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He speaks from his own experience. the poetry. and There are pitfalls in farm life. with more acres and ruder ways. the health.FOREWORD BY N. raised our living. Powell has no rival. daily interests. machinery. but where one may live a full life. . There was school in winter round and rich. independence. and market. I go back to and work all the time. inspired by special crops. and he knows birds as well as Burroughs. not the least of which are the exaggerated hopes. and more than any other writer does he know the whole round of farm life and country attractions. he leads us into none of these. fruit as well as Burbank. I for a multitude of readers. and had something to sell. who join am me spokesin deep gratitude to the author for the practical wisdom and the joyful spirit he has put into his writings. O. climate. NELSON man In writing a foreword to this book. He takes them all in. In exploiting the positive delights of country life Mr. He advocates the farm as a home. pedigreed animals. not for exploiting hobbies. intensive farming better than Kropotkin. the beauty. We my boyhood when we had another kind of farming.

George " Jacob Holyoake wrote that great book. his farm and his pen are as prolific as ever. and needed little that he could not raise. . than-we birds to his He migrates with the wiserNew York home in time for pruning and planting and to his lakeside Florida home after harvesting. and if possible to turn it." in his ninetieth year. It the enlightenment and warning of books like this to help stem the tide. Powell has never writ- ten a dull article. or misstated facts. and so were ten- Every man with every member of his family worked his own farm. but city family not one-half that number has a month's living ahead. Powell shows a defiance of years in recently making himself a winter farm home in Florida. or wasted a paragraph on an idea not worth the while. as I have. Edward Everett Hale did some of his best work in his eighty-ninth year. Bygones Worth Remembering. independent. To go from that picture to the great factory mul- may well make angels weep. But few of you have seen. Nearly eighty years of age. and Mr.FOREWORD Hired hands were rare ants. titudes of to-day A panic strength is know from needs all a disaster. and old age is a calamity. One out of ten may own its own home. the nine acres on which he has these forty years learned the solemn facts which he is telling us. You readers know that Mr. exceptions. was industrious. history that a country's yeomanry city We is its and the rabble its destruction.

which he delightfully illustrates. The . keep a million boys from straying away from the farm to the factory. but toward saving some of the more rational no one has done so much as Mr. Powell with his fascinating. responsive to intelligence and skill. true. manhood. " is no longer the slogan with which we must land " do our work.FOREWORD toward the deadly city no preaching has been able to stop. that farming is the highest and best of callings. It pleases me much to have the opportunity of putting a foreword to this book. and persuasive " Back to the stories about all sides of country life. It is his noble sentiment and fixed opinion. but " Stay on the land where you are and to this we all say amen. I wish it may have a million readers. fatal trend . and independence. building health. and that it may be translated into a score of languages. full of interest.




Rough Stone and a Will Women Have There Is Their Place in Outdoor Work Wonders Work . 180 The Potato Harvest Use of Labor-Saving Machinery Brook Combines Beauty and Usefulness What Can Be Done on a Small Scale with Pond Cultivate the 200 220 236 Lilies . . .. . 20 42 Trellises Cost Little and Make Beautiful Garden Fences Skill in .ILLUSTRATIONS The Road to the Country Home and Happiness Frontispiece FACING PAGE An Old House Is Good Raw Little Material for a Real Home .. 288 . . 60 82 100 No Age-Limit Is Gardening Its Even the Barn Should Have Share of Vines and Hedges 120 140 . A Good Horse Your Best Hired Man Give the Fences and Shrubbery a Chance at Your House 162 Teach the Children to Work with Hands and Brain . A 252 The Country-Home Maker Must Not Be Afraid of Hard Work Where Vines and Flowers Cover the Signs of 270 Age .




who intend to live II . The violet goes. They are not a- growth of the land. the mansions well enough alone. These are extravagances that are They apt to display only the wealth of their owners. . and the lotus pond nowhere a smell of the wild What the I men shall hold myself to strictly is helping of moderate means. create tenantry and retinues of servants instead of freeholders and free men.HOW TO LIVE IN I THE COUNTRY CHAPTER PROPOSE a FINDING THE PLACE book that shall be helpful to those I shall desire to create country homes. the simplicity of Nature is compelled to give way to the artificiality of display. is comes in and there mint left. for I have no interest in seeing costly residences on our hill- I who let sides that few can afford to occupy and that no one can make pay. and wherever they are. coming up out of the needs of the people. but they are a transplantation of the city into the country.

does not mean that the are decreasing in size. rural free mail detrolley are a triple alliance to make home in the remote glen or the farm on the mountainside hardly more isolated than the apartment in a city flat. only that their ratio of growth. although I believe the tide was even then In 1900 it was found that only slowly turning. livery. is growing less. that is the new folk. I have a warm feeling for those who are tired of city life or town life. In 1890 the census told us that the cities were receiving over sixty-six per cent of the increase of population. and desire to react from artificiality. The and the country telephone. to market. of course. backing up to the barn doors and taking . This was a splendid showing for the country and country life. and we are happy to know that the ratio has been not At present there is steadily increasing ever since.12 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY wider and warmer and think nobler and develop both food and character by intimacy with Nature. a little over thirty per cent of the annual increase dropped into city congestion notwithstanding the enormous increase of immigration. with the single exception of New York City. Neighbors are joined together so that they can converse freely and cooperate more the The trolley is even hauling farmers' wagons easily. It means that country life has at last at- tractions that counter-balance the attractions of the town. This. much over twenty per cent of the people lost to cities the hills and valleys.

So far as knowledge is con- cerned. or a orchard you must know what you are about. and moths are your main and then you can- . for that counts very heavily in gathering your crops." or hire a conventional house and pay his rent and water taxes. automobile is going farther. or a farm. and you must study every tree and every shrub you But fruit . for welcome for all comers. you must a good deal more about insects. and the lay of the land You must know a good deal about soil know while others are a serious pest.FINDING THE PLACE 13 The long trains of grain as well as passengers. It is not the surface. the birds of the locality. must know the thoroughly. and nothing better can be done with our experience than to sift it carefully for the help of those who are gested street for the sod and rose so simple a problem as appears on the country is far from having a a quitting the con- lawn. some birds are your best allies. for the beetles rivals. although for the present it has not outgrown its aristocratic youth. Any town with half a dozen of these motors is quite as independent as a town on a railroad line served once day by a freight train. At any rate the spirit of " back to the land " has gained a wonderful momentum. nor indefinite is it number of ready to locate and support an applicants who have no knowl- edge of earth culture. much less is required of has little more to do than to the city dweller. who " furnish his apart- ments. if you would have a garden.

a botanist. fifty of logue You cannot grow pears. and the art of com- is complex. you that this is the very land . So with everything you touch. with the demand that he become something of an ornithologist. There is no question about your making mistakes. or fail. student and become an investigator. a dozen probably perhaps only five of You must find out which suits your soil and your climate. because our insect number. anyone who would become a country home-maker is confronted. while the number of fruits and vegetables has been multiplied by one hundred. but ner. and twenty-five of cherries. at the very outset.i 4 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY not safely be ignorant of simple botany you must at least know the difference between poison ivy and Virginia creeper. and an entomoloOf course he will be an amateur and a begingist. and which are most subject to local diseases and insect foes. planting you have to choose from a cataof one hundred varieties of apples. In other words. a geologist. the aim is to help you make as few as You are at once to take up the role of possible. This a sincere student he must be. When more than each class. At a ers in location. A well-organized country home is an affair not too bating them often found. the outset you are liable to make serious blundgood deal of the land is not in A condition suitable I and am sorry to tell for an amateur home-maker. is much more rivals are increasing in true than formerly.

tion has followed those who undertook Degenerato live in some of the higher lands of the Alleghenies. At least two-fifths of New York State knows nothing about tillage. and mucky land will be all right for truck gardening. or for other reasons. or the unconJersey and good deal trollable presence of insects. is not true that you cannot create soil for yourself. and a good deal of this you must do in the best localities. true that you must make and another chapter we It over that matter very thoroughly. The first point to consider soil for yourself. but those who are going for health as well as pleasure and profit must avoid any location infected with malaria and supplied with insects to convey the poison. Within easy reach of New York City there are hundreds of acres unsuitable for homesteads. and a more all the way up and down the coast. but if you begin on a barren piece of soil shall talk . is still in the swamp or brushwood state. Flat. and there are millions of acres in the United States that even experts cannot subject to purposes of home-making. moist.FINDING THE PLACE that will be offered you with all sorts i of advertise- ment and promises. and even then you must judge with a bias against the proposition. is a soil of sufficient It in is depth to respond to cultivation. owing to the impossibility of good drainage. Do not buy an acre of soil until you have personally examined it. The mosquito owns a good slice of New one third of the State of Florida.

these eastern a conservatory dells and this and swales cannot be grown This is not quite true of peaches. or oak trees spreading themselves over a diameter of sixty feet. of the land is important for more reasons have hinted above. for the chief trouble with their fruit buds is that they are started will bring to perfection fruits that successfully in any other location- . to judge of the soil than by the size and thrift of the trees that are tree. as a rule you must prefer good strong if clay. do not be afraid of the to soil. growing in it. As a rule. or even pine trees standing eighty feet high. and a slope of hillsides to the east is decidedly preferable You may even find that for a long-growing season. I do not know of any easier way. a short distance of an eighth of a mile will make a difference of frost in the spring The than I lay two months. If you wish you want soil with grow fruit. If you find a huge apple or a grove of fine maples.i6 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY you start at a great disadvantage and are not likely to remain long in the country. by cutting off the latest and the earliest in autumn. even if it is very sandy. The morning will discover sun is the growing by examining you on the east front of a house as compared with one on the west. low land is colder than high land. as a general rule. sun. with about twenty per cent of sand. Gathering the sun's heat during the day much more freely. to a grow celery good admixture of sand should be the and other vegetables mucky chief point to consider.

trees So and cherry trees. but they will sweep the moisture off your land and make you the victim of drought. select easy slopes that take drainage readily. that we wash and summer showers are losing soil by winter often faster than we You will be surprised. We shall talk a good deal more about this by and by. or at least a line of woodland. you must make a wind-break as soon as possible. let it be kept clearly in mind while selecting a location that you full blast do not wish to plant your house where the of northeasters or northwesters will strike against you. see if you cannot get behind a nice bit of forest. This is one of the chief troubles with our country-home are making it. If you cannot. If possible. perhaps.FINDING THE PLACE or softened by winter suns. At all events. in this if 17 way are less you are designing to plant a peach orchard you want a northern exThis is partly true of some of our pear posure. life. at my placing the matter of wind-breaks so prominently in my advice as to location. but meanwhile if you can get the protection of an already-grown wind-break it will count enormously . and liable to resist late frosts. and with it a great deal of soil. They will not only put an edge on your climate and uproot your trees. If you cannot snuggle down behind a hill to break the force of dominant winds. Winter thawing is more dangerous than a steady all winter freezing. rather than steeper hillsides that carry off the water with a dash.

in this Involved that of soil wash. you had far better be in There are locations also which become un- desirable because they take the wash of neighbors' drains. in your purchasing. come up The highways of tion state. lawing in. the United States are In a transi- will not count so seriously in makthe choice of a homestead after the reign of ing and they is the automobile line well established.1 8 HOW TO LIVE IN and your THE COUNTRY crops. but for health and for tillage alike it is an absolute requisite. is wish to engage I would the last thing that you make sure not to buy my way into a quarrel. but best of all is it to nestle down in the warm hollows under a ridge of hills. The law will hardly protect you in such a case. or even much of a slope. select your property with a clear vision and a certain knowledge as to its being easily drained and not too easily washed. to This new gasoall al- power belongs the people after though the farmer has had something of a tussle at . In future chapters this subject will for careful discussion. of course. denuded of all drainage problem is. Look out for this. and if it does. Many of our hillsides are being valuable dirt and fertilizers are swept away as fast as they are applied. once more. that is. for your comfort Look out for a good evergreen screen. always demand a hillside. without health It is absolutely necessary that the city. your country propbe of capable erty good drainage. and it is equally that it This does not necessary get such drainage.

FINDING THE PLACE the outset." . there is hardly one thing that affects it more than the kind of road you are allowed I have seen carriages dragged through mud to use. however. commanded where you will not suffer from primitive habits the moment you step off your propThere are sections. often twois thirds. and this is a shady and convenient way of going cross-woods to neighbors or to market. " a right down wasteful with fences on both sides " " and right hot. The art of road-making is not to be out of hand by an ordinary pathmaster. are only trails under the pines. but the control of our roads is so steadily passing over to State and county commissioners that the change for the better will assuredly go on much more rapidly. as in Florida. up to the hubs. it is securing a revolution in road-making. 19 It is going to make our whole farm suburban and enable every village to comproperty municate almost as readily with the market as those on railroad lines can do at present. but our Northern homes are reached only by straight lines and square corners. where roads erty. way. if you are to consider your personal comfort. you must take into account the condition of the roadway very seriously when The difference between good selecting your site. At present. going to boulevard the whole country. Then. Select a location ! too. I reckon. roads and bad roads is at least one-third. and the owners soon grew sick of country life. suh says my negro plowman. It demands and In fact. in hauling.

and is is I am glad of but where there no public conveyance to the town graded school it hard on the boys and girls if they are compelled to a mile. is about done for.20 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY All of which means look out for shady roads. You will naturally look out for the schoolhouse and the church and the store and the depot and for the sort of neighbors you are to find. Besides. It is go more than not improbable. and the children need but little guidance to make them fairly exNor will they get a pert in half a dozen sciences. Country churches are now almost entirely deserted in many places. the time may come when you wish to sell. and do not buy where the people have squatted down without regard to comfort or beauty. Every country homestead has its own material at hand. that will do. good knowledge of country life and country work in any other way than by careful home training. This weekly gathering in the country is hardly a question of religious faith. however. and in that case a well-shaded home. so here again comes in the question of how far are you willing to live from the village or the town church. what have done employ tutors at home. although town schools are now sweeping out the district schools. reached by a well-shaded and wellkept avenue will double the market price of your property. many of I the new country home-makers myself. but of . Children should not be compelled to go a very long distance to school. The old red schoolhouse it .



and. At any rate. he may carry it to his barns as water power. and I can easily imagine how the mother of the household will find a bend where she can place her easy chair. and most people cannot afford to neglect who have large libraries and peculiar way of the weekly meeting.FINDING THE PLACE social life. mimic water wheels. Then again the time is coming when every farmer who can command a bit of water power will have his own plant for electric lighting and a good deal of machine work. 21 Only those facilities in the lost. yet after all there are neighborhoods where one would not like to cast in his lot. as a rule. good brook is money and joy in one. The talking of a brook will put a lot of poetry into your daily life. a very important item in selecting a country It is half of life to children. I advise you to know a little at least about this matter before you decide on your purchase. Even culture can get along without to this class there is a good deal As for neighbors they are a good deal what we make them. to be used in case of fire. look about to see if . it. and it will come very handy to irrigate your strawberries and help you through a drought that threatens to destroy your garden. under a beech or an apple tree. or to his house. or possibly provide pure spring water for consumption. and I think A so much of it a beautiful stream of water that I should count home. turning their In any case. let the rippling and the singing sweeten her thoughts and drive away care.

We this line at the best. with ungoverned youngsters who made fruit growI planted along the fences ing something of a tax. but fight them fruit if and you must. but poetry is only the butter on our daily bread. .22 there HOW TO is LIVE IN I THE COUNTRY have a bit of a stream running quietly through my apple cellar to prevent the shriveling of fruit. It is just as well to avoid these fellows if you can. weasels and skunks in the chicken yard. is the poetry side of the country. but it is you by and by how to make a good better to buy one already made. It is better. and hawks and owls overhead can make things very lively about a country home. until my Kittatinnies and Snyders constituted a sort of body guard do not overlook your was beset from the rear guard that kept out all marauders. Wood chucks in the corn. the roughest sort of blackberry bushes. so I recommend you to know fairly well what you will have to do. vineyard of grapes that has cost us a good deal of money and Beauty of outlook We A labor ought not to be at the mercy of either birds or shall have enough to contend with along boys. before you begin. then it winds on to where I can use it among my berries. I shall teach rear. foxes occasionally. Be very careful that you At one time I surroundings. to know what you are to guard against and to find out also what sort of exposure you will have to wild animals. must look out for the bread as well. a brook on hand. however.

should pay its own way. Most of his supplies will be in demand by that hour. The trolley cars in some of our Western States are already drawing long lines of truck and fruit to . You understand. so that anymay have his garden stuff fifty or one hundred miles from market. but for the present we are not able to command the conditions of transportatown. ten to fifteen miles and reach his customers in time that is. each morning. that a good deal of your fruit. and it will compel him to be a very early riser. or you will learn as you go on. A little nearer the market will be better. such as berries. before nine or ten o'clock. If you cannot locate yourself as I am suggesting. but if you have private customers. It is true that I This will come about in due time. flowers. They must be picked one day and delivered the next morning. and reach the consumer early in the morning. every country home. one grower can drive.. you must look out for some sort of public conveyance. you must not live more than twenty miles from their residences. in vegetables. etc. At present the vegetable or fruit tion. This makes it very desirable that you locate not too far from city or am advocating the building of homes in the country. eggs. which is always desirable. small or big. will not keep over until the second day. direction there should be a surplus for some market in other words.FINDING THE PLACE Every country home ought not only to furnish 23 its own but fruits. chickens.

It is quite enough. but it is not enough when one has gone so far as to be carrying on experiments in new products This requires the isolation of cross-breeding. looking at the amount of work to be done. or even on three. accordI have ing to his bias and what he expects to grow. in the vegetable line. to prevent sportIn fact. I need at least twice as ing and recrossing. and I am not sure but that We the automobile will very soon become the country man's market wagon. acres as I have. only by and by when you wish that you had ten you will find that your very success has run up the price of land about you. but do not start out with big ideas. and you would have done better to have bought a little more at the outset. I am assuming that nearly all uct of will country home-makers will soon have a surplus prodsome sort to dispose of and that nearly all I must need to find a convenient place of sale. in A country home must some sense always be a growing home. not make this an absolute rule. in vehicles owned and loaded by the growers. shall see more of this. . only nine acres left. I should say that he would require from five to twenty-five acres. and half of that only is devoted horticulturist or to fruit growing. you can get a lot of gardening done on five acres. for there will be a minority even in the country who will have no taste for gardening and orcharding. many However.24 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY market. many acres does the country home-seeker re- How quire? That depends upon whether he is a skilled an amateur.

Those same lands are now at double that valuation. choice neighbors. In most of our Northern States good sites for a country home can be purchased at from fifty to one hundred dollars per acre. Five acres will give you a garden and a house lawn and will feed a horse. but if wisely handled will feed a horse and two cows." not begin at the butt Begin on a small scale. and going up.FINDING THE PLACE As some one has said " : 25 Do end. Rightly managed. In Florida I found excellent orange land selling at from ten to twenty dollars per acre. but a great deal depends upon the surroundings and certain accidental conditions. one thousand dollars per acre. relative locality as to railroad and market. it will bring you in over one thousand dollars surplus. and all the other . I can take you to a locality where the valuation of land while half a mile less.e a combination of high imwith provement splendid outlook. As to price. and some of the other advantages which I have You can get choice places generally designated. The for from twenty to seventy-five dollars an acre. but at the wedge end. The question must be settled by a thorough examination of the soil. Twenty acres will not only grow a good deal for market. away it is one hundred dollars or is reasons ar. as soon as your it may gardens and orchards are in full bearing turn over to you two thousand. and expand as conditions demand. but this was owing to the fact that a great freeze destroyed millions of orange trees in 1895.

Your property is not measured exgood actly by what your deed covers. Run no danger of getting roped in to an inconsiasm. in to land Florida for those who have pressure buy siderate purchase. but you can overlook a beautiful valley you as own it. matter an unwise purchase cannot be I have persistent and continual easily reconsidered. do not attend any auction sales even where there are free rides and free lunches. I travel . go again. Go yourself and look over land and study conditions. Remember violets grow in You cannot quite trust yourself. dell. I refuse to do this unless the conditions are very peculiar. Of course.26 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY items that I have specified. study it. Whatever else you do. and without enthu- more than one and that old apple trees are to be found on more Burn up advertising circulars and than one hillside. and in this never seen that State. some of us cannot have the first pick. and this goes a long if as way farther in the country than in the city. I advise you not to be in a hurry. I have made as clear as possible my own experience in selecting a place for a country home. It will be a memorable feature of your experience to go on a When you see what long and rather still hunt. do not buy through unknown agents and do not take up with any of the splendid offers made by those who speculate in land. at all events. so that first of all you may know whether you can adjust yourself to the conditions that you find involved in the purchase. pleases you.

I'd not ask Peter to use his keys for me. New Meanwhile. sir. not merely to feed the body. full of villages and orchards. if your lot is not too closely conditioned. The conditions. while our highways constitute a public garden for the benefit of all of us. so homeful. " Well.FINDING THE PLACE about Massachusetts and 27 York. and I . only you see I must be at my work in the city by seven in the morning. here on these hilly slopes. That is the value of a home in the country . and almost everywhere come upon spots so beautiful." said a heady fellow. that I long to purchase and develop each one of them. like a dia- mond sits in a queen's ring. but also to feed the soul. take up one of these noble bits of property. " " I'd like It out Well. That village in front sits on the middle of the valley. however. Somebody will do it yet. but what you do should be done with the one controlling purpose of forever enjoying that landscape." The scene had awakened all in the Celtic the poetry that sleeps mind. He wants enough land to and outlook. and America is bound to be one great garden." said a wise and witty Irishman who brought me a load of hay. Do not trifle with it. are so various that everyone cannot select from the standpoint of landscape teamster will do wisely who looks to proximity to his work and fertility of the soil as the two sure requisites. " if I could forever see that valley. The feed his horse or horses and to furnish garden room. sir.

There's a small bed of strawberries. and flowers in the bargain. with a chance to be helpful in the garden. but enough for us and a few for I get three cuts of alfalfa from my yard and from the lot in the rear. hens. as well as her not seldom that she gives me a basket of eggs for the market. and there I've as fine a garden as one may wish." The I know two maiden ladies old maids if you who please (for they were growing old very fast) came out of the city about eight years ago. and to sleep well. I drink less. unless it be to see how clean and healthy they be growing. and later our and fresh corn. and there is a bank account slowly creeping " on. and The it's wife tends all these. and it nigh feeds my horse. They have as much I like fruit as they like. just half a mile from the city lamps. and along the fence some raspbernot many. They planted flowers and lettuce. and a lot of cherry trees besides. garden. and bought a cottage half a mile from me. Since we began to earn and to save. in the my" friends. They were very poky and full of ailments. nothing better myself than to sit on the turf with them. pretty acre. and soon had their own pie plant and greens and fresh peas and a good deal else to . too. I'd be string beans ries glad to have you taste our asparagus. There are three pear trees for shade. half a dozen plum trees.28 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY iVe a may be needed until eight o'clock at night. children are out of the streets.

because he is being spoiled for home-making. things to Nature that awakened can run a country are now. 29 their pets. . but they can I manage girl the small fruits with ease. that made them. a novel sight to see a long drove of geese going shooed along by their owners. As. ishness. Look out for this. my friend. women and it was the getting back and refreshed their souls. The and expansion. in my judgment. They kept bees and grew enthusiastic over They are now rosy and full of old-girl- Horace Mann said that the world could not get on without a quota of old maids. if the clerk will break loose from conventionalism. especially from the boarding house. of sun-kissed hood. for it may come before you are thirty years of age. will easily find in Missouri and Arkansas a goose that is. will marry a wife and buy a place out near the trolley. and see you want to something beautiful walk through her You girl rows of Angiers and Meech and Pineapple quinces. He is kept in an intellectual treadmill until he has got beyond the power of growth to market. however. women nearly as well as the garden and the bees home men. They have not only and the hens. know one Ohio if who has taken to quince growing. a girl or woman who at it runs a goose farm It is and she makes money to a certainty. ordinary clerk is. the least fortunate of all men. Certainly this sort are invaluable in any neighborIt was the country. However.FINDING THE PLACE live for.

So they tell me. for he liable to oversleep or lose a few minutes from his dinner hour. not grow cabbages like Why the Emperor Diocletian? I Ministers sympathize with am one myself and I see vitality no reason why a minister should lose his and become a dried-up parson. may young We have heard a good deal about old age. unfit for the If he will live close to Nature. the clerks of our big towns to an ambition outside of a counter-bound and enfeebling effort to sell a corset or a line of toweling. he be at eighty and more virile than at forty. certainly not since his childhood. and that daybreak was the most delightful of all times.30 HOW TO mend. This sort of chap. Here he can have his garden and a few fruit trees and such associations with Nature as will keep him He should discover the morning and see the alert. I am think it is a mere habit that people have and are not yet quite ready to shake it off. sun rise every day of the summer. who at forty has never seen the sunrise. pro- Our ." he coolly responded. but nopulpit. body yet has told us what it is. I said to one of this sort the other day that I believed one hour of the morning was worth three or four of any other time of day. has no place in the " Yet I should like very much to encourage country. LIVE IN THE COUNTRY his chances He should not be very far from is a quick transit. at sixty. inclined to fallen into professional men may have country homes quite as well as our day laborers and merchants.

and it is putting new valuations everywhere. on the other hand. you will find quite a mine of wealth. If you buy an old or deserted homestead. minister can do no better thing than invite his hearers to a walk and a talk in the gardens The and fields as his Master did. that the oldest and most neglected of these deserted farms are very far from being worn out or poverty stricken. with vided they do not go out of call. The new farming is the find-out farming. Other things being somewhere near equal. most of them had better be made over the wires. you may set this down as a certainty. and as for pastoral calls. or in some way were not up to date in land tillage. buy . In fact. can live one mile farther from his patients without injury. The owners did not know what they held. which look very rubbishy. temporarily? Arc there great masses of manure and fertilizers of other trees that can be rehabilitated? sorts that can be immediately put to use ? Are there shrubs and plants and plum trees and cherry trees out of which one may begin a small fruit garden ? Very frequently around these old places. Connecticut is now growing five bushels of wheat to the acre more than Minnesota. swept? Was the soil exhausted by bad cultivation? Or. I have known a man to live for twenty years over a marl bed and not know it. his telephone and automobile. consider Is it windthe reason for its being on the market. are there some fine old orchard Can the buildings for at least be renovated use.FINDING THE PLACE 31 The doctor.

Learn to let the you do. an maple sap runs. ments.32 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY your own old homestead if you can. after forming a partnership with your own sons. would rather have these old Island than the avenues. In England families count mental side of life pays. out of the homestead at twenty to start a new home. of a Northern winter. automobile driven. New through January. that are planted around Long Sound by millionaires. Spitzenburg and Rhode Island Greenings. go with the birds North and South and have a home at In Florida we escape the each end of the route. family You may possibly be able to do as I have done. these things Year's day. and so nothing is ever finished. and oranges all fit well to peace of mind and long . and with the robins we rigor flit Northward when the daffodils blossom and the Christmas bath in Lake Lucy. The senti. just the trees that I climbed in my childhood. These deserted places are being picked up quite too much by strangers and mutilated with all sorts of improveI would rather have a few old apple trees. of course. some of them leaning down so that a child I may creep up and hide with the robins trees among all the apples. The boy is pushed here it is only the individual. spirit live in all that A arm full of roses on life. put in good order.

both as to itself and its relations to its sur- roundings. lawns. groves. house is a city house. you must learn to make the do not fall into the common blunder of imagining you have only to hire a builder to construct a house into which you will move. and it was as pleasant to 33 . For this country does very reason he must look out carefully for his out of doors and see to it that his gardens. orchards. without a tree to shade it.CHAPTER FIRST STEPS II TOWARD THE HOME WHEN best of it. retreats. and drives are his own. you have done some I planting. conspicuously. and expressive of his own aspiraThe most important part of at all until country home-making precedes the house. it will be a problem whether you are living in the country or the city. you cannot wisely build In fact. you have found a piece of ground that you have thoroughly considered. and your surroundings are citified. tion and character. a property that you can look at lovingly and say it is your own. sure you If your supposing you are living in the country. Be One who little lives a real life in the of it indoors. have seen a house put up on a knoll.

leveled the land to his house this made no end of work for himself. as nearly as possible the full relation of your land to the rest of the land about. at the very outset.34 HOW TO LIVE IN in THE COUNTRY as attractive as a live in as a Dutch oven. and try to understand what Nature has been doing. fills the hollows with mint and ferns and forget-menots. What one has to do is to sit down on the highest point of his land. the rolls and swales and hol- She lows are Nature's idea of grace and beauty. you have begun to grade and level down. This grading business is dangerous altogether and should be undertaken only after a good deal of consideration. no way common for in the city one house shades city I have just now in sight a country house another. and then built a house. instead of levelas As soon ing his house to the land. might another survey. It will be at least ten years before he can give himself a country environment. hillside. showers came guttering down and filling up his hoi- . where the first homesteader. you are liable to throw your property out of I can show you a relationship to its surroundings. Sit there until Get you can feel with Nature. and then a third with your wife and children. Be sure it is part of a It be to well wait a few days and take poem. home where the owner began with grading and tree-cutting. and over the rolls she scatters her grasses and clovers. He sheared off every knoll and filled all the hollows. catch her idea and the sentiment of your homestead. for the . As a rule.

"I From Two to Five Acres. .'. '_". 7.7 .. digging flat places into the hillside. Have Everything Convenient and Waste no Time Getting About.FIRST STEPS . until the whole hill was sliced and carved out I APPLES AND PEAfcS ~ '. TOWARD THE HOME 35 lows and then every man who followed him in building did the same thing.

but the real plotting should be between you and Nature. to those I am talking who are going into the country with capital to command a small homestead and work out enough their own ideas. It was a small attempt to make a side hill look like a plain. Do of property it has lots of expressive features. as well as tastes. working the ground your own views and opinions and even If you have a good piece notions. not stop studying it until you have found out all that can be done. level as your kitchen floor. and such efforts will always fail. We understand that your conceptions . must content themselves with properties already plotted and near the city. After you have made a thorough study of what you have purchased. I could show you a two-acre plot.36 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY of comeliness. you are ready to plot it on you to do this work yourself. into The first thing to plant yourself. landscape work. He will almost After you have comsurely undertake too much. as a rule. paper. A landscape gardener is likely to express an ambition and set you to working that out. but unique at every point. This can be done in the garden with flowers. But even these can find many ways for expressing themselves in their new homes. but I always refuse to do is it for them. and expressive of the character I have helped a good many at this that made it. I advise pleted your work. you might allow him to look it over and make suggestions. The teamster and the clerk. and in a hundred little byways and hedges.

