p. 20. p. 22. Chron. [q] Ibid. [g] Neubr. [s] John Baldwin held the manor of Oterarsfee in Aylesbury of the king in soccage. if there was no secret article. 383. 435. Brompton. 15. Quad. Bar. p. that Henry was not guilty of any fraud in this transaction. [p] Fitz-Steph. p. 531. viz. p. 492. grass or herbs. Lord Lyttelton has published a copy of the treaty between Henry and Lewis. p.libertyfund. 30. 492. 494. p. Hist. p. Paris. p. [i] Neubr. 23. p. 70. p. 491. 15. T. [r] p. Diceto. p. p. Heming. 400. p. 19. p. p. p. Fitz-Steph. 65. Hist. Quad. by which it appears. 13. [l] Hoveden. 22. Chron.. [e] Hoveden. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and in winter. Page 246 of 354 [a] Matth. 387. Wykes. p. p. 65. Paris. 13. p. thrice in the year. 247. 491. p. [n] Trivet. 1043. [*] Madox. p. Chron. [u] Fitz-Steph. Neubr. W. Anglica. p. Gervase.. 65. Brompton. Neubr. if the king should come thrice in the year to Aylesbury. [c] Fitz-Steph. [k] Fitz-Steph. 382. 14.html 4/7/2004 . 381. 23. M. p. W. 9. http://oll. 1381. [d] Neubr. p. p.

33. [t] Hoveden. p. p. Wilkins. Hist. St. 1058. p. vol. p. [a] Epist. Paris. [e] Fitz-Steph. [d] M. p. Quad. 1386. 13. Hoveden. p. [k] Fitz-Steph. [o] Hist. [b] Fitz-Steph. Hoveden. p. p. [n] Fitz-Steph. Quad. 130. [m] Hist. Diceto. [r] Fitz-Steph. p. 492. 32. 33. http://oll.html 4/7/2004 . 37. p. 33. 208. p. p. Gervase. p. Hoveden. Gervase. Paris. Diceto. St. St. 1384. Quadr. 394. 14. Hist. Thom. [x] Fitz-Steph. 1385. St. 17. M. p. p. 16. Hist. [q] Fitz-Steph. p. p. 1387. St. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . 19. p. ii. Quad. 72. p. M. p. p. 71. 167. 1388. Quad. Conc. [h] Neubr. Epist. 23. Hist. 35. 45. 493. Quad. Gervase. Epist. [i] Fitz-Steph. p. 25. p. p. [l] Fitz-Steph. Paris. p. Hoveden. 536. p. 63. 1384. 209. [s] Epist. 45. p. 25.. Thom. 29. [g] Fitz-Steph. p. p. [p] Hist. p. p.Hume. Hist. p. Gervase. [f] Epist. Gervase. 492. 32. 321.. p. Page 247 of 354 [w] Ibid. Thom. [y] Ibid. Thom. Brompton. 16. Epist. 232. p. p. 537. 536. 28. [c] Fitz-Steph. 38. Thom. p. 70. p. p. 8. 7. p. Thom. St. 39. 34. p. p. Spelm. Hist. 31. [z] Ibid. p. 1386. Quad. p. 28. Gervase. p. p. p. Quad. 163. p. 493. p. p. Quad.

p. p. 495. p. p. Gervase. 72. [g] Hoveden. p. p. 537. 57. http://oll. p. Quad. 394. p.Hume. 38. 537. 72. p. [f] Fitz-Steph. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . Hoveden. p. p. 36. 35. 35. [a] Ibid. p. Paris. A farther proof how little fixed the constitution was at that time! [p] Epist. Quad. [x] Fitz-Steph. 494. p. 47. [z] Fitz-Steph. Hist. p. 37. Page 248 of 354 [u] Hoveden. 37. 46. p. Quad. 47. 404. 76. This historian is supposed to mean the more considerable vassals of the chief barons: These had no title to sit in the great council. p. p. St. p. Hoveden. Diceto. 36. 46. 37. p. p. 39.libertyfund. [q] Ibid. [w] Neubr. 40. St.html 4/7/2004 . 42. Thom. 43. [c] Ibid. [o] Fitz-Steph. [h] Epist. M. Paris. [l] Fitz-Steph. [y] Hist. p. Epist. 315. [m] Fitz-Steph. 44. 1390. Thom. 42. p. p. Neubr. 38. 195. Gervase. [e] Hoveden. Epist. p. Quad. p. and the giving them a place there was a palpable irregularity: Which however is not insisted on in any of Becket’s remonstrances. 45. 494. Thom. 495. Hoveden. 38. p. p. 1389. p. 494. 394. [r] Hist. [n] Fitz-Steph. [k] Fitz-Steph. [b] Fitz-Steph. p. p. p. Hist. St. M. 45.. St. 53. p. [i] Fitz-Steph. Quad. p. Thom. Diceto.. [d] Hist. p.

Thom.. 56. Benedict. p. Thom. 207. 69. St. p. Abbas. 839. 229. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . 837. [p] M. p. Brompton. Quad. p. 818. p. Diceto. St. 97. St. 70. 194. 104. Paris. 213. Hist. p. p. [h] Epist. Epist. 93. [b] Epist. Thom. Thom. 30. 793. 1402. Paris. p. p. Thom. p. 547. 73. p. Hoveden. No. [e] Hist. 95. 68. p. p. St.Hume. p. p. [n] Epist. Gervase. p. p. http://oll. 496. M. [i] Epist. 65. p. p. p. 46. St. [k] Fitz-Steph. 704. 149. p. 276. p. Quad. p. 5.. p. Page 249 of 354 [s] Hist. p. 52. Hoveden. Thom. 517. 167. 1408. 499. lib. 794. 230. Thom. 29. [w] Ibid. 708. Thom. Gervase. Thom. p.libertyfund. Beaulieu Vie de St. p. [y] Brady’s Append. says Becket to the king. M. p. 1062. p. [o] Gervase. [a] Hoveden. Brompton. 56. 706. Epist. p. 103. 520. Robert de Monte. 63. 86. [f] Epist. sacerdotes Christi regum et principum omniumque fidelium patres et magistros censeri.html 4/7/2004 . 707. Abbas. 345. [u] Epist. 74. [z] Fitz-Steph. 94. p. p. St. [l] Epist. Paris. M. Hoveden. Thom. 1412. p. p. St. 497. Thom. Epist. 682. Epist. p. Epist. St. 31. St. Benedict. 10. 97. Epist. 1065. 148. 105. 75. 148. Paris. 1403. p. 705. Hoveden. p. p. Parker. 74. Thom. p. Quad. 45. Gervase. Thom. p. St. 88. Quad. [c] Ibid. [g] Hist. [x] Fitz-Steph. 848. St. [t] Quis dubitet. p. [m] Fitz-Steph. 99. [d] Fitz-Steph. 226. 1414. 197. p. p.

[NOTE [N]] William of Newbridge. Gervase.. p. This conduct appears violent and arbitrary. upon which he ordered all of them with the bishop elect to be castrated. he may be suspected of partiality towards his patron. His father. p. Fitz-Steph. Epist. Thom. Lord Lyttelton chuses to follow the authority of a manuscript letter. p. though represented as a mild prince. that Henry raised only 60 Angevin shillings on each knight’s fee in his foreign dominions: This is only a fourth of the sum which Gervase says he levied on England: An inequality no wise probable. p. p. p. Page 250 of 354 [q] Hist. set him an example of much greater violence. [w] Chron. But besides.libertyfund. Neust. though. [NOTE [O]] The sum scarcely appears credible. p. and is contradicted by some of them. [NOTE [Q]] I follow here the narrative of Fitz-Stephens. p. 44. 1419. without a very visible necessity.. In the succeeding reign. 526. 232. especially in an age so little accustomed to taxes. When Geoffrey was master of Normandy. no doubt. St. [t] Hoveden. See Vita Gauf. Gervase is indeed a cotemporary author.html 4/7/2004 . p. and savours of monkish fiction. Norman. Paris. 143. He pretends. till Henry should swear to the observance of it.000 pounds of our present money. p. Geoffrey. why I give the preference http://oll. [x] Neubr. or rather manifesto. Quad. This sum would make 540. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . it is found in no other ancient writer. My reasons. There were 60. that this story is not very likely in itself. of Folliot. [s] Hist. at the time when the bishop appealed to the pope from the excommunication pronounced against him by his primate. M. Paris. but churchmen are often guilty of strange mistakes of that nature. [u] Hoveden. Paris. 55. Thom. p. (who is copied by later historians) asserts. The Norman Chronicle. Heming. Trivet. p. St. 74. to proceed to the election of a bishop. which he. 87. bishop of London. See Epist. 863. and made all their testicles be brought him in a platter. without his consent. as it would amount to much above half the rent of the whole land. p. but was suitable to the strain of administration in those days. [r] Ypod. Quad. p. the chapter of Seez presumed. and are commonly but little acquainted with the public revenues. who was secretary to Becket. Henry laid a heavy and an arbitrary tax on all the churches within his dominions. Diceto. In the war of Toulouse. p. but a sudden and precarious tax can never be imposed to that amount. Paris. says. 391. 383. 995. p. 1399. was induced to do. 103. 144.000 knights fees in England. who had better opportunities than Newbridge of knowing the truth. Duc. 526. and had ordered that his body should not be buried. 74. his father. 447. the rent of a knight’s fee was computed at four pounds a year. particularly the monk of Marmoutier. A nation may by degrees be brought to bear a tax of 15 shillings in the pound. p. p. M. p. that count Geoffrey. that Geoffrey had some title to the counties of Maine and Anjou. p. 556. 494. which is addressed to Becket himself. ignorant of the contents. 18. p. had left him these dominions by a secret will. [NOTE [P]] Fitz-Stephen. M. p.Hume. Gervase. 87.