Ten acres that you do not read are like ten books in Chinese on your library table. I saw a surveyor trace a fine vein of iron ore right through a dozen farms. It is a mistake to say Prothat you do not understand landscape work. and not one of the farmers had ever suspected ence. but about the soil and its needs. You have no idea how much pleasure you will get out of these preliminaries. On the other hand I visited a man a beautiful its exist- who had brook running through his pasture. but . but to work out your own problem in terms of the beautiful and the useful. do but are a not. not more than three feet from the surface in places. not only about the surface and the roll of the land. but not until he had harnessed it to light his house and run his machinery. you you try to re- peat what somebody else has done." I told you had known a man to live over a marl bed with- on " out finding it out. In my chapter that I Finding the Home. This charting and plotting of your property does not mean a complicated piece of artistic drawing. and these are to be viewed and reviewed and amended until you are fairly satisfied. All this that are understand not to while. you learning good fessionally you deal about such things every day. and his neighbor's sheep drank from it after it had left his own pasture. It dea deal ears and and how pends good upon eyes you use them.FIRST STEPS TOWARD THE HOME 37 are put on paper at once.

however soon you initiate this ditching business. bit of vision power. I have seen very contented country home-makers laying out what I is called the Waring system all over this their acres. that when you begin to contradict Nature and plow her out of her fields you will have a long job of it. Anyone who undertakes to live in the country must first of all learn to see things. If you have only a but as hereafter possible.38 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY a very simple outline sketch that you can understand yourself. striking in anywhere. little property. and before you do think what might be done. Depend on one thing. cultivate it. and this chart of yours tells what you see. you will not get to the bottom of it for several years. because it can be mended and amended. you will at once be doing something that cannot easily be rectified. without undoing or spoiling what has gone before. that. Look over your new Right after the plotting of your property. and how you can improve. in fact while you are still carrying on your study you may I am quite sure undertake the drainage problem. have found that the adoption of . Leave whatever anything out all artistic sketches and just study how you and yours can fit nicely into what Nature has already done. This paper chart from which you are to do your work you can easily see is extremely important. but if you begin directly on the soil. even if no one else would pronounce it beautiful. not only now visible.

My ficulty at this deal of my point was that I lost constantly a good best property. road waste. but for the present understand that they are to be made of barnyard manure. to discover just how to catch swift showers most promptly and carry them away so chief difeasily as not to be erosive of the soil. provided it also has an outlet in vegetation. but to fill your acres full of poisonous drainage demands that it shall be taken up by the foliage readily. not mean simply to prevent the settling of water in swampy spots. if not years. or I assure you that allowed to dry up in the fields. all the coal ashes you can accumulate. there is a vast amount of this sort of stuff that goes to waste and that it is as important a product as any- thing your acres can yield. carried downhill into my Drainage does neighbors' fields and into the valley. and discharge it These compost piles we directly into compost shall talk about more hereafter. Piled up and allowed to . or it will poison the air. at the same time taking drainage from the house and the outhouses to some safe The Waring system will carry away and receptacle. distribute fertilizing material. but the ready catching of spring thaws and cloudbursts. If you live on a side hill it will take you many months.FIRST STEPS TOWARD THE HOME 39 system or any other patent system will not end the difficulties. I prefer tile drains that will carry the house waste a safe distance piles. together with weeds and all the rest of the refuse that is thrown into the street. autumn leaves in great abundance.

your trees healthy. for you will need occasionally to open them for repairs. tile drains will be needed every twenty-five feet. for we all summer with squash vines or Nature slowly decomposes the while pumpkin vines. They will have to be gathered into mains. Let me tell you that these compost piles will not be an annoyance. Plant them at least three feet deep and make sure that you know just where they run. shall cover them . I have had more or less trouble in finding my ditches. If your land is stony you may use a large quantity of stones in drains. these compost heaps become the chief resource for keeping your land fertile. larger pipes. If your soil is full of springs. house drainage that runs into a compost pile should not be of a character to wash out the fertiliz- ing material. and your garden stuff abundant.40 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY decompose slowly. If you have followed my advice about grading and leveling and have only removed roughnesses you will find that you cannot run all your ditches in one direction. always making sure that these drains are large enough and that there are enough of them to carry off the heaviest flushing of April weather and the dashing of a summer shower. which will carry the wash either into The neighborhood drains or into the highway ditch. either to the eyes or the nose. Tile drains are always preferable to stone drains.. but they are often less economical in the long run. but rather to deposit what it brings. especially when they run through berry yards. that is. as it is likely to be.

as applied commonly. and I have dug out of such a pile sweet potatoes as large as your head. Manure.FIRST STEPS material. TOWARD THE HOME it 41 for the land. Good Sermons Grow Along With Parsnips and Cabbages. A dozen big Hubbard squashes is the first crop. as well as an object lesson in economy. For that matter have my compost piles always proved an attraction to visitors. as a rule. but a wellconstructed compost pile loses not to exceed five per cent. next point in a preliminary way is laying out These have for their main purpose interdrives. Our . Everyone wishes to know what they are. loses nearly ninety per cent of its values.R FKUITS The Minister's Retreat is all Garden and Fruit. APPLE GAKDEN OKCHAFkD HOUSE PLUMS PEAKS CHERRIES AND OTHE. and I make them a text for a horticultural sermon about wasting and fits plant food.

The is drives to and around your stiffness as house should avoid straight lines and rule. and the barn. your make the approach to every corner and every quarter land as easy as possible and do it in the most natural way. the old-fashioned in in way by of shrubbery. the road. the among berry gardens and through I do not hold that this is a waste of mud. that lead about the orchards. land. that in a quite small place it is necessary to curve the walks or drives from the street to the house. in all cases these should be expressions of the beautiful as well as the useful. however. Some of these may be grassy lanes. apples a long distance by hand. I think the teamster who has only one or two acres will show much better taste by economizing his land and growing more alfalfa. This does not mean.42 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY communication between the house. bordered by and lines all of this hemmed a tidy path. or the dragging of wagons through the cutting of ruts in the turf and the inconvenience of carrying crates of berries and barrels of In other words. a Something gained generally by starting at of the corner your lot. While cultivating your berry orchards you need a turning place at each end of your furrow. One good broad driveway. but a properly laid out country homestead provides for drives and paths that reach every part of the grounds. will serve him well and will be . and this should be in such lanes as I have suggested. instead of directly in front of your doorway. It saves the of.



If bordered with hedges. drive will be deducted annually. and as a rule our arbors and The retreats need to be out of the way of visitors. Along with this shrubbery the housewife will probably find room for her pinks and asters. You will almost surely find that Nature has some suggestion for you at every point and has made many preliminary arrangements. can do most of our We walking on the turf. everywhere. remember that these will increase their width one inch a year. not. even with close That is. and where used for both walk and drive it should not be less than sixteen feet. I suggested to a planter to leave a row of trees directly down the middle of it. which is one foot . In the middle of one of my own drives stands a superb Kentucky coffee tree. width of a drive should be generous. let the walk or drive follow Nature's suggestion around a knoll or down a swale and some- times inclose a group of trees. What I have said should however. It was on no account necessary or desirable to cut any of these.FIRST STEPS in TOWARD THE HOME 43 the best taste. beautiful highway that I have ever seen in The most New York State passes through a grove of elms and maples. or drives. Remedying a defective driveway. be misunderstood as suggesting the cutting up of every piece of property with formal walks. it is quite the thing for you to accept her advice. Where the distance is greater and the prop- erty larger. one inch on each side of the pruning.

I found that road-making in was the one most essential feature my preliminary work.44 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY You see you are losing your driveso in thirty years five feet of it that way steadily. among the shrubs. dered with arbor vitae these drives now constitute a most attractive feature of the home. landscape. covered by red shale. and for that matter the hedge planting can easily be deferred until after the house is built. advisability of bordering your drives with hedges depends upon the lay of your land. which are very easily hedges at all. as does every other step that you take in creating a country home. with placed at the sides and the roadbed made of furnace slag. tile drained. This shale first melts under the effect of showers and then until it is compacts roadbed. If you plant The We at present. having placed my house far back from the street. sorbed by the hedge. a solid and nearly imperishable . While laying out my Clinton homestead. My neighbor caustically Borsuggested that I was laying out a railroad. They demanded natural a thorough study of swales and slopes and They were then thoroughly approaches. confine yourself to Tartarian honeysuckles. The first object of a hedge is not the beauty of the thing in itself so much as the break that it makes in a smooth shall discuss this more hereafter. replaced and transplanted. feet a and half on each side) will have been ab(two every six years. This requires foresight in planting.

and we must not haggle them into modern conventionalism. and fully half a You can destroy the work then cut conservatively. Do not let a professional trimmer get at the work. Study each tree individually and in its relations to its neighbors. Then I go when I am in a difThere ferent mood and at a different time of day. but cut with conscience and tenderness. These.FIRST STEPS TOWARD THE HOME 45 Cutting may be another part of your preparatory work. will need judicious trimming. almost sure to be a hireling. Possibly you have bought an old homestead with trees already on it. is lots of character in some of these old orchards and groves. but you cannot restore what you have removed. cutting a tree I examine it from every point of view is He and aim to comprehend its relations to other trees and to the outlook. and a row of ancient butternuts is as full of history and poetry as it is full of nuts. Walk around a tree thought- dozen times. on half a dozen successive days. The old Saxon word for thorough . Be careful also when it comes to trimming or graft- ing. having probably been neglected for many years. Trees are the work of time and are not to be dealt with lightly. before you use ax or saw. and no doubt some of them will have to be cut out. whose interest is When I think of to cut as long as he is paid for it. One huge old apple tree or a giant elm hanging its limbs over your house is sacred property. of fifty years in a single day. these will be necessary. only whatever you do of this sort do very slowly and deliberately.

Teas. which he said would be ready for his bees and a Norway maple which makes a grove all by itself and a group of hard maple. throughness that is thoughtfulness. for before build our house there should be a good deal of this done. Y. These are gorgeous in bloom. Even more important we is our planting. rich in foli- . originated by Mr. He said : " should I go out there to live be- Why fore things are ready? Why suffer from the heat. grow with rapidity. out of which he intended to get his supply of sugar. when I can just as well get trees and vines ready for shade. I like the suggestion who owns a dozen acres and held them earliest for seven years before building. for it a difference of four or five years in the One of the best of our thoroughly matter of shade. it is all and where old places have not been bought. planting a grove of lindens. Select those trees that will make hardy trees is the catalpa speciosa. and a few such Beside friendly trees as butternuts and beeches.46 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY Do your trimming with was through and through. E. and very likely from malaria. but if I were planting a very small homestead I would take instead the small-growing hybrid catalpas. important to get ready for shade and shelter at the very of a friend moment. these he had started rapid-growing grapevines which could be trained to his verandas at the earliest possible He moment. at the same time " that I am getting rid of pools and marshy spots? had patience and good sense.

FIRST STEPS age. I like these rich flowering trees that give an abund- . gin too quickly to supply food for these busy little The common locust and the so-called honey locust. are also first-class bee- feeders. A grove of basswood started as a preliminary is It makes also just the thing for your bee quarters. and very rapid growers for making shade. TOWARD THE HOME to be 47 feet and seldom get more than twenty high. or gleditschia. A Country More. a capital shade in a very short time. helpers. You cannot be- VEGETABLE 8Af\N OI\CHA*D OF APPLES AND PEARS PLUMS ** HOUSE CHERRIES KNOLL LAW/Sf 5LOPIW6 LAWN 5 P. Home of From Five to Ten Acres This Will Allow for Diversity as or Well as More Privacy.

ance of sweet odors ozone). and so do if none of this prelimlikely to inary planting goes on. only for the present let them be convenient to where the kitchen door will open. it some time after the house be put off for It is a disagreeis built. that of a country house staring white on a hillside. so deep that it will insure . but I am inclined to think that before began to build my house I should plant an orchard. not after. but these need not occupy the place that will be ultimately assigned to them. In other words. Do not add yourself to those foolish ones who build a house before they Drive the drive a well or build a capacious cistern. Pear trees yield their plums. I do not like to anticipate a coming chapter on trees and orchards. able sight. at least a few apple trees. and you do not need to wait eight or ten years for a basket of Northern spys from your orchard. for it will take six or I seven years to get them into bearing.48 HOW TO LIVE IN (that THE COUNTRY is. They are wholesome as well as delightful. I am not quite so sure about a preliminary garden of strawberries and raspberries. listen to my at this point if at advice and be sure to follow it no other. you do not want to go into a country house and wait two or three years for a dish of raspberries of your own growing or a bunch of roses. without a tree to shade it or a vine to climb over it Now for years. I fruit have noticed that is very quickly. go down deep into rock. Let it well before. your house is begun.

and insist on a at every stage of the work. after the first fifty feet. . Needed. or in any way affected by the most droughty season.:::. Where the Lots are Not More Than an Acre or Half an Acre no Front Yard is . we thirty feet farther before withdrawing the drill. of some sort. and he even shut them out. Only a Clean Street in Front. as a general rule in New York are through with soil and rubble after At that point we strike rock driving thirty feet. course it is the interest of the driller to conceal from you the first pockets of water that he strikes. Of COfKN ALFALFA HOUSE Q 5 VEGETABLES :.-0tP>FS!ES.FIRST STEPS TOWARD THE HOME 49 you an unfailing supply of water that cannot be tainted by surface drainage. I have found that. may essential that thorough test you watch the work. and from there we should go at least State. that is drive his pipe It is through a good supply of water into the rock. A Suburban Plan.

water is not likely to be found until you have gone a good deal below that. the water is caught in one cistern. dle. I found abundant water in Florida at sixty-five feet. Each a tree or shrub unless barrels one should hold at least would be better. and the whole cost of the well. You can do nothing safely in the way of planting you can puddle the roots and it with water when planted. and well keep supplied for some weeks after. . through That is. fifty barrels. in New York thirty feet in the solid rock. My Clinton well has the additional advantage of flowing. cured. and your plants. which almost exactly tallied with the work done at my Clinton home. reaching abundance of excellent water.50 HOW TO My experience LIVE IN tells THE COUNTRY that after the drill has me gone down one hundred and fifty feet. Somewhere between fifty and one hundred and twenty feet you should find water. cemented. a cistern will last nearly as long as the In some sections it is desirable to have is. your cattle. thirty of it in the rock. should not exceed from $125 to $200. through into the other. one hundred Built of brick and well house. a brick wall through the midthe which water for drinking will filter. This can very rarely be se- The cost will be absolutely nothing compared with the discomfort and loss of being without a pure water supply for your family. including pipes and pump. Cisterns should go in with the house and they should not be stinted in size. and filtered double cisterns that .

will modify climate materially. second. For quick growth and excellent service the best material will be found in those ever- .FIRST STEPS I TOWARD THE HOME all 51 am sure that one-half of the sickness in the country comes from the use of surface water. and with this difference temperature must be counted in the sweeping winds that carry the moisture off your land and dry up your side of the in foliage. or wherever your sweeping storms come from. and yet not one-half of our country homes are decently supplied with wells perhaps more of them with cisterns. bad habits. however. taken from shallow wells or tainted streams. and you find that in the middle of the valley it is rougher and colder than at your protected home. able. and I have already suggested in my how very important I think it is to look out for these defences. His answer was: First. bad water. I asked a physician of very high standing to what he attributed most of the ailments with which he " had to deal. The wind leaps over you. the best that we can secure or construct over large reaches of our country. It will make a difference of at least two degrees from one road to the other. Everybody knows the advantage of getting downunder the protecting slope of a hill. all Nearly all sickness is preventdrink. A planted wind-break is. stout wind-break against last chapter A northwest winds. but above things be careful what you and then how much and what you eat." Much more attention is being paid to wind-breaks and hedges.

excluded from our best-ordered hindering cultivaBoth of these trees are cities because I should prefer the they destroy the pavement. These trees are brittle and soon go ragged. and after the them white and black ash evergreens and the American linden. and in of Nature's preferred defences. but still worse is the root growth. hemlock and the spruce are especially New England the white pine is one In the Western States the Lombardy poplar has been freely used. Some of the fruits will do you good service. which extends forty to fifty feet from the trees. makes a stout hedgerow. that must be won for success. and the quicker this is done the better. greatly tion now and the growth of turf. New York good. growing upright The Bufas a Lom- bardy poplar. and of late the Carolina poplar. breaks the wind admirably. I should not think of building a house or in any way establishing myself in the country without in- They are allies viting the birds to come with me. In a yard or lawn the mountain ash makes a good row. and if faced with stout shrubbery. fum pear in particular. especially the pears. such as lilacs and viburnum opulus and Tartarian honeysuckle. besides giving a large supply of very fair fruit. The linden is particularly good because it can heal over a breakage or wound very rapidly.52 HOW TO State the LIVE IN THE COUNTRY In green trees that are native to your section. Unless your home is made generous and agreeable to the birds you will be whipped .

friends will have to be fed. and a growing sympathy with Nature. Then banish guns. Let it be understood at once that your acres are to be free from dangers and alarms. home-making is in the country. what I wish to emphasize build a house is a very insignificant part of all. . and right soon. If you cannot find help and moral uplook and a big measure of poetry. and the quicker you be- in their gin to provide for them the quicker they will put work for you. Plant a grove of basswoods to give food to your bees and wild cherries with mountain ash and bush honeysuckles to make sure that the birds are never out of food. and that does not consist in building for yourself a huge box of a which you will do a lot of house cleaning and a lot more around it of planting and digging. long under the best conditions for rational development. you might bethouse in ter stay in the crowd. except to destroy common ful foes. true. with keener eyes and quicker ears. Birds are very sensitive to the beauti- and quick to appreciate safe retreats. In fact. I think you would do well to put up your bird houses before you put up your own. happy. I am sometimes ashamed to note the ease and grace with which the common they construct their country homes sense and bird piety which they manifest while training a family. At is this rate house built at that to you say we shall never get a country Well.FIRST STEPS by the TOWARD THE HOME 53 These feathered insects. What you life are after life full.

'54 HOW TO A LIVE IN THE COUNTRY All these preliminaries which we are discussing involve education and they will accumulate common man may live in the country half a hunsense. for lack of wind-breaks. that is unity. You must digest . of shade trees Just as limited is the supply generally confined to a few old apple trees and a single diseased maple or possibly an elm here and there. all his is thoughts. find dislike to see all the trees in an orchard growing at The only drives a slant. all the parts must fit to each other. while can be done best. However. done in time. The owners a consider it a waste of time to construct good private road. running from the street to the back door and then to the barn. and in winter I with snow that has been thawed over the stove. is the sum of the whole story. and lost in time by these All this after is work will and what it I am to see it is have to be done. dred years and be insipid in Nothing stupid in his work. I have implied in what I have said about charting before planting that all these preliminaries must work together and create a simple unity. that you can find associated with half our country homes are mere ruts through the turf. we are about through with our preliminary talk and only care to reinforce it with a Perhaps point already touched upon. I greatly dislike to go into a country house and them drinking lake or river water. a single home And this idea. and washing at a pond some rods from the house. preliminaries.

on paper repeatedly. until you are satisfied that every.FIRST STEPS TOWARD THE HOME 55 your planning so that you yourself see not a pretty thing here and something else there that is agreeable. but a fellowship of create your home. the flowers are planted just where the lawn ought to be until in the course of a few years the place is a mere jumble of good and bad things. without the least relation to each other. then when the owners get hold of a tree or a bush they stick it in anywhere. wherever there is room. Every man's property should be thought out. cooperating to you consider. The houses have been dropped down in a conventional way and about the same distance from the street. . and Go over your plan that means a thought-full affair. if all fine things. that there is no such community of purpose. thing is placed thoughtfully . then every planting will be done reasonably. You will notice. as you drive by most of our country homes.

not studied the house from the country standpoint. average country house is The a misnomer. in this are at last ready to build a country house. the 56 . It will be a convenience rather. and all our planting and building will have in it this understanding. or country things. from of ours place gateway to wind-break.CHAPTER we III BUILDING THE HOUSE WHEN home. the orchards. or country atmosphere that fills our minds. and we shall do our receiving of friends as often under the apple trees. or where we can share with them the babbling of the brook and the framean to enjoy this country grance of the roses. I assure you that this has been a serious trouble with country home-making. but the country house ought to be mainly related to the landscape. we must understand that we have a good while ago begun to build a The house is not to be the central thought homestead of ours. but then it is hardly country at all. that we are not to repeat the restrictions and We conventionalisms of city life out here in the country. The He has builder gets his model from the city avenue. A house in the city is related only to streets and to other houses.

that architecture is out of place in the country. that sort.BUILDING THE HOUSE gardens. and as for your friends. Fortunately The not possible for them to be planted near enough to quite create a row. because it tells more about the people who use it. beautiful blend in one of these sea houses. for the most part uniform. the shell telling you what the occupant really thinks and likes ? Our houses do nothing of do it. and the outlook. the man to plan a house is the man who is fo live in it. The poorest house in . and the because they really express poor folks' needs. A parlor or a sitting room is generally pretentious and a flat failure every way. only that it ought to be country architecture. or very seldom country is spotted all over with houses. nicest room is the kitchen. Have you ever noted how the useful and the feelings. Just note how people look and act in one of these formalities. and it should express first of all his and be very much what a shell is to a crustacean only it need not be carried about on his back. The best place to receive visitors is on your veranda in big rocking-chairs or rustic seats. getting his well as his mean This does not living in the garden and orchard. The poorer ones are the pretit is tier. take them to rustic seats and hammocks under your trees. As a rule. and they are set back just about an even distance from the road. live all 57 should The land-owner life as over his land. or very slightly varying a few conventional features.

but who had time to go up there to look out ? roofs. Then about 1850 in the way of Greek porticos and big pillars. are patched up of notions that have de- veloped mainly in the crowd. did go but spiders and flies. have no character of their own . supposed to be Doric and Ionic. What in the world had we Yankee pioneers. The old-fashioned New England house was borrowed of old England and it never got over a foreign aspect.58 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY the land can afford a good. ten feet deep. to build copies of city houses these were put up as conspicuously as possible. for people to look at when they ought to we began and . hearty veranda. they lack independence. until the Family Bible and hair-cloth sofa were equally musty. It would have been a good deal better if these Puritan Fathers of ours had imitated the Indians. to do with Greek temples? These borrowed houses were not usable by their The parlor was shut up most of the time. fully very am going to talk about sort this more When we come to the better of country houses. shoving our way through the wilderness. there came in a touch of scholarship. Meanwhile Nobody architecture underwent another change and out on the hillsides in brick. tenants. broad. The verandas or porches were just big enough to be uncomfortable and practically useSoon after observatories were built on the less. and breasting at least two sides of the house only I soon.

The farmer became Old Hayseed. What we need first of all is to know what we want a house for. 59 have been looking at the trees and listening to the drove about admiring these pretentious buildand ings forgot the country altogether.BUILDING THE HOUSE birds. least of all. a natural as house. that the We . to feel. and to that spot it belongs naturally. until the country became a synonym for isolated stupidity. did not hear the language of the brooks. We have. and to know Nature. grow just as naturally as ought the other and as exactly suited to its place. wrong method has been a very natural one. and then the sort of a house that fits We where we intend to There really is such a build. words no other house could have wisely been built in architect The the place of the one we have constructed. filled These mansions were surrounded with straight brick walls and a precision that trimmed hens and rabbits along the tops of the hedgerows. who plans the same sort of a house for diknow his business. any interest in a house that shuts out from us nearly all the beautiful that is within reach of vision and leaves us to The result of the enjoy wall paper and furniture. Our first axiom is that a real country house belongs only in one In other spot. vers locations does not have gone into the country to see. and all around the cities rich people the suburban space with costly mansions. thing just as there is a natural the to and one tree.

Associate yourself with the light. houses. Study the We is a good thing to let the sunlight touch us all over as often as possible. anywhere and looking nowhere in parand even these shrouded with dust-collecting Glass is curtains. your cornfields and your orchards. Your best property in this world is not your meadows and your pastures. There should be not only wide verandas. Let in the first rays of the vital morning and gather to yourselves the mellow sweep of gold at evening. The whole not half enough used in our east front of many a country . or even in the skies. in the valleys. Our relation to the sun's rays is hardly appreciated. but balconies and windows that are bayed to the light A never for ornament or show. rather than of the landscape sort and conventional.60 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY country housewife's mind gets to be of the wall-paper artificial sort. but that property of yours which is much farther away. by no means shut it out of the house. Not living with the birds. Nothing is more absurd than a few windows slashed into a house ticular. then plan your house to let this in and not to shut it out. but always for use. sun-bath window to the east and a sunset window to take in the glow of evening to the west are natural. It feed by absorption as well as by digestion. she comes easily to the winged allies place where you propose to build until you know exactly all there is around you that you can gather into a home (gather with your eyes and your ears). monstrous crime of wearing our for personal adornment.



If you cannot agree with me on this point you may as well lay aside this book sides. or freely hopping about the apple boughs. while indoors will make them pallid. but hammock beds. lichen turfs. the house is to be used only when we need to get out of the rain or the snow. not merely when you must.BUILDING THE HOUSE let in 61 house might be mostly glass. and here should be everything comfort and companionship not only hammocks and easy chairs. large enough to give you comfort. and that. or all to suggest altogether. It is to and not just big enough pinch you. country house should have ten or twelve foot verandas. that by day can be drawn up under the roof. creatures. on at least two of its A around it. and for long life drink oxyLearn to walk. We do not need to be under cover most in of the time. for health. Then your narrow is six-foot or seven-foot veranda a meaningless as well as a useless adjunct. Get into . apart from a few forms of toil. also. Live out doors for if for for it will of nothing else. God made The sky is us to be as free as the other roof enough. or that front which can most of the glory of the world and the sky. beauty best chairs are The Our paint your cheeks. We start in with this fixed conviction. except a storm. to enjoy live in argument with the folks that the glens and exchange calls with the birds it. but gen. that in the country we are to live mostly among our trees and flowers. mossy logs and the brown sweetest canaries are in the bushes.




in turn.

at their houses.

Humanize everything about

and be yourself humanized

Your house should, on general principles, be located as near the center of your property as possible.



you have


or ten acres, you


go well back into the land and select your site where you can command the scenery most freely and reach
every part of your lot with the least waste of time and travel. If it seems to be too remote from the
street, causing a good deal of travel when you go to the village or to a neighbor, remember how much travel is caused when you go to your fields from a

I do not say get house built on one side of the land. in but on some the middle, commanding posiexactly tion well back from the street.

This should be done, if for no other reason, to avoid that conventionality which repeats what has But we would do it been done by our neighbors.
also to escape the dust of the

highway and the noise

are beginning to learn the of rattling teams. It is not American nerves. for of advantage quiet


necessary for us to see every Dick and Harry that goes up and down the highway, nor to study fashions

from our parlor windows. It is very rare that convenience of drainage and commanding position would set a house near the road.
do not fancy architectural beauty that ends in If you employ an architect, look out for a man who is free from the crotchets of his profession. He will be likely to plan for you an up-to-date comI



bination of artistic features, and a house that after you had constructed it as your home, would be exactly
as appropriate on your neighbor's lot as your own. Understand that this house of yours is to fit your con" ditions and to do it exactly. Beware of gingerbread work," as it is aptly called those fanciful adornments that make lots of trouble as well as cost, are easily broken, and soon get to be a veritable nui-


know one house
like a


country that is painted in Highlander's plaid, because there is

in the

something of the sort in a neighboring city. Down our valley stands an octagon house, possibly economical of room, but out in Nature it is an oddity. I do not think that Nature ever built an octagon anyNeither man nor house should be so conspicwhere.

and stand peculiar as to defy Nature around like sheared evergreens, or hedges that are trimmed box style, with crowing cocks on top. In the country we seldom need to climb very high
into the air.


stories are

enough for a house,

but learn to abominate half stories with their hot
If a magnificent landscape is to be commanded, of course a three-story house is to be tolattics.

any rate get at your property that lies The first floor, however, is where we should live with stairs as few as possible. There is land enough in the country, and we should broaden
in the distance.

out at the bottom.


course, this general rule

must be modified where





the land

some of our

so level that the nights are foggy. On flats I would not like to sleep in the

lower story. This, however, we do not mean to take into our estimate very largely when seeking a country

home. Up to the present most people can find for themselves purchasable property that does not lie low or too level.
If your house is built on a steep hillside I advise you to anchor it well in, that is, let the basement be

excavated into the side of the hill, and in that basement arrange your cellars, your laundry-room, your furnace room, and possibly your kitchen. In this both Above way you get strength and protection.

you can easily create a wholesale apple cellar, frost proof, but cool enough for keeping your fruit sound until or June. Good cellars are a rarall,



and bad ones are abominable,

as well as danger-


These basements should not be mere dugouts, but the most carefully planned and constructed part of the house. Sometimes in excavating you will touch a
vein of water; carry
it carefully through your cellar or basement and put it to use for your hot water furIt will not be at all out of nace and your laundry. place if it run through your apple cellar and so keep

the fruit from drying and wasting.

There should be no back
should front
for there



a house.



ways, only with a different outlook;

no direction in which you will not find the beautiful, and the most beautiful very often lies



right in the rear of a country house, where there are slop holes and shiftlessness which spoil everything.

You ought

to be able to

walk around a house

in the

country without distress, or catching a bad odor, and there ought to be an equally cheerful welcome for you

with porches and balconies, on all sides. Around the kitchen door particularly there should be neatness

and sweetness.
and do not indulge yourThis street. is one reason for building back from the highway; it puts you on your honor to be decent, and to develop Besides this you will feel that your the beautiful.

Keep clean on

all sides,

self in slovenliness out

of sight of the



not built for others to look


but for your-

and to smell. Flower beds are preferable to ash heaps and decaying refuse.
self to see,

Your house should be adjusted

to all other build-

There is no reason under the ings on your place. sun why a barn should be less beautiful or attractive
Often of an evening I sit in an easythan a house. As chair at my barn door to enjoy the moonlight. I have told you before, cows and horses like cleanliCows will ness and they understand the beautiful.
generally lie vest moon.

down with

toward the harreason humanize all the buildtheir faces

ings where your animals are housed. My laboratory, of which I shall speak more very I would make the soon, is an adjunct to the barn.

bee yard also a charming place, not a tight little inIf the yard is large and closure to be stung in.





shady, with basswood trees reaching over, you will find your bee yard a very peaceable place, where you

and enjoy the marvelous industry and skill of your winged allies. In other words, create harmony in all parts of your place and have no part that is dissevered from the human. A foul stable or outhouse is not only bad in itself, but it spoils the whole thing. You will find dirt to be

Dirty stables mean a dirty disposition to begin with and will breed dirty dispositions in the Piles children, and there will be traces elsewhere.
a disease.

of old lumber and ash piles and other refuse can just as well be put into the compost pile as be scattered about in disorder, but a barnyard ankle deep with
is an unendurable waste and an abominaClean up, and let your animals have tidy quarI have grape ters; even the pig likes cleanliness. vines running all over my barn, and plum trees hang-

rotting stuff

ing over the fence, as well as a big apple tree that



shade at noon day.

Animals degenerate in disagreeable surroundings as surely as they become humanized by humane surneighbor Harding roundings and treatment. " built a house over his barn well, Because, sir ! my


would take two hours drinkand ing every morning every night; for they would I think, sir, you have be looking over the valley. more about Nature than observed that horses know some folk." I took blinders from my harnesses long ago, behorses, eight in number,





Morgan saw

I joyed as much as I did. in full her sympathy with myself. keep

much and enwished when traveling to



that she helped me through many a pinch with broken shafts and straps on dangerous hillsides.





that there are intelligible lan-

about you and you can much better spare guages Latin and Greek than catbird speech and robin po-

Do not be fooled by the school houses; you etry. were born in an academy; you live in a university. For this reason I hold it to be immensely important that you get your whole place into harmony, one part with the other. Let the whole be a study, and as for
the birds, let them comprehend that the nearer they are to you the less they are in danger of losing liberty or life.

Finish the whole house in wood, ceiling


with any

native lumber that you can secure, for there is hardly Butone of them that cannot be finished admirably.
ternut and chestnut

and cherry are often


and they are
I use

exquisite for house finishing.

In the

Florida pine (the yellow pine of comIt is not imposis beautiful indeed. and it merce) sible to secure enough curled pine to finish our houses

Nothing can excel curled black walnut, and even yet in some of the best wooded Western States this is obtainable. Maple puts itself forward

many charming

When we


variegations. learn to put a little thought to this busiget rid of plaster, we shall not only greatly

is the most beautiful wall that can be built. This may be a hobby of mine. repapering for fashion. and fumi. as well Lath and plaster are an inheritance as wholesome. We have not yet learned to appreciate the beauty hidden under the rough bark of our maples and beeches and walnuts and hickories and pines. The original house of our Saxon fathers was called the All. until the plaster was entirely removed. and it consisted of but one room. all the same I feel Apart from this I hold capable of defending it. if we have sickness in the house. The kitchen or workroom came off first. of poverty. and nothing is ever quite tidy with all the rest they are the hiding place of germs. Here the whole family lived. and the house could ilies then be made sanitary. and slept. dined. but making our houses more beautiful. leaving at last the All as a Hall. in a very handsome house. Until was the home room. Your ceiled wall may be oiled over at any time. This All was gradually differentiated into apartments. tinguished. They involve incessant dust and breakage.68 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY we shall find oppor- reduce the tunities for work of building. finished in oil alone. that natural wood. I have known gation cleanses it much more easily. press the tastes We then sleeping rooms for the more dishave now a house subdivided to ex- very recently the kitchen and whims of civilization. to be on to three fever successive fampassed typhoid of tenants. They constitute a study as well as a charm. the so- .

and individuality was only partly considered in sleeping rooms. where no member of the real family is more than tolerated or In this country-home allowed to pass through. ing place. Next to this I place the mother's room. while the kitchen has been degraded into an outside apartment. . to its I would first of all restore the kitchen I dream where the pristine dignity as a food laboratory. matter. faithful. and loving bearing one anothkitchen. as first the home room. where the babes begin life and child character is shaped. Bridget entered to break up this social now we have to provide for it with what living and a we call room or home room. sweetness. life. the social life All. house of ours. and helpfulness. The best part of piety is home piety. and learn to be truthful. after the This is the gatherwhere we grow together. my little mother presided with a science and dignity that far exceeded any glory that can be secured by suffragettes. exchange thought. This home room should have the best inlook and the best outlook of the house full of inspiration. taking in a lot of morning and free from any sort of casual intrusion.BUILDING THE HOUSE cial center 69 of the house. blend emotions. the workshop and laborawhere everything was accomplished as a family tory. er's burdens. It should be a quiet and sunny room. I place the main room of a country home. and sunsocial good will shine. of the old-time kitchen of boyhood.

own A they are poured in upon us like a Galveston flood. a shop and a laboratory. but for social life. of industrialism. Learn to listen to the birds and the brooks and to see for yourself. The laboratory should be a large room and simply . in which to grow his own individual tastes. be taught to collect a In the latter case every child should few choice books for himself The family room is for private room. for It is not books or for pictures. and not music. This is growing on us. However. and here in the country it is not right that you should be able to read books and not Nature itself. as well as to learn. book at the best is only a translation of Nature. the place for reading. either as a part of the barn or Ours is an age the house. Fifty years ago a book half dozen dotted a year. would have. Sleeping together is irrational and generally destructive to health and character. When our children are born to do. will be vastly better for us. and at least one-third of our chilBut I dren are born with an instinct for tools. beware of book dissipation. the book disease that has run over into our generation. to think for themselves and ories with act. and it is a good thing. rather than to stuff their it mem- book information. A library is needed in a modern house.70 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY After this every member of the family should have one room to himself or herself. unless poverty forbids in his it. There is no need of it in a country house. but now a and a was book.

until they are cap- able of original investigation. but they collections of the friends and enemies of our of infinite fruits and flowers. The shop should be an adjacent room. I have a sewing with an up-to-date sewing machine. and girls may need some instruction here to start them on a should line of make their own thorough investigation. Give your wife and daughters just as good accommodations as you take for yourself and your sons. into cider. at any rate it is a delightful spot for gossip and needlework. opening over with a magnificent grapevine. room or library. the center of household industries apart from the cooking. Here broken apples ground tools can be repaired. with lathes and engines and a chance for making tools as well as using them. of farm industries accomplished. 71 and what- The boys ever else constitutes country property. anywhere and every- A snug and tidy room should hold all this. the dining It is absurd to find a pile of half-made needles and thimbles in your chair.BUILDING THE HOUSE prepared for studying insects. scribed. from wife's room. Somewhere about a country house there should be what I would call a household shop room or sewing room. and grown my balcony. in with clothing. . This will be a source pleasure and such satisfaction as no one ever gets from reading the investigations of others. Here is supposed to be done that sort of work which I have dewhere. wood sawed. plants. soils. will pay one hundred fold on their and a whole lot These two rooms cost. I .

little patience for a man in the country who must have a doors billiard table in his house. is . with full consideration of your ity own individual- of everyone.72 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY say nothing about a play room. Make slide. I cannot securing exercise see such a fellow without a desire to use up a golf stick about his legs. the win- dows large and let them swing or There should be at least one fireplace in every country house. Let your house be thought out thoroughly. in every this I am item. and fuel so plentiful that you are not inclined to economy. nor for that matter against games for the old. young or old. library. and dining room. Only I would like to have you turn the intelligent and joyous side of work to the front and let the young people learn that work need not be a task. for sleeping rooms. I In my Florida house have four. It takes but two or three minutes to start a glorious blaze with pine knots or cones. and in the Southern States it should be one of the main features of a home. Good air and good water should be provided throughout the whole house. not for delicate bathing. and who is out of at golf links. A bath room is an absolute requirement. but that it may be and ought to be a pleasure. because in the counI have very try there is room enough out of doors. There is his share of work in " " world to be done and somebody else is doing it. not arguing against games for the young. but a place for chilfor plenty of splashing and fun peculiarities and the dren to learn the love of cleanliness.

from which poisonous air rises through all the floors and becomes dangerous when the windows are closed in winter. that is regularly swept up into the air two or three times a day in the name of cleanliness. In our Nor- thern homes the fireplace should be restored. Then we have our hot-air furnaces. that not only burn and taint the air. and while hunting about the gardens and wondering chilly and a As soon at the evolutions of a single night one soon forgets that there is such a thing as a house.BUILDING THE HOUSE Morning bathing before such ury. Examine and you a bit of this dirt in a spectroscope. The most dangerous with is we come tain dust. will find that it is made up of particles of . These furnaces are breeding disease more dangerous than sharp exposure I prefer the old-fashioned stove. The hot-water furnace in contact is not only the most agreedust thing that furnace dust. ing more than an elaborate death Underneath begin with a cellar which is disagreeable. little pinched-up affair An we elaborate country house is too frequently nothtrap. if not damp. a fire is 73 a lux- made bones. but send up through the registers a cloud of poi- sonous dust. for it was the most homeful and delightful center of the Its heartiness old-fashioned house. cur- able but the safest. and is generally the receptacle of waste vegetables and molds. evening cannot get in as far as your as the sun is up the fire may go out. to the cold air. carpet dust. and bigness should not be contracted into a like a grate for coals.

but it is a great food provider and an ozone breather. . dress.74 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY not irri- every sort of decay. love it and praise it. There is every reason why your rooms should not stand on exhibition. For the outside of a country house a warm red with dark-green borders is almost always acceptable to garden surRun it all over with vines and surround roundings. homeful as and so the grapevine. where every manufacturer may display his new varnishes. as specimens of art. instinctively plicity and frankness . the contrary. Let the self. beautiful wood which you have used be finished with- When out any paint or varnish. Select sweet flowers. and the whole house itself invite attention from the street. the house should drop into the foliage with ease and grace. and this homely I would use very freely over a country-house. those giving delicious odors. so that one's eyes shall easily pass to the garden and orchard. metallic and vegetable infrequently poisonous. On one can come near some of these high-toned buildings without feeling that he must be in full No dropping every thought of simat the gateway. it with shrubs and roses you can hardly overdo this There is nothing quite so matter of concealment. at all events dangerously tating to lungs in heating and throat. the house is done and well filled with yourdo not become a slave to decoration. It is not only beautiful in itself. Both in furnishing and your house look out for dust creators and dust catchers. oiling only the floors.

And tumbled half the mellowing pears. hearty beech tree to sit under during the daytime. for Nature has provided a host of health-giving flowers and plants for the night." But why not live right chard? There is no tree in the heart in the of an apple or- than these off-hand apple trees. where the sun and air can get well at it. for they are great givers of ozone and health. a difference also in the homefulness of of nothing better than a big. A beech-nut tree. and these open along toward sunset. There is a very common notion abroad that night air is unwholesome.BUILDING THE HOUSE 75 especially at night. and you cannot plant There is trees. country dwellers who will shut and it I know many out with closed windowsi There is not the least basis for this blunder. Among these the honeysuckle it is notable. and it is sweet beyond comparison. in snorning dew the garden flew O sound to rout the brood of The sweep of scythe The gust that round . that lean company the hearty pear drop their " on our roofs. inviting moths to share their charm. but to hang its big arms right over the roof of the house there is nothing better than the old-fashioned ternut. and this you must think about when you surround your house. world more beautiful from the time that . cares. too freely around your house. is an ideal for a near-by I know lawn. and child-beloved butnear over and Then among fruit fruit trees I like best for trees.

We a single article should display lack the furnishing instinct. to sit among the red streaks and look over the Oriskany Valley. All sorts of things are tumbled into our houses. Not pride or ignorance. Neither is there any reason for expensive plumbing. " in that which comes to me as knock-down furni" me for the more it substantial forms of ture. the huge Kirkland orchard trees. if it is not. without a that excludes fruit trees holis a bit of good sense in it. gives reach and within of a common tables. probable that you have something else to do in the world besides revarnishing. There were birds' nests all around me.76 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY until they they burst out into a cloud of pink-and-white flowers hang their arms down full of Spitzen- One may love an apple-tree bergs and pippins. It whimsical fashion. and every low tree had an owl or a yellow-hammer. Get a bright-brained carpenter and he can fit up your bath room with a substantial tub and whatever . even It is and it is always getting scratched. from our lawns. with a personal tenderness as for myself I remember nothing with more joy than climbing into the top of . chairs. desks. man's purse. Furnish your house simply and let it be substan- tial furniture. and fussy furniture that you cannot sit upon easily is a bad I am inclined to believe strongly display. Stiff mainly glued together and crudely varnished. something a little more costly in proportion than the rest of the house. It looks slippery. Detest a varnished floor.

but very lastwill give you that sort of comfort without small annoyances. wholeness. and lend a hand. not down. not back. netting. and you must learn to keep your family always vital. with very little meat. " Look up. and for most people two meals a day is quite enough made up largely of fruit and vegetables and cereals. This condition will depend on how you build and keep your house very largely also largely upon cleanliness everywhere. Remember all this while that the absolute basis of a happy and successful country home it is health. physically and morally clean cut. with a satisTake as your maxim. but perhaps most of all on wholesome food. that wholth You must for there will whole is. The law of a true life and a happy one is temperance and simplicity. and full of executive ability. ing.) keep be all a sound and a sound that man always family can do.BUILDING THE HOUSE else is 77 needed at one fourth the ordinary cost of If mosquitoes and flies abound. . which the householder rarely enjoys." But if you will not obey the laws of Nature and (Our Anglo-Saxon fathers called . not in. from Edward Evfied mind. inclose your balconies and verandas with close wire such furnishing. it a very inexpensive method. look forward and erett Hale. on drainage as well as ventilation. Go to your rooms at eight or nine at night and arise with the daylight. home grown and brain prepared. Eating three times a day should forbid a single mouthful between meals. look out.

Huto weeds and waste. Good air and the perfume of clover and corn blossoms cannot negative the virus Nature does well to give over of gin and tobacco.78 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY better for lead the simple life. It will give you no health perforce. . then the country is no whit you than the city. and in the end you will go back to the city dissatisfied. and the drunken the lazy man waste is the meanest thistle in the crowd.

and our cisterns are the houseNow we want our gardens dear keeper's joy. we are already hoe- ing one side of the garden. 79 . and the preliminhaving been properly attended to. some shade trees. and our drainage has been taken care of. have not old English for yard-inns. as well as spinach and a little bed of carrots and beets for early soups and greens. left us where many are left after have our drives. But in a well laid-out country home there will not be so much one garden as half a dozen garden spots. If these first things were provided for as they should have been. there are We already building. that is. while our well gives us unfailing water that is absolutely pure. clear across the continent. although April has already put in our early potatoes and our first planting of peas. for good things to eat and to look little inclosures at. What we is want is to create here in the country a gar- den home. May the garden month for New England and the whole orchard belt.CHAPTER IV ABOUT MAKING GARDENS WE really have aries built our house. while planting somewhere else.

Follow the same rule with peas. Showing me about his celery and his potatoes." . and there in the middle. strips that are fit for a few rows of corn or beans. but those who plant in April. for what marauder would think of hunting melons in such a place? I find there are two things that boys and men feel it is no sin to steal grapes and melons yet these are the very things that give us most trouble to grow successfully and the loss of which we most keenly . here and there. like beans and corn. feel. while others. The cannot resist the chills that are pretty sure to come old-fashioned rule was not to plant corn until the twentieth of May. can after come a frost. was a melon patch two or three rods square. way you good stuff for the For my part I cannot get on without " greens. Plant sweet corn every two weeks until the middle of June. He chuckled and I laughed. he led me at last into the cornfield. I in learned a lesson from a Western boy who was left charge of my vacation home while I was in the Western States preaching. reason for spreading our garden-making over several weeks is. The sweet corn for succession can venture the first plant- The second planting about the first of the month. if one occur. that some things will stand frost. and in this get a succession of table until October.8o HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY In the berry garden there will be. in the first place. all out of sight. ing immediately and at any rate about the middle of the month.

Its delicious stalks can be can hardly be overfed. and peas. sow the old-fashioned blood beets and not the new-fangled turnip beets. that is of October is able to have string of the pole varieties. but varieties . Of course we want rhubarb or pie plant and we must have asparagus. For late corn. The beans will go on forming. hurried somewhat in the spring by setting over them I believe that everybody considheadless barrels. which do not have any stalks worth the mention. although I like well. all that I want of scoke and sorrel. This I am done by breaking down a few poles and throwing corn litter or straw over them on freezing nights. while resembling the whole strength of the plant goes to making leaf and South am all greens to grow stalks as large as small will live rhubarb or pie plant. To get these. and you may cut its stalks all through May and June. but understand a few tricks of the gardener. sorts that are found in the market. one must not only plant in succession. until the very last sometimes well into November. root. string beans. beans. Both of these need good Pie plant strong soil and to be kept clean of weeds. and string beans I do not grow the little runted are always delicious. ers beet greens one of the best early vegetables." is called the The easiest of in the is Swiss chard a plant closely the but without eatable beet.ABOUT MAKING GARDENS Spinach is 81 it not my I hobby. or collect. The first of these " Southern spinach. able to grow. Chard through several seasons.

water is as If sprinkled on with phy of watering. be sure of that is exwell mixed with the dirt cellent melon food. The earliest corn should come on the table in June. and pour a quart into a hole dug by the side of the hill. Now a hose just here let me stop to explain the philosoapplied. my boy George managed fruit. since tried the plan myself successfully. in until by If there is not abundant rain. but not later. Growing be put vines require that the seeds shall not the ground is warm. the liquid from barnyard manure tank. They must start not at and any time be checked quickly. These are eight inches long and with beans in them are three inches around not quite so big without beans. A spoonful of hen manure. will surely for very late plantings mildew. Green peas can be had on the table until the first of August with especial care till the middle of that month. As generally likely to do damage as service. grow quickly. with me this is generally about the first of June. But you only hides the delicious must have the hills well made. This is . a little above level and of rich compost.82 that HOW TO I LIVE IN THE COUNTRY have myself originated. to grow some fine The center of a cornfield not but shelters the growI have ing vines from cool nights and high winds. and the later be exhausted before October. take a dry spell. it is almost certain to cause disaster. dilute it two thirds. I told sorts should not you how melons.



to keep the surface loose.ABOUT MAKING GARDENS true. tile underneath the plants. and the surface . are full enough. not only in 83 your melon patch. then let the holes be filled with dry dirt. water will A plan used at some of the experiment stations is to let water run through V-shaped troughs made of inch boards. Running Subirrigation is by the cultivator. even in a dry time. When the tiles into soak out the soil. three days. but in your strawbed and berry among your flowers. Suppose you desire to water a strawberry bed. however. into each of these holes pour not less than a pint of water and another pint soon after. When irrigation be- comes necessary. let one person go ahead and dig a hole by the side of each plant. out what is a simple plan of irrigation. Such a watering ought to last two or will get it. and the absorption atmospheric far more than if let alone. water thoroughly. of the ground is hardened. which prevents The water is in there. all means the 1 best. and the roots evaporation. is. below run two-inch to I had better add we call the reach of the cultivator. the lower outlet of the tile can be blocked and the water turned in. As soon as this occurs the of moisture ceases. the best plan for premoisture from the ground of the venting escape . plants dry up rapidly If you water at all. withThe simplest way watering at all. This sprinkling the wets rarely ground more than half an inch deep a quick evaporation then takes place. Water is allowed to flow from the troughs through auger holes.

would not undertake to run a garden without a thorough understanding of mulching. . find that subirrigation is quite important. and shrubs. When you have transferred your tomato plants from the hot bed. If a dry little still comes will on. and trees. This ready absorption from the atmosnot possible after the plants get In Florida I large enough to cover the ground. your spell plants keep fresh and green. you should mulch all plants other flowers moved from your hot bed. is not a thing that you can plant or transplant that be the safer with this treatment. The best way to plant potatoes is under a comwill not In Florida plete covering of old straw or grass. barn manure. and coal ashes. as well as double handful of light compost to prevent the evaporation of moisture from the soil. The compost that you use should be well-rotted manure. There put around each one a shovelful of compost. When you have one of your petunias or pansies well pressed into the ground. your roses grow.84 and HOW TO to secure its is LIVE IN THE COUNTRY phere. made of old leaves. and raspyour apples and pears. which is of little value as hay. potatoes. strawberries. I use the fall grass. place around it a berries. but just now I a system of overhead pipes for sprinkling is quite popular. Mulching means placing a quantity of loose material over the dirt and around each plant that we set or It is a term generally applied to planting but asters. beans.

in for cutting January. because save you a lot of labor and vexation. and it is the same with melons and cucumbers. not necessarily quite decomIn the spring posed. and there is not a spot where mulching is not all important. require watering continually whereas mulch would have saved the whole. as cold weather comes on. So you may go from garden to garden. February. of this not as easy as play. spread a covering of compost. and they need neither cultivating nor hoeing. it will So we make garden in the Northern States along from April till July. to be plowed off under in the late summer. The best time make garden is when we can get our crops ready empty Northern market ahead of anyFlorida laughs at its to touch the body cause else.ABOUT MAKING GARDENS The will 85 potatoes will come up through this. and genI want you to put emerally without irrigation. rake this winter protection alleys and let it the plants into the stay there as mulch. Over your strawberry bed. but in Florida we make garden when we please planting Irish potatoes in in melons but our cabbages are March. but entirely free from seeds. As for setting roses and shrubs without mulch. for a . However. it all other lands. you will lose the best half and stunt the to rest. phasis on this matter of mulching. It will keep them alive. and our celery and ready lettuce to we harvest three times a year. be- can put New York is two weeks all peaches into Philadelphia and earlier than Georgia.

You need some things. A little back-door garden. It is utter folly to undertake to hoe quack grass out of a strawberry In the bed. for in any case you have to learn most of your gardening by experience. Winter is also our dry season. to toss over to first. which are generally thrown away. like herbs and rhubarb and as a rule. where the ground is deep and rich. I am not going to write an essay on gardening. in which you will find those directions commonly will given in a seedman's catalogue. ber March them when the weather threatens. I shall give you only a few general rules that you serious mistakes at the outset. however. your garden land must be adclean and well tilled. and are especially good for dahlias and some of our strongest growing flower plants. . we need a gasoline engine and an irrigating system.86 HOW TO first LIVE IN THE COUNTRY winter garden may get a touch of frost once or twice during the colder months any time from Novem- Plenty of water to sprinkle with is protective. first place. are very useful around garden plants. The cleaning must solutely be done before your planting. but we have straw or grass between our lines of peas and potatoes. is extremely handy for the housewife. and if quite dry. will save In the second place. near the house. vegetables should be grown. possibly four or five times during the winter. lettuce. made very rich. Remember always that house slops. and that means generally near your barn.

and while they like good soil they also make good soil. while a few This is tile will turn the same ground growth. directly from the air. especially cowpeas and velvet beans. fed. Gardening. A soggy spot grow nothing well. to a large extent. Beans and peas. will always be. peas. Thirty to fifty sand is all right. All the clovers will do this for our meadows. stantly Oh my making place at Clinton. I am conspots barren for corn and others poor for potatoes. and no one is fitted to be a gardener unless he understands The legumes are the only plants able to take food it. In the Southern States we have a much larger list of these air feeders. Y. inaries. as well as easily irrigated. and after using it. and after a few years they are brought back to corn Bear in mind these three or four prelimfertility. feed the soil its most valuable constituent. and the beans and the peas will do it for our gardens. and clovers) is recent. if it is well worked with compost. experimenting.ABOUT MAKING GARDENS Garden land must will 87 also be capable of thorough drainage. because Garden land expect it will have to be well we to do a lot of work. N. to leave an enriching deposit in the soil. New . I plant these with beans. and you will learn the rest as you go on sorts will with your work. however. This wonderful discovery concerning legumes (including beans.. into friable soil. however. giving you luxuriant per cent of true of trees and bushes as well as vegetables and flowers.

Corn is an Inca and likes sunshine from the rising to the setting. but potatoes will grow in the shadows. east. and take in as much as possible of the morning sun. and what get of gives a relish to chairs. but for the most part I prefer to buy my parsnips. and onions. and there is less danger of a late frost in spring. but currants will do just as well under the overarchberries need the full sun all and ing apple trees. The kitchen garden which I have spoken of before. a I little of this sort of work it very little. I am willing to get hammocks and veranda down to weed one or two rows of beets for greens and a few carrots for early slicing in butter. There is more growth under the morning rays than under the noon rays. far as possible. home maker to grow very little of that which reI like quires the owner to be much on his knees. gardens should face the southor east. or an early frost in autumn. The old-fashioned garden was notable mainly for I recommend to the countryincessant weeding. beets. but on the whole that growth is the most perfect and the most rapid which takes place under the morning sun. other plants. and the rough winds do not sweep as freely down from the The heat accumulates in the soil during the day. Shade suits a few things and hot noons please northwest. In the fruit garden rasp- they can get of it. not far from .88 all HOW TO As LIVE IN THE COUNTRY the time be' offering themselves for propagation. and you will yourself originate better things.

let the woman do as she pleases. provided only we can get a handful of celery seed or of parsley seed when we want it. I pity the all means the in life the dragged-out housekeeper. to keep our heads from nodit ding. ing. I am glad to say that caraway and fennel seeds are not as much in use as forIn the old-fashioned days we had to nibble merly. I have my hobbies . can accommodate a few herbs and turnips. and such things as the mother may want to pull in haste. The right sort of country woman is coming by and by. what a dreary and The coming woman coming man will help But is this kitchen now divided. washing dishes detestable monotony of life. It garden fits the interlude. However. with a corner for sage. Perhaps might be as well to keep this corner open to a few roots of parsley. I do not think a woman should do only indoors work. as work should be half flowers and half vegetables. during the long sermons and prayers.ABOUT MAKING GARDENS 89 the door. who will do nearly all the gardening and much of the fruit picking. this kitchen garden ought also to be full of whimsies where a woman's hobbies show themselves changing every year if she desires. sweep- dusting. at a bunch in church of a Sunday. summer savory and the herbs that These two are about all we need. Hers are by hardest tasks in ordinary American country. will help out of doors and the with the work indoors.

I have never seen a real Nature lover who did not I have had my dahlia spells change likes and tastes. climbing forty feet high on a wild cherry tree. and my aster years. May every loop the fragrance went in waves over his lawn and into his house. somehow more acres some . consider his if trees reach over they the may cause a quarrel. " I would not cut it for one I told hundred dollars. My just over the fence asked me if I to his objected cutting the tendrils of a huge grapevine that. Some years you will find forget-me-nots and mignonette other years petunias and stocks. and small-fruit park. vegetable. for must. but I would advise him to wait until the middle of May. He said. Every corner and nook of a country home should bloom with something and bear something. Where we are to make? So far as now is this we can see you have turned our whole property into one great Is that your floral. LIVE IN THE COUNTRY and field." One neighbors in planting. him he could do as he pleased. and just now am delighting in the nasturtium alone has phloxes and hollyhocks remained a perennial delight also in the orchard she asks for .90 HOW TO it. notion of a country place ? You have hit it exactly. however. Give her help when and make no masculine remarks. I am garden that sure that I hear you say. new neighbor hung down in great loops and tangles over his way as well as mine. With line and was alive with and flowers.

and it will be good plan will be to over your asparagus bed as a winter covering and then burn it over as soon as the snow thaws in the spring. days. If a grapevine creeps inquisitively shear it off through the fence your neighbor may close to the boards that is. the real invaluables for a quiet country garden. the and In market it most delicious. quarrel is always in reach of the quarrelsome. is . If you love this vegetable as I do. but by no means equal to the Argenteuil. Of asparagus there is noth- ing to compare with the improved French Argenteuil.ABOUT MAKING GARDENS 91 people have the more uncomfortable they are about boundary lines. if he have a bit of spite in him. you will have a tidy bed at least two rods square. but you may as well be careful about your compost piles A and not have them where the drainage can be of. Vegetables make less quarrels. The Conover's Colossal absolutely clean of weeds. the varieties that I have tested and am willing to endorse as first rate. largest. Apples that fall over the bounds belong to the land where they fall. complained I can hardly escape the necessity of making one or two lists for you in the way of best things to plant. litter A throw some the variety generally grown and is very good. brings twice the price of any other variety. a variety that was brought to this country and first It is the earliest by ten planted in South Carolina.