For if his excuse was rejected as false and frivolous. that he gave surety.000 marks (equal to a sum of near a million in our time) and not allow him the least interval to bring in his accounts. (2. Page 251 of 354 to Fitz-Stephens are. but never surely would publicky avow them.) He has actually been guilty of palpable calumnies in that letter. Among these.) The bishop was moved by interest. implies that he had refused to make any answer to the king’s court. particularly of this letter of Folliot’s. have rendered him more partial on the other side.) Though the sentence. when Becket subscribed the Constitutions of Clarendon. Folliot also says. and do resolve to incur a perjury. might calumniate him the more freely. (6. he may be presumed to be equally so in the rest. and the bishop. It is my master’s pleasure. it does not acquire more authority on that account. contemporary writers. pronounced on Becket by the great council. (5. that both the author of Historia quadraparrita. But that the collection was not made by one (whoever he were) very partial to that primate. that I should forswear myself and at present I submit to it. and however negligent zealous churchmen were then of morality. this does not fortify the narrative of Folliot. (4. as well as enmity. to make a sudden and unprepared demand upon Becket to the amount of 44. is of a piece with the rest of the prosecution. it would be treated as no answer.) Though Folliot’s letter. or rather manifesto. that. during his lifetime. than. after two years silence. (7.) It may be worth observing.) The violence and injustice of Henry. which is a proof. (3. to calumniate Becket. thought proper to publish them with great omissions.. and led the way to their subscribing.. be addressed to Becket himself. Becket made no answer at all. he said plainly to all the bishops of England. but the primate himself betrayed them from timidity. Nothing could be more iniquitous. We know not what answer was made by Becket: The collection of letters cannot be supposed quite complete. Perhaps.libertyfund. as not deigning to write to an excommunicated person. a especially to a prelate: And no more effectual means than to throw all the blame on his adversary. and directly contrary to Becket’s character. However barbarous the times.) If the friendship of Fitz-Stephens might render him partial to Becket even after the death of that prelate. these are not words which a primate of great sense and of much seeming sanctity would employ in an assembly of his suffragans: He might act upon these principles. that all the bishops were resolved obstinately to oppose the Constitutions of Clarendon. ascribed to him by Fitz-Stephens. and the latter is not usually very partial to Becket. I reckon the following: He affirms. and repent afterwards as I may.html 4/7/2004 . IX HENRY II State of Ireland — Conquest of that island — The king’s accommodation with the court of Rome — Revolt of young Henry and his brothers — Wars and insurrections — War with Scotland — Pennance of Henry for Becket’s murder — William. dreadful to all. He had himself to defend against the sentence of excommunication. All the ancient historians give the same account. appears from the tenor of them. and Gervase. the declared enmity of the bishop must. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . If the king was so palpably oppressive in one article. whose very commerce would contaminate him. (1. defeated and taken prisoner — The king’s http://oll. that he meant not at that time to question the authority of the king’s courts. who surely was not destitute either of courage or of zeal for ecclesiastical immunities. trusting to this arrogance of his primate. agree with Fitz-Stephens. This is contrary to the testimony of all the historians.Hume. king of Scotland. Becket submitted so far to the sentence of confiscation of goods and chattels. where there are many passages very little favourable to him: Insomuch that the editor of them at Brussels.

and the most simple arts of life. they continued still in the most rude state of society. and had never acknowledged any subjection to the see of Rome. ill obeyed even within his own territory. for the time. which he was one day to maintain with that see. Adrian IV. and Connaught. The other inhabitants exercised pasturage in the open country. issued a bull in favour of Henry. to attempt the subjecting of Ireland. had been planted along the coast by the freebooters of Norway and Denmark. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . been moved. who seemed. courage and force. king of Connaught. was by birth an Englishman. being always confined to their own island. he had recourse to Rome. were almost wholly unknown among them. and as they were never conquered or even invaded by the Romans. not tamed by education or restrained by laws.html 4/7/2004 . the uncertain succession of their princes was a continual source of domestic convulsions. y http://oll. after premising. and the inhabitants of all these countries seem to have been so many tribes of the Celtae. that lies far beyond the records of any history or tradition. to give sanction to claims which were now become dangerous to all sovereigns. and as it had been usual for the one or the other of these to take the lead in their wars.. into which they were divided. he helped. they followed the doctrines of their first teachers. who. the acquisition of a great island to his spiritual jurisdiction. in the year 1156. and not foreseeing the dangerous disputes. They had felt the invasions of the Danes and the other northern tribes. without any hazard or expence. what the pope regarded as the surest mark of their imperfect conversion. so was Ireland probably from Britain. were more honoured than any pacific virtues. and to encrease the number of his saints and elect in heaven. by precedent missions from the Britons. sought protection from any danger in their forests and morasses. who then filled the papal chair.Hume. For this purpose. The Irish. to which human nature. or rather for an imaginary. who derive their origin from an antiquity. which were to be found in the island.. but these inroads. Page 252 of 354 accommodation with his sons — The king’s equitable administration — Crusades — Revolt of prince Richard — Death and character of Henry — Miscellaneous transactions of his reign AS BRITAIN was first peopled from Gaul. is for ever subject. The Irish had. to act as monarch of Ireland. five principal sovereignties in the island. or for defence against foreigners. even tillage and agriculture. tended rather to improve the Irish. that this prince had ever shown an anxious care to enlarge the church of God on and to make. in which. which assumed a right to dispose of kingdoms and empires. could not unite the people in any measures. from the beginning of time. from whom all the western world derived its civility.libertyfund. were still more intent on the means of mutual injury. and being. he 1172. The ambition of Henry had. very early in his reign. State of Ireland. Roderic O Connor. Leinster. for present. though exercised in the commission of crimes. than on the expedients for common or even for private interest. there were in the age of Henry II. exercised perpetual rapine and violence against each other. and were distinguished by those vices alone. had been buried in the most profound barbarism and ignorance. Meath. Besides many small tribes. therefore. Ulster. been imperfectly converted to Christianity. convenience. The small principalities. he was easily persuaded to act as master of the world. by the prospect of these advantages. and being divided by the fiercest animosities against each other. but his government. Adrian. on that account. Munster. the usual title of each petty sovereign was the murder of his predecessor. either for the establishment of order. had never given any reason of complaint to any of their neighbours. the more disposed to oblige Henry. which had spread barbarism in other parts of Europe. was then advanced to this dignity. there was commonly some prince. and. and a pretence was only wanting to invade a people. and the only towns.

and lurking in the monastery of Fernes. daughter of that prince. commands all the inhabitants to obey him as their sovereign. as well as by his disputes with the see of Rome. in order to extirpate the vice and wickedness of the natives. The exiled prince had recourse to Henry. sirnamed Strongbow. and offered.libertyfund. constable of Abertivi. being obliged to visit a distant part of his territory. he also engaged them in his service. and being ready for any desperate undertaking. earl of Strigul. b This c d e Conquest of that Dermot went into Wales. he acknowledges it to be his own duty to sow among them the seeds of the gospel. prince of Breffny. and three hundred archers. and seemed to menace them with some signal revolution. which might in the last day fructify to their eternal salvation: He exhorts the king to invade Ireland.. by his licentious tyranny. who was at this time in Guienne. and rather deemed a proof of gallantry and spirit. who. king of Connaught. a thing almost unknown in Ireland. Dermot Macmorrogh. Being now assured of succour. http://oll. and expelled him his kingdom. who seized with alacrity the first occasion that offered. in an island. who. invaded the dominions of Dermot. and invests with full power all such godly instruments as he should think proper to employ in an enterprize. by which he empowered all his subjects to aid the Irish prince in the recovery of his dominions. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and after endeavouring. This prince had formed a design on Dovergilda. he returned privately to his own state. he promised assistance to Dermot. being brave men. but this small body. a penny to the see of Rome: He gives him entire right and authority over the island. surrounded by a bog. That gentleman landed in Ireland with thirty knights. he at last formed a treaty with Richard. on that event. for the present. While Richard was assembling his succours. (for this ruffian was also a founder of monasteries) he prepared every thing for the reception of his English allies. to hold his kingdom in vassalage under the crown of England. and taking advantage of her husband’s absence. z a exploit. thus calculated for the glory of God and the salvation of the souls of men. Page 253 of 354 represents his design of subduing Ireland as derived from the same pious motives: He considers his care of previously applying for the apostolic sanction as a sure earnest of success and victory.Hume. who was of the illustrious house of Clare. which he had founded. and oblige them to pay yearly. wife of Ororic. This nobleman. as he thought. that all Christian kingdoms belong to the patrimony of St. waited for a favourable opportunity of invading Ireland. though for some time in vain. he suddenly invaded the place. had. though armed with this authority. whose views were already turned towards making acquisitions in Ireland. from every house.. which was become grievous and oppressive to them.html 4/7/2004 . Henry. king of Leinster. embarking in the enterprize. but being detained by more interesting business on the continent. and gave Dermot no farther assistance than letters patent. struck a great terror into the barbarous inhabitants. and be declared heir to all his dominions. rendered himself odious to his subjects. though usual among the Irish. and being strengthened by the alliance of Roderic. craved his assistance in restoring him to his sovereignty. did not immediately put his design in execution. The troops of Fitz-Stephens were first ready. having collected forces. Peter. to engage adventurers in the enterprize. readily accepted the offer. Henry. had impaired his fortune by expensive pleasures. on condition that he should espouse Eva. came to Bristol. of throwing off the yoke. and completely armed. Dermot supported by this authority. had left his wife secure. and Maurice Fitz-Gerald. and having established it as a point incontestible. and carried off the princess. he declined. but being at that time embarrassed by the rebellions of his French subjects. and meeting with Robert Fitz-Stephens. sixty esquires. not unacquainted with discipline. and obtained their promise of invading Ireland. provoked the resentment of the husband.