If you have paboards cept placing . for there are dozens of six inches long. It produces magnificent crops. must find out cabbages you by experiment. all having claim on the gardener. because I like both quality and quantity. I grow both sorts. or pie plant as the housekeeper calls it. and perhaps the Golden Self-blanching is about as near perfection It requires no banking exas we have yet come. but the Linnaeus is an improved sort. and both these sorts are good. where it can get the richest supply of food. Celery does not need the hard work that was for- merly given to it. It is called pie plant because it makes delicious pies when it is worked up by a born cook. and moderately early. small family in the counthe all can grow cabbages they can use by settry ting plants in little A vacancies among the berries or melons. have never seen any better than that which I saw growing I think just outside a Maine farmer's barnyard. for it bleaches itself. not quite so big as is Victoria. and the same with the celery. but growing in the bush form.92 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY Rhubarb. I have already told you where to grow I it. full size beans. on each side. but wonderfully better. a country Among the the beans there is nothing to compare with new Burpee Improved Bush Lima. generally a very inferior and watery affair. Of the varieties of each of these vegetables. homestead could adopt this many of plan getting very early and very luxuriant spring sauce. This is a real lima bean in size of pod and bean.

alas it is easily spoiled. about as big as your fist. is room. make right here by the lettuce bed for beets. Remember that this is the place where you must get down and pull weeds. Fork this up very finely and sow Mignonette and Golden Queen. either the Early Alabaster or the Pearl I like this delicious vegetable when well cooked. for you will get just as much from ten feet square in rich deep soil as you will from three times that space of hard soil. it is ! where you have had a comground is saturated with food. try a few flower plants. Mignonette will give you. and my word for it you will have to tie them to stakes inside of a month . mulch them thoroughly. very speedily. Thin them in the hot bed until they are very stout. but. I give tomatoes precedence and am willing to spend more time and trouble with them than with most other vegetables. set them out six feet apart. and no plants are ever set in the If there a small garden that are not as thick through as your finger. crowd down the dirt around them. As for lettuce it is impossible to get it worth the plucking unless you can give it an exceedingly rich bit of Denmark. turnips. and of ground. small heads. as well as stand up and hoe them. Try a place post pile until the delicious. and salsify. then take them up with a liberal supply of dirt. carrots. The richer the bed the smaller it may be.ABOUT MAKING GARDENS tiencc 93 cauli- and will give special care. They are started in a cold frame or hot bed.

but the Triumph is a new sort that meets with great and deserved favor. and there are so many thoroughly superb sorts that I can only give you a bit of my own experience. with the single exception of a yellow-fleshed In sort. recrossed into Henderson. The Rocky the old Ford muskmelon is nothing more than Gem grown under favorable conditions. own creating. Florida the Florida Favorite and the Dixie are two of the more popular sorts. I have been able that than sweeter any comparably The two best peas that I grew durto purchase. crosses of the Black Mexican with the Minnesota. On Northern I home have succeeded with Jenny Lind my and the Emerald Gem among muskmelons. and the Bradford are about even rivals and all worth testing. Now we have the sweet corn and the peas still to I grow no corn except hybrids of my provide for. The two best varieties are Golden Queen and Liv- ingston's Stone. . Melons are halfway between vegetables and fruit. Paul's Bonny. although there are several of the reds of about equal quality. The Jack Rose and Earliana are notable for being very early and at the same time solid and of good quality. with the It is inblood of the Golden Nugget intermixed. ing the last year were Senator and Carter's Danby Stratagem. the seed of which came to me from Italy.94 HOW TO LIVE IN fruit will THE COUNTRY in and the loads of keep you high spirits. but with watermelons I have had no success whatever in this climate. Probably Kleckley Sweets.

to crossbreeds are and only of the best. I can see also the pride with which you carry in your first tomatoes or a bunch of golden Your rhubarb will make earliest spring joycarrots." resume his crown. and I know enough about it to give it special room in my next garden and highly recommend it. yielding For a long while heavily and of the finest flavor. I have already told you I leave entirely to the market gardener. will not be all picked before November. My my pride. I have reduced the grow them liberally selected sorts to five well-established kings of the advice is that you use much legume kingdom. I have named enough to set you at work. A Dainty Duchess is the newest claim to favor. I do the not think that I have said enough By way. about beans. I found nothing better than May Queen and No. but I have told you how they enrich I advise you the soil instead of impoverishing it. and ous. following my directions. your string beans. You recall what the Emperor Diocletian said when asked to " Come and see my cabbages. and I can see you getting up very early in the morning all through the summer months to take a look at your growing things. can purchase.ABOUT MAKING GARDENS My ideal is 95 always a plant that does not grow more than two or two and a half feet high. Onions and a few other vegetables. My of your enthusiasm in starting new sorts yourself. The best of them will some day be placed on the market. There is nothing quite so noble as making this world . of whom I i.

of Denison. T. Texas. Last spring I had three thousand tulips blossoming . I have not lived in vain. Mr. Loomis. I recently United how in a small country home to cultivate some of the choicest flowers with the least possible trouble.96 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY by embodying your hopes and thoughts in improved foods for the human race. say. Now you will say I have not provided for a special flower garden. Burbank. wildings and the best foreign sorts. States. Munson." a benison than his pulpit work. V. of Japan. and the time is coming when any decent farmer will be ashamed to die without leaving behind him some new product of his brains and skill. so many that we might almost have a Burbank garden and a Burbank orchard. although I have suggested a I am going to tell you big array of the beautiful. You have heard a good deal about Mr. Mr. Well. If he had given us only the Burbank potato that would have been enough. for I have given the world the best sweet corn yet His garden work seemed surer of being produced. seventy" five years old. has given the world a list of at least fifty new sorts of grapes that embody the finest possibilities of all our native The Rev. and perhaps you have seen some of his creations. Others are doing quite as excellent work. but he is giving us new vegetables and new fruits. has added to his missionary work richer the exploitation of the Japanese persimmon in the heard a minister.

and. Now beyond these flowers make a specialty of daffodils and iris in the spring. but not one tulip bed. between the plants. barren bank.ABOUT MAKING GARDENS on of 97 I simply nine acres. if you it down for fall blooming. if the tall White Candidum. will do equally well. They come up and blossom as if they owned the soil. Nasturtiums ask only for a hard. but the best I have seen were blossoming in the vineyard right along through the grape rows. The easiest sorts for common country folk to grow are a magnificent lily for The July. Auratum. Our field also do admirably under similar conditions. or Gold-banded. are picking our berries there is nothing to show that six weeks earlier this was a tulip garden. Lilies can be grown much in the same way. but the flowers are gone and the stalks are dried before When we the strawberries have got out of bloom. and the Japan Lancifoliums for August. but you may give all the food you can to the pansies that grow just beside them. If . You simply must not feed them. because please. thrust my tulip bulbs down through into the soil my my strawberry beds. planted nine inches deep instead of lilies five. and I will find room for this superb flower. as my hobby. almost anywhere that you can press them down along by the Phloxes alone remain hedges or the grape rows. it is you may you secure a few of the choicer sorts you will have no difficulty in raising seedlings that are improved cut so profuse in bearing.

or you can have a special rose garden. run their hobbies. as I have already said. and in time you will have a collection worth the while. take General Jacqueminot. sorts. one of the most magnificent of our newer this plant Betty and Killarney and J. Virteas I should select . list it is not home without them. he would be well called the five Cochets. Prince Camille de Beauty. B. pink. White American sometimes called Frau Karl Druschki. Here is a little to start you. or as is it is Rohan.98 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY on what you have set. supplied with roses son. Of the hybrid Clark. Only enough roses we will have. this class are pretty close to hardy. out of what is called the hybrid perpetual class. I am As peas and China pretty sure that you will find plenty of sweet asters somewhere about. a huge rose of fine quality. It might be well to hill them up a little during the winter. and Franz Deegan. Select your best seedlings. one had nothing else but this group. Paul Neyron. Otherwise among the flowers let your wife and children. I do not believe that you can do much better at the outset than to plant what are These include yellow. all through the blooming sea- If you wish to select a few of the very best ironclads. for roses you can do as you please. you can either grow them in your shrubbery. white. Souvenir de WootAll the roses in ton. Gloire Lyonaise. With Joseph Hill. Olivia. If and crimson and are entirely hardy. red.

Giant of Battles. Now we have varieties that take to culture. Perhaps I ought to add to the list of very hardy Captain Christy. and It frets me that I cannot add more Jules Margottin. Of .ABOUT MAKING GARDENS ginia 99 Coxc is one of the sweetest and most beautiful of the crimson roses. Jubilee. When we wished for berries we went into the forest clearings. we are not to overlook our berries. and if Florida you may plant about all Margaret Dickson. raspberries and blackberries. Of When I was a boy we never thought of grow- ing a garden blackberry." Look out for this. One of the oldest rose growers in the United States announced last year that his name would be borne by a new rose. and Clio. and for strawberries into the pastures and meadows. all the while I am conscious that it is unwise. Ulrich Brunner. Her Majesty. home is below New York City to the list of tea roses. or raspberry. Of the older roses my favorites have been Gloire de Margottin. mulberries and huckleberries I shall talk in a chapter on Orchards. which he considers the finest ever introduced that " is Charles Dingee. or strawberry. to this list. albeen in the garden but a very short have though they course time. and most of them will do nothing out of cultivation. roses. Paul Neyron. If your you can add largely you have a home in everything that you can find in the catalogues and pick your arms full winter.

thoroughly cultivated and clean. I think not less than one hun- dred kinds of strawberries followed in rapid cession. and horticulturists had discovered what they could do. bition was aroused. and destined to be the parent of a wonderful progeny. all the way back Some to Wilson's Albany. The strawberry only requires a place under the head of gardening.ioo HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY because nowadays we grow these berries along with our plum trees and pear trees. not one requires more care and work to get good results than the strawberry. And gardening it is. the I think I Cumberland Triumph. When they must be fed well. and one of them. of these were superb berries. and easily irrigated. until at suclast . still sold as the Wilson. have planted nearly all the new sorts of these berries that have come out. each one displacing the other. all this a small strawberry bed is an absolute essential to a happy country home. the plants are growing and you have to move your In spite of beds about every two or three years. and it was the first revelation of bigness and goodness combined a literal mouthful. From that day we have had a succession of start- ling strawberries. We got on very nicely if nothing better had turned up But human amthan Jucunda and Green Prolific. The Sharpless appeared about 1880. The soil must be friable or mellow. still creeps around in my or- chard. each new one always seeming to could have reach the very climax of evolution. for of all the plants that we grow.



but has stood a give lots of big. exgrass. In to settle 101 down permanently on judgment. rich berries.ABOUT MAKING GARDENS we seemed about Brandywine. berry. If you will give it hill culture and very rich soil. as if it really enjoyed your amazement when you walk along the rows or lift the leaves. abuse. However. and its quality is In Florida I found Lady Thomprarely equaled. at present. although it has two or three close rivals in Cardinal. so many and so big that the stems cannot hold them up mulch underneath is needed. do not think that laziness and strawberries can ever harmonize. and still neglect . It lays whole handfuls of strawberries down on the ground. but still better was the old Bubach No. or will stand even however. Marshall will astonish you for size. Sample is another good and reliable sort for general culture. cept possibly one or two of my own seedlings. It is not quite a new my thorough test for fully ten and under all conditions. and has years. It will fight its way with weeds and and still This is my choice. William Belt. Glen Mary. and so is Chesapeake. and some of Thompson's seedlings. and for a just-right year Haverland is a wonder only it is not good for a very dry or a very wet year. give a crop. Keep the dirt stirred . the best all-around strawberry is William Belt. everywhere proved able to give big crops of delicious fruit. 5 a really reliable berry that has been tested for twenty years. to be a son deserved favorite.

There is you plant two or three sorts in adjacent rows this problem is solved. I like best beds built against a stone wall. seems to be as big as a Red hope not.102 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY until picking time comes. and. and I would make the walls of the bed itself of stone or brick. finally. A new sort called Norwood has just been placed on the market. sweet Williams. All we want of a What we have to say about spraying will come in a little later. if you have one. I always allow the leaves to show through the cov- There has been a great deal of talk about the sex of strawberry plants and the necessity of securing pollen from perfect blooming sorts to bring ering. danger rotting plants. if something of course. The length must depend entirely upon pinks. not only to start tomatoes and cabbages for very early planting. cover your beds lightly with compost not too there is of for the heavily. in another chapter. but the stories about it are so amazing that I will do no more than mention it in this chapter. I strawberry is to just go into the mouth. in the way of biennials . but selves alone. It Astrachan apple. as cold weather comes. The hot beds and cold frames are needed all the time. but we must not omit the hot bed. or at least to accommodate itself with a single split from a silver knife. which lack stamens. Marshall and William Belt can take care of theminto fruitage those in this. but later for and anything that you have and perennials. have plenty of mulch between the rows.

and there is always a wealth of plant food in the air to bring down. make-up is simply horse manure fermented and over this a layer of very fine rich mold. ish enough to write them.ABOUT MAKING GARDENS 103 how much space you need. no moral or physical right to exhaust your land. For some seeds I prefer pure sand and for others leaf mold. and the puzzles will begin to propound themselves. There is almost always fertility below to bring up especially in sandy land. is how to get at the nitrogen which you own overhead and the phosphates or potash that you own down below. or possibly at a corner of the barn. or the southwest. although you are Do not be foolbubbling over with more inquiries. You do. You answer a few of your questions. but study them out for Remember all the while that you have yourself. are at last in your country garden. and all your problems. while I have only tried to others will solve themselves. should be to the east or south. . The sum of your problem. Find out how to make soil and how to keep it rich. best of all to the southeast. behind a The hedge. if possible. A wooden frame it is often the best that you can should be in a sheltered nook. and can generally find about what you want around the edge of the barnyard. The slope. You and I will have another talk on this subject by and by. but the width should not be over three to four feet.

io 4




I wish you may Roll up your sleeves and at it. be so happy that you will understand how it was that the Lord God planted a garden eastward in





now to a most delightful part of my general subject, where your training and your creative art will find exercise and you can con-

your ideas with plants and trees only do not make too much of your freedom in the way of expressing preconceived or inherited notions, not to say

whims and

strict adviser, to

Nature must still be your very be counseled at every turn, and we shall hope not to see a lot of leveling and hacking down of beautifully carved knolls, or the cutting

Nature spent two or three hundred Now, if ever, we must have comyears in building. mon sense, or we shall make our home a mere comcalled lawns. posite of badly related bits and strips Let Nature alone, and she will plant shrubberies almost everywhere, lots of them and the finest that She will cover the hillsides ever were conceived. with them, and there will be others down by the creeks and wherever else she can twist a brook to and She sets the birds and fro through the meadows. the squirrels to bringing seeds, some of them stolen

away of

trees that





them where

from our gardens, and she
their future food,


to plant

will give them butternut groves gives and maple groves for nuts and for sugar, besides acres of poems, rhododendrons, and lawns of mint



for the birds for


to us


few of her shrubs are provided with roots that run under other roots and so
get hold of the ground in spite of rivals.

and forget-me-not.


In this

way we

find great patches

of sumac along the
in the hollows.

and big patches of elders

She plants her forests in the same way, her great hemlock woods and her beech groves but always with shrubberies fronting them. I cannot forget the deep glen, visited in my boyhood with only my dog
for a companion,

blue and red shale

where a projecting promontory of was grasped and held together

with long naked roots of a single huge hemlock. These roots grasped every bit of dirt, feeding and

brook below. I whole glen, and todragged I sit under the I that when visit huge trees day glen that look over the precipice and listen to the brook song among the wild raspberries far below. Witch-hazels have found soil enough for their roots, and wild strawberries creep up and down. Everywhere there is a shrubbery of all sorts of wild things, out of which have risen, by competition, tall Some one has removed lindens, straight as arrows. the rails and with sharp tools cut away at the glen

they reached


and fenced

in the

Pound Sweets and Northern Spys. There never were finer shrubberies than


openings, leaving only a few apple trees, grafted to
those that

were planted in the corners of the old zigzag rail fences, where the wild sloes shook hands with the hopple bushes and the great white-flowering elder
or golden-rods nestled close to wild asters, with borders of tansy and boneset. In June the wild

strawberries widened this border and hid their big under burdock and mullein leaves like lit-

envy the great wide-winged wild thorns, covered with grapes and making cool arbors everywhere in the middle of oak forests. In Massachusetts you have seen what Nature can do on the Berkshire Hills and in the Greenfield valleys, while the dwarfed white pines of New Hampshire seem to me to be the most beautiful
things in the world. Nature loves this

wild rabbits.

In the


I used to

way of doing beautiful things She sends her robins over into our costly gardens, collecting seeds of rare shrubs and sowing them until they become naturalized. So I find among the hills that border my Oriskany Valley, rare viburnums, crataegus, and lilacs, with not a few Tartarian honeysuckles and other shrubs from Siberia and the Cape of Good Hope. I enlarge a little on this only to tell you that we have never learned to do this business any better than Nature,
or to


shrubberies finer than


can find in the





Walking through Senator Root's famous
plantations, of

which the country has heard a good deal lately, I found the ground dotted everywhere with miniature maples and elms and white ash and

and not a few delicate young hemlocks that most exquisite of all evergreens. Along the lee of his older woods there were thousands of






to use


Nature could have done all the forest planting that was necessary, and would have done it far better
than even Mr. Pinchot himself,
I advise you, if
if left


you want anything of the kind, to cattle and see what Nature will accomout the shut She knows what the soil wants, and then she plish. knows what the shrubs and trees want. She makes no mistakes in the way of trying to grow chestnuts where there should be maples, or pines where there Her forests and should be only deciduous tress. shrubberies are wonderfully correlated, and in infinite variety.

But now


us turn to our

own shrubbery


foolishly undertake You already have a general plan the conventional. of your place, and your house is built into the plan. You did not shape the grounds to your house, but

making sure that we do not

In this process you have your house to the grounds. had suggested to you, I do not doubt, places where

you would

like to plant a shrubbery,

or a tree lawn,

or a flower lawn, or a grass lawn. far we can follow our first impulses




find out a little later.


be set


as axioms,

But one or two things must and the first of these is, do

not try to exploit your place for the eye of the that is, do not plant for those people to public look at who happen to be driving by. I do not
question our duty to travelers, but at the

make our

places agreeable to

same time we have our own

private needs and rights. If you are a person of wealth, the shrubbery is your chance for gracious enjoyment and retreat, and

the best

you are not wealthy, nevertheless a shrubbery is method you have of resting yourself in quiet,

while enjoying a full display of flowers. No other no and other of will sort give you plants garden anything like as much of an array of the beautiful as
the shrubbery


at the

April, the one gorgeous expression of spring joy, and with discretion you may so arrange your planting that there shall be a plenty of blossoming




same cost of money May, and early June the



varieties in the later

times, keep



months; but always, and at all that the shrubbery is particu-

larly your private property.

For this reason I would not place a collection of shrubs directly in front of my house, between my house and the street. Let it be where the morning
sun strikes

and where the moon

also lights


up for

the honeysuckles that only send out their sweetness at night and woo the moths instead of the butterflies.




right for


things, but the gen-

for you will find in every section of the country quite a number of sorts of shrubs. deutzias. but not conspicuous. There should or at most witK a very choice friend. The present fashion likes to affiliate great numbers in of spireas. I like to what the bush itself stands for. and then associate the smaller growing with those already planted. What we are planning is rather a cozy and sweetthis smelling retreat. and when the leaves are colored crimson in the autumn the display is attractive. should be or brown They green. seats in this shrubbery be collection should be made largely from your native woods. of ours. but rarely transferred to . where we can go with Nature alone. For my part I love the shrub itself. and in all cases you will find that Nature means something very particular and special by her forms of growth. Jamming plants together and intertwining their limbs gives you no chance for comprehending the indisee vidual plant and the peculiarity of foliage. of Your own real beauty and quality. or of growth. and you will find that shrubberies planted after manner are generally thrust out before all the people to look at. During the blossoming season this provides a large show.no HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY eral rule should be to allow the larger growing sorts to occupy the prominent places. al- ways avoiding crowding. The fashion also is fit only for public displays. Nature's colors. and they should be half hidden under the bushes. and similar floriferous shrubs close masses.

Add now you golden balls of bloom. The sumac is certainly not to be despised. I like to let it run at freedom because I love the berries in tarts as well as I admire them on the bushes. if you will give it in re- turn a place where the winter's sun cannot disturb it. more beautiful than any other wild cherry that I had ever seen. It will add largely to your pleasure. if you live where the limestone does not forbid. the mate of Thomas Jefferson among our statesmen as a Nature lover. I came upon a weeping form of wild cherry. The hazel and witch-hopple are marvelously interesting shrubs and can be found all about the Northern woods. while the evergreen mahonia will give to our list. tral in in cenfifty Scattered about the I woods New York. both in blossom and in fruitage. called the common elder the most beautiful of all American shrubs. and in some of its forms it can be found in a dozen States.LAWNS AND SHRUBBERY our homesteads. It certainly is something remarkable. however. . if I leave you to make a thorough search of the woods and forest edges and glens of your neighborhood to determine for yourself what may be hidden away that deserves to be brought from its retreat. think I could find at least charming and very companionable plants. Collecting for a shrubbery a few years ago. Horatio Seymour. I had as good fortune with a cornus alternifolia. The witch hazel is the only shrub that blossoms in November and it can easily be added the magnificent laurels and rhododendrons.

In this way I have quite frequently come upon Tartarian honeysuckles. and bunches of this doors in water. English barberries. you may you a few days to shrub. not been made of this grand American small tree or that blossom. bush. the Japan quinces and the lilacs. floriferous beyond comThe Judas trees may be classed as shrubs. and I do not doubt that there are many others nestled in the glens which I haunt and waiting for sharper eyes than mine. then I shall be mistaken. and You always regret the procession is well begun. little First comes the cut great earlier in- daphne. rare thorns. Siberian maples. pare. In this hunt of yours you will also find something else of very great interest. The shrubbery bursts into bloom with the first tempting rays of spring sunshine. and as such will stand well at the front of all things The Before a leaf appears every limb and I wonder that more has twig is a bouquet of lilac. with viburnums and lilacs. just as some of the blackberries and raspberries that are bird sown are worth the transplanting into your garden. European euonymus. forsythias almost as soon become great masses of gold. and that is that many foreign shrubs have become scattered by birds eating the fruit in gardens and voiding the seeds in wild places. open if care. Then come . Keep your eyes always wide open for new things.ii2 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY If you do not find that some of the seedlings caused by bird planting are novel.

very like the true cranberry. but because the berries make a delici- For myself ous sauce. For midsummer and early autumn we are ex- pected to turn to the rose garden and the fruit gardens. yet you observe that Nature's arrangement is after all the best. while the witch hazel begins autumn flowering. such as the altheas and the hydrangeas. not only to attract the grosbeaks to dine. these berries also a delightful jelly. that do not display their beauty until August although the noblest of all the hydrangeas (a new find and baptized Arborescens grandiflora) begins to blossom in June and continues until October a magnificent shrub and finer even than At this time also quite the now famous paniculata. She gives you just one or two very fine things at a time. a number of the May-blooming shrubs are gay with and just in time for Thanksgiving. scarlet or purple berries. to occupy your full attention. but at every turn of my drives. not only before my windows. yet we have a few shrubs. I cannot say positively that the make cows enjoy the lilacs and the mock- . the euonymus breaks open its seed pods and greets us with a scarlet display.LAWNS AND SHRUBBERY 113 that each one does not last longer in bloom. Do not forget to plant a few fine-growing shrubs around your barns and outhouses. A its little later. I like a bush of barberries. You cannot have too many high-bush cranberries. warming up the landscape with brilliant scarlet when the snow is covering the world for five successive months.

prunus triloba. of course I forking annually around each plant. plant variety of the later sorts. the golden forsythia (not quite hardy). viburnums of a later sort. lilacs in snowball only preferring the Japanese and Tartarian honeysuckle. lief that I the animals are happier have a lingering bewhen surrounded with that which also pleases me. of Grow as a rule in the sod. daphne. would be. in rows. for May.ii 4 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY oranges and the honeysuckles that send their perfume is something humanizing about these surroundings. unless ing straight drives. not bad at all for the hired men. Never plant them ing. for April. just as there is something economic in having grapevines that carry bushels of fine clusters on your barn walls. deutzias in variety. peonies in variety. plant freely of altheas and hydrangeas. but there divorced from the beautiful. clematis for climbing. viburnums (including the old-fash- ioned sort). Japan A lilacs in variety. and for July and August. mean by this . with rhododendrons where the soil will permit. I have already suggested that in the planting of alba shrubs we avoid the it conventional. but not strictly to follow. cornus and the common elder. besides a few spireas and clematis paniculata. quinces in variety. syringas in great variety. be for wind-breaks. or borderSeek variety in all your groupin front Low-growing shrubs should be planted taller. good list of shrubs for you to study. I hate stables and outbuildings that are into the stables. spireas in variety. for June.

but they will die out in twigs and branches. new hydrangea arborescens although its make more lilacs. will also is Its flowers are insignificant if the plants are starved. slender. and with pink. but I think the This shrub will stand considerable it must have good soil to do its best. of shade the lawn trees or in the under the spent orchard. while others are constantly dying of out in twigs that deface the hedge. but I have mentioned this before. with white. I growth could give a whole page wisely to the Fifty years ago we had only the common lilac and . a fine hedge plant. but the results Next to the honeysuckle I were always disappointing. shrub appears with red flowers. giving us great annoyance. because most of them are liable to lean over too far. The very finest all shrubs for this purpose is the Tartarian or bush This honeysuckle. I have secured a seedling with an exceedingly deep crimson flower and sturdy growth.LAWNS AND SHRUBBERY that formal walks should be avoided. I have seen the barberry used as a hedge. would place the hydrangea paniculata. you you may lose yourself when strolling about of an Your noondays should be evening or a morning. Shrubs that are suitable for hedges are rare. is 115 If your shrubshould arrange it so that bery large enough. like most of the spireas. The pink-flowering is a little more sturdy in growth and might fairly be selected for a hedge. Lilacs are defensible for this purpose of hedging. trimming.

a double carmine. and Michael Buchner. but just out of the line of your daily . a double with bluish crimson flowers Ludwig Spaeth. Jean Bart. As far as possible I am using the homely old names for the shrubs specified.n6 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY the white. they have added immensely to the charm of our shrubberies. of a reddish purple hue and immensely long flower stems. It will not make a fine bush unless given a moist location. very double. and where I do not it is because they are not known by any more familiar title than that given. a white-flowered sort. a beautiful blue. Dot I call When too formal. but the whole bushes become a solid mass of bloom late in May. however. make a half dozen finest I have seen. as they are all grafted. with double lilac-colored flowers. and with . single. you must look out not to let the suckers have a chance to grow. and semi- double. double. They will not stand of the being starved. you to upon you I shall expect show me a place that you have selected. They are all of them very and little trouble on the lawns if they give very hardy have reasonably good soil. Leon Simon. The lilacs came into common use only a few years but ago. either in the catalogues or in com- mon parlance. and the latter was quite rare. flowerets of the largest size. President Grevy. The French horticulturists list of superb have been sending us recently a long new sorts. and. Princess Alexandra. They are much more delicate in Persian foliage and in flowers.

and I expect to find a bird's nest in every bush. and at the same time you will be sure to get a lot of very fine new varieties of shrubs. I have not said half enough about the Judas tree. with a fragrance that floats off an eighth of a mile. enough for all other of mock-oranges. it will be with dogwood and surrounded by Judas trees. because it is member grow it the finest very early shrub in existence. just have a good group of Persian lilacs for me. generally to You your be mowed off or hoed out. you cannot spare room of these things. If there is a damp spot anywhere about. Give them in charge to one of your or boys girls. will be sure to find seedlings from most of shrubs. and an- mountain ash. Hazel bushes and hopple bushes will grow in the shade of one or two wild cherries. coming up year after year. I am very proud of my cross-bred mock-oranges and honey- . only rethat its wood is brittle and you had better as a small tree.LAWNS AND SHRUBBERY 117 work. Let me advise you to have somewhere along by your berry gardens or plowed fields a little nursery to which you can transplant these children of Nature and see what they will come to. and filled If. with the understanding that he will own the finer ones. however. near the croquet ground. another of spireas. wild plums. although I am not sure that I like any shrub better than the old syringa. or possibly the tennis court. In this way you will bind your children to country life. No two seedlings will come just alike.

are hand. however. Nothing in the world can be worse than a collection of weeping trees. we must have. in a grass plot. If you have a lawn between yourself and the street. to get as much more . and certainly no sheared evergreens or sheared grass plots. and a lot of odd or peculiar trees forced to keep comThere are some panionship which they do not like. and you only do the selecting. but no straight walks and no driveways. Lawns.1 1 8 HOW TO and I LIVE IN THE COUNTRY have one barberry that outglorifies This business of crossbreeding is very simple if you let the bees do the crossing. The oak and the pine make good neighbors. A lawn implies too much of the artificial for her somewhat wild notions and always means human folk about. lot of good taste to create a lawn of this sort. The cow path and suckles. but kept tidy and mowed three It will need a or four times during the summer. or sheared evergreens. at all. if left to herself. The white elm likes to be alone running as high up into the air as possible and then letting its limbs droop gracefully down. the squirrel track she takes into her reckoning. Nature. and a right sort of a lawn is indicative of civilization. does not count a lawn into her contrivances. not sheared every day. trees that have the fidgets so badly under these circum- On the other stances that they become diseased. and I believe that nine out of ten make robust failures. it should be made up of trees. there very strong friendships among trees. everything in the catalogues.

however. like the white elm. . while the male tree spreads out through a surface of thirty feet in diameter. There and needs room. you just room under the limbs for a rustic bit and a of a lawn party. small lawn. that variety of the scarlet which I advise you to go into a maple. spreads over the largThe red elm is quite another thing and has never lost its woodland It loses its lower limbs. It is rather slow growing first of these is the beech. four. scarlet is it.LAWNS AND SHRUBBERY air 119 and sunshine as it can. yes. three trees. you must know this one thing. It needs a good deal of this preliminary knowledge of trees to avoid serious blunders. affairs. It est possible space for the sun to kiss. and betcall we marshy place in the fall and note the wonderful variety of coloring among the maples. how to run up aloft and spread out a canopy. that if trimmed up after it has attained size. that I The place ahead of all others for single lawn trees. one must know that the female grows almost as erect as a Lombardy poplar. then mark two or three of the more beautiful for transplanting. ter yet swamp maple is peculiarly beautiful. Then The the sun striking the bark will surely split will set in the worms and death. but has never learned ways. While planting the Kentucky coffee tree. are. giving seat One tree is quite enough for a much better than a crowd of elbowed The beech naturally heads out very low. While the maple is always charming for shade.

while in May there among is not a woodland or lawn tree that gives us a more superb array of blossoms. glorious foliage. these growing in Florida and others in New York The color of State equally thrifty and beautiful. America should be proud The wood is of this grand native production. and if your lawn is small I advise you to get some of these hybrid and the catalpas. The juice of this tree is milky and acrid. except that the wood is too soft for fuel. the foliage varies from a rich purple to a golden green. Mr. I do not remember ever seeing a Norway maple in the slightest degree defoliated. Indiana. It why this tree has been so much neglected. in rank. preventing the attack of worms. is Next to the beech comes the Third the very richest possessions of our country for telegraph poles and railroad ties. Cut oft" the trees will spread widely and dip their branches full of flowers clear to the ground. leaders. at Centerville. Y. spreading out grandly and just far enough from the ground. For a lawn tree it has hard to tell every requisite. some years ago sent us out hybrids of the I have some of native catalpa with the Japanese. or basswood. the Catalpa speciosa. perhaps it ought to go to the front. while in June it is one mass of deliciously fragrant flowers. the very ideal of rapid growth. and rich coloring in the fall.120 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY Norway maple. E. Teas. now an old man. The foliage is large . My fourth tree for American lawns is is the Amer- ican linden.



takes a long while to make a really If you plant it. easily and will remain in fine condition for shade for If you plant the maple. I would name it specifically and in the front rank. worm-eaten affair. it be sure that stands where fifteen years. it has most abundant room and that its shade will not be needed for ten or white ash also has some strong claims on us. I am sure that some of my readers will call me to if account for not naming the white elm. only it is not often rightly grown. diseased. at least one hundred years. the sugar maple only of decay). J Plant English trees for late autumn. and really. It heals over wounds but mainly for street planting. giving poor shade and suggestive If rightly grown.LAWNS AND SHRUBBERY and the shade perfect. and hardly a sound one among them. 121 Better yet. The Eng- . should surely have its place with the four that I have selected. this should told you why already country is full of maple trees. only remember that it useful lawn tree of the white elm. conditions are just right. This linden could easily displace the maple as the maple is commonly grown (a haggard. tree of the world. It is a wonderful tree. be The done. it is the great bee I have advocated the planting of basswood along our streets and everywhere else in order to increase honey production and the wealth of the people. let it The be trimmed up just about as high at planting I have as it will ever need to be when full grown.

and what can one say about it all exit is So cept that Nature does not like the ugly and that the Learn to look around soul of all things is beautiful. King Charlie's oak and the Scotch elm give us their russet leaves until well into the edge of winter the oak sometimes all winter. us a fine show of mixed scarlet and yellow. a little later in December. A ment. that everywhere there are enough of fine things. or you will gather together trees that do not mate well and will soon become diseased.122 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY lish oak. the Scotch elm. have spoken slightingly of weeping trees and of I do not mean that weeping trees trees. should be always discarded. growing where no man can turn them to rhythm or joy. and you will find material everywhere waiting tree lawn needs judgfor a place on your lawn. They hold their leaves in autumn for two or three weeks longer than American trees of the same sort. simply because some . the English beech. while the black jack. This sort of foliage is hardly disposed of before the sweet gum and the sugar maple its put on their spring foliage and their crimson blossoms. but to plant a distorted I sheared affair in the eyes of the public. however. and the linden all come to us with established European habits that they do not easily yield. you. is gorgeous with motley hues. In Florida I find that the water oak and the persimmon and the black jack oak are to be reckoned The persimmon gives with for midwinter foliage.

for sheared evergreens. not impossible to combine the flowers with the vegetables in a garden by themselves and so leave It is . and it should never be trimmed up. That does not mean that an ever- makes As Rational headgreen tree should never be trimmed. More of these lawns are grass plots. however. Sometimes it means just a front yard over which the lawnmower is incessantly run from the last of April to the last of October. but if your homestead grows and develops. The word lawn probably conveys to most minds a grassy turf a yard of clean grass. a rule. scribed. The natural form of the evergreen was therefore then. before there were any deciduous or As when the elements were ruder and must have the very best defence against vegetation storms. a perfect cone. This mixture is well enough to start with. and still is. which Its graceful growth be classed as an exception.LAWNS AND SHRUBBERY of its 123 limbs twist is down instead of up. your evergreens should sit flat on the Nature devised them in the earlier periods ground. while the shrubs constitute the retreat I have deflowering trees. ing-in will thicken the tree. the Camperdown. they are monstrosities and nothing else. the flowers should have a place for themselves. There may one elm. it form a very acceptable arbor. is a mistake. of the world. unless the reason is very peculiar and apparent. and will not distort it. more or less filled up with miscellaneous flower beds and shrubs.

and . What to do with roses Roses. watching and trimming them and removing the old buds. Huge growers. besides the need of spraying and otherwise fighting content to plant them where they can be cultivated in rows by horse power. for our rosebushes get to be great shrubs. out of which is picked every day any little It requires constant dandelion or wandering clover. nearly all annuals and most of the perennials. however.i2 4 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY out of the lawn question all flowers except the shrubs. I do not forget. and it is not impossible to border a shrubbery with groups of hardy sorts very effectively. needing no winter protection and almost always in bloom. against the waste of time and the lack of good taste that would create for a lawn a smooth greensward. and what I do with the rest I have told you already in is also a problem. I am Florida it is different. In insects. spend more time and patience planting and weeding a few balsams and asters than you will caring for a I have outgrown shrubbery of a quarter of an acre. however. running of a lawn-mower also it a rattling affair that I never could endure. can have a place in the shrubbery. call for a good deal of labor. as a rule. like crimson rambler. that around the kitchen door the country home-maker has place for a few Remember always that you will pinks and annuals. There we can let them stand eight or ten feet high to constitute a shrubbery by themselves. my discussion of gardens. Let me protest. however.

fancy lawns all about the country. at it whether again and again. I dian corn is only a superbly developed zea grass. and it be stately timothy. grass is always beautiful. and men and women raking them clean of all sweet-scented brown and scarlet leaves. . or graceful bluegrass. The leaves are burned and the grass is left to be frozen to the core. or the great waving broom Ingrass of swamp lands.LAWNS AND SHRUBBERY 125 also refuses to take into account the beauty of a grass spire five inches long. Any boy or girl of commonsense and decent muscle can quickly learn the old art. physical value to a boy or girl of pushing a lawnmower back and forth by the hour. if my word I question the for it they will be glad. in I differ entirely I with these country friends about this matter. It She tried her hand is one of Nature's chief works. while as an intellectual operation it is a flat failure. as she did at making trees. would abolish the lawn-mower summer. letting the grass inches high before cutting. and would have scythe. or the bunch grass that grows by the creeks. so that reseeding will be necessary another spring. do not believe that putting the razor to the face of Nature every morning In the is fall I find these little any improvement. I grow at least five or six it mowed with an old-fashioned you can find anybody still left who knows how to swing it. just about big enough for a city dooryard. or daisy-crowded orchard grass. I want you to learn to appreciate the grass.

something." It stick-tights and the thistles and the elecampane. " " I want these corners. Nature never found this of it that out law happened the beautiful? She has probably never read the bulletins from Washington. kept closely mown. However. I Climbing the hills not far from saw friend and neighbor swinging the scythe in the fence corners. telling what lots of fine things Nature in September. or I should wonder if I did not know that some of our Government employees are young in their I look everywhere else for tastes and judgment. set into the Garden of Eden to tend and keep it. How this uniformity of color and fail to find it." he said. was Adam over again. for wild grapevines and Virginia creepers. what are weeds? " He leaned a moment on his scythe." I said to him. and said: There are not nearly as many as there used to be folks have learned the value of some of the worst. A Government bulletin informs me that the chief " charm of a lawn consists in an even stand of grass. 4 " Neighbor. I cannot wait for that not And his scythe went on clipping out the altogether." I wonder at this. of uniform color. There fills is no into these private corners only it is necessary to cut out the weeds.126 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY my home. and over there I am my keeping it free for sumac to be scarlet and there are elder berries for August. My daily wonder is the . and I guess that by and by everything will be worth .

and the other belong to the people. But the shrubbery should have its relation first to the house and very little at all to the street. I love a brook and I wish that I still might paddle shoeless in its shallows. in fact. Utilization of brooks does not consist entirely in the use you can make of the water. your shrubbery may be associated with that.LAWNS AND SHRUBBERY infinite 127 color shading everywhere of tree-color and plantand the impossibility of finding even two apple trees that do not shade apart. take away the fences and hedges entirely and wish there were not one left in fences. if it has some dignity and want you to feel the distinction between a shrubbery and a lawn that the one shall be retired. By all means have a brook associated with your shrubbery if you can running down a water-carved glen possibly. the street should itself be a lawn. somewhere about your and property. It has an Esperanto of its own and it talks understandingly in this street. but in part of the use you can make of its music and its boyish beauty. I do not quite say that we do not want a brook through the lawn or lawns that is. I . The lawn should have its relation first to the street depth. moody brook fill fundamental language to all attentive ears. have a brook with the Nothing can happy. Indeed. and fully as well kept as that inside 'the hedges or would. or part of a lawn. only thing in the world that never goes to sleep. If possible. I . while your tree lawn finds its closer association the place of the the talkative.

man alive ! And. do not form a habit of hailing a trolley car and never walking at all. After is all. the most important part of our lawns These should be liberal.128 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY America. walk! all It is the finest way of your physical powers and stimulating forces. Our drives should constitute a most delightful promenade. most beautiful of will bind us together in one great family. broad and sweet and wholth-ful (healthbringing out ful). Above all. Shrubberies and lawns intellectual your is be and this should used. and the roadways. very inexpensive lives. Walk. are not indoor Run drives with welcoming breadth to the and let them lead invitingly about the house and lawns and then to the barns and gardens. all. just what they were made a for to give you health and wholesomeness home life. . Remember that our rightly lived in the country. the drives. All of America will some day become one vast gar- den home. even for a residence. Then I would let the careful planting extend down to the ditch that flanks the roadside. You will then be sure that your barns are clean and their street surroundings pleasant. I like also to ercise. my dear lady. if affairs. and with that have a habit of going away from home for a walk. have a liberal measure of home ex- There is no good reason for living right by the street.

the cereal family.CHAPTER VI OUR RIVALS WE do not like to acknowledge the fact quite is that we are not masters of the world. By their aid we have our 129 . and the palm family. the horse. Then again there was the Saurian age. the rosaceae family. family. At one time the world was astoundingly overrun with huge plants. With us came three or four families of plants. and we have any record of it there has been a battle on the globe between the vegetable and the animal kingdoms. when animals crushed the vegetable life under enormous feet and pulled the limbs from lofty Things tamed down a good deal on both sides before man put in his appearance. Vines of enormous size clambered their hundreds of feet over trees that stood three hundred feet high. It needs no argument of mine to show that we should have had a hard time on this globe without these friendly neighbors. and at the same time three or four in the solanum families of animals. the dog. including the reindeer. but the fact we have a hard time As far back as time goes to confirm our lordship. trees. and the cow.

This is a sorry story to tell of the But mastery of man. our raiment. and then reap the finest wheat and gather the most perfect apples. corn. is due to these vegetable and animal allies. year through the fruit grower and the It general farmer have a continual battle to fight. it pears. oranges. has caused the birth of new sciences. Roses. I have heard it said that in the good old times all you had to do was to sow or plant. Not a little of the poetry of our lives. is the same thing everywhere. for during the past sixty years I have seen the growing of wheat driven out of New York State by an insignificant insect.. potatoes. At table the same time it must be allowed that the vegeand the animal kingdom alike furnish us rivals that sometimes threaten our very existence. the content and the joy as well. as compared with an insect. begins early in the spring and does not quite end with The whole . meanwhile it is this very insect. cherries. This trifling but pretty insect has in that time put hundreds of millions of bushels of apples into the waste heap. and called out our real value in a mighty struggle to hold our own. that has compelled us to establish agricultural colleges.i3 o HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY food. and even with all those years I cannot count back of the codling moth. with a few more. That is nonsense. and are able to travel from place to place. If there is any one thing in the vegetable world got without a struggle. apples. wheat. I do not know what it is.

Being of English origin. and if you are alert you will kill them there before they hatch on the currant. but a devitalizing of the bushes. The sawfly is a mean work as soon as foliage It has little beggar that puts in its begins to turn green in the found out in some way that its best spring. bush and the gooseberry.OUR RIVALS 131 I have the storage of our crops in cellar and barn. result will be not only total loss of fruit. These antagonists spoil for the farmers of the United States about half a billion every year. Its currant is the forage eggs hatch first on the gooseberry. and he will absolutely The defoliate your whole garden if he has a chance. among themselves. although the amount is being gradually decreased by The largest leakage comes from scientific methods. in which case the fly will not bother much with the latter. he likes gooseberries as well as the folk do over there. those creatures whose bread-winning lines cross ours. . fruit that the In fact there If there are any left the is not a single barn fowl likes so well as a green goose- berry so look out for them. keep them fighting . seen more than one man whipped by quack grass and others driven from their farms by scales and moths. hens will take them. In some cases we can turn them into friends and make use of them in other cases we may do as Lincoln did with the politicians. It is not a bad plan to set a row of goose- berries for every tenth row in your currant field.

spray with hellebore and Bordeaux mixture united. we held his own Go at fault. only the curculio is everywhere to match it. or the climate. Who is going to whip and who be that is the problem. a wonderful fitness. was. and most people will tell you that their plums blossom well but they cannot get any fruit the plums all fall off half grown. has where wonderfully. however. in that fruit. you will. about eight or ten feet long First of all get a pole and wrap the end with . or the soil. and for once we do not resort to poisonous mixtures. as soon as the first nest hatches. saw the curculio put- work in the plum yards of called New York him the Turk. For the last two years them. and so the curculio became our worst rival in the It plum yard. hardier than the apple and quite as hardy as the pear. One spraying will As probably be enough. as soon as they begin to hatch. nor how it learned the trick of breeding cies. and it is a pleasant fact to record that this plague of the garden is decreasing very steadily. and it needs the fruit in which to propagate its spe- Just when it began to sting the plum I do not know. whipped Our remedy is very simple. They imagine the plum itself is and the rascal. I I have hardly lost a day's work in fighting Nearly seventy years ago ting in his State. The more It is fact is that the plum fits itself to all soils readily than any other fruit tree and is the nearest to a cosmopolitan that we have in the rose family.132 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY for the worms.

OUR RIVALS pieces of old carpet or sacking until it is 133 a soft pad. playing 'possum. Be spry with his legs rolled up. takes a curved line for the center of the it is When it weaken on If enters the core the apple the stem. The blossom petals of the codling moth has been our chief rival with this glorious fruit for at least one hundred years. Now and catch these before they begin to fly away. Now some strong sheeting and make a cloth that will cover the whole ground underneath the tree. This process of jarring the trees must be carried on The number will decrease very for about two weeks. Only this: remember to rapidly after begin your work just as the petals are falling from the Magnum Bonums and the earliest plums Abundance. and every curculio will drop on the ground. Crush them or put them into a bottle to be killed later. Let this be ripped up to the middle so that when get spread the tree will stand in the middle. pretty and innocent bit of fluttering life. that is just before the earliest varieties open. sixth the day. In the apple orchard we must have begun our work already. Its larval state lived most advantageously lays its in the young apple. which fruit. The moth eggs in April or early May in the blow end of the fruit. likely to falls to the ground the larva finds a hiding- . rap suddenly and sharply the larger limbs of the tree. it goes through several stages of exist- A ence before is it is a full-fledged flier. The egg hatches into a small worm.

134 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY place and goes through a transformation. use of arsenites began. Think of the research and the study needed to find this out. but he will take the whole apple crop from us. There is no higher reach of science than that which enters our orchards and gardens and brings us out do is it. and the resolution on the part of an old-fashioned farmer to turn out of his tracks and do it. lar. The minute spray enters the blossom The open and once more end and poisons the first meal of the larva. the horticulturist of our day has to grow few men of science showed apples with brains. a large number of apple growers refuse to and now our apple crop instead of being larger relatively smaller to the people. with this very but now it is a remedy in a dozen field fights. possia time third ten bly days later. with brains. . the school boy's dinner pail and the poor man's celA good apple costs more than a good orange. unless we put up a persistent and very If Sir Joshua Reynolds painted intelligent fight. in order to make sure of the crop. by way of Rather a trivial rival for the chrysalis. The solution must be applied just before the blossoms just after the petals drop. the way. and the price of apples has gone up from one dollar per barrel to five This dear old fruit is no longer found in dollars. victors in the struggle with insects. into a moth. In fact. and our agricultural colleges are yet none A too numerous or alert in their investigations to solve just these bug and moth and worm problems. child of anthropoids. moth. I think.

before foliage starts. Spraying with Bordeaux mixture is a general preventive of these fungoid developments. there are many fungi that cannot be either prevented or cured by this remedy. spores that make plum knot scatter and plant themselves late in the fall. must begin our contest with this sort of rivalry very early in the spring and it must go on through the whole year. and fungus diseases are at work more dangerous even than insects. This must be fought with a sharp knife. with strong kerosene emulsion and Bordeaux mixture. and your whole orchard will be covered in a single season. Pear tree fungus comes in the form of blight and is imperceptible to the human eye until large limbs or whole trees are done for. This will kill the fungus and stimulate healthy . It is a pleasant fact that some sorts of plums are entirely immune.OUR RIVALS But all this 135 while the vegetable world is out of harmony with us. very late in the fall. and it is a good thing. that is with our control. and sometimes sacrificing a whole tree. No one can tell just when there will be a sudden development of some form of We parasitic growth. Your apple and pear trees with scabby bark must be thoroughly washed or sponged. However. or even in the winter. The These grow with immense rapidity. cutting above and below the knot. once a month. good spraydo no harm if applied in the winter better yet very early in the spring. to give a It will ing to every fruit tree you have.

especially your plum trees may throw off a large part of their foliage just when it is needed to perfect the in It is a good thing to anticiripening of the fruit. rigged with a pump and hose. It is curious to know that your pear tree blight can be most easily prevented by growing the trees in sod land. you are not very likely to see a fungus developing. If your trees are growing just right and are not standing in either too wet or too heated soil and have been trimmed correctly and have not been whipped up that disease is associated with too sharply with fertilizers. but anthracnose must be met with a sponge of sulphate of iron. but forked about instead of plowed. kept continually about the as well say. The from For a large orchard simplest way to apply hellebore to currants is a small barrel. I may easily of the coal ashes from your furnace. and a good mulch tree. Keep it a little back from the trunk and made up most have it thick enough to equalize the temperature and moisture about the roots.136 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY be used for your grapes and grape vines. not without cultivation to be sure. or with any waste material that is porous. applied before the growth. is This mulch. pate something of this sort with a thorough spraying a little after the fruit sets. The same remedy must foliage starts in the spring. In all cases remember bad management. this barrel can be carried about . The yellowing of the foliage on your fruit trees midsummer means another fungus attack.

they in this way only one are talking very freely required. while others are unaffected. If you are a fruit grower. but in my own grounds I have the barrel rigged between two wheels and shafts for a horse. of damaging the crop but also of poisoning the atSome of us cannot endure an appreciable mosphere. is Not kill one-tenth the amount of arsenic needed to your potato bugs that generally used. spraying about deadly poisons and a very free use of them among our fruits. learn must do to you your own work along these lines. I warn you that this business can be mixed together.OUR RIVALS 137 on a wagon. Borers are queer creatures. especially in The nish a resort for the apple and quince trees fursame borer. trees all into sawdust. They have our orchard to be fought at all seasons. must be put on very fine and until the whole tree is literally wetted. and We has been carried a good deal too far in many cases and that much harm has accrued not only in the way . . At is events use caution. amount of all arsenic. and it takes a very short time to ruin a tree. with bodies as soft as hasty pudding. they have jaws sharper than the best steel saw. This arrangement needs one to drive the horse and one to do the pumping. for most of the spraying that is done by proThe spray fessionals is hardly worth the while. They will work their way through ash trees and bore young apple trees. If Bordeaux and is arsenite are to be applied.

A full grown plum or peach tree will need half a bushel of ashes. Cover the wound with wax. it is a capital material to mix with clay and keep the soil loose.138 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY which is The peach as destructive. but as you throw it about your soil. then with flexible wire bore the borer to death. I would rather have a few cart loads of anthracite . cut below their incisions and burn the prunings. or in the mulch which you have placed about the tree. while twice that amount will hardly It be enough for some of your apple or pear trees. and I assure you that this material should It is not only of great use about never be wasted. while renewing mulch. You see that I am making considerable note of coal ashes. and then pile coal ashes around the tree. if it be large enough to be serious. Clear the way with a sharp knife. Notice that it prevents borers from working. of more value is material valued our least everyday than the high priced stuff that is bought as fertilizer. is a splendid material for mulch. tree has another borer quite You must look for the work just at the surface of the ground. is not a bad plan to anticipate these insects by wrapIf you ping your young trees with tarred paper. cutting the blackened bark until you find the mouth of the hole. and you Some of can make these three uses unite in one. and it loosens clay soils. have borers in your grape vines or your currant bushes. until the gritty material covers all that part where the beetle has been at work. your trees as a mulch.

In Massachusetts you will hear its work.OUR RIVALS coal ashes than so 139 many bags of high grade and but material from the factories." Carthage . at least none of the preventives and remedies that I have named will do the work. of ours a rival has appeared. I Bough us. and so new Lately far we are unable to cope with it. described as railroading. ling The fly works all summer. Sometimes the eggs do not hatch until your apples are in the bins for the winter. and gutter your Jonathans and sometimes your Spitzenburgs ruinously. done in the larval state. We do well to grow our trees all in the open. so that some of our fine old summer fruits. where bright sunshine makes disagreeable for our rival. We roast them or soak them it can only pick up the infected apples and in poisonous water. It is just a fly. lauded. have not seen a thoroughly clean Sweet This fly so far has the best of Spraying does not touch the larva. costly. The fly has its favorite varieties to work in. for the egg laid through a puncture in the skin of half-grown fruit. The skin of the apple remains fair. his speeches with Cicero ended " Carthago Delenda est I feel be must destroyed. are practically banished from the orchard. The larva is very minute and is very deliberate about putting in its work. like Sweet Bough and Golden Sweet. is for ten years. If the cellar is warm they will do their work even in January. while the codmoth works only in the spring. we call it the trypeta fly. but at heart you will find nothing but a black mass.

There were some of them on other trees. the trypeta must be destroyed. the pear ing. But who a very serious one. as well as a lot of think- Four years ago. How he found out the sudden presence of a vast quantity of food I do not know. . but I relished it after the bees had worked it over. psylla appeared in immense numbers all over our pear trees and lindens or basswoods. only who is going to do it? I am afraid it is too much to ask of the or- dinary farmer that he pick up all his summer-dropped apples and bury them so deep that the larvae cannot get out. Then came in one of Nature's beautiful balances. The leaves were covered with a sweet exudation. At the same time the white-faced hornet began to build his paper nests all about our trees and porches. but mostly they were confined to those I have named. without any warning. while not a few were killed entirely. and everyone lives in the country must think it out very clearly. but he surely did. this battle is Each year trouble of is its give us a lot own of work pretty sure to bring about a special an insect or worm that can to do. or burn them so that no larvae can escape. These hordes of sucking insects extent that took the vitality out of the foliage to such an many trees were defoliated. but a fairly good I do not think I should have in quality.140 HOW TO LIVE IN I THE COUNTRY about this way when consider the last-named pest. it first hand from the leaves. from which our bees made a vast quantity of honey perhaps not the very best cared to eat and a large storage.

i .


circling your trees with wraps that will prevent their climbing after having thoroughly jarred them out of the tree. however. in thirty-three years. or lawns. and a bushel to a tree would be a very small estimate. and the most awful fight that I was ever compelled to put up. The worst pest. I am sure that .OUR RIVALS The sects. about two inches in length. was with the forest worm about ten. juice that is name The Norway It is so un- maple has a milky acrid. Yet the Norway maple is the grandest of our Acer family. or once It marches over in a generation of human beings. with our insect allies we came off fairly well. orchards are utterly defoliated and a very large part of our lawn trees bared to the bone. I am happy to be able to place right here the is of one tree that largely exempt. and you must not let up for church on Sunday. . You can bear this in mind when planting your streets a caterpillar. three times in a century. The forest worm is You must fight with fire. and although we alone would have stood a poor chance against the silly psylla. This abominable pest comes about once years ago. vast territories with astonishing speed and eats pretty Gardens disappear. 141 little in- hornets ate uncountable millions of the It was a poem altogether. growing faster than the sugar maple and with a foliage and a spread of foliage unequaled. pleasant to worms that even the forest worm skipped it. that I can remember. nearly everything in its way.

Here again comes in one of Nature's handsome helps. . so that we may as well be ready beforehand. When the beetles are in the ground. will find a few May bugs. or June bugs as some call them. That is. Fortunately they are generally delayed by cold weather until most of the trees have their foliage It is only pretty well developed and toughened. for everywhere. and if you would keep them out of your property you must meet them the other side of the fence. the butternuts and the white ash that are still tender enough to furnish forage. the will find moles will multiply astoundingly and you their tunnels Do not kill them. These are sometimes badly cut up or stripped. for we saved our nine acres of berries and fruits. praying will do nothing with you must be a little ahead this Then again be victorious even against such odds.142 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY worm. tumbling against your lamp shade any year it is only every third year that they emerge in vast crowds. Most. There is a large class of sporadic rivals that we must discover for ourselves. come by periods. like an oasis in the desert. however. It is possible to in the fight. emerging only every third year. are the larva that would otherwise beeating they come the destructive May bug. The May beetle has the habit of brood- ing in the ground and going through with some of his transformations there. you . They come at any time and there is no law about them. working slowly up to the surface.

OUR RIVALS The to it. become badly devitalized may as well be cut down. not only for the pres- ent year. and if left a terrible mess of the trees. scales it now lime-sulphur mixture was the remedy that finally met the difficulty. and instead of having millions you will have only a few hundreds to watch to appear will see a for the critical year. as well as man could meet it. or whale soap. 143 tent caterpillar will ruin do its work undisturbed makes kill comes irregularly. oil A The San is Jose scale. Scale bugs infest our gardens and orchards and must be looked for with considerable care. He an orchard. burn out every year previous. where the ravages. which created terror all over the continent and did immense mischief in a dozen States. Like all other pretty well under control. or both comtree that has bined. well sponged into the bark. an insignificant thing to be counted as an ally for a human being. sucks the sap and poisons the wood of the tree at the same time. scale had begun routed it In Its Florida garden. kerosene emulsion. when there came in a fungus parasite. but will is When this rival few advance couriers the you attack them at once. the fungus completely my in a single year. nest as soon as it appears. because some of them multiply with great rapidity and do The remedy is their work with astonishing speed. How far North this friend will do its work I cannot say. but so far as it has extended its work it has swept the The enemy before it. .

their enormous most astounding rapidity of multiplication. Professor Forbes estimates that a single mother in a single season will produce nine and a half quadrillions of young. make them one of our most serious rivals. and in midsummer sends off a generation with wings to destroy the hop yards. fore if you kill ten millions in night there will be the morning. Professor Riley. It is miraculous. the speed with which these lice will cover the orchards of a whole State. that they put in their appearance largely as scavengers. to clean up sickly foliage. than that. aphidae are. United States entomologist. thrifty A houseplant stands a good chance of resisting their attack and a well-kept and well-groomed apple tree suffers far less from them than one in which the juices are slow and the vitality low. and the worst of it is that Nature seems to go over to their side and The leaves curl up and make it help them out. More nearly impossible to hit them with a spray.144 HOW TO in LIVE IN THE COUNTRY Bear mind always tree against insect attack that the best protection for a is to keep it in good grow- This is particularly true of the aphidae ing health. The hop louse appears on our plum trees and buckthorn hedges in spring. or lice. or of half a dozen States. covering them with hordes of sucking and killing beggars. betwenty millions more hatched out and every one at work sucking the life from the foliage. It is hardly worth . as pretty a study as science ever achieved in Insignificant as the numbers. the result of made working up this special pest.

could ." within the last ten years the apple crop has been nearly obliterated in half a dozen states by aphis. Twice carriage bugs. marching straight ahead. or possibly 1865. by the bees. One of these woolly creatures works just under the ground. and this in some cases is utilized. of course. I found them at Niagara Falls just arrived. finding its lodgment in the joints of trees and creating a blister wherever it rests. stinking beetle. of cotton. When it came that I first to an obstacle it and went over. were drowned. saw the potato beetle. and even houses and barns. was in the summer of 1864. but simply climbed hills and hillocks. Every floating chip on Lake Erie carried Tens of thousands. and in or as the children call them u both cases the It evil was mitigated by a parasitic help. fences. Nearly all deposit a honey dew. Among with our small rivals the small friends that aid us in this fight we must count the lady beetles. I was residing in Michigan. then called the Colorado beetle. two or three millions The woolly for it aphis is floats on the air like a bit one of the worst in the family. a stupid. vulgar.OUR RIVALSis 145 while proving to him that he off the track either way. on its first march eastward. but enough crossed the lakes and the rivers to make a start. Going eastward during midsummer. if it never turned out. and the foul army came by tens of millions. creating galls on grapes. as it is in the case of the psylla.

and our stations agricultural colleges with their experiment were hardly then born. themselves more In two years disagreeable. for a few years rendering our potato It was nearly as bad as the blight. for this hopper is nothing the same that St. of the battle field in Missouri. and that was enough to explain why the people deserted their homes and Professor Johonnot and myself. standing twenty feet apart. crop a negation. This was out of the main battle field and the hoppers were only fairly well at work. and we can help move it by spraying every potato field thoroughly with arsenites. The pest is stepped in and solved the problem. however.i 46 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY more they were in every potato field of New York State. fled the country. Then we had a job. John else than the old time locust ate and which constituted and still constitutes an arI saw the edge ticle of diet for millions of people. and their countless progeny finished the work. as we apply Bordeaux for the blight. and by the third year they covered New England. They ate all before them. Science. shook our hats before us as we approached each other and caught a pint each of the quarter-grown insects. When the Government sent Professor Riley to . The Kansas grasshopper illustrates a very common rival of ours which has made history in Bible lands and all through the Orient. The larvae started from a mass of yellow and most disagreeable looking eggs. still moving on.

erally We that is. part. are ourselves creatures of progress. sation everywhere. if it is not measured. beggar weed. it 147 was well into the heart of the field. waiting for its redemption in man. and even the wolves have given us the collie dog. cust. and genthat progress is speeded. He it reported that the clouds of insects reached from the earth beyond the height of human vision and that rolling clouds that swept vegetation so of existence that nothing seemed to out completely be left but dust. doing its work a little more slyly around the roots of our lettuce and our strawberries. . which plant in the South. Our meadows and corn fields in was these England frequently suffer severely from the loMeanwhile the cricket helps the slug. because they have in them a power of progress The only we must find out what they are good for. There is a fine passage in the Bible which tells us that the whole creation travails toThe gether. Injurious animals most for the road on are the forward. is our very best forage and hay was for a long time held to be the worst pest of the cotton field. and now let me call your attention to the fact that your grasshopper makes It is in this way that capital food for your hens. good comes out of evil and Nature brings compen- Weeds really are not weeds.OUR RIVALS investigate. when we have transformed by our rivals them into allies. New I have already suggested that honey can be made on the trail of the aphidae.