the prince of Ossory was obliged to submit. gave earl Richard the commission of seneschal of Ireland. in a progress which he made through the island. he sent over a messenger to the earl of Strigul. chaced them off the field. The only expedient. found means to appease him. and after gaining an advantage. except for the importance of the consequences. and proceeded to Dublin. by which a durable conquest could then be made or maintained. and offering to hold all their acquisitions in vassalage to his crown. challenging the performance of his promise. the victorious English. prepared himself for the execution of his designs. marrying Eva. who brought over two hundred horse. making a sudden sally at the head of ninety knights. not satisfied with the general allowance given by Henry to all his subjects. jealous of the progress. besides other soldiers: He found the Irish so dispirited by their late misfortunes. cut off the head of Dermot’s natural son. made by his own subjects. he made himself master of the place. landing near Waterford. establishing them in all offices of trust and authority. dividing among them the lands of the vanquished. and as Richard himself. about the same time. and a body of archers. and aspired to the sole dominion over the Irish. was foiled in different actions. who had been left as a hostage in his hands. Soon after. besieged Dublin with an army of thirty thousand men: But earl Richard. who. Richard. f g h i Henry. Roderic. brought over ten knights and sixty archers.. put this numerous army to rout. returned in triumph to England. thirty esquires. and having obtained a cold or ambiguous permission. and he made preparations to attack Ireland in person: But Richard. were alarmed at the danger. a town inhabited by the Danes. and the extreme barbarism and poverty of Ireland could still less afford means of bearing the expence. and prepared to extend his authority over all Ireland. during those ages. composed a force which nothing in Ireland was able to withstand. by making him the most humble submissions. was by pouring in a multitude of new inhabitants. which might retain a conquered country in subjection. a few days after. In prosecution of these views. with ten knights and seventy archers.html 4/7/2004 . He left most of the Irish chieftains or princes in possession of their ancient that had ventured to attack him. That monarch landed in Ireland at the head of five hundred knights. and the other adventurers. By these trivial exploits. one of his retinue. joined. master of the kingdom of Leinster. and Dermot. not content with being restored to his kingdom of Leinster. and a hundred archers. Roderic. in revenge. they made themselves masters of Waterford. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and the other Irish princes. bestowed some lands on the English adventurers. became soon after. defeated a body of three thousand Irish. that. By this policy. and give hostages for his peaceable behaviour. the chief monarch of the island. and thereby transforming the ancient inhabitants into a new people. then in Normandy. by the death of Dermot. enabled Fitz-Stephens to attempt the siege of Wexford. and being joined by the former adventurers. made it impracticable for princes to support regular armies. with their followers. who.. and after a stay of a few months. None in Ireland now dared to oppose themselves to the English. and annexed to the English crown. The low state of commerce and industry. scarcely worth relating. was Ireland subdued.libertyfund. and combining together. and of late the duke of Normandy. the northern invaders of old. Roderic. Page 254 of 354 The conjunction of Maurice de Pendergail. which was taken by assault. had k l http://oll. Fitz-Gerald arrived with ten knights.Hume. and pursued them with great slaughter. he had no other occupation than to receive the homages of his new subjects. projected the dethroning of Roderic. went to that prince. sent orders to recal all the English. and displaying the mighty advantages which might now be reaped by a reinforcement of warlike troops from England. He first sent over Raymond. and Richard.

to transport themselves thither. and instead of reclaiming the natives from their uncultivated manners.. and to erect kingdoms. their hatred was retaliated by like injuries. that he should himself take the cross at the Christmas following. that he should pay the templars a sum of money sufficient for the subsistance of two hundred knights during a year in the Holy Land. who commanded a handful of men amidst such hostile multitudes. Besides that the easy and peaceable submission of the Irish left Henry no farther occupation in that island. still retained their animosity against the conquerors. he was recalled from it by another incident. never fully subdued. and as the clergy every day looked for an accommodation with the king. independant authority conferred. that the see of Canterbury should be reinstated in all its antient possessions. full of menaces. remained still savage and untractable: It was not till the latter end of Elizabeth’s reign. was capable of throwing the whole kingdom into combustion.. were arrived in Normandy. became as much unknown in the English settlements as they had ever been among the Irish tribes. as when it was recent. http://oll. which he had expressed on account of that prelate’s conduct. The legates. from time to time. had probably been the occasion of his murder. and bade them do their worst against him. and should restore them to their livings. serve three years against the infidels. to whom was committed the trial of his conduct in the murder of archbishop Becket. He promised. and had a conference with them at Savigny. and Henry was so fortunate as to conclude an accommodation with them. nor till that of her successor. that he should pardon all such as had been banished for adhering to Becket. as an atonement for the offence. and were transmitted to the posterity of the first conquerors.libertyfund. and that he should not obstruct appeals to the pope in ecclesiastical causes. where their demands were so exorbitant. if he protracted any longer making his appearance before them. and. and from these causes. during the course of four centuries. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . the Irish. sent him frequent letters. before the reliques of the saints. derogatory to ecclesiastical privileges. he was extremely grieved when he received intelligence of it: But as the passion. which remained stable on their foundations. if the pope required it. therefore. He declared upon oath. and degenerated from the customs of their own nation. which was of the last importance to his interest and safety. It was also found requisite to bestow great military and arbitrary powers on the leaders. they were gradually assimilated to the antient inhabitants. that he broke off the negotiation. But the state of Ireland rendered that island so little inviting to the English. that he should not insist on the observance of such customs.html 4/7/2004 . They perceived that the season was now past for taking advantage of that tragical incident. found themselves obliged to lower their terms. which Henry had happily gained. and his ignorance of the designs formed by the assassins.Hume. so far from commanding or desiring the death of the archbishop. and law and equity. in a little time. as had been introduced in his own time. that only a few of desperate fortunes could be persuaded. had it been hotly pursued by interdicts and excommunications. He hastened therefore to Normandy. that the island was fully subdued. who had been very industrious in representing to the people his entire innocence in the murder of the primate. he stipulated the following conditions. and being impatient of delay. But the time. they had not opposed the pretensions of his partizans. that it gave hopes of becoming a useful conquest to the English nation. either in Spain or Palestine. the natives. Albert and Theodin. had contributed to appease the minds of men: The event could not now have the same influence. The two legates. that. but should content himself with exacting sufficient security from such clergymen as left his dominions to prosecute an m n The king’s accommodation withe the court of Rome. Palatinates were erected in favour of the new adventurers. threatened to return to Ireland. Page 255 of 354 been able to fix their dominions.

on such easy terms. prevented the dangers of a disputed succession. and associated the princess o p q r http://oll. seemed now to have reached the pinnacle of human grandeur and felicity. inherited. that never king was more royally served.Hume. in favour of this last prince.. and the new conquest of Ireland was destined for the appanage of John. if the son of a count should serve the son of a king. to maintain his pretensions. Henry received absolution from the legates. that they were satisfied with his departing.libertyfund. who made those very sons. and might stretch his demands on this head as far as he pleased. to be his successor in the kingdom of England. that they should attempt nothing against the rights of his crown. but as the king was also permitted to exact reasonable securities from the parties. the dutchy of Britanny. and he was still at liberty. by treaty. a marriage with Adelais. his eldest son. Appeals to the pope were indeed permitted by that treaty. which give great lustre to youth. though the pope and his legates seem so little to have conceived the king’s power to lie under any legal limitations. Young Henry. He had also negociated. the means of embittering his future life and disturbing his government. whose fortunes he had so anxiously established. are the forerunners of the greatest calamities. prognosticate a shining fortune. but. and Touraine. and to be equally happy in his domestic situation and in his political government. in order to give greater dignity to the ceremony. But this exaltation of his family excited the jealousy of all his neighbours. and repressed all pretensions of the ambitious barons. the dutchy of Normandy. he discovered qualities. who was rising to man’s estate. It is nothing extraordinary. might easily lend to each other mutual assistance. And on the whole. The king’s precaution also. and to perpetuate the greatness of his family. by that means. and which. Bresse. the only daughter of Humbert. It is said. agreeably to the promise which he had given both to the pope and French king. He had always insisted. Maine. munificent. which might pass only for an innocent pleasantry. Henry. was invested in the dutchy of Guienne and county of Poictou. freed from this dangerous controversy with the ecclesiastics and with the see of Rome. He had appointed Henry. count of Savoy and Maurienne.html 4/7/2004 . his second son. that the laws. but the ancient customs of the kingdom. from so difficult a situation. territories which lay contiguous. without requiring any repeal by the states of the kingdom. notwithstanding the articles of this agreement. and was confirmed in the grant of Ireland made by pope Adrian: and nothing proves more strongly the great abilities of this monarch. both against intestine commotions and foreign invasions. the constitutions of Clarendon remained still the law of the realm. that at the time when this prince received the royal unction. Richard. said young Henry to one of his courtiers. Geoffrey. officiated at table as one of the was however regarded as a symptom of his aspiring temper. permitted his son to be crowned anew by the hands of the archbishop of Roüen. contained not any new claims. from one of the most momentous articles of these constitutions. established at Clarendon. his third son. affable. and observed to his son. liberal. his father. seemed well calculated to prevent all jealousy among the brothers. in right of his wife. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . Henry. and was to receive as her dowry considerable demesnes in Piedmont. This saying. he had it virtually in his power to prevent the pope from reaping any advantage by this seeming concession. his fourth son. and aspire to independance: Brave. Page 256 of 354 appeal. and the counties of Anjou. A numerous progeny of sons and daughters gave both lustre and authority to his crown. unless tempered in mature age with discretion. began to display his character. Upon signing these concessions. in establishing the several branches of his family. than his extricating himself. and Dauphiny. or even for an oblique compliment to his father. ambitious. and his conduct soon after justified the conjecture. Savoy..