" is a great help to us. while the songsters went singing skyward. Take all when you want. That waste. Bed- bugs are the degenerate descendants of a very decent ancestor. All the difference was that the snakes went hissing through the grass. like the crows and the English sparrows. the orange " orchards were paved with golden globes. " Ye blackberry. the very worst thing to get on with. It was well ordered of Nature that we should It will earn our bread by the sweat of the brow.i48 HOW TO man LIVE IN is THE COUNTRY chief end of to bring the apparently evil to a useful purpose and give to everything a chance for right character." All the same it is ate thornless blackberries and a fine thing for us to creseedless grapes and in other ways to improve the world. and one shall be the better for being sometimes pricked along the road of daily duties. while our most beautiful and useful birds are of saurian or serpent origin." said my neighbor. On the other hand our best friends are de- scendants of savage animals. Degeneration in bird or insect or animal is exactly like degeneration in human folk. the fellows who have organized for plunder. then I how we Americans do Last win- went to my Florida home. is the best And ter. Curious. for it hath says Poor Richard. power not only to give us sweet fruit. who owned three ." not hurt us to have sharp rivalry. is it not ? that our worst pests are the out- laws among our friends. but to quicken patience and persistence . kind of a monument you can have.

three pounds of . cannot close this chapter wisely without giving formulas for two or three of the more important you For Bordeaux mixture fungicides and insecticides. clean. so lovably blue to us. sky. and real honest. is a drink for Jupiter." you for to a Northerner an orange is say involuntarily. Cider. Make all your defective fruit. still sacred. into cider. Wind weather combine with our insect rivals to reduce we ought to know how we must determine the maximum. both apples and pears. The upshot was that we pressed twenty bushels into vinegar apples. Grind no half-rotten stuff. remunerative price. One must pluck victory from defeat. and when your crop runs over the market demands. This is but one item in the annual loss that better vinegar than that from bluejays hooted at us. and put in no water. wash off all dirt. The drought had care. pure cider will bring a I our wages for work to a minimum. take three pounds copper sulphate. at any rate we Yankees saved the oranges and made vinegar enough for forty years. was spoiling the do not step on them. "Take gorged one really can live a simple life. Yet in all Florida a million bushels went to waste. I wonder if any- The and to prevent. genuine cider. while they themselves on mulberries. 149 loosened the fruit. trees. have a home cannery.OUR RIVALS hundred and the crops. Every country home of any size should have its own cider press and turn to value what most of the growers let waste.

Keep For roses a pail of this emulsion ready at all times. For Paris green mixture dissolve about three pounds of quick lime and a single pound of Paris green in two hundred gallons of water. then unite. and spray thoroughly. You say I have altogether omitted discussion of I have not. for use. as well as for thrips and lice in sum- mer. add water to make two gallons of liquid for every pound of tobacco . dissolving in forty-five or Dissolve the sulphate in hot fifty gallons of water. Use an excess of lime when spraying peach is trees or plums.150 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY quick lime or stone lime. water. of from suds sulpho-tobacco soap is useful and spray . and similar plants use about half a pint to a pail of For house plants a water. about equally effective is a spray of water in which have been boiled tobacco stems. until the whole is so thoroughly mixed as to constitute a soap. add two gallons of kerosene and churn with a small pump. for kerothe fight in the flower gardens. dilute the lime when slaked with fifteen gallons of water . This emulsion should be on at all seasons and can be used for scale hand kept insects in winter. Kerosene emulsion made by dissolving half a pound of hard soap in a single gallon of boiling water. and the compound is ready Keep the solutions separate unless you wish to use at once. sene emulsion is the one altogether important preventive and remedy for the enemies of the rose and of the borers and insects on the shrubbery.

The destruction of flies and mos- quitoes should be a neighborhood affair. They breed in manure piles. you will see very few flies about your home. if you will see to it that there is not a dirty stable within half a mile of you.OUR RIVALS stems used. for they are not altogether oil I shall quite the only sinners in the world. Slop holes about a kitchen door and defective sewerage and puddles of standing water are a menace to the public health. 151 If you have an aggravated case of red stir into the mixture one pound of whale soap for every fifty gallons. By and by we shall prevent such things by social enactment. The most available method for combating them is to spray crude petroleum over the puddles and pools where mosquitoes breed. as well as to private comfort and safety. although they certainly are sometimes very keen rivals of the human family. They render some sections uninhabitable and they carry dangerous bacteria which make many fevers more destructive. spider or thrips. have something to say in my next chapter about flies and mosquitoes. as for the house fly. in the country you should not make your surround- If you live ings of a character that renders your to the welfare of the community. which should never be allowed to accumulate and should always be disinfected. home dangerous .



the law of life and of

COOPERATION some very curious
Think for




brought about forms of cooperation. what a country family means.



stands in the center of a group, gathered from quarters of the world, crossed and recrossed by

his skill, and constituting a solid alliance, without which neither human progress nor animal evolution

could be secured.
only have our domestic animals become companions and friends, but we are just as dependent on



uncared for, would starve during the but in turn our whole civilization depends winter, the Other races are dependent cow's milk. upon

A cow,

on the goat, or the horse, or the reindeer, or even the dog. That seems to be the most perfect civilization that most completely recognizes animal friendship

and most cordially apprehends the unity and
all life.


terdependence of




a long

way from having found
a road


values of even our commonest animals and the simplest plants, but


are on the road
his scientific skill,


which Burbank, with



redoubled speed.


For the present evolution is giving us more new friends and opening the way most
rapidly in the vegetable kingdom.



and experiment
in the


splendid work


doing some of improving breeds of

or restoring lost breeds, yet it is among the cereals and the fruits more than among the meat

producers that they are achieving triumphs. You may note that, whether we will or no, our

becoming more vegetarian in diet. So we go on with this discussion, that while we have some wonderful friends in the stable and kennel, we have just as valuable and quite as important in the garden and orchard. We are not only eating less meat, but we shall eat less and less as the population increases and the vast cattle
whole race


shall find out, as

ranges are turned into little homesteads, each with its garden of vegetables, its egg producers, and its Every country home that is apples or its oranges.

way can produce, and must proown food, besides giving a surduce, nearly Our cities must melt plus to the general market. away and spread out into a great suburbanism, where
carved out in this
all its


will not be piled
in a

on top of each other, but be

acres, homeful, sweet, wholegardenized some, and the seat of a grand alliance, of cooperating animals and plants.






the cow.

judgment, the noblest ally that we have toI say this as a lover of milk; a bowl

of sweet milk, half

with bread and blackberries ;





a bowl of sour milk or clabber; of Dutch cheese or cottage cheese, and all other cheese; and knowing
that to young and old, to sick or well, the cow ministers more than do all other creatures. There is a
lot of poetry as well as prose associated with the
tle Jersey,

a real family and a happy one.
the old-fashioned

and she helps to make the small family But better yet I like


the quiet, clean, red old

Mohawk Durham.
milk her

Gentle as a lamb, you could the open field or ride her to pasture.

a baby always, and don't forget it the family cow. She will need special and the ordinary famrather better care than nursing An Ayrshire is Scotch to the backbone, ily will give.



when you buy

and she will have her Highland fling in the pasture and sometimes in the stables. She will give a pailful of milk every time, and twelve pounds of butter a week on decent feed; but give me the cow of quiet
habits, hardy, kindly, steady in her milk flow for nine months of the year and easily kept, without

studying balanced rations in bureau bulletins. To keep a cow on the old style of farming


quired about ten acres, for in a pasture of three or four acres she would tramp and foul two-thirds of her feed, while by the modern system of stabling and feeding with cut feed two acres are abundant.
If I


had just a three-acre lot, I would put exactly acres to berries and vegetables ; then put a fringe

of apple trees, with pears and plums and cherries, around the whole of it, saving half an acre for si-

lage and half an acre for alfalfa


and corn fodder.

All the clippings of the orchard and lawns or yards count in for cow feed, and when these are kept up, as they can be on the intensive system, they will go a



Half an

to furnish food through the whole summer. acre of alfalfa will furnish three heavy

cuttings of either carefully drilled

summer feed or

Corn fodder, hay. and hoed and standing eight feet

high before cut, will furnish an astounding weight of food. Every ounce of it will be eaten if only it


fed judiciously. is true of the



I asked a

drayman how much

equally true of a horse. his horse cost him

for feed annually.



much more

replied : yard is all than half an acre, but it gives






the Southern States

In the hay I need for six months." we resort to cassava for horses

or cows.

Cut up half a peck of this root and sprinkle with meal or oats and you have a splendid ration.


of cassava


equal to five or six



We need

work from

time on more directly

for bovine intelligence. The cow has a deal of latent brain power, so far applied only to getting food

and rearing calves. Raising an Ayrshire yearling some years ago, I found her as capable of comprehending a joke as a collie dog. She was literally

of fun.

Forty fowls had their roost

and when


would go down

reach of her range, to pet her she would





in the eye

with a sort of Scotch twinkle,

and then dash to the roost and scrape the whole row of hens off with a rush and a flutter. I may be a Nature fakir, but I believe that every
one of our domesticated animals has begun its rational development and that it is capable of be-

coming a companion for intelligent human beings. It will pay to bring them forward as fast as posI never yet saw a cow or horse that, with sible. right training and treatment, could not help me out of

Even an unruly cow will stand to be milked more readily by anyone who sings or whistles. As for the horse, it really is a part of any welldifficulties.

organized family and deserves every bit of petting that it ever gets. Secretary Wilson is the one American who has done most, since Thomas Jefferson, for the development as well as the conservation of American resources, but he is doing nothing better than

was more than a friend. She always called me when she wanted anything, and on more than one occasion she saved me from serious trouble.

trying to rehabilitate the a Morgan once, and she





Going up a very steep hill, the coupling broke and dropped the shafts against her legs. She had to hold that buggy with great care, or I, with my wife and baby, would have been tumbled over a danShe braced herself instantly, gerous precipice. looked back, and whinnied. I spoke to her as I would to a human being, asking her help, and if



ever any two persons worked together, we two cooperated to the full in getting that buggy to the top of the hill, where the break could be mended.

No mischief could occur about the barn, among the calves and other animals, without this noble animal

me with unremitting energy, and when I she would whinny her satisfaction and reappeared turn to her diet. The Morgan was as near a percalling
fect horse as

America produced; has speed enough, thoroughly hardy and healthy, but, with all the rest, as intelligent as brave and enduring. At any rate,

when you

get your family horse look out for something in the way of capacity for intelligence. Asking an expert in horses to help me judge of

of her, looked her in the eye, talked with her as with a human " being, then turned to me and said, Buy her, for
in front

an animal, he stood directly


knows too much to


If get your she has a trick, you can generally persuade her away from it with kindness. However, a narrow-headed,

try to fool you." treat her intelligently.


small-brained, pig-eyed horse is about the meanest If the man thing that ever man had to deal with.

of the same



will get a

match that


I wish every one of you could have one of these wonderfully wise and beautiful companions. Here again it is the capacity for reasoning that makes the specific charm. I do not forget some of the old-fashioned mongrels,

plains some of our country homes. I have mentioned the collie dog.

you have a dog. and when I gave permission. White Face was my friend in almost talk in English he could and college days I than could He would better at least in Latin. you get the mean all sifted out of animal life and the true. I am specially fond of good cats. he would gently in her efforts to create When . If I were going to the country to make a home for the first time. pure. all excusably breeding more Three-fourths of the whole canine stock should be especially the town dogs that have no reason for living except to eat the children's bread. One of them roused a neighbor's family and saved them from their burning house. With one of these I used to skirt the hillsides and spend the whole day in the blackberry glens. They constitute the waste material left by Nature obliterated something worth while. and when you have all the good worked out and all the contemptible ingrained. he would pick off and eat blackberries as fast as I could with fingers.158 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY the mixtures of spaniels and bulldogs that gave my boyhood many happy hours. I would surely have nothing of this sort about me. and I have known a few that were really honest and noble. my Yet of than of all animals in America I think we are in- incurably worthless dogs other animals put together. honest and brave all worked in. sometimes ask me if he might play with the chickens. you still have a dog. At lunch time he came for his share of the cookies and drawing his lips carefully up.

OUR ALLIES roll die fluffy things over. plant enough for all of us. But what is one to do about was never known that could be stroying birds ? ity it? I think the cat clear back have already told how I house my cats during the whole season. or stop keeping them. but because our crops are dependent so largely Birds we must upon The singers not only sing. not only for the company and the song." I do not and thrushes. you to shut up your cats. I knew a man who advocated I killing robins to save the cherries. I I advise entirely cured of deIt goes too far back in their heredto the beginning of the cat stock. then he would He would purring satisfaction. have. early learned a better way: When it plant more. never taste his saucer of milk until his mate was on come back to me hand for a full share. not only to make the country countrified. giving them a four-room palace. It is those who do nothing of this sort who suffer most from their depredations. but no freedom to range while the nestlings are unfledged. eat vast quantities of insects and the seeds of noxious weeds are devoured by the ton. 159 very gently. but they their help. So much of this help do they extend that we can afford to feed them as regularly and systematically as we do the cow and horse. give only recognize the fact that they trees with . comes to ripe cherries I cover about two-thirds of my birds mosquito nettings and say to the cat" You own the rest. them I these.

with wild cherries alternating. the hack- All of berry. A single tree . the pokeberry. My still further. the streets. their learn are to which trees. he is never particular. these are easily found from New England to the Pacific coast. and I would lay special emphasis on growing more mountain-ash trees. and for winter food he would have on hand the bittersweet. as for enough soon In Florida robin redbreast. Coax your neighbors and bushes. If you will plant a hedge of Tartarian honeysuckle and then a wind-break of mountain ash.160 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY Catbirds are wise belong fairly to my partners. and plenty of mountain-ash trees. birds never take any more than enough for sustenance. to call Professor Beal. the bayberry. the shadberry. the mocking bird soon learns to keep close to us and pick up the pieces. of the Michigan Agricultural College. to plant giving them trees Plant the glens and the woods and father went the forest edges with bird feed. or along from cultivated fruits." of our best authorities notes the mulberry as a sorts. but the birds will go there instead of dining in your garden. for he with choice One good to give the birds better cherries. you will find not only a beautiful display of flowers and berries. bird intrusion is not noticeable. specifies among other trees and bushes. " would graft the wild cherry trees tree to the birds grow wild. they are not wasteful. Say what you will. Where you have large fields of raspberries and currants.

161 all through the later autumn. and the word will come the tribes. I in its clearest light. echoing notes that a few years ago were heard only from the distant forest. A very careful observer tells us that a single pair of house wrens will dispose of at least one thousand insects every day and that other birds serve us in about the same ratio. two sides to this question. they will destroy myriads of the eggs of vermin. I . pass around Any effort in this di- rection will be quickly appreciated. and have fairly developed the opposite side in my chapSome of my friends insist that ter on Our Rivals. and finches and purple tanagers. and of late the wood My Clinton thrush and the Wilson's thrush have come to nest close by my house singing in the shrubbery. There are. among and home is populous with not only robins but catbirds. as a want you to see this thing matter of domestic economy to cultivate bird friendship. make our homes as pleas- We ant to them as to ourselves. until the wilder sorts in and domesticate themselves. This matter of winter food must not be passed by lightly.OUR ALLIES will feed flock after flock of birds of passage. for we can easily induce a large number of birds to spend the coldest months around our Northern homes. When they are not picking at the bones which we hang for them outside our windows. hidden under the bark of our fruit trees. with those long. silvery. grosbeaks and indigo birds. must gather them aboyt us and protect them. however.

I agree. you in the eye from the and suddenly jumps for a grasshopper or a grub. This all as I can observe. so far robin has friends and so have A the song birds. In Florida I am specially interested in the shrike. led by a king bird. LIVE IN THE COUNTRY the red squirrel be made but and the crow and the hawk can also when I find a crow on the edge his ac- of a robin's nest. when I agers I The red squirrel is even worse. and preys on anything that he He is makes no friendships and recognizes no alliances. true also of the English sparrow. in hot chase after a marauding crow. looks top of a persimmon bush. or express any sympathy for an English sparrow. a handsomely built. natty fellow. and whatever he does not need for immediate comes . stand about midway and can hardly be reckoned as strictly allies or strictly rivals. I have no inclination to cultivate quaintance. any other bird aid a crow. with scrimmage as- He close to you. he lacks a conscience. Nothing escapes his keen vision. Some birds. with one of the young birds in his beak. will for him. lives for himself alone. They will join forces when nec- You never saw essary and carry on war together.1 62 HOW TO allies. but you may easily see a flock of half a dozen sorts of birds. sert himself in a always ready to other birds. Say what you can eat. or help a hawk. and hear an outcry among my bluebirds and tanam almost certain that one of these wicked is whisking beauties somewhere among my trees.




use he spikes on a thorn bush or an orange tree, or

makes use of the barbs of your wire fence. In this way I find grasshoppers and grubs and crickets and
even whole frogs among his storages grubs as as I his help and for am thumb, big your grateful in my garden. But that he breaks up some birds'
nests I cannot deny. In the North I feel

somewhat the same way about

the owl; a screechy affair, associated with all sorts of superstitious notions and not unacquainted with





believe the owls, as a rule, are

fairly classed as helpers, for there is a certain class of marauding vermin at night that only the owl can The government bulletins inspy out and destroy.


some of the hawks should be encouraged,

for they surely do catch mice and occasionally


be found

some honest occupation, but I have never met a hawk that at the time was not up to mischief

either striking his ugly claws into


chickens, or

around the sky



circles just


the chicken yard.
I like hens; I

do not wish to



I can-

not hear roosters crowing fact, they crow long before that, only most people do not know
at daybreak.

Just as the morning curtain is being drawn slowly " Good morning " called out is fine to hear up from a whole valley full of farmyards. It is a


curious habit that chanticleer has, but





good cheer and associated with pleasant memories for many of us.





thirty will

About one hen out of every flock of display some sort of unusual intelligence,
her a chance.


you give of these wise ones, of Plymouth lineage, adopted me in my strolls about the


orchard and garden, walking by




and continually prattling in a language of mixed deShe knew right well that my sire and affection. pockets frequently held corn, and if I sat down on a stone she ate from my hands, eloquently expressing
her gratitude.

As egg producer

the hen has


to be one of

the greatest factors in American economics.



ranges disappear, our food is essentially narrowed and the hencoop will be the only relief for the great mass of country home-makers. Perhaps we may add to the coop a rabbit warren, and so while increasing our meat supply, get rid of a troublesome pest. Anyone can have a supply of eggs at small cost, but the
present price is revolutionary. As for a pig, why not, if one gives him a chance to keep himself clean ? hog with half a chance is


cleaner than a

Professor with equal chances. Shaler was a specially good student of Nature, and he insisted that our pigs are among the most intelliI have lived for a few gent of our domestic animals.


years among the razorbacks of Florida, and I assure you that for keeping posted on all horticultural matters

He knows every sweet-potato is the beat. of his home, and he can live miles five within patch well with his family where human folk will starve.



Alas, for the rarity of human charity, we have by law at last abolished him! In Florida he will hence-

forth have no


rights than




the farmhouse there
it is

measure of waste, and

always a certain the judicious use of this

waste that makes the difference between success and failure. Suppose it to be divided in this way: to
fatten one pig, to feed twenty hens, and a warren of rabbits, while the cow gets a pail of slops at night making a grand return in the way of milk for the

pig and for the hens. pan of sour milk is one of the luxuries for the chicken yard. Bees always call out my enthusiasm, because from fifteen hives I am accustomed to take up nearly a
in a year. This varies to the flora of the year, but it is always a fine addition to the product of the farm or country home. You can easily use a hundred


thousand pounds of honey

somewhat according

pounds in your family, taking the less perfect cakes, while you sell five or six hundred pounds or more at a welcome profit.

However, one must remember that as with hens Fifteen or twenty possible to have too many. hens are enough for a common country home of a few acres, and from ten to twenty hives of bees must be the limit for the same homestead. If you undertake one hundred hives, you must make a specialty of beeWhat you want is just keeping and bee-feeding. about that number of colonies that can be fed from your own raspberries and lindens and mountain ash
it is






and apple blossoms, and the golden rods along the creeks, adding alfalfa wherever it can be found on
the adjacent farms. If you are a grower of small fruits, especially raspberries, you may count that the bees will make great use of your garden.

A grove of lindens or basswoods

should be planted somewhere about every large farm, and a few trees should be worked in on a small place.
It is a grand street tree, and we might just as well have a vast amount of honey-producing flowers as well as shade from our highways.

The bee has a marked degree of attachment for some persons and hate for others. I have a hired man w ho cannot go near the hives, and the bees will even hunt him out when far away in the fields and will chase him flying to shelter. When my father had a swarm to deliver I have seen him let them light all over his hand and arm, up to his shoulder; then after carrying them for a quarter of a mile, he laughThey were ingly brushed them off into a hive.

fond of him.


are not fond of


not at

least to that extent.

This passionate liking and hating runs through the whole animal kingdom and must be taken account
of while seeking out

Dogs never go near

some people.
to a


have seen a cat become so attached


friend that after separation


for weeks.




can go in developing this



not know,
fore us.

or even letting it loose in speech, I do but there surely is a great field beOur versatile friend, John Burroughs, has

argued strongly, almost vehemently, that animals can-

My own experience, running over more than half a hundred years of joyous companionship, convinces me that all our domestic animals can think
not reason.

and think to a purpose.


story of our allies is not by any means told recounting the domestic animals that live with

authorities post village bulfor One of these boards, public instruction. reads: lives "Hedgehog; upon mice, snails, and

The French town


do not

kill a





agriculture, killing twenty to thirty insects every hour. not kill a toad. Cockchafer; deadly enemy to


the farmer; lays one hundred eggs at a time. Kill the cockchafer." It would be a good idea for our

own government to post bulletins of this sort, instead of printing so many for circulation. In the South most of the snakes are of great The value, and that is relatively true everywhere.
black snake, a handsome fellow, is estimated to be worth ten dollars a year to destroy mice and gophers. The bull snake and garter snake destroy insects and
In rodents, without themselves hurting the garden. Clinton so we have the ground long protected my little garter snake that he suns himself on the compost

without fearing us at





He is a most important public scavenger and invaluable where range cattle are tolerated and not a few cows die in their wild pasturage. for the whole class of them do nothing else but work for your advantage. you see a bird of the condor sort. It is one of Nature's prettiest methods of laughing at our inventions. Daddy longlegs is another of our friends. that the laws forbid you to kill. because a serpent is said to have tempted Eve ? Was it not a fair match ? Poisonous snakes are nearly as rare as those that talk. One of Darwin's most interesting essays concerns the value of the angleworm. Boys call them carriage bugs and seldom know their importance in the orchard. Overhead and everywhere about the Southern States. Only for this turkey buzzard the air would be tainted all the year through.1 68 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY carry a spite. after all. reaching a depth that his best subsoilers cannot touch. The worms aerate the soil and make room for both water and In Florida the gopher. our most important agricultural work. Do not kill the lady beetles. which is a ground roots. I inquire at his mound concernwhat lies underneath that which is reached by my ing plowshare. It serves to plow up the farmer's soil. a distressfully unfinished creature. Getting the air into the soil is. does a vast amount of this subsoiling. squirrel and a pest in most ways. . which we should leave to his beneficent work of destroying scale and other insects.

. A dirty stable near a house breeds such swarms as are intolerable. The house fly breeds almost wholly in our stables. the good done by them must not be forgotten. and as the house fly carries. stables and cheaper houses." It is an element of degeneration debasing animals and owners toI like better the Dutch plan of costlier gether. There is no reason nor excuse for neglecting the comfort of our domestic animals. and we can forestall this by keeping clean stables and barnyards. the mosquito it is the fashion just now to im- we have solved all our hygienic difficulties by publishing recipes for killing these pests.OUR ALLIES Bad name agine that it 169 has a worse. Kerosene sprinkled about our damp places once a week and sprayed over our stable walls daily will prevent the development of both flies and mosquitoes. but riers. are busy at this service. Mosquitoes enough to make a whole miserable will breed rn a single sink neighborhood hole in a single day. and a high wind for two or three days will carry a cloud of these flies half a mile. A dirty stable becomes a menace to the community as well as the " Him in whom we live household and is an insult to and move and have our being. Yet is doubtful if the world could be inhabited long by human beings without these insects to transform Their uncountable millions decay into living matter. their infernal thousands have degenerated into bloodsuckers and poison carI should hardly wish to call them allies.

from the third we get the greatest of all esculent roots. while from the palm family we have not less than one thousand varieties of useful fruits and fibers. the pear and the cherry. mammals. gold on one side and crimson blushes on the other. for Nature. Except for four families of plants. first of these we get nearly all our common fruits. from apples to strawberries. Nothing has entered more into our human progress than the apple and its cousins. . exist. has brought about nothing nobler than a Northern unless it be a Golden Pippin. and the Palm. certainly could not continue to could not make These four are the Rose. the Solanum. in tens of millions of years. from the second we get rye and wheat for our bread. Now we have also the orange. will very shortly become the third birds in the trinity.170 It HOW is TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY we lay so hardly just that much emphasis on animal loyalty and forget what the plant world has done and is doing for us and with us. and the persimmon. or a Jonathan. and it will soon be everybody's fruit. Spy of cells. the potato. Was it or a King David. progressive the Cereal. From the evolution. as well as the tomato and tobacco. so long in disgrace. each filled with nectar bly. I hold an apple in my hand. rice and oats and corn for both ourselves and our domestic animals. This business of cooperation with animals and and plants is not half understood. I know that inside it is a mass fit for a Jovian asseman apple that caused the Trojan war? Well it might. including man.

man . looked at from any standpoint we please. for without the trees and the flowers of the Rose and the Palm families we should lose our poetry as surely as our food. With intelligent and huleadership on our part.OUR ALLIES 171 This does not end the story. however. It is a wonderful cooperation. the animal and the vegetable kingdoms alike become tributary to our welfare.

for we are surely going to have a lot of new fruits. for our early Saxon ancestors knew no more about apple yards than they did about orange yards. including apples. plums. grapefruit. some of them hunted up from the wilds of Nature and others created by the Burbanks and Munsons. hardy enough to fruit in Massachusetts. and many other new sorts. and similar fruits. What the orchard will be five hundred or a thou- sand years hence who can tell? We are almost cer- tain to get the orange.CHAPTER IN grow VIII OUR ORCHARDS as well as things. in the South oranges. loquats. It took Nature thousands of years to get the glori- ous apple tree made up from a little potentilla origin. and cherries. and at first it only referred to herbs. in the North. The garden yard has gradually be- come a tree yard. The word is WORDS orchard was originally hortyard. and a free Sweetest memories of gift to every country home. while we are already getting This apples pretty well down toward the tropics. figs. that horticulture yard. does not cover the whole story. 172 . pears. by selection. swinging with pippins and greenings.

ten dollars to in the New York markets. but I the apple orchard is good for a hundred years. it might maybe The pear is even more enduring than the apple. but an orchard of apple trees.IN life cluster OUR ORCHARDS 173 ful tree standing alone about the apple orchards. but we cannot escape the conviction that every country home-maker should grow his own apples and have a small surplus for market. have two trees out of an orchard that was planted one hundred and twenty years ago. We have now catalogued over two thousand sorts I of apples that are worth discussing. standing in long rows all over the slope that looks down into a valley full of homes is a gift surpassing all other for human ownership. Michigan. When this is done the be one for both a will just producer and conprice sumer. Select apples have been selling for five dollars a In the spring of 1908 they barrel in the orchard. doubt but that. Peach trees bear only half a dozen good crops. haunted by boys and a favorite place for robins' nests. be in bearing for a full two hundred years longer. near Monroe. for there are still growing some old Flemish pears. that were planted before Philadelphia was founded by William Penn. and they are still I do not bearing their annual loads of good will. went up The increase of consumption is really enormous and accounts in some degree for the swollen prices. It is a wonderon the hillside. grow eighty . with rational care and apple sense given to an orchard through its whole life.

With these. pruning. soil. For planting it should stand about five or six feet after it is dug and four or five price should tempt feet after planting. If not to be planted very speedily.174 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY of these. and storing. you will have a wonderful addition to your food and a surplus for sale. and in trunk. It is the diameter and not the height that determines the value of a young apple tree. will be complete with a dozen varieties. harm It is to better to lie may immerse the whole tree for an hour or more. and a good market requires about ten or Your little home lot twenty for complete succession. These dormant trees must not be so rapidly supplied with water as to start root growth before they are set in the orchard. take them from the box or bale at once and trim them to very nearly bare If you have a stream near by. possible you to plant a lot of trees no No If such trees are larger around than your finger. it will do no poles. carefully studied as to planting. make a puddle in which the roots over night. let the trees be heeled in. that is the roots and part of the trunks buried in moist. cut them down within three or four inches of the scion this . reaching through the whole season. possibly one that will be worth the while. ever received. or for a few hours. in the It is sometimes advisable to buy your trees . then let way you can make a new new shoots start. Having got your trees. but by no means wet.

but not until the fields are in good condition. Dry tillage means only a way of preventing water air from evaporating and of gathering water from the This is done by keeping the surwithout rain. stake the trees and tie them with basting or coarse twine so firmly that they cannot be twisted about by the winter winds. yet a few sorts. I of room. If sticky clay. but we want It first a good start of the root system. You might as well burn a tree as to plant it in mud. . and plant them just in as soon as the ground good condition in the spring. In most of our clay soils I would use up the stones by creating ditches The If tile drains are used. OUR ORCHARDS is 175 heel them in over winter.IN fall. together with plenty of advise you to plant your apple trees where they can have the best of your acres and plenty having the sunshine. they can every fifty feet. prefer light soils. If planted in the autumn. I would plant in the spring. all hardly needs to be said that nearly apple trees prefer clay soil to sand. liable to The be sodden or lumpy. Three things are of vital importance at this point. The and the quality alike depend upon soil that suits. be easily arranged for irrigation as well as drainage. first is good drainage. like the size of the apple Winesap and Jonathan. What we want is an easy and quick start of the buds. choice between spring and fall for planting depends upon the nature of your soil.

and it is also good when thrown upon the soil and mixed in.176 HOW TO it LIVE IN THE COUNTRY which face stirred daily. Weeds cannot be more efficiently set on the road to Make the mulch at being useful than as mulch. is The better second point to consider that there is no way of yard manure killing fruit trees than to put barnaround the roots. Do not get in a hurry to force growth. In the South we on against the heat. You are obliged to mulch very heavily will find that I am not laying this point. a process that creates a soil stratum will absorb moisture from the air. toss a few shovels full soil on top. while it does not transmit from below. are the best material that we have handy. productive by working coal ashes into the solid soil. If you can get good roots the first or during two. least three or four inches thick. will be likely to bed in. third point in planting is to mulch your trees. coal ashes or tan bark or weeds or autumn leaves anything but material that mice Coal ashes. mulch may be made of any porous stuff that you The happen to have about. you can get along with year very little top growth. You may top dress with some of this material. just as soon as planted. for if a too much stress dry time sets . but beware about using it in the hole that you have dug. and if of weeds or of of stuff that will blow away. This every one of them. lightening the heavy clay which dominates in many I have seen city gardens made very apple sections. on the whole.

they may stand a little closer. most of the trees were high to the first limbs and it took a forty-foot ladder will . must be not to let the trees.IN in after OUR ORCHARDS 177 trees alive your planting. . a close orchard is an utterly worth- A but a Pound Sweet grown on an open lawn delicious. Set your apple trees nearly or quite apart. To avoid this. and should never be practiced unless absolutely necessary. is Pound of gold and sweetness. for if this occurs the fruit is robbed of its sunshine and interlock. but grown light. Northern Spy. you will scarcely keep your without daily watering. should be headed rather low than rather high. like Spitzenburg. even forty-five. An orchard tree. to reach the top. or very much shade each other. as a rule. The old-fashioned apple tree was grafted at eight or ten feet. on seedling stock as a consequence. intent ing varieties. to be affected A in the sun is full in Sweet standing less apple. Trimming large limbs it from any tree is the be- ginning of death. grown in the shade is hardly fit for cider. when full grown. never becoming richly sweet and always liable Rhode Island Greening by fungus. we want to know when we plant just about how high up we need the limbs to be removed when the tree is grown. and even this will not compensate for the lack of protection to the roots. and If you are setting only a few trees for The a quiet home. if planting some of forty feet the spread- Greening.