Thus. and that the king could not. he had acquired a title to sovereignty. scarcely arrived at the age of puberty. He afterwards allowed him to pay a visit to his father-in-law at Paris. to pillage the open country. as are the usual resource of tyrants. engaged them to fly secretly to the court of France. young Henry. by this ceremony. and thrown into confinement. who took the s 1173. had encouraged a tribe of banditti to disturb every where the public peace. every circumstance of female weakness. made his escape to Paris. he received intelligence of new misfortunes. that. Europe saw with astonishment the best and most indulgent of parents at war with his whole family. he applied to the pope. or even of a war. must be extremely calamitous and disagreeable to him. who had disgusted her first husband by her gallantries. ever since the accession of the Capetian line. which was nowise calculated to promote the immediate interests of their order. opportunity of instilling into the young prince those ambitious sentiments. had recourse to the court of Rome: Though sensible of the danger attending the interposition of ecclesiastical authority in temporal disputes. While Henry was alarmed at this incident. to infest the highways. which in those ages was deemed so important. whom he found such reluctance to punish by the sword of the magistrate. which. desired the king to resign to him either the crown of England or the dutchy of Normandy. The loose government which prevailed in all the states of Europe. without conferring on him any present participation of royalty.. carried to extremity. in the different periods of her life. Henry. in the ceremony. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . Though it had been the constant practice of France.libertyfund. discovered great discontent on the refusal. and by these censures to reduce to obedience his undutiful children. require a great monarch. Lewis persuaded his son-in-law. or at least a part of his dominions. when she was seized by orders from her husband. spouse to young Henry. which must have affected him in the most sensible manner. Page 257 of 354 Margaret. without injustice. spake in the most undutiful terms of his father. and that the clergy were very negligent in supporting a sentence. where he was protected and supported by that monarch. and several princes not ashamed to support them in these unnatural and absurd pretensions. to crown the son during the life-time of Revolt of young the father. The king. and soon after.. and the impossibility of enforcing any general execution of the laws. that these spiritual weapons had not the same force as when employed in a spiritual controversy. u http://oll. three boys. after taking in vain this humiliating step. was obliged to have recourse to arms. an escape to the same court. the many private wars carried on among the neighbouring nobles. reduced to this perilous and disagreeable situation.html 4/7/2004 . issued the bulls required of him: But it was soon found. Alexander. and have seldom been employed by so wise and just a monarch.Hume. herself. Geoffrey and Richard. and to brave all the efforts of the civil magistrate. by her jealousy. She communicated her discontents against Henry to her two younger sons. exclude him from immediate possession of the whole. on his return. to dethrone himself in their favour. was no less offensive to her second. to which he was naturally but too much inclined. In consequence of these extravagant ideas. and had even put on man’s apparel for that purpose. in concert with Lewis. in the full vigour of his age and height of his reputation. as his superior lord. whether successful or not. and t Henry and his brothers. persuaded them that they were also entitled to present possession of the territories assigned to them. well pleased to exert his power in so justifiable a cause. to excommunicate his enemies. and was and had the prospect of dangerous intrigues. and after this manner. Queen Eleanor. and to enlist such auxiliaries.

and a plan was concerted for a general invasion on different parts of the king’s extensive and factious dominions. which set at defiance the rest of mankind. The greatest monarchs were not ashamed. The two counts next besieged and made themselves masters of Drincourt: But the count of Boulogne was here mortally wounded in the assault. and courage. Several of them were enlisted among the forces levied by Henry’s enemies.. Blois. must some time become their sovereigns. Lewis. were more desirous of being ruled by young princes. Troops of them were sometimes inlisted in the service of one prince or baron. he lavishly distributed among them many considerable parts of those territories. Page 258 of 354 even the excommunications of the church. king of Scotland. sometimes in that of another: They often acted in an independant manner. formed the sole force. which decided the political quarrels of princes. declared openly in favour of the latter. His licentious barons. and Eu. Hostilities were first commenced by the counts of Flanders and Boulogne on the frontiers of Normandy. was thus carried on in the bowels of every kingdom. William. and.html 4/7/2004 . received their approbation of his measures. Those desperate ruffians received the name sometimes of Brabançons. but for what reason. partly allured by the prospect of reaping advantage from the inconsiderate temper and the necessities of the young prince. and the earls of Leicester and Chester in particular had openly declared against the king. had also entered into this great confederacy.. were frequently obliged for subsistence to betake themselves to a like disorderly course of life: And a continual intestine war. which he purposed to conquer from his father. and the situation of his affairs rendered even such banditti the only forces on whose fidelity he could repose any confidence. reduced to poverty by their by the treachery of the count of that name: This nobleman surrendered himself prisoner. joined to some troops. and having made a new great seal. they generally composed the most formidable part of those armies. they knew. disgusted with a vigilant government. and engaged them by oath to adhere to the cause of young Henry. The counts of Flanders. and a few barons of approved fidelity. which were fulminated against them. This prince. bound himself by a like tie never to desert his French allies. to have recourse to their assistance. on pretence of thereby paying his ransom. ignorant of public affairs. many of the Norman nobility had deserted to his son Henry. which he brought over from Ireland. is not agreed by historians: And they formed a kind of society or government among themselves. Those princes laid siege to Aumale. with which he intended to resist his enemies. Twenty thousand Brabançons.Hume. summoned at Paris an assembly of the chief vassals of the crown. hardiness. and as the king had ensured to his sons the succession to every particular province of his dominions. In another quarter. and profuse in their grants. which was delivered into their hands. pernicious to industry. Disaffection had creeped in among the English. being strongly assisted by his w x y z http://oll. and as their habits of war and depredation had given them experience. remiss in their conduct. in return. under leaders of their own: The peaceable and industrious inhabitants. therefore. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . on occasion. Boulogne.libertyfund. in order to bind the confederates in a closer union. and this incident put some stop to the progress of the Flemish arms. partly moved by the general jealousy arising from Henry’s power and ambition. the Breton and Gascon barons seemed equally disposed to embrace the quarrel of Geoffrey and Richard. but the great treasures amassed by that prince enabled him to engage more numerous troops of them in his service. sometimes of Routiers or Cottereaux. as well as to the execution of justice. opened the gates of all his other fortresses. the nobles dreaded no danger in adhering to those who. Prompted by these motives. the king of France.

with some places of surety in that kingdom. the king made them such offers as children might be ashamed to insist on. The two armies came to an action near Dol. and if these concessions were not deemed sufficient. the earls of Chester and Fougeres. in hopes. gave his consent. willingly agreed to a conference with Lewis. if he rather chose to reside in Normandy. did some execution. and began to retire with his army. had sent against them. Henry appeared with his army upon the heights above Verneüil. as if he meant to attempt some violence against him. thus fortunate in all quarters. obliging the garrison to surrender. and left Henry free to prosecute his advantages against his other enemies. and they engaged. who were present. and could be extorted from him by nothing but his parental affection or by the present necessity of his affairs. he agreed to add to them whatever the pope’s legates. On the last of these days. and either from the impetuosity of his temper. which was vigorously defended by Hugh de Lacy and Hugh de Beauchamp. The nobles of Britanny. This furious action threw the whole company into confusion. the garrison. dreading an attack. should require of him. provoked at this artifice.html 4/7/2004 . he gave vent to the most violent reproaches against Henry. attacked the rear with vigour. according to the capitulation. half the revenues of that dutchy. being straitened for provisions. set fire to the place. and Henry had here the mortification to see his three sons in the retinue of his mortal enemy. were obliged to capitulate. and desired that next day should be appointed for a conference. the insurrections were entirely quelled in Britanny. and the king. He made a like offer to Richard in Guienne. The king. and carried on the attack with such ardour. and took several prisoners. After he had lain a month before the place. and terminate the difference between Henry and his sons. and suspected no fraud. that his enemies. By these vigorous measures and happy successes. Lewis. if not relieved within three days. The French army. who passionately desired this accommodation. after Lewis’s retreat.Hume. that morning. or from a view of abruptly breaking off a conference which must cover the allies with confusion. obliged to take shelter in the town of Dol. to surrender the town. or. in order to establish a general peace. Henry hastened to form the siege of that place. with all those of Anjou. assembled a great army of seven thousand knights and their followers on horseback. where the rebels were defeated. As Lewis had no other pretence for war than supporting the claims of the young princes. He insisted only on retaining the sovereign authority in all his dominions.. The two monarchs met between Trie and Gisors. but Lewis. fifteen hundred killed on the spot. which the king. he laid siege to Verneüil. instigated by the earl of Chester and Ralph de Fougeres. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and put an end to the treaty. sent the archbishop of Sens and the count of Blois to the English camp. that he obliged the governor and garrison to surrender themselves prisoners. he promised to resign Britanny to Geoffrey. the Wars and insurrections. finding all their mighty efforts entirely frustrated. and he even put his hand to his sword. The earl of Leicester was also present at the negotiation. would terminate hostilities on some moderate and reasonable conditions. as their time of service was now expired. but offered young Henry half the revenues of England. a b c The chief hopes of Henry’s enemies seemed now to depend on the state of affairs in England. where his authority was exposed to the most imminent danger. and to retire into the citadel. but their progress was checked by a body of Brabançons. put them to rout.. and a proportionable number of infantry: Carrying young Henry along with him. were all in arms. and the leaders. Page 259 of 354 vassals. One article of prince Henry’s http://oll. immediately dispersed themselves into their several provinces. Henry.