This. but if headed three or four feet from the ground it will give headed six you good returns in three years. graft two or three on the same tree. There are two ways whereby a very small country- home may crowding. pear tree A or eight feet high will demand eight or ten years to do much in the way of fruit-bearing. preif trees vents plowing and cultivating an orchard. Cherries take about the same space. while the Rostiezer is liable to spread its limbs quite widely. peaches will need fifteen feet and pears from fifteen to twenty-five. and most varieties do better set rather close together. the Bartlett as much medium. but the sweet cherries will do better if given twenty feet. for that matter you may have every large limb a distinct sort but this I . that are headed very low they will fruit earlier than if headed higher. varieties increase its varieties of fruit without In the first place. one of the small growers. will respond quite liberally in the Some of the apples same way. It is a secret. of course. Peaches should always be headed low and plums will be none the worse for it. but a few fruit trees in the Other varieties demand about is The a Seckel space as apple trees. but it gives you quick returns for your money. nese sorts require about fifteen feet. Plums are fond of company. not known by even most orchardists.i 78 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY orchard can be spaced according to your judgment. It is a short-lived tree as a rule and needs very frequent The new Burbank hybrids and the Japarenewing.

or a small pocket knife. it will from the moment the tree is set in the ground. must have enough to eat or they will lose their ability . do not be too hasty in cuttting it down. If two buds start In the fall. Trees are exactly like animals about feeding they not let Do place a limb just . giving good If you happen to have bought an old orchard. leaving the last bud as I directed that is. and all I intend to say now that. Now come is in about trimming. can be done with the thumb nail. cut back the strong shoots about one-half. Most of the early trimming. or the relics of one. Planting dwarf trees is another way of getting a good supply of fruit from a small area. for a year or two. want watching and guidance. remove the weaker one. Dwarf fruit. Select sorts that have similar style of growth. A little care in the removal of dead wood and suckers will often restore an old tree to considerable vigor and capacity for bearing. of course. close together. to be fairly distributed about the trunk. When you cut back a shoot that you wish to grow farther. pointing outward. leave the last bud pointing in the direction you wish it to grow. that is.IN OUR ORCHARDS 179 do not recommend. and you want the limbs. You may at least have your Astrachan and your King David on the same stock. any buds start to grow which will not where you want it. apples make very beautiful and are easily picked. after growth has stopped. a good deal about this will at another place. trees. also the Spitzenburg and Greening.

half-starved tree gives you half-developed fruit. Rhode ener. Now let me home. Delicious. . for the plant present experience. for the fall months I would not through without Sherwood's Favorite. Wag- and King David Jonathan and Grimes Golden I add for special localities. However. Pounrl Sweet. if I were going into the country to make a home. Gravenstein. Wealthy. Danchy's Sweet. Yellow Transparent. Hubbardston. muck and lime. judgment must be used in feeding. make sure of Baldwin.i8o HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY A to produce fruit of the best sort. Mother. Northern Spy. I should want the following list of apples: for early use I would select the With my Red Astrachan. and Maiden's Blush then for winter I should . Very few trees will endure rank manure. but to help it fit decompose coarse food and make to receive and digest. and a great many of them protest Some of them prefer against barn manure at all. Stayman's Winesap. reduce this list to fit it to a very small Take Astrachan and Transparent for one . where they are ideal. the wood be- comes knobby and the bark adheres too tightly. later ripening feel contented and Williams Favorite. then place it about the roots and later plow it under. like western Virginia and Colorado. or plant dyspepsia sets in. The use of lime is not as a direct manurial agent. Primate. Island Greening. Compost all the food. Mclntosh. King and Newtown are but too Pippin superb exacting in their demands for general culture.



Mclntosh should have a whole tree. and Princess Louise. and the Swaar. the list. adding Patrick Barry for . nor I does it include what I myself call indispensables. Lawrence. but I would put in Mother. Delicious. Only do not let anybody persuade you to plant for a cosy home In that use any such apples as Ben Davis. and then give the ninth and tenth to King David and Shiawassie Beauty. sap Wagener and Danchy Sweet the eight. Onondaga. and Northern Spy a third. Tyson. Sheldon. Scott's Winter. be Rostiezer. WinePound Sweet and make the seventh tree. and Sherwood's Favorite with Maiden's Blush for a third. Hubbardston another. almost as list of first-class varieties would surely as apples. Anjou. the Rhode Island Greening. It is our good fortune to be able to secure a list most of pears that will cover a full season. Shiawassie Beauty. Maiden's Blush. sect attack. Seeknofurther. and good bearers would be this: Wealthy. Wismer's Dessert. OUR ORCHARDS 181 Gravenstein and Wealthy for a second. I my list book on Orchards I gave a list of apples for a delicate stomach. am lonesome without the old-fashioned Spitzenburg. Some of these I do not put in my recommended successfully. and King David. because they are subject to diseases that the ordinary grower will hardly combat to in- A list of apples nearly immune easily kept healthy. Bartlett. Hubbardston. This is by no means a complete list of apples.IN tree. Stayman's Winesap. am inclined to modify very decidedly. A Seckel.

Fellenburg Prune. Shropshire Damson. Those families who can plant only four or should take Clapp's Favorite and Bartlett grafted together. Coe's Golden Drop. I believe in the plum as a wonderful fruit. Both of these are hopelessly subject to disease. the old fashioned or European sorts we must have Green Gage. It is great for cookOf ing. and Duke. and Anjou. and for eating out of hand. but as we can easily have them on their own roots. one may cut down a diseased tree and renew it. Sheldon. This leaves out Clapp's Favorite. which should be added if you will only make sure to pick it early. capital preserve. very late comes Grand all plums the frequently first hanging in excellent condition into snow. most delicious and most wholesome.1 82 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY very late. and for show as well as for quality the Pond. one of the first of sort of superb quality. Peter's Yellow Gage. be secured on its own roots Shropshire Damson can and is the ideal plum for Monarch is a new ripening in October. Shel- don. Diamond. If you have but one plum take the Green Gage. five trees this to three trees and you might take Bartlett. and Patrick Barry. . Anjou and LawReduce rence grafted together. which is the very essence of delicious flavor. also making a cooking. simply because they are so given I refer to Bleecker to black knot and suckering or Lombard and Magnum Bonum. Seckel. There are two preeminent varieties that I shall not advise you to plant. for canning.

which does not prove quite hardy in New York. cherry. They should both be picked tree as they begin to color and allowed to in the store room. Windsor. is a magnificent affair if . America is in some ways still better than any of these. the are very larger The sour cherries sweet and the sour. Napoleon. These are hybrids of at all has our native sorts with the Japanese. Climax. I have all of these growing to perfection. with the exception of Sultan. The best of all is perhaps Montmorency. ripen I do not wonder that the Japanese worship the from the Spring would hardly be spring without the bursting open of the delicate white flowers in the You can divide them into two cherry garden. classes. the quality of the plum Abundance and Burbank are two importations. Black Tartarian. Sultan and Gold. The best of these hybrids are Shiro. These three you might easily find room for. or Suda Hardy. only. if not severely thinned. however. Red June. Maynard. both of them quite early and is positively poor. much alike. only some of them are a little and more meaty. Of the sweet cherries Gov. Wood. or possibly Baldwin. of about equal value. and very early. Burbank. Almost everyone who knows anything about plums become more or less acquainted with the creations of Mr.IN OUR ORCHARDS 183 Fellenburg Prune is of the highest quality and very for prune and plum prolific of large sized plums are really one. and Dikeman are enough for a small home.

" The peach never think he hits the mark exactly. It is pretty for sartin. Champion. and others from the Southern China stock. and it for good I can fill yup ain't satisfyin'. cover the whole problem of insects and fungi. if there were no such wonderful things as peaches. The trees like to stand about fifteen sorts. In Alton. planting them in Florida. the Champion. seems to me the peach is about all like the sunset. and Stump the World. I have them in New York State. Powell. suh. But choice I prefer of all cherries the May Duke. surfeits good peaches do not. We Spraying arsenites in the orchard does not differ very much If the when applied to the different sorts of fruit. but I can't fill yup with peaches. " Well. Mr. a Christian. THE COUNTRY is you have room for for and so the Rockport. the Triumph. I would plant by preference Crosby. I would grow peach trees for the flowers. the Mayflower. and am now My colored friend says. the Jewell. Florida we have to make our choice from another . is is all right only it I with melyon. coming into a class about half way between the sweet and the sour. and Bordeaux mixture are used together. good things and it in one. are almost as hardy as the sour and the quality when dead ripe is absolutely satisfactory nothing more can be asked for. Admiral Dewey. they but if freely applied to plums and cherries and . that is set of peaches. plant the Victor. feet high.1 84 HOW TO my own LIVE IN it. in Michigan.

will be large. covering whole states and almost beyond our power of control. none worth the picking. The is to go over the trees. fine apples. The result will be clusters of small and unsalable apples. . and sometimes plums. The best remedy is encourage the white. there is great danger of too many or clumps blossoms setting fruit. for the former we spray with arsenites. Sheep pastures are almost im- mune from this pest. alas. damage to The chief difficulties that we have in the apple orchard are with codling moth and trypeta fly. The apple aphis or louse is an occasional pest. IN OUR ORCHARDS 185 peaches. They work generally at the base of the tree and just at the edge The simple remedy is to cut them out of the soil. The result remedy where your neighbors have Very few have patience to this in art practice apple growing. Borers are of several kinds and infest apples. thinning out the smaller fruit. The thinning is done with a wire crook attached to the end of a short pole.faced hornets (the paper builders) who devour millions of the insects. and then go over again. but. quinces. peaches.. but especially when the orchard is infested with lice. lime must be added to prevent the trees. for the latter we have no remedy but to keep the orchard open to sun and air. until at least three-fourths of the stock is removed. and as a consewill quence they occasionally lose their whole crop. to At all times.

the fight for our fruit is not so severe as one would judge. Cherries give us little trouble. so as not to bruise the tree. or follow them through their tracks with a flexible wire. Begin the jarring just as soon as the petals drop and keep it up for about ten days. and the curculio or stingThese ing bug will fall on sheets spread below. Wind a bunch of cotton around the end of a pole. Then pile around the tree a good supply of coal ashes. where no effort has been made to meet the difficulties. This material serves at once for mulch and to prevent the easy working of the moths and beetles. As for the nest-making worms or caterpillars. except that they must be covered with mosquito netting to exclude the Netting will last for three years if carefully preserved. must be quickly picked up and destroyed. for your allies in the air. The plum knot must be cut off as soon as it appears. hand of any Plums you must jar with a pole padded at the end. and you should leave some of your trees birds. In 1909. any one with common sense and energy can manage them. however.1 86 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY with a sharp pointed knife. ford this shiftless The way of country really cannot afdealing with the great . Persistency will keep the upper foe of this sort. set it on fire and burn them out. there was in a loss of three-fourths of the crop New York and New whole apple England from the louse and lack of thinning. until crushed. On the whole. and you had better burn it. saturate it with kerosene.

seconds. and the apple cellar should be a room by itself. All cellars should be as clean as parlors. should prefer to have it an adjunct of the barn. from baskets they are wagon they are sorted into firsts. and you need not wonder that you have malaria and fevers. it be at least seven feet to the ceiling. For your own use an apple cellar is one of the most important rooms in the house. we can do nothing better with them than to turn them into cider. Apples as they are is removed from the trees are handled like eggs. into barrels. with decaying vegetables and mould. proLet vided it is entirely dissociated from the stables. at thirty- My can lie cellar furnished with bins where the apples about eight inches thick. tilate it thoroughly all summer. is a breeder of pestilence. but to supply the congested in cities. home consumption. better eight. and thirds. A dugout underneath your home. . or if sold. As for the thirds.IN not only for OUR ORCHARDS 187 problem of production. The carefully firsts are seconds have their generally carefully laid into bins. sweet I to the smell and free from every possible taint. and after your fruit has been placed in it for winter shut it up tightly and keep the thermometer as nearly as possible three. population that is The people need full crops. then laid instead of being poured From the out gently. Venwith very solid walls and plenty of windows. damp and nasty. the own bins and are as good as those found in market as firsts.

many grapes depends upon not advise any effort at cellar storage. or shipped at once. Keep them in dry rooms. absolutely white with standing stormed bloom. spread thinly in baskets and covered with brown paper. ful Nothing deserves your most caremore than these delicious gifts of handling Do not pull the fruit from the tree. transit basket.1 88 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY This handling of apples applies to every other do it with refinement. Do not lay them in piles on the clip Pears but ground. In Florida my orchard but very delightful. The Grand so precisely like winter Duke plum also can be kept in cellars until midwinter. a close rival for the apples. five or ten days before becoming soft and stored in dark rooms. ripen them in cool. the stem. yet many sorts Imagine . Of beginning in February. by millions of bees. is very They are poured from the picking bag or basket into the Pickers are not careful and dealers are even less so. the of odor pines. about twenty feet high. dark places. its fragrance rolls in waves with the wind for half a mile. nothing three hundred full-grown orange trees. Winter pears can be kept apples in bins. should be picked. as a rule. first is The storage of conditions that I should something very different. The trouble with the fruit pears and the peaches that rot in transit largely that they are tumbled about and rolled. but Nature. Mingled with the be can more wholesome. and is course the orange stands In blossom.

sweeter and richer. evolution. and Mr. It is a wonderful sight when filling full the limbs of a twelve-foot tree. slightly more tender you find here and there a its is to frost than the orange. We have already a lemon that weighs two thin-skinned and exceedingly high flavored. There loquat. pounds. chard. Munson is originating such grapes as Headlight and Brilliant. yet tree covered with lighter yellow fruit bending grapefruit also limbs to the ground. Burbank is working among the plums. a . is through with evolution In in the Northern my short life is included the entire development of the whole Fameuse and Winesap families. studded with golden will not be entirely We asking for a ington Naval. gone before speak of oranges here as we do of apples in the North. which now include many of the best apples The orange is on the same road of that we grow. 189 The last year's crop the first of June. Ruby or a Jaffa or Most of these a Tardif or a Wash- are of recent intro- were duction and are improvements on the old sorts that The lemon is planted by the Spaniards. not in the general but in the particular. and while Mr. The frequently planted in the same orand this also bears its fruit very heavily.IN still OUR ORCHARDS fruit. is another is fruit down there called the It a combination of pear and cherry. and Stark Brothers are offering us such apples as King David. are being created in Florida. new sorts of oranges. But nothing is finished in the Florida orchard as nothing orchard.

" ered what Byron could not find. have mulberries in our Northern orchards. Cut dead ripe from the stem. row of mulberry trees at the rear of a country home would make a good wind-break and we mostly leave I think that a help considerably to keep the birds out of the gar- . and discov" a new sensation. to pare these A friend sent me knew of the rind.1 9o HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY It is so it pear that it in form and a cherry in flavor. To sugar such a pineapple would be to sugar a Bartlett pear or a Northern Spy. and posed that I I supa crate of pineapples. as we should. The huge clusters of flowers begin to open in November. The leaf looks much like a coarse elm. leaving you the conviction that you That is could not add to your internal peacefulness. golden yellow These let in end in great clusters of fruit that the jays like to jab holes into to suck the juice the sunshine. Here it works just the other way from what slice it does with peaches. Nature does not care to ship superb just makes too delicate for anything but home use. pineapples. but they continue December and January. a vile thing that is shipped North. I followed directions. and the to expand through first are barren. I was told to cut the apples into slices of half an inch thick. We not the real pineapple. to be sugar soaked and but iced. here a but was novelty. for a single sends a joy all through you and two slices completely satisfy every knowable desire. but it is evergreen. and eat from hand. It is them to the birds.

both Every North and have the South. can hardly bear comparison with the borrowed The persimmon. OUR ORCHARDS is 191 But it in Florida the mulberry a marvel. is destined to bear a very prominent place among American fruits durit ing the coming century. is delicious to be eaten out of hand. sorts. The time of ripening runs from September until January. and yet there is more than enough for human folks. however. is on that I . while hens compete with razorbacks for all that fall. but to please the palate. to be eaten with a spoon. it the only conceivable rival of our Northern blackpies. in the named. while the contents are delicious clotted cream. As begins to ripen in March the mockingbirds and the cardinal birds and the blue jays and all other birds assemble in convention among the soon as limbs. yet at its good enough best sorts. is is Our native persimmon. Fruit is doing a great deal to make our modern sort in life sweeter and stronger. then it is like a big red or yellow tomato. each one about as big as your thumb. but for puddings and is with a few drops of lemon juice added. The Japanese persimmon astringency until has the family trait of dead ripe. in its very best not only more hardy than the Japanese. but others stand tall and very like pear trees. Some of these persimmons make bushes like quinces. so turn itself never saw any other tree that could into a complete mass of fruit as the I It mulberry. berry.IN den. with a thick skin.

is The the is The at a cent a piece and apples at five cents a piece. needs to be waked up to this great fact that every can reap an abundant for he becomes a national his while work. not vegetablearians. it needs no demonstration to convince us that the apple Our whole nation is not getting sufficient attention. and with oranges apple not. recompense benefactor. The tree and the fruit alike demand a good master. fruits. can bless the whole ily with a new kind of food. in preference to meat. working. It is not the work for a lout. the average consumption of oranges orange has probably reached its maximum. . but eaters of nuts.192 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY are the road of betterment. and cereals as well as vegetables. Slowly but surely we are becoming vegetarians. and while he imAnyone mortalizes his name. and we moving forward and upward with our food. but for educated apple orchardist a thinker and student. human fam- one indispensable fruit. along can become a creator. as ours is of creative improvement. its It when is a nation works through this line a hopeful sign government.

and then in the autumn throws tons of leaves down upon the earth to make. and elements out of r each of v soil turned back into In its us. soil elements are constantly will being turned into soil. you by weighing the dirt. first. that the tree was not made up of what was in the tub. These thousands of tons are not made out of the earth but out of the air and are intended to be turned over into soil. but sending back into the air what was taken from it by the process of growth.CHAPTER IX FINDING AND MAKING SOIL everything else Nature tries to make and this. leave it If you plant a tree in a tub of dirt and there until it weighs one hundred pounds." as one of our recent text books tells us. " fixed quantity. 193 . on the contrary. is what you ABOVE soil. out of the air mostly. but almost altocarbon gether of what it could get from the air will find. have to help her do. Fools burn leaves. leaving for themselves a pinch of poor ash. if you make a Soil is by no means a prosperous country home. humus and then soil. summer Nature weaves an immense quantity of foliage. you may be sure.

or in- corporated potash and phosphorus. this having first served as food tain about acre. peas. and there are few soils that in their natural state are entirely deficient in this element. ashes. The timber soils of our corn belt con- two thousand pounds of phosphorus per crops that use up these elements the lessens steadily possibility of growing any crops at all. with The liquid part or sap.i 94 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY hydrogen com- and nitrogen for the most posing a good share of the part. beans. in the South crimson clover. and beggar weed had been . The most important are You get some potash from weed waste. velvet beans. like clover. We have got to find them in the soil. at once for plant growth and then transferring it It was not many years ago that we first all found out that alfalfa. elements of the soil that are not in the air are deep down under the surface of the soil. and it was only recently discovered. if we use them up. using They it to the soil. we have got to replace them. in the rocks. Raising for animals. They knew also that living plants fed on decaying plants. because we are really taking from the air the larger What we must know is part of our annual crops. and leguminous plants. that there was one class of plants that could take plant food directly from the air. Our fathers knew that they must use manure and they knew that they must rotate crops. Agriculture should be renamed agriculture. did not know. cow peas. how to do this most readily. however. soap suds.

As four-fifths of the air to work in. 195 very work and that. if given possession of they would not exhaust it of nitrogen. They were supposed as a rule to be associated with disease. Bacteria subdivide to multiply. or sowing clover and alfalfa you are not exhausting your land except in the of phosphorus and potash. . Heretoto the mind of the crop grower any pleasant suggestion. into the earth bacterial life decreases.FINDING AND MAKING SOIL doing the this soil. Then it was found that this specific power of legumes was due to way nodules on the roots and that these nodules were the home of fore bacteria had not carried bacteria of a peculiar sort. nitrogen. and the Kansas Experiment Station reports that it estimates over one billion six hundred millions As you go down until it in a single gram of soil. Why ? We any more than we know how. young clover warm water. but that is would increase the nitrogen the most im- portant plant food. Here we have the most wonderful of cerning your little all facts con- garden.(not pull it). and plunge the roots into do not know why. ceases entirely is below six feet. that by planting peas and beans. it is done in connection with the little appendages called tubercles or nodules on the roots of the If you will carefully dig a . or your larger fields. but now bacteria began to be thought of as a beneficent agency. But we do know that legumes. the bacteria have a big field They transform it and then turn it over to the plant as food.

not superseded by this discovery. however.I 96 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY softly all dirt. and the other two hundred and thirty. you will find them strung beautiful with and almost translucent round along bodies these are the home of the bacteria. tion of crops is. the first yielded twenty-five hundred pounds. . One experiment station reports that of two plats of soil. however. for a while without any bacteria. always supplied. washing away the : It was found a little later that if these bacteria Some nodules were lacking. the other nine hundred. but in that case they will exhaust the soil. but as a rule we could transplant the bacteria it needed. is. are not very much unlike. So we got alfalfa where had refused to grow by Some of these life germs giving it alfalfa bacteria. It was discovered that every sort of legume and it had its own special bacteria would grow only when supplied with its own friends. the first yielded over nine thousand pounds of green forage per acre. carry bacteria-supplied soil to localities lacking them. it Then was found soil. for it is still true that corn lands. while with will and peas grow bacteria they enrich it. must be turned over to peas and clover. that occurred to someone to inoculate the soil. the legumes would fail. after a few years. of course. for that which Beans accompanies sweet clover will do for alfalfa. one inoculated and the other not. So goes the most wonderRotaful chapter on soil making and soil renewing. to see if it would work a change. in hay.

no organic matter. Much of this served. Commercial fertilizers are certainly important. It is now found that there is a very marked limit to Their work the value of even honest fertilizers. they will exhaust the potash and phosThis gave the problem over to commercial phorus. practically down and out. and then I would by no means omit a thorough preparation of the soil with compost and a mulch. and not for if I were growing a bed of fancy soil. but it was goaded to give out whatever life it contained. which succeeded in furnishing the material that was lacking in the form of nitrates and muriates. fertilizers. we know what going on and we know that rotation will be of little use unless our beans and peas or vetch have bacterial aid. . that side of the question was ex- is. if understood and used under limitations. but say with additions. Meanwhile the other ploited. but I should consider cottonseed meal more important as a real food. only as a whip to a tired horse.FINDING AND MAKING SOIL we is 197 the object being to restore the nitrogen. nothing was added to the soil. rarely reaches beyond the season of their application. I think poor strawberries I would use a liberal supply of muriate of potash and acid phosphate. But now are working with more precision. however. if you grow nitrogen-procuring or leguminous plants altogether. while adding to the nitrogen. and the tendency is They are for good soil. or I should They supply some foods.

" meaning that we have much wealth forever untouched. you below in the earth. or our wheat crop. and a third farm above in the air. and deep plowing reach our mineral supplies comes next in importance. Now you understand why I have given soil-makIs Under Yours. These must be liberated. in the best form. and not leave it a dead weight on top of the soil. set work by adding decayed organic The use of lime to aid in setting free the power of decaying stuff is of exceeding importance. that matter. when really the land is not able to keep up the present . eral elements. aerate it. In most of our at we have almost unlimited supplies of minis.198 HOW TO soils LIVE IN THE COUNTRY Finely ground phosphate rock and limestone are what we require to help the legumes. or our fruit supply. Every stable should be provided with a concrete trough to carry every ounce of urine to a concrete It is the best fertilizer. So then you that a farm in have another farm may say sight. The barnyard gives us our best fertilizing material to when supplementing legumes. the use of purposing to double our milk sup- ply. Someone has spoken recently of " The Farm That tank. plant food. for The Chinese gardener uses no other. We . and you cannot make a good garden or orchard or grain field unless you can bring these three farms together and make them cooperate. soil of our have to get down deep enough (with drainage as well as plowing) work up what is below. ing a place What is in this brief discussion of farming.

but it means something vastly imfood. Humus is the stockings and the shoes that we put on our plants. Anyone who has learned the importance of humus will understand me when I say I never burn an ounce of organic matter that can be decomposed with any kind of readiness. next to that. road to be good plant food by and by. That would be It office if it were all. There is nothing more imthan to moisture from rushing up out portant keep of the land into the air. as The most wasteful method of using weeds. it is stuff on the portant.FINDING AND MAKING SOIL 199 must bring the soil eleunsatisfactory yield? ments together and increase the amount of good plant We Meanwhile only a small fraction of what we call soil is plant food. in Most of the stuff that is plowed manure. Humus is incipient soil. That is a new word with most country home-makers. and. But it is more. it is always yielding life. or used as top dressing. a while that it had no other than to equalize moisture about the roots and to equalize temperature in the soil. and the loss is estimated at eighty-five per cent of all that is made in the United States. we must was thought for enough. or . For the present a very large amount in bulk is what we have recently learned to call humus. You can burn up soil in manure piles as easily as in leaf piles. is already more than half burned. keep the roots of our plants from feeling every change of weather. is Nearly all manure charred by too rapid ferment.

200 HOW TO LIVE IN is THE COUNTRY The result is bean or pea vines. the time to how to make it you more of what compost and what to do with it. ashes. dirt. slops are exceedingly valuable in the A compost heap may be made anywhere about your land. road added but in such a way as to check its decomposition. whether under cover or not. old almost everything will be found to be of The barnyard manure. value. House waste and same pile. you will be astounded to sys- find how much good collected stuff goes to waste for lack of being leaf mold. then thoroughly comminute them. of course. and plow . wise we have is lost our humus tell also. Put in layers the barnyard manure. road ditches. make it Then wish as soon available as food for my into soil. the contents of plaster. autumn leaves. to burn them. I I wish to add to this what- ever other material I can find which will serve the same purpose. My first object is to accept Nature's offer of annual vegetation and to put it in such a place as will be best fitted gradually to transform as it possible to plants and trees. will be and composted. apply them. muck. wasting weeds. and. Weeds. Everything that is fore intended as a fertilizer should be plowed under beit is dried up Other(that is burned up). occasionally add lime. only a few pounds of ashes and the loss of a large amount of ammonia or nitrogen. if the material is very coarse. When you have once begun this tem of soil making. old straw. Let your piles alone until fall. Now is.



Stuff that was in the way before now looks good to you. nitrogen phosphorus The most fertile spots on some farms that I know are in the corners of rail fences. The barnyard manure. If you have only half an acre. where nothing but weeds grow. but your compost pile gives you potash One gen. mixed even carelessly. and not an ounce should be wasted. and all and together. and the same amount of weeds a good deal more. have also a compost pile. six ton of leaves contains sixteen pounds of nitropounds of phosphoric acid. I have five of them for my nine acres. All this is wealth. so that Into one of them I they shall not look unsightly. and well composted with barn manure. 201 If the material it is very coarse for it may be a necessary to leave in the pile more than Try this compost plant at your country home and see how curiously the material that you can use will turn up and increase. and turned into humus. You clean up your lawns and your gardens and burn nothing but the The ash of these gives you a little bigger limbs.FINDING AND MAKING SOIL them under. its value is greatly increased. and six pounds is of potash. One of the Southern experiment stations nearly as reports that the land normally produces one-fourth . potash. will not waste its nitrogen as it will when thrown raw on the field. ton of old straw A is worth worth much. year. I grow squashes on them during the summer. Haul this to your compost pile. run my cesspool material from the house.

and ten bushels of corn have been increased fivefold. usepeas. egg plant. because the carsoil will neutralize it. However. damage in bonic acid of the will not last a long while. or dumped in heaps and spread with a Where only small quantities of the unslacked are to be used. In what are called acid soils and those that contain a great deal of humus there is little danger from applying too much lime. the yield has been increased to one and a half bales per acre. spread venient way. your garden and orchard experiments you do not wish to make mistakes. but by the annual application of thirty bushels of such compost as we have described. moment in water before applying it. you can immerse it for a shovel. onions. asparagus. cabbage. celery. The use of lime is important in connection with everything that has begun to be transformed and needs quickening. and lime If already helps greatly in transforming the mass. for barley and .202 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY of a bale of cotton to the acre. in soil on the be can lime any conslacked. but if applied in excessive amounts it will injure plants directly texture of the soil and damage the This for growing future plants. especially lettuce. The experiment stations tell us that nearly all our garden vegetables are benefited by liming. the coarser the material the more need of lime. Muck just dug from a pond or elsewhere must be aerated for at least a year. when we go into the field lime is decidedly ful for alfalfa and all the clovers.

and they are use for corn and potatoes.FINDING AND MAKING SOIL wheat and oats. can be stored in the earth to be used by other plants. They it is as a second are busy working their roots down deep into the soil to bring up unclaimed elements. will get food directly for themselves out of the air and that this food when used by them. from a bad use of them. everything devours it are even being ground up to Horses. hens. unlike other plants. at the same time making the soil porous. Most of them have other if a single plant is in existence that Some of our very best cussedness. we find that legumes. uses. Two all things we have both wonderful. weeds when was vegetables The story of beggar weed is a good illustration. Most of our weeds are our best farmers." pure I were a boy. notion that worn out wrong. cows. soils are a of use but is all Soils are necessary consequence worn out to be sure. The old In this way we may use our soil forever. A little while ago this same beggar weed was found in to be the best forage and hay plant the Southern States. We have found most important fact that if we compost our waste stuff we can make out of what is generally thrown away the very best plant food conceivable. The leaves with greediness. It is melons and is not reported as of any got at so far. and I doubt illustrates " It got its bad name when weed and nothing more it was supposed to be a the veriest plague of the cotton fields. First. out of which . make flour. pigs. 203 likely to injure and for the common grasses.