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agreement with his foreign confederates, was, that he should resign Kent, with Dover and all its other fortresses, into the hands of the earl of Flanders: Yet so little national or public spirit prevailed among the independant English nobility, so wholly bent were they on the aggrandizement each of himself and his own family, that, notwithstanding this pernicious concession, which must have produced the ruin of the kingdom, the greater part of them had conspired to make an insurrection and to support the prince’s pretensions. The king’s principal resource lay in the church and the bishops, with whom he was now in perfect agreement; whether that the decency of their character made them ashamed of supporting so unnatural a rebellion, or that they were entirely satisfied with Henry’s atonement for the murder of Becket and for his former invasion of ecclesiastical immunities. That prince, however, had resigned none of the essential rights of his crown in the accommodation; he maintained still the same prudent jealousy of the court of Rome; admitted no legate into England, without his swearing to attempt nothing against the royal prerogatives; and he had even obliged the monks of Canterbury, who pretended to a free election on the vacancy made by the death of Becket, to chuse Roger, prior of Dover, in the place of that turbulent prelate.


e War with Scotland

The king of Scotland made an irruption into Northumberland, and committed great devastations; but being opposed by Richard de Lucy, whom Henry had left guardian of the realm, he retreated into his own country, and agreed to a cessation of arms. This truce enabled the

guardian to march southwards with his army, in order to oppose an invasion, which the earl of Leicester, at the head of a great body of Flemings, had made upon Suffolk. The Flemings had been joined by Hugh Bigod, who made them masters of his castle of Framlingham; and marching into the heart of the kingdom, where they hoped to be supported by Leicester’s vassals, they were met by Lucy, who, assisted by Humphry Bohun, the constable, and the earls of Arundel, Glocester, and Cornwal, had advanced to Farnham with a less numerous, but braver army, to oppose them. The Flemings, who were mostly weavers and artificers (for manufactures were now beginning to be established in Flanders) were broken in an instant, ten thousand of them were put to the sword, the earl of Leicester was taken prisoner, and the remains of the invaders were glad to compound for a safe retreat into their own country. This great defeat did not dishearten the malcontents; who, being supported by the alliance of so many foreign princes, and encouraged by the king’s own sons, determined to persevere in their enterprize. The earl of Ferrars, Roger de Moubray, Archetil de Mallory, Richard de Moreville, Hamo de Mascie, together with many friends of the earls of Leicester and Chester, rose in arms: The fidelity of the earls of Clare and Glocester were suspected; and the guardian, though vigorously supported by Geoffrey, Bishop of Lincoln, the king’s natural son by the fair Rosamond, found it difficult to defend himself on all quarters, from so many open and concealed enemies. The more to augment the confusion, the king of Scotland, on the expiration of the truce, broke into the northern provinces with a great army of 80,000 men; which, though undisciplined and disorderly, and better fitted for committing devastation, than for executing any military enterprize, was become dangerous from the present factious and turbulent spirit of the kingdom. Henry, who had baffled all his enemies in France, and had put his frontiers in a posture of defence, now found England the seat of danger; and he determined by his presence to overawe the malcontents, or by his conduct and courage to subdue them. He landed at Southampton; and knowing the influence of superstition over the minds of the people, he hastened to Canterbury, in order to make



8th July.


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atonement to the ashes of Thomas a Becket, and tender his submissions to a dead enemy. As soon as he came within sight of the church of Canterbury, he dismounted, walked barefoot towards it, prostrated himself before the shrine of the saint, remained in fasting and prayer during a whole day, and watched all night the holy reliques. Not content

Penance of Henry for Becket’s murder.

with this hypocritical devotion towards a man, whose violence and ingratitude had so long disquieted his government, and had been the object of his most inveterate animosity, he submitted to a pennance, still more singular and humiliating. He assembled a chapter of the monks, disrobed himself before them, put a scourge of discipline into the hands of each, and presented his bare shoulders to the lashes which these ecclesiastics successively inflicted upon him. Next day, he received absolution; and departing for London, got soon after the agreeable intelligence of a great victory which his generals had obtained over the Scots, and which, being gained, as was reported, on the very day of his absolution, was regarded as the earnest of his final reconciliation with Heaven and with Thomas a Becket. William, king of Scots, though repulsed before the castle of Prudhow, and other fortified places, had committed the most horrible depredations upon the northern provinces: But on the approach of Ralph de Glanville, the famous justiciary, seconded by Bernard de Baliol, Robert de Stuteville, Odonel de Umfreville, William de Vesci, and other northern barons, together with the gallant bishop of Lincoln, he thought proper to retreat nearer his own country, and he fixed his camp at Alnwic. He had here weakened his army extremely, by sending out numerous detachments in order to extend his ravages; and he lay absolutely safe, as he imagined, from any attack of the enemy. But Glanville, informed of his situation, made a hasty and fatiguing march to Newcastle; and allowing his soldiers only a small interval for refreshment, he immediately set out towards evening for Alnwic. He marched that night above thirty miles; arrived in the morning, under cover of a mist, near the Scottish camp; and regardless of the great numbers of the enemy, he began the attack with his small, but determined, body of cavalry. William was living in such supine security, that he took the English at first for a body of his own ravagers, who were returning to the camp: But the sight of their banners convincing him of his mistake, he entered on the action with no greater body than a hundred horse, in confidence, that the numerous army, which surrounded him, would soon hasten to his relief. He was dismounted on the first shock, and taken prisoner; while his troops, hearing of this disaster, fled on all sides with the utmost precipitation. The dispersed ravagers made the best of their way to their own country; and discord arising among them, they proceeded even to mutual hostilities, and suffered more from each other’s sword than from that of the enemy. This great and important victory proved at last decisive in favour of Henry, and entirely broke the spirit of the English rebels. The bishop of Durham, who was preparing to revolt, made his submissions; Hugh Bigod, though he had received a strong reinforcement of Flemings, was obliged to surrender all his castles, and throw himself on the king’s mercy; no better resource was left to the earl of Ferrars and Roger de Moubray; the inferior rebels imitating the example, all England was restored to tranquillity in a few weeks; and as the king appeared to lie under the immediate protection of Heaven, it was deemed impious any longer to resist him. The clergy exalted anew the merits and powerful intercession of Becket; and Henry, instead of opposing this superstition, plumed himself on the new friendship of the saint, and propagated an opinion which

13th July.

William, king of Scotland, defeated and taken prisoner.


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was so favourable to his intrests.


Prince Henry, who was ready to embark at Gravelines with the earl of Flanders and a great army, hearing that his partizans in England were suppressed, abandoned all thoughts of the enterprize, and joined the camp of Lewis, who, during the absence of the king, had made an irruption into Normandy, and had laid siege to Roüen.


inhabitants; and Lewis, despairing of success by open force, tried to gain the town by a stratagem, which, in that superstitious age, was deemed not very honourable. He proclaimed in his own camp a cessation of arms, on pretence of celebrating the festival of St. Laurence; and when the citizens, supposing themselves in safety, were so imprudent as to remit their guard, he purposed to take advantage of their security. Happily, some priests had, from mere curiosity, mounted a steeple, where the alarm-bell hung; and observing the French camp in motion, they immediately rang the bell, and gave warning to the inhabitants, who ran to their several stations. The French, who, on hearing the alarm, hurried to the assault, had already mounted the walls in several places; but being repulsed by the enraged citizens, were obliged to retreat with considerable loss. Next day, Henry, who had hastened to the defence of his Norman dominions, passed over the bridge in triumph; and entered Roüen in sight of the French army. The city was now in absolute safety; and the king, in order to brave the French monarch, commanded the gates, which had been walled up, to be opened; and he prepared to push his advantages against the enemy. Lewis saved himself from this perilous situation by a new piece of deceit, not so justifiable. He proposed a conference for adjusting the terms of a general peace, which, he knew, would be greedily embraced by Henry; and while the king of England trusted to the execution of his promise, he made a retreat with his army into France. There was, however, a necessity on both sides for an accommodation. Henry could no longer bear to see his three sons in the hands of his enemy; and Lewis dreaded, lest this great monarch, victorious in all quarters, crowned with glory, and absolute master of his dominions, might take revenge for the many dangers and disquietudes, which the arms, and still more the intrigues of France, had, in his disputes both with Becket and his sons, found means to raise him. After making a cessation of arms, a conference was agreed on near Tours; where Henry granted his sons much less advantageous terms than he had formerly offered; and he received their submissions. The most material of his concessions were some pensions which he stipulated to pay them, and some castles which he granted them for the place of their residence; together with an indemnity for all their adherents, who were restored to their estates and honours.


The place was defended with great vigour by the


The king’s accommodation with his sons.


Of all those who had embraced the cause of the young princes, William, king of Scotland, was the only considerable loser, by that invidious and unjust enterprize. Henry delivered from confinement, without exacting any ransom, about nine hundred knights whom he had taken prisoners; but it cost William the ancient independancy of his crown as the price of his liberty. He stipulated to do homage to Henry for Scotland and all his other possessions; he engaged that all the barons and nobility of his kingdom should also do homage; that the bishops should take an oath of fealty; that both should swear to adhere to the king of England against their native prince, if the latter should break his engagements; and that the fortresses of Edinburgh, Stirling, Berwic, Roxborough, and Jedborough should be delivered into Henry’s hands, till

the performance of articles. This severe and humiliating treaty was executed in its full rigour. William, being released, brought up all his barons, prelates, and


1175. 10th Aug.


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abbots; and they did homage to Henry in the cathedral of York, and acknowledged him and his successors for their superior lord. The English monarch stretched still farther the rigour of the conditions which he exacted. He engaged the king and states of Scotland to make a perpetual cession of the fortresses of Berwic and Roxborough, and to allow the castle of Edinburgh to remain in his hands for a limited time. This was the first great ascendant which England obtained over Scotland; and indeed the first important transaction which had passed between the kingdoms. Few princes have been so fortunate as to gain considerable advantages over their weaker neighbours with less violence and injustice, than was practised by Henry against the king of Scots, whom he had taken prisoner in battle, and who had wantonly engaged in a war, in which all the neighbours of that prince, and even his own family, were, without provocation, combined against him.


o King’s equitable administration.

Henry, having thus, contrary to expectation, extricated himself with honour from a situation, in which his throne was exposed to great danger, was employed for several years in the administration of justice, in the execution of the laws, and in guarding against those inconveniences,

which either the past convulsions of his state, or the political institutions of that age, unavoidably occasioned. The provisions, which he made, show such largeness of thought as qualified him for being a legislator; and they were commonly calculated as well for the future as the present happiness of his kingdom. He enacted severe penalties against robbery, murder, false coining, arson; and ordained that these crimes should be punished by the amputation of


the right hand and right foot. The pecuniary commutation for crimes, which has a false appearance of lenity, had been gradually disused; and seems to have been entirely abolished by the rigour of these statutes. The superstitious trial by water ordeal, though condemned by the church, still subsisted; but Henry ordained, that any man, accused of murder or any heinous felony by the oath of the legal knights of the county, should, even though acquitted by the ordeal, be obliged to abjure the realm.




All advances towards reason and good sense are slow and gradual. Henry, though sensible of the great absurdity attending the trial by duel or battle, did not venture to abolish it: He only admitted either of the parties to challenge a trial by an assize or jury of twelve freeholders. This latter method of trial seems to have been very ancient in England, and was fixed by the laws of king Alfred: But the barbarous and violent genius of the age had of late given more credit to the trial by battle, which had become the general method of deciding all important controversies. It was never abolished by law in England; and there is an instance of it so late as the reign of Elizabeth: But the institution revived by this king, being found more reasonable and more suitable to a civilized people, gradually prevailed over it. The partition of England into four divisions, and the appointment of itinerant justices to go the circuit in each division, and to decide the causes in the counties, was another important ordinance of this prince, which had a direct tendency to curb the oppressive barons, and to protect the inferior gentry and common people in their property. Those justices were either prelates or considerable noblemen; who, besides carrying the authority of the king’s commission, were able, by the dignity of their own character, to give weight and credit to the laws.




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That there might be fewer obstacles to the execution of justice, the king was vigilant in demolishing all the new erected castles of the nobility, in England as well as in his foreign dominions; and he permitted no fortress to remain in the custody of those whom he found reason to suspect.


But lest the kingdom should be weakened by this demolition of the fortresses, the king fixed an assize of arms, by which all his subjects were obliged to put themselves in a situation for defending themselves and the realm. Every man, possessed of a knight’s fee, was ordained to have for each fee, a coat of mail, a helmet, a shield, and a lance; every free layman, possessed of goods to the value of sixteen marks, was to be armed in like manner; every one that possessed ten marks was obliged to have an iron gorget, a cap of iron, and a lance; all burgesses were to have a cap of iron, a lance and a wambais; that is, a coat quilted with wool, tow, or such like materials. It appears, that archery, for which the English were afterwards so renowned, had not, at this time, become very common among them. The spear was the chief weapon employed in battle. The clergy and the laity were during that age in a strange situation with regard to each other, and such as may seem totally incompatible with a civilized, and indeed with any species of government. If a clergyman were guilty of murder, he could be punished by degradation only: If he were murdered, the murderer was exposed to nothing but excommunication and ecclesiastical censures; and the crime was atoned for by pennances and submission. Hence the assassins of Thomas a Becket himself, though guilty of the most atrocious wickedness, and the most repugnant to the sentiments of that age, lived securely in their own houses, without being called to account by Henry himself, who was so much concerned, both in honour and interest, to punish that crime, and who professed or affected on all occasions the most extreme abhorrence of it. It was not till they found their presence shunned by every one as excommunicated persons, that they were induced to take a journey to Rome, to throw themselves at the feet of the pontiff, and to submit to the pennances imposed upon them: After which, they continued to possess, without molestation, their honours and fortunes, and seem even to have recovered the countenance and good opinion of the public. But as the king, by the constitutions of Clarendon, which he endeavoured still to maintain, had subjected the clergy to a trial by the civil magistrate, it seemed but just to give them the protection of that power, to which they owed obedience: It was enacted, that the murderers of clergymen should be tried before the justiciary in the presence of the bishop or his official; and besides the usual punishment for murder, should be subjected to a forfeiture of their estates, and a confiscation of their goods and chattels.





The king passed an equitable law, that the goods of a vassal should not be seized for the debt of his lord, unless the vassal be surety for the debt; and that the rents of vassals should be paid to the creditors of the lord, not to the lord himself. It is remarkable, that this law was enacted by the king in a council which he held at Verneüil, and which consisted of some prelates and barons of England, as well as some of Normandy, Poictou, Anjou, Maine, Touraine, and Britanny; and the statute took place in all these last mentioned territories,


other: A certain proof how irregular the ancient feudal government was, and how near the sovereigns, in some instances, approached to despotism, though in others they seemed scarcely to possess any authority. If a prince, much dreaded and revered like Henry, obtained but the appearance of general consent to an ordinance, which was equitable and just, it became immediately an established law, and all his subjects acquiesced in it. If the prince was hated or


though totally unconnected with each


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despised; if the nobles, who supported him, had small influence; if the humours of the times disposed the people to question the justice of his ordinance; the fullest and most authentic assembly had no authority. Thus all was confusion and disorder; no regular idea of a constitution; force and violence decided every thing. The success, which had attended Henry in his wars, did not much encourage his neighbours to form any attempt against him; and his transactions with them, during several years, contain little memorable. Scotland remained in that state of feudal subjection, to which he had reduced it; and gave him no farther inquietude. He sent over his fourth son, John, into Ireland, with a view of making a more complete conquest of the island; but the petulance and incapacity of this prince, by which he enraged the Irish chieftains, obliged the king soon after to recall him. The king of France had fallen into an abject superstition; and was induced by a devotion, more sincere than that of Henry, to make a pilgrimage to the tomb of Becket, in order to obtain his intercession for the cure of Philip, his eldest son. He probably thought himself well intitled to the favour of that saint, on account of their ancient intimacy; and hoped, that Becket, whom he had protected while on earth, would not now, when he was so highly exalted in heaven, forget his old friend and benefactor. The monks, sensible that their saint’s honour was concerned in the case, failed not to publish, that Lewis’s prayers were answered, and that the young prince was restored to health, by Becket’s intercession. That king himself was soon after struck with an apoplexy, which deprived him of his understanding: Philip, though a youth of fifteen, took on him the administration, till his father’s death, which happened soon after, opened his way to the throne; and he proved the ablest and greatest monarch that had governed that kingdom since the age of Charlemagne. The superior years, however, and experience of Henry, while they moderated his ambition, gave him such an ascendant over this prince, that no dangerous rivalship, for a long time, arose between them. The English monarch, instead of taking advantage of his own situation, rather employed his good offices in composing the quarrels which arose in the royal family of France; and he was successful in mediating a reconciliation between Philip and his mother and uncles. These services were but ill-requited by Philip, who, when he came to man’s estate, fomented all the domestic discords in the royal family of England, and encouraged Henry’s sons in their ungrateful and undutiful behaviour towards him. Prince Henry, equally impatient of obtaining power, and incapable of using it, renewed to the king the demand of his resigning Normandy; and on meeting with a refusal, he fled with his consort to the court of France: But not finding Philip, at that time, disposed to enter into war for his sake, he accepted of his father’s offers of reconciliation, and made him submissions. It was a cruel circumstance in the king’s fortune, that he could hope for no tranquillity from the criminal enterprizes of his sons but by their mutual discord and animosities, which disturbed his family, and threw his state into convulsions. Richard, whom he had made master of Guienne, and who had displayed his valour and military genius, by suppressing the revolts of his mutinous barons, refused to obey Henry’s orders, in doing homage to his elder brother for that dutchy; and he defended himself against young Henry and Geoffrey, who, uniting their arms, carried war into his territories. The king with some difficulty composed this difference; but immediately found his eldest son engaged in conspiracies, and ready to take arms against himself. While the young prince was conducting these criminal intrigues, he was seized with a fever at Martel, a castle near Turenne, to which he had retired in discontent; and seeing the approaches of death, he was at last struck with remorse for his undutiful behaviour towards his father. He






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sent a message to the king, who was not far distant; expressed his contrition for his faults; and entreated the favour of a visit, that he might at least die with the satisfaction of having obtained his forgiveness. Henry, who had so often experienced the prince’s ingratitude and violence, apprehended that his sickness was entirely feigned, and he durst not entrust himself into his son’s hands: But when he soon after received intelligence of young Henry’s death, and the proofs of his sincere repentance, this good prince was affected with the deepest sorrow; he thrice fainted away; he accused his own hardheartedness in refusing the dying request of his son; and he lamented, that he had deprived that prince of the last opportunity of making atonement for his offences, and of pouring out his soul in the bosom of his reconciled father. of his age.

11th June. Death of young Henry.


This prince died in the twenty-eighth year

The behaviour of his surviving children did not tend to give the king any consolation for the loss. As prince Henry had left no posterity, Richard was become heir to all his dominions; and the king intended, that John, his third surviving son and favourite, should inherit Guienne as his appanage: But Richard refused his consent, fled into that dutchy, and even made preparations for carrying on war, as well against his father as against his brother Geoffrey, who was now put in possession of Britanny. Henry sent for Eleanor, his queen, the heiress of Guienne, and required Richard to deliver up to her the dominion of these territories; which that prince, either dreading an insurrection of the Gascons in her favour, or retaining some sense of duty towards her, readily performed; and he peaceably returned to his father’s court. No sooner was this quarrel accommodated, than Geoffrey, the most vicious perhaps of all Henry’s unhappy family, broke out into violence; demanded Anjou to be annexed to his dominions of Britanny; and on meeting with a refusal, fled to the court of France, and levied forces against his father. Henry was freed from this danger by his son’s death, who was killed in a tournament at Paris. The widow of Geoffrey, soon after his decease, was delivered of a son,




who received the name of Arthur, and was invested in the dutchy of Britanny, under the guardianship of his grandfather, who, as duke of Normandy, was also superior lord of that territory. Philip, as lord Paramount, disputed some time his title to this wardship; but was obliged to yield to the inclinations of the Bretons, who preferred the government of Henry. But the rivalship between these potent princes, and all their inferior interests, seemed now to have given place to the general passion for the relief of the Holy Land, and the expulsion of the Saracens. Those infidels, though obliged to yield to the immense inundation of Christians in the first crusade, had recovered courage after the torrent was past; and attacking on all quarters the settlements of the Europeans, had reduced these adventurers to great difficulties, and obliged them to apply again for succours from the west. A second crusade, under the emperor Conrade, and Lewis VII. king of France, in which there perished above 200,000 men, brought them but a temporary relief; and those princes, after losing such immense armies, and seeing the flower of their nobility fall by their side, returned with little honour into Europe. Bud these repeated misfortunes, which drained the western world of its people and treasure, were not yet sufficient to cure men of their passion for those spiritual adventures; and a new incident rekindled with fresh fury the zeal of the ecclesiastics and military adventures among the Latin Christians. Saladin, a prince of great generosity, bravery, and conduct, having fixed himself on the throne of Egypt, began to extend his conquests over the east; and finding the settlement of the Christians in Palestine an invincible



. amounting to the tenth of all moveable goods. who immediately carried complaints of this violence before the king of France as his superior lord. some well-grounded hopes of success were entertained. who commanded their armies. Philip. employed the whole time of his short pontificate in rouzing to arms all the Christians who acknowledged his authority.html 4/7/2004 . and except some maritime towns. that Richard had 1188. Pope Urban III. and employed every argument to excite the ruling passions of the age. be brought to a happy issue. 1187. and. 21st January i k l m 1189. many of their most considerable vassals imitated the example. But before this great machine could be put in motion. h The western Christians were astonished on receiving this dismal intelligence. gained over them at Tiberiade a complete victory. that they were unworthy of enjoying any inheritance in heaven. it is pretended. and as the emperor Frederic I. Richard broke into the territories of Raymond. The holy city itself fell into his hands after a feeble resistance. but received for answer. nothing considerable remained of those boasted conquests. he bent the whole force of his policy and valour to subdue that small and barren.libertyfund. instead of supporting and aggrandizing that monarchy. which. who did not vindicate from the dominion of the infidels the inheritance of God on earth. there were still many obstacles to surmount. and men flattered themselves. to seek present power and independance. which had failed under the conduct of many independant leaders. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . that the enthusiastic ardour. which utterly annihilated the force of the already languishing kingdom of Jerusalem. This backwardness of the clergy is perhaps a symptom. by the efforts of such potent and able monarchs. persuaded him. http://oll. and working on his ambitious and impatient temper. entered into a private confederacy with young Richard. which prevailed among the champions of the Revolt of prince Richard. or of imprudent princes. gave a pathetic description of the miserable state of the eastern Christians. on such as remained at home. appeared with the worst grace imaginable. Page 267 of 354 obstacle to the progress of his arms. but as they exempted from this burden most of the regular clergy. archbishop of Tyre. enforced all these topics. and that the frenzy was chiefly supported by the military genius and love of glory in the monarchs. William. The general cry was. Gregory VIII. he invaded the frontiers with a mighty power. who had been the chief promoters of those pious enterprizes. Philip remonstrated with Henry. died of grief. count of Toulouse. pretended that their duty obliged them to assist the crusade with their prayers alone. it had cost the efforts of all Europe to acquire. entered into the same confederacy. which he was one day to inherit. and having secretly gained the count of Tripoli. near a century before. was now by time and ill success considerably abated. The kings of France and England imposed a tax. and deliver from slavery that country which had been consecrated by the footsteps of their Redeemer. which in them. having procured a conference between Henry and Philip near Gisors. the kingdom of Antioch was almost entirely subdued. aided by the treachery of that count.. that an enterprize. and his successor. by disturbing and dismembering it. Taking advantage of dissentions.Hume. might at last. In order to give a pretence for hostilities between the two kings. but important territory. superstition and jealousy of military honour: The two monarchs immediately took the cross. which had at first seized the people for crusades. the secular aspired to the same immunity. and it was with some difficulty they were constrained to desist from an opposition. jealous of Henry’s power.

that Henry himself had become enamoured of young Alice. Normandy. gave great scandal. The chief barons of Poictou. from committing violence upon him. and invaded the provinces of Berri and Auvergne. http://oll. and was determined to carry the war to extremities against the king of England. which. The king of who was a prince of great vigour and capacity. when it was properly prepared. declared for him. and was zealously supported by the clergy. and he was obliged to come anew to a conference with Henry. much less in those between him and his rebellious vassal. in consequence of his secret agreement with Philip. offered to draw his sword against the legate. who had succeeded Albano in the legateship. and fully convinced him of the perfidy of his son. ordered a great elm. to threaten Philip with laying an interdict on all his dominions. under which the conferences had been usually held. that it is superfluous to assign a cause. who might have been covered with shame and confusion by this detection. despised the menace. and Richard. that his enterprize against Raymond had been undertaken by the approbation of Philip himself.Hume. to be cut down. the two kings held a conference at the accustomed place between Gisors and Trie. and finding that he had now received the investiture from their superior lord. Henry.. did homage to the king of France for all the dominions which Henry held of that crown. Several historians assert. which destroyed all hopes of success in the projected crusade. immediately revolted from him. Henry had experienced such fatal effects. Guienne. still prosecuted his design. Page 268 of 354 confessed to the archbishop of Dublin. under colour of revenging the quarrel of the count of Toulouse. displeased with these encreasing obstacles to the crusade. should be invested in all his transmarine dominions. proved entirely ineffectual in the present case. He even proceeded so far as to reproach him with partiality. had often great influence in that age. and from that prince’s alliance with the royal family of France. and should immediately espouse Alice. that it belonged not to the pope to interpose in the temporal disputes of princes. both from the crowning of his eldest son. Henry retaliated. n o p q r s t The king of England was now obliged to defend his dominions by arms. being attached to the young prince. disquieted by the daily revolts of his mutinous subjects.libertyfund. and Anjou. had again recourse to papal authority. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . and mention this as an additional reason for his refusing these conditions: But he had so many other just and equitable motives for his conduct. which the great prudence and advanced age of that monarch render somewhat improbable. on such disadvantageous terms. and dreading still worse effects from their turbulent disposition. As this war. and was hindered. The king of France required. and with receiving bribes from the king of England. the pope’s legate. and received the investitures. still more outrageous. and burning Dreux. by the interposition alone of the company. Philip’s sister. as if he had renounced all desire of accommodation. to whom he had formerly been affianced. and made inroads into the territories of such as still adhered to the king. excommunicated Richard. as the chief spring of discord: But the sentence of excommunication. of which he had before only entertained some suspicion. These terms were such as entirely opened the eyes of the king of England. as if he had already been the lawful possessor. by making inroads upon the frontiers of France. to show his disgust. But his own vassals refused to serve under him in so invidious a cause. and to offer terms of peace. Cardinal Albano. and was conducted by his authority. in order to find means of accommodating their differences: They separated on worse terms than before. and who had already been conducted into England. But Philip. and to engage in a war with France and with his eldest son.. that he rejected these terms. and Philip.html 4/7/2004 . that Richard should be crowned king of England in the life-time of his father. a prince of great valour. and told Anagni. while Richard. and engaged the cardinal Anagni. and his secret alliance with Philip.

Hume.libertyfund. z 6th Next day. and abilities. and this finishing blow. the more he resented the barbarous return. a b Thus died. and who. a malediction which he never could be prevailed on to retract. at the head of them. escaped with some difficulty: Amboise. and which made him fully sensible of the desperate situation of his affairs. who alone had behaved dutifully towards him. who had been accustomed to give the law in most treaties. and had daily instances of the cowardice or infidelity of his governors. expected the most dismal issue to all his enterprizes. the duke of Burgundy. should promise to join Philip and Richard against him. which his four sons had successively made to his parental care. which he received of the taking of Tours.html 4/7/2004 . the name of his second son. and the intelligence. his conversation affable and entertaining: His elocution easy. on account of his ascendant over him. already overloaded with cares and sorrows. that he submitted to all the rigorous terms. in the fifty-eighth year of his age and thirty-fifth of his reign. and ever at command. by depriving him of every comfort in life. of that undutiful behaviour. the earl of Flanders. and that all his vassals. at the castle of Chinon near Saumur. was not wholly destitute of generosity. he was astonished to find. cursed the day in y which he received his miserable being. his countenance was lively and engaging. The unhappy father. who came to visit the dead body of his father. finding this last disappointment in his domestic tenderness. When he demanded a list of those barons. opened their gates on the appearance of Philip and Richard: Tours was menaced. that his own barons should engage to make him observe this treaty by force. often excited the jealousy of Richard. but possessed both bravery and conduct in war. was struck with horror and remorse at the sight. to whom he was bound to grant a pardon for their connections with Richard. that Richard should marry the princess Alice. Richard. in private as well as in public life. and threw him into a lingering fever. x who had always been his favourite. which had brought his parent to an untimely grave. attended his corpse to the nunnery of Fontervrault. He loved peace. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . though too late. and in case of his violating it. at that very instant. who had thrown himself into that place.. who had retired to Saumur. on his ungrateful and undutiful children. he exclaimed. of which he expired. should receive an indemnity for the offence. Chaumont. for wisdom. and the king. blood gushed from the mouth and nostrils of the corpse. was the least that he met with on this occasion. is almost without a blemish. that he himself should pay twenty thousand marks to the king of France as a compensation for the charges of the war. that that prince should receive the homage and oath of fealty of all his subjects both in England and his transmarine dominions. He agreed. whose interests he had ever anxiously at heart. the greatest prince of his time. and the most powerful in extent of dominion of all those that had ever filled the throne of England. and as the attendants observed. so subdued his spirit. persuasive. and Henry. quite broke his spirit. which were imposed upon him. notwithstanding his criminal conduct. agreeably to a vulgar superstition. which makes a man either estimable or amiable.. broke out into expressions of the utmost despair. severe in the http://oll. and he seems to have possessed every accomplishment both of body and mind. received from these disadvantageous terms. John. The more his heart was disposed to friendship and affection. virtue. Page 269 of 354 Ferté-Barnard fell first into the hands of the enemy: Mans was next taken by assault. and Chateau de Loire. strong and well proportioned. who had entered into confederacy with Richard. Death and character of Henry. and he expressed a deep sense. and the archbishop of Rheims interposed with their good offices. and who had even. His natural son. u w But the mortification. His character. where it lay in state in the abbey-church. He was of a middle stature. which Henry. was provident without timidity. that. that he was his father’s murderer. While he was in this state of despondency. Geoffrey. and bestowed.

in a good measure. and on many occasions. they no longer thought that they needed the protection of the crown for the enjoyment of their possessions. above any prince of his time.libertyfund. and kept himself from corpulency. then an evident alteration in the maxims of government.. the sense of submission towards princes was somewhat diminished in the barons. He preserved health. the legislatures seem not to have been distinguished. This prince. like most of his predecessors of the Norman line. and pushed that prince into measures. and desired to restrain those exorbitant prerogatives and arbitrary practices. in its most remarkable features. and of animosity against each other: The conduct of the barons in the transmarine dominions of those monarchs afforded perhaps still more flagrant instances of these convulsions. and he cultivated his natural talents by study. to which he was somewhat inclined. consists almost entirely of narrations of this nature. gives evident proofs of the disorders attending the feudal institutions. found not in the first Henry such unexceptionable means of exerting itself. And it was not long ere this secret revolution in the sentiments of men produced. by the latter.html 4/7/2004 . and being entirely incorporated with the people.Hume. and his long experience of the ingratitude and infidelity of men never destroyed the natural sensibility of his temper. which disposed him to friendship and society. http://oll. His affections. and by frequent exercise. and that kingdom was become little inferior. during the continuance of this violent government. seem now to have been. diffused still farther the spirit of liberty. When he could enjoy leisure. or considered their tenure as precarious. in laws and arts. and temperate without austerity. Page 270 of 354 execution of justice without rigour. to any of its neighbours on the continent. transplanted into England. particularly hunting. when abroad: The French gentry and nobility attended him when he resided in England: Both nations acted in the government. which were both criminal in themselves.. who were his contemporaries. The cities. the Romish sentiments in religion. which was a ruling passion in both. by an abstemious diet. their spirit of rebellion against the prince and laws.: Excepting only. The more homely. in all the fashionable accomplishments. That memory also of a more equal government under the Saxon princes. and the subtilties of school philosophy: The feudal ideas of civil government. such as they were. therefore. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . As the king and all the English barons were of French extraction. and made the barons both desirous of more independance to themselves. which the necessities of war and the violence of conquest had at first obliged them to indulge in their The history of all the preceding kings of England since the conquest. All foreign improvements. and were regarded as the models of imitation. that of his maternal grandfather Henry I. during several ages. as well as his enmities. c Miscellaneous transactions of this reign. which they saw enjoyed by their brethren on the continent. were warm and durable. The Norman and other foreign families. and were the cause of farther crimes. established in England. that ambition. and the history of France. he recreated himself either in learned conversation or in reading. first violent convulsions in the state. They aspired to the same liberty and independance. but more sensible manners and principles of the Saxons. the licentiousness of the barons. His character has been transmitted to us by several writers. and it extremely resembles. the devoted attachment to papal authority was much augmented among the clergy. and willing to indulge it to the people. had now struck deep root. in literature and politeness. whom at first they oppressed and despised. from which his grandson’s conduct was happily exempted. were exchanged for the affectations of chivalry. had taken entire possession of the people: By the former. which remained with the English. as if they were the same people. except Stephen. passed more of his time on the continent than in this island: He was surrounded with the English gentry and nobility. the manners of that people acquired the ascendant.

d There is another instance given by historians. esteemed among the richest and best-born citizens in London. which had been wrecked on the coast. so provoked the king. It is said in the preamble to this law. to chuse this prince for a referee. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution .org/Texts/Hume0129/History/0011-1_Bk. it had become so dangerous to walk the streets by night. their police was in general loose and irregular. the sons and relations of considerable citizens.Hume. which proves to what a height such riots had proceeded. with an intention of plundering it. By these crimes. king of Castile. He was convicted by the ordeal. and gave a sentence. and come to his relief. and how open these criminals were in committing their robberies.. A band of them had attacked the house of a rich citizen. having some controversies with Alfonso. was contented. that. e f g Henry so far abolished the barbarous and absurd practice of confiscating ships. that he swore vengeance against the criminals. h The reign of Henry was remarkable also for an innovation. or to walk without a light or lanthorn. and there occur instances. to the amount of a hundred or more. and submitted their differences to his judgment. who lost his hand. It appears from a statute of Edward I.. It was a custom in London for great numbers. appeared in the passage to oppose them: He cut off the right hand of the first robber that entered. and to commit with impunity all sorts of disorder. though these are always the first seat of law and liberty. which seem to evince. if one man or animal were alive in the ship. as a pledge of their not departing from his award. in case the way of duel had been chosen by Henry. Henry made the cause be examined before his great council. that he ordained. and exposed to the same disorders. and was tempted by the promise of pardon to reveal his confederates. had broken through a stone-wall with hammers and wedges. that the vessel and goods should be restored to the owners. Sanchez. The man. which was afterwards carried farther by his successors. which was much more regarded than that of many thousands of an inferior station. Page 271 of 354 could neither be very numerous nor populous. and became thenceforth more rigorous in the execution of the laws. to rob and murder the passengers. to form themselves into a licentious confederacy. both by night and by day. and made such stout resistance. was taken. to break into rich houses and plunder them. which was submitted to by both parties. that these disorders were not remedied even in that reign. The brother of the earl of Ferrars had been murdered by some of those nocturnal rioters.html 4/7/2004 . which was established by the feudal institutions. and http://oll. among whom was one John Senex. to carry a weapon. that even foreign and distant princes made him arbiter. that the citizens durst no more venture abroad after sun-set. than if they had been exposed to the incursions of a public enemy. armed cap-a-pee and supported by his faithful servants. It was then made penal to go out at night after the hour of the curfew. and had already entered the house sword in hand. Henry’s care in administering justice had gained him so great a reputation. and was attended with the most important consequences.libertyfund. with those by which the country was generally infested. though Alfonso had married the daughter of Henry. there were continual frays in the streets of London. in order to defend his cause by arms. and though he offered five hundred marks for his life. These two Spanish kings sent each a stout champion to the court of England. and ordered him to be hanged. when the citizen. the king refused the money. king of Navarre. that his neighbours had leisure to assemble. and they agreed. and the death of so eminent a person. This prince was disgusted with the species of military force. that. each of them to consign three castles into neutral hands.

The archbishop of Canterbury was obliged to pay a large sum of money to the legate. in following reigns.Hume. one day. the usual method of supplying the necessities of the crown. The monks and retainers of archbishop Richard fell upon Roger. therefore. yet rendered very little service to the sovereign. and which could not so well enter into the body of our history. Henry.libertyfund. to repeat the ceremony of their coronation thrice every year. prostrate on the ground and in the mire before Henry. and they were apt to carry into the camp the same refractory and independant spirit. and other more moderate penalties. in the presence of the cardinal and of the synod. seeing no end of exactions. so generally odious to the nation. that the monks and prior of St. This prince was also the first that levied a tax on the moveables or personal estates of his subjects. not capitally. threw him to the ground. The barons. that he was taken up half dead. trampled him under foot. Their zeal for the holy wars made them submit to this 4/7/2004 . imprisonments. on which all their power depended: The barons. after the first years of his reign. had cut off http://oll. who was also their abbot. than when composed of all the military vassals of the crown: The feudal institutions began to relax: The kings became rapacious for money. with difficulty. sought to defend their property: And as the same causes had nearly the same effects. but more useful. they were unskilful and disorderly in all their operations. and a precedent being once obtained. Henry. fifth. saved from their violence. in 1176. when ecclesiastics could proceed to such extremities. but by fines. this question of precedency begat a controversy between them. summoned an assembly of the clergy at London. It was a usual practice of the kings of England. though it was extremely burdensome to the subject. When the prince had thus obtained money. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution . which was found to be very expensive and very useless. he made a contract with some of those adventurers. and punished any transgressions of them. according to their different success in the contest. as legate into Britain. on assembling the states at the three great festivals. nobles as well as commons. and as both the archbishops pretended to sit on his right hand. they were obliged to serve only forty days. in the history of the exchequer. Swithun threw themselves. in the different countries of Europe. it may not be improper to mention the quarrel between Roger archbishop of York. Since we are here collecting some detached incidents. complaining. None of his successors revived it. instead of requiring the personal attendance of his vassals. in which Europe at that time abounded: They found him soldiers of the same character with themselves who were bound to serve for a stipulated time: The armies were less numerous. The tax of Danegelt. There is mention made. Cardinal Haguezun being sent. in order to suppress all complaints with regard to this enormity. never renewed this ceremony. to which they were accustomed in their civil government. and other writers give us an account of three more of them. this taxati