It kills some of the worst weeds. and at the same time grass takes its place. or those that go to seed with great rapidity. cut early. lose all their troublesome qualities and can be added to our compost piles. and quack grass are supreme for meanness. while others. the wild morning glory. is surprising. Among these the Canada thistle. for the In the Southern States they have what they call is only our couch grass It will take possession its of land with astounding rapidity. Salt kills it some things. but it stimulates grass and feeds asparagus. power to fight There is this fertilize thing about however. Use all One of . if handled rightly. in the way so badly as to deserve their evil reputation. but that is no reason why should be kept out of our gardens. and you can is A good plan to fence in these then move your hog ungovernable pests to hogs around until have cleaned out a good sized pen you patch. that even our couch grasses if make good hay them to death. mainly those that run under which get ground.204 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY bread of a high quality is made. There are a few weeds. which magnified and intensified. Many of our weeds are valuable also as soil binders. maiden cane grass. is the very worst pests for a lawn but fed well with salt it passes away moneywort. and ground occupied it. The velvet bean was a vine used only for ornament. but it has turned out to be a producer of the largest quantity of valuable hay and fodder known in the world.

for chickweed. Every plant consists largely of water. potatoes are three-fourths water. In the fall I leave my last crop of purslane and chickweed to bind the soil through the winter. Professor Bailey estimates that fifty bushels of corn per acre. Thorough cultivation will take care of most of the annual weeds and one or two hoeings will do the rest of it. and three hundred for every pound of solid matter in your clover field. A thorough system of . Now the point for the country home-maker is to find out just about how much water his soil needs. if it ever gets in. although this varies somewhat with the season and with the variety of tree. the superfluous enough must be must surely be drawn away. For eveiy pound of dry matter in your wheat field you must have nearly four hundred pounds of water. and beets and carrots are nearly ninety per cent liquid. about one-third their weight of water. order to mature will require one million and a half pounds of water.FINDING AND MAKING SOIL 205 your waste brine and anything else that contains salt on your asparagus. This is advisable only where your soil slopes so as to wash badly during the thaws and floods and is not advisable anywhere near strawberry beds. but retained. or around your quinces and pears. as a rule. Water in the soil is just as important as the soil itself. Trees contain. and two hundred bushels of potatoes will require in growth one and a quarter million in pounds of water. will never give up until the strawberries are plowed out.

and this is a very Use up the stone that lies simple matter after all. by constant tillage. Instead of adopting or trying to adopt a system of the season. we are keeping a sort The same effect. the weeds down. irrigation. ous. over the earth. or of blanket better. But mulching. about much of your is land. that is. is the plow is run all The it kept loose and porwill absorb moisture rather than let it surface soil This is the only cure for drought. They have a way in very dry parts of the country of getting along without rain.206 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY drainage can never be omitted. so that free. and this is exactly what we are doing in keeping the surface soil stirred. is at least. In other articles I have spoken of mulching. is all ac- complished by the mulch that you place around your trees. for it the moisture in. where a It is a good plan impossible. for small tile Use four inch to cost more in the end than it saves. and where liable this cannot be tile had. tiling a good substitute. it holds the moisture in with the roots and positively prevents drying principle for all it is worth. out. is something more it is covering a whole field with lit. as well as holds keeps is system of irrigation anyway. as we are using the word here. Work I assure the mulch will and you you have good trees and good plants. We have already found that adding humus soil equalizes the to the moisture . . it holds the water that belongs there and will not let it be evaporated too rapidly.

I have tried this plan with potatoes. and the plants came up through the mulch with readiness.FINDING AND MAKING SOIL ter or straw or forkable stuff 207 compost and leaving this on. The roots of plants are only underground . from which the water through troughs or pipe. is distributed Just as important as water. beans. Outside of the arid section. or in some cases the covered as soon as planted. field is cultivated once or twice before the mulch put on. covering with coarse hay or grass. without stirring. however. on way of crops. but favorable results came from mulching potatoes. where droughts are irregular. all through the season's Generally the crop is is growth. The economy the result in the of the matter depends. is air in the soil. the simplest method is to have a windmill. lifting water from a deep well or pond or flowing stream to a tank. while the yield was as good as it would have been with constant cultivation. onions and corn. but quite possible. of course. The reports from spring it our experiment stations show that very early in the mulch is applied the prevents ground from if and this will check It was found unwise to mulch vegetable growth. warmed importance in the arid sections of the country. and vines. In this case irrigation is accomplished at the same time that the work of cultivation is dispensed with. Direct irrigation has become a matter of immense being thoroughly up. tomatoes. but skilled gardeners know very well that it is just as valuable in the Eastern States.

it lets the air in. So you find that is plenty of use for brains at every stage of our work. is to stir the soil and let the and almost invariably root health depends upon frequent stirring of the soil with the cultivator. obtain oxygen from the air and throw off carsoil gases. In clay soils the air spaces are small and the roots are less likely to be well supplied with what they need for healthy action. This must be broken In sandy soil there may be too much air. even in the smallest of gardens. At the same time fungoid formations are developed that burn out the soil. This means that the soil on which all we walk is of it made of soil particles. At the same time a shower is vents the free passage of up with the cultivator. good. HOW TO The LIVE IN THE COUNTRY They bon and they breathe just as the limbs breathe. but by putting the air in motion. not only by furnishing moisture. and in micro-organisms that are at work on the humus are as badly disturbed as from a lack of this case the aeration. for as it lets the water out.208 limbs. must be so prepared and so kept during the growing season that the roots can have a sufficient supply of this gas or air. but that not by any means much of it is air. very liable to form a crust on the surface that preair. A shower of rain does The object of plowing air in. Drainage works in the same way. While the roots are taking up car- . there Just at this point note the relation of the work which is being carried on by and for the plants and human health.

including man. us a quota of ozone in return for good deal more important what is it it selects. are during the winter a sort of family doctor. The difference between sandy and clay soils is mainly that with the first we must establish a first rate root system. A that the streets of the village be well lined with trees and that these trees be of a sort that can take up the pools and puddles and street drainage. and after that we must supply a Turn under your legumes. In the animals. need every particle of the ozone that in turn is given process of breathing all throw off off for us. not for shade only but for purifying Vines growing all over the house do no harm whatever. mischief-makers who either cut or mutilate street trees. House plants. which the plants immedipoisonous gases take and weave into We ately up foliage and fruit. sure also that around your house there is foliage. if healthy. they are alienating them from oxygen and ozone.FINDING AND MAKING SOIL 209 bon dioxides. which are let loose into the air. using up a good share of the poison that is breathed into the atmosphere by the occupants of the house and weaving it over into someEach little pot of geraniums gives thing beautiful. but they do a vast amount of direct benefit in the way of giving you wholesome air while using up the poisonous. larger amount of mulch. Learn to . as well as rye or any other succulent stuff. working it over into Those are ignorant shade-giving foliage and fruit. Be enough the air.

Especially if you are going to try a home in some other part of the country. but I candiscussed more care- . find out ahead something about what you not close are to cultivate. Soil waste I this have said but little chapter until it is about. varies so greatly. they die there is humus away thing before was available.2io HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY make use of the worst of weeds. you had better be communication with your State experiment station and invite them to examine your soils. that we cannot lay down general rules for all There remains work for the brain. farms across our States to study the peculiarities of the soil and aid the farmers. and when easily. However in small your property. that are richer than the sur- face. however. and they must be constantly brought up for use. test Subsoils are frequently worth a good deal more than surface soils. but the railroads are establishing chains of Soil. If you cannot get at it any more send down the alfalfa. and now we have not only the aid of agricultural colleges. It will be of no use to send a little bottle of it to them. whose tap root often goes twenty feet below the best plow. for they are some- times the best of manure. often every few rods. particular cases. The passage of the long roots through the soil loosens it. for you have probably a dozen sorts on a ten acre field. down below where anyUnder the sand often or mixed soils. lies clay.

I potatoes. and You must not burn weeds nor then how to use it. neighbors' gardens. could be made to take this quickly and safely out of my wash and carry it fields. So you see that what you want is first of all to make soil. or it went into the road ditches and then into the flat lands near the mill and then was carted by the wide awake miller to fatten his When dening. 21 1 I first made a serious business of garfound that the winter wash and the spring floods took off a large part of all that I could add It was carried down to my during the summer. specially if leaves. Take your hat to the brains that are at work everywhere about you. your near your house. However. but must compost the house waste as well as all other waste and feed it to your plants. we are beginning to . You must not have a slop hole soil is heavy. and we overlook our best property. then you must know how to keep it. found that shallow surface ditches. made by the plow in November. Country home making in America is in its infancy. You must use your coal ashes. Do not get in the way and hinder and do not fail to understand. sluice-ways would disappear work of the cultivator. These shallow in the spring under the This will require a little careful study on your part. off is still Our gardening aborigines. almost as crude as that of the We waste shamefully. with some additional work of the I shovel. but be sure not to omit it.FINDING AND MAKING SOIL fully.

212 HOW TO it LIVE IN way to it is THE COUNTRY soil. without serious crowding and without pinching poverty. worth without exhaustshall soon have land in the United States We ing it. for all that and to use . that will feed six hundred millions of people. be able to see the make to enrich soil.

and to enjoyment as well as labor shops. but the should all be together. home does not mean the house only. drawing an unfavorable comparison between city life and country life as they may be at present enjoyed. in the country. and whatever else seems essential to making a home able and convenient. electric plants for lighting and irrigating. for we now have in the country nearly every privilege that fifty years ago belonged to the town. whole property. arboreal retreats. for manual culture is really educative for the brain as well as the 213 .CHAPTER X MANUAL TRAINING IN THE COUNTRY HOME WE it are holding always to the idea that. It should serve as a schoolhouse and a shop in one. laboratories. barns. To all this we are able to add a good list of special privileges that cannot be acquired by the city resident. country comfortThere really is no reason for in the all In the order of importance I would place first of a shop. and the purchase of shop tools should be as prompt as those for use in the soil. and homeful This chapter will talk of such accessories as are essential to completeness of life.

when the wind blew. while from the house chairs. tables. above was to be the laboratory. called for their attention. and line were and outdoor work Of rapidly added. twenty-five feet square. Good chisels. els and hoes and plows were easily put in order by the lads. knives. to were turned loose make their own tools and every way to develop an inventive skill. screw drivers. and the Into the shop the boys grouted.2i 4 hands. Shovcourse repairing was in order from the outset. and an effort was put forth to use Hand power wind power brought down from a boyIt invented fan over the roof. it was two stories in height room Each room was ground floor was while the the lower to be the shop. For this reason very few tools were purchased at the outset. and so irregularly that worked of course only it was of very little value to the youngsters below. bemore than the storage of a few tools and a place for filing saws and grinding scythes. invariably homemade. All this saved within a year's time more than the original outlay.. soon proved inadequate to the needs of the young workmen. When . HOW TO A shop is LIVE IN THE COUNTRY ginning with little peculiarly a developing affair. only the material for making tools. My own shop was built as a wing to the barn . grafting sets. larger and better than they themselves could construct. but rapidly becoming a place for constructing all sorts of boy ideas into workable forms. After awhile a gasoengine and lathe were purchased. similar appurtenances for indoor etc.

years later I discovered that two of my sons quietly studying up One of considerable outlay of money and time. No matter. cut fodder for the cows. This was a convenience to a large neighborhood. and in the autumn it effort known The first important turns with a slightly mournful sound. grind bones for the fowls." it folk was to build a two-horse still Some were crushes the waste apples for cider. it is and as on the part of the young power engine. as it soon was. Standing very be for a half it still can seen the over high valley a mile. but the mouse labored and brought forth a mountain. it was liable to run up a tree rather than travel the highway. " as the Old Cow. the other most of a scheme that called for a the work. It was not a case where the mountain labored and brought forth a mouse. but like all the early automobiles. on a the engine that different from somewhat principle had been purchased. It certainly would go. but it called for many a consultation both in its conIt still remains to turn struction and in its working. and the fans continued to tell which way the wind blew. and was serving its purpose as an was an important accessory to a true . saw the wood. the shafting was still left to pass through the floors. It did its work fairly well. of the automobile evolution. as usual.MANUAL TRAINING 215 given up. the grindstone. them did most of the planning. and that an automobile This was about the beginning it was soon evident in was incubating my shop. the shop it educator.

with tua through very thorough course of history and this language it. at least two of my boys. and sweeten the disposition . Intimacy with tools will bring out power. which he is now constructing and which seems likely to make his I occupation for some years to come. rather strongly addicted to literary pursuits. smooth passion. With your other inventions. but all this while. I had made quite a divergence For from conventional methods of training young people. slightly suffering. soon became evident that through the shop I was likely to lose not only from literary pursuits.2i 6 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY country home life. try for something to prevent this confounded noise. sharpen intellect. the literary culture of am my not sure children was tors. I looked out for it that they should carry off with them a thorough training in agriculture and such a love of Nature that they could not become alien to the country. that they valued knowl- edge mainly for what they could do with it. I " said to my boy. Only giving them mathematics as they needed was apparent. Frequently the girl in the family will prove to be the keenest mathematician and the best mechanic." The result was a muffler on a large scale. as the engine snorted gas through the exhaust pipe. HowIt ever. but from horticultural. a college bred man. Meanwhile the young folk are kept at home by the variety that is offered to the mind and the hand. and yet I led them. A storage of information did not seem to be attractive. Going by the door one day.

as I have told you. is The very first information that stupidly superficial. in Country life in life largely of flowers. is a school. It soon became the center of life. rocks. and in this way using all that you find out. To get the habit of applying knowledge as quickly as acquired to everyday affairs. laboratory is closely associated with the shop. a boy should have should concern itself with soils. watercourses. and generally with that which upon all insects as . for in no other way but I can most children get any education worth while. To learn to do is better than simply to remember. The ative tools ful and comparThose did not care for who investigation. I established such a department directly over the shop. birds. rocks. human life. to look ply The merely bugs or bees or flies. am sure that the home and the school have been too radically divorced. and. which is told by the is made up and the evoanimal and vege- table nature. 217 Try it with the chap who and do not forget that the shop itself To develop the hand is as important as to develop the brain. of examination. whether thrush or sparrow. hates school.MANUAL TRAINING that books will sour. both found that which was interesting and usethe laboratory. and it is the real I believe in public free schools. of discussion. country home that knows nothing of these and brings up its children to know a bird simthings as a bird. lution insects. is the one great need in education.

the beautiful. In the country home laboratory we are specifically studying home. the study of plants and trees becomes exceedingly practical. or the of a very small section. and that wonderful roll of and valleys which so accentuates the charm of country living. and the things that make for home.2i8 HOW TO call LIVE IN THE COUNTRY of the stuff we geology. In the entomological corner flies we determine what butter- and moths and bugs and beetles are our neigh- bors and how posed from ner. where there should be plenty of drawers and boxes. It is the science that makes up the farm. as well as keep the evil disIn the botany cordestroying our crops. the hills corner the rocks and rolling stones are to be considwater courses. to use them. and mount them perfectly develops the esthetic sense and a taste for In It teaches careful observation. but as something that makes up a part of our own home life. . They should be studied not simply as so much vegetation. In the chemistry corner we analyze the water and the soil and enter intimately into the questions of health. the long run accuracy always comes in ahead of smartness. Merely to butterflies collect all the moths of a section. There is not a single science but has more or less bearing upon country homes and country living. In the geological ered. so that this sort of study does not bring to the front either mere memory power or boldness. the pebbles that a boy naturally plays with and the flowers that first of all draw a child's attention.

came to me for sixty This dollars to put into a few country telephones. A boy who puts his pillow at night a under him. So we took in our neighbors.MANUAL TRAINING My 219 oldest boy. a perfectly natural outgrowth of his training. and during the next five years he strung us on lines of communication. . has a new sort of probability ahead of drawing is a very needful adjunct to the studies that we have assigned to this room. way investigating. and therefore of falsely judging. ways be busy to help note the peculiarities and the minute features of anything that comes under obserwill surmise that You The pencil is also a great educator in the of way teaching patience. The first rural telephone systems were being just then was established. accuracy. Nothing like enough has been made of the They should alpencil and the hand in education. at seventeen. and he very naturally became identified with one of the most beneficent movements of the age. and fundamental truth. It is a serious blunder to form a habit of half vation. new tool. only that his dealing with minuter stuff made him more persistent. instead of the latest novel. who have worshiped only books look with wonon those who worship tools. The entomologist was like all the rest of them. It is astonishing to one who has been educated only with books to find teresting material there is how much in- in the garden and field to one We der who has been educated in shop and laboratory.

as of course you study. you can collect enough larvae or cocoons under the bark to keep yourselves busy in the entomological corner. its catching and its preparations for preparing what is Geological colcaught for permanent preservation. the going on over a five acre lot constitutes a huge library at first hand. Chemistry is always in order. entitled " The Population of a Pear Tree. Frenchman wrote a book. you will not then know all about it. these you have a sufficient supply of bottles and preservative liquids for the most ordinary chemical analysis. and if you run short of object lessons go to the shop and construct. while a fourth corner will readily adjust itself with tables and drawers for botanical work. lections require glass cases or simple shelves. The simplest way for arranging your laboratory In one of for work will be to have corner closets. have. in the winter months. I do not advocate throwing out mathematics and history." and he made out that his tree was home of a host. Entomology needs its cabinets. Then again. Some one has your said that if you study a single leaf all A life. but you will find that these studies illuminate laboratory work and are illuminated by it. None of this work . your shop and is What laboratory constitute just the places for more nature If you have an orchard.220 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY Now in all this matter of shop and laboratory we are working on the understanding that the boys and the girls must be brought into intimacy with Nature. nets.



A not be costly. Let this be the general proposition. with whetstone in a box adjacent. and the apparatus will grow natutool room. and a very large one at that. very little direct instruction is needed. should be adjacent to the shop. to combine the two in one. exciting for the field. but it is poor economy to have a plow or cultivator or planter of second class. from the worms in the soil to the birds in the trees that they inquire into the relations of things. Economy is at to see that good tools are always in repair. A young people than making collections good leader is wanted rather than to those in a teacher. that they study the life that is in all things about them. The shop this point is never desirable. at least for a while. and if possible secure a tuThere is nothing more will stimulate work. scythe should hang in its corner. and iron sprinkling pail should always be on and a hand. cannot create anything elaborate in the way of shop or laboratory. what . second. and . a spade. For the A garden we want a digging fork. So far as teachers are concerned. 221 can be hurried. that the young folks are I recommend who to study first the things that are nearest at hand those under foot and most observable. further than to get a good text in book tor who each department. For the orchard we need a complete set of apparatus for spraying.MANUAL TRAINING rally. The farm tools need trowels.

Not very unlike this plan recently suggested events you are bringing along muscular power with brain power. Apart from the cash problem. we are getting a very different sort of country home from that which follows the ordinary method of sharply dividing school and home. his uses at the top of the heap who does his duty and faculties for the best purposes.222 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY the most insignificant are good for. With a laboratory and shop attachment for every we should not hear again from that the Wilson city is draining the country Secretary of its best brains and blood. I would let each one have a hobby of his own and should rather is that which has been and urged. applying the facts obtained from books and securing new ones. We have come across the effort to use wind power country home. I think No country home can our discussion of the shop. Even the old dog churn served a good pur- . that one half of each school day be given to books and the other half used in a school garden and orchard. and are at the same time making home something exceedingly attractive to your boys. which we shall consider another month. At all expect that he would. making the most of the world about him and living temperately. be anywhere near complete without the control of in some power supplementary to man power and woman power. At any rate do not feed your boys and girls on that false and shallow literature which teaches that the country boy who can He is escape from the farm is rising in the world.

can get Niagara to do its work in the center of We tric New York State and can distribute its power among sells elec- the farmers' homes. giving them force enough to run machinery both outdoors and in. Wherever there is a stream that tumbles down hill you have power. empty its of pumping. In this way steam power drew the industries into huge buildings and built up great factories. many the farmer or country home maker can secure. two or more horse power. and the dog power still stands for a large factor in Belgian country life. it is an easy matter to install . It could not be application more than a few rods. and the water from this tank can contents through pipes into his kitchen and This will save a lot possibly any room of his house. Fortunately electricity is a distributive force and carried for effective can be carried almost anywhere and to any distance. or possibly a little giving only If it can be made to develop poetry to his daily life. at the same time emptying our country homes of nearly all their most attractive employments.MANUAL TRAINING 223* pose. farmer a brook of this sort which is now has Many his for water cattle. set Unfortunately steam power has been from the outalmost strictly a town privilege. Wind power is of course in cases but it is the best thing that irregular. it he can generally keep a water tank filled (by With means of a windmill). and that power can be carried over a into the barns and houses. The French Republic power derived from its canals to the adjacent farmers.

Mr. that for ages has only tumbled down a glen and run through a meadow. of a brook than out of a dozen Bridgets. beside doing some of the shop work. the pumps. while he separates milk and milks his cows . running tricity. to light all their buildings. share of the home work From their to have sold power neighbors. Vt. independent of any town or F. that his wife cooks. do a large and after harnessing it. they western New York comes a story that shows how half a dozen or more country home makers can cooperate to the same end.224 a HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY lighting his dynamo that will carry power for house and operating his machinery. of Orneighborhood plant. I note that two neighbors in central New York have secured power enough from a brook. not only in the field but in The housewife can get more work out the kitchen. washes. You can scarcely overestimate the advantage of some such power in removing every sentiment of drudgery from daily life. reports besides a vacuum cleaner. . by elecand irons. the threshing machines. It goes a long way toward solving the terrible help problem. the corn shellers indoors. It fits nicely to the work done in the shop. In my Florida home we are making our sixty-five- foot well cooperate with a gasoline engine and dynamo. Kennedy. It will run the feed mills. O. ange County. but to give us electric lights. it will wash the dishes and do the cleaning as well as carpet and floor scrubbing. not only to serve water for the household.

225 His home farm comprises two lit- hundred and tle sixty-three acres. the problem is solved sential. for lighting buildings and doing a large share of your work. easily. such as is very common in the celery fields of Florida. your washing machine. especially as a larger for you. or by a gasoline If you have a gasoline engine. Where way of settling The original the help problem. but he adds that hav- ing electricity to run his machinery. with electric plants. but otherwise a storage tank becomes an esThis tank must of course be filled either by hand power or electric power.or three-horse power machine. and in sudh a case a like. he hires very help there are electric companies. it will serve a satisfactory purpose. for a two. If you have a flowing well. your churn. Even if it does no more than run your grindstone. cost of a gasoline engine that will do your ordinary farm work will not exceed one hundred and fifty dollars. Not seldom you can purchase one at a very much reduced rate. it is not infrequent that you can purchase power enough. You . This of course is an easy except in haying and harvesting. But in selecting an engine it will be better to get one large enough to work engine is less likely to out of get repair.MANUAL TRAINING with electric power. of course you engine. besides waiting on the boys in the shop and cutting feed for the horses and cows. have only to attach a hose and carry the water where you can at least take good care of a strawberry bed a few yards square. at a reasonable rate.

and brushed to The carriage and prevent the accumulation of dust? wagon floors should certainly never be allowed to ac- . I do not think that the coming country home will be satisfied with anything of this sort. these being set on a slight slope and so constructed as to let the water flow at stated points. swept as cleanly as a house. Among country home accessories the barn is about as old as the house. conquerable reason why the windows should be covered with cobwebs and dust. The barn may become the center of attraction. not only on account of such accessories as laboratory and shop. but owing to the beauty of buildings. its structure and its fitness to all the other A stable should be not only cleanly. A a have not gone so far as to give the same my Jersey and Holstein grade. warm sunshine. but capable of perfect ventilation. horse enjoys an occasional bath just as much as if given with discretion and in the privilege to not be kept as clean as those in the dairy sections of England. but I see no reason why they would not welcome it. ble and decent it is held to be satisfactory. while every cow and There is no unhorse should have abundant light. and for some reason or other it has remained just a barn a building to hold hay and straw and without the least chance to please anyIf it is comfortathing excepting horses and cows. Can you tell me why every American stable should I human being.226 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY large part of the work could be done by forcing the water into tiles.

who is Let your barn floor be generally short of help. but I I have no fancy notions about am sure that every one will be sur- prised at the great improvement he can tle cost. or any other outbuilding. simply a matter " and brush and porch. Keep is a good broom in the at hand. you may attach vines until the whole becomes an arI find that in this way I am able to grow most bor. morning. and then carry to it the hose from your gasoline engine or water tank. If you will your help as well as for your famrun wires parallel to each other. made extra tight. The as the housewife brushes the kitchen as soon as she abroad gain will far outbalance the cost. The barn lawns can be kept just as tidy as those about the house and with very little outlay of time and work. Nor do I see why they should not be so abundant as to be very free for ily. this matter. as they are valuable for all sorts of purposes. and especially in the way of creating a tidy and comfortable sentiment about the homestead.MANUAL TRAINING 227 This seems like an cumulate a load of clay or filth. and other I You can never get too many good outbuildings. and you may clean it without serious labor on your own part and without much delay. all way around your barn. A out " dirty barn is like a dirty house. barns. grapes. of habit. impossibility to the average home keeper. the superb Lindleys and Gaertners and Brightens with . make at lit- have before spoken of the enormous crops one can gather from the walls of house.

but those belonging naturally to the small country home. A decently arranged home will teach the young folk to handle food of this sort conservatively. bearing grapes it I should like to say tons of grapes. two or three times from May till August tying the runners and occasionally thinning the clusters. that do not ripen well vineyards. vineyard will not be able to compete. all with pleasant windows. a Jersey apartment. on your buildings. most perThe fectly colored and ripened. will only be During the summer you go over these compelled to vines. reaching them with a ladder.228 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY in Niagaras. such . or with plums and shrubs. Let us get this matter comprehensively in mind. that is. will come to perfection. but let them prefer grapes to tobacco. a horse room. a group comprising a shop. a hen room. but will not ad- mit the inquisitive tongue of your pet Ayrshire. while vines cover the whole. you must box them until they get out of reach of the animals. even Jeffersons. till the vines are ten or twelve feet high. Let the boxes be such as will admit more or less light. a laboratory. If the vines are planted in the barnyard. for be will something of that sort if your vines really I have not sketched the are properly cared for. The whole of this is to be surrounded by preference with apple trees. and a tool room close by the shop this is a real barn. You will be sure to get your very best clusters. buildings required for a large farm.

a seed bed. seed bed differs from a hot bed in this. or are like the fruit from which they came. the smaller appurtenances of the country are a hot bed. or a corner of the garden. self Here also you place those seeds that are so fine that they cannot be trusted in the open ground during dashing showers. that it nook of ground. while this is overlaid with very fine soil. where you can It is not the mere starting of choice test new seeds. a little . to relieve conlife. but to form a habit of saving the finest seeds of the finest fruits that we eat and giving them a chance to grow and show what is in them. must contain very finely prepared soil.MANUAL TRAINING as 229 we hope to multiply very rapidly. a little A is brick or concrete lean-to against the barn. seeds that we are after. and arhot bed is a box of almost any form. Here you enjoy your- sowing your choicest seeds and those that must be started before frost is entirely out of the land. if nothing more than a drygoods box sunk in the soil. set A over a fermenting bed of horse manure. It so arranged that you can cover it if necessary. and covered Much better is it to build with an old window sash. Every country home can easily have a little hot bed of this sort. Did you ever think what wonderful possibilities are thrown away in the seeds that are wasted? You have learned that no two of the seeds of an apple or pear will produce trees and fruits that are identical. a nursery. gested city Among home bors.

because here you grow young trees or bushes that you have collected and put . and it should be a tidy little This differs from place. where you create a nursery.230 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY As so you see you are always on the track of new things. with nearly seedless grapefruit and an orange with honIn the North we are guided by the eyed sweetness. fact that Nature manages to produce something choice in fence corners and out of the way places. pressing it the plots already described. Still one more plot. figs. and fine my word develop some that you plant. will seeds of any bush or shrub. everything stakes in which you have inserted bits of zinc on which you write with a pencil. but and two soil. have an equally well prepared plot for starting cuttings. it will take several years for apple seeds to develop into bearing trees. or with the for it you Label things. Make the cuttings from one foot to quinces. This was the way we got the Seckel pear and the Concord grape. particularly grapes. Right alongside your seed beds. you can meanwhile be at work with rose seeds or with plum stones. vines and that you all the trees have years you will need to plant or sell or give away. Everywhere novelties and improved varieties are finding their way in spite of the number that are deIn Florida we have recently obtained a stroyed. feet in length and insert them two-thirds in the more In a few very tight about them. Almost all our fruits and shrubs can be propagated in this manner. mulberries.

I can show you a living arbor with the roof fifty feet above the floor and carpeted with several inches of spruce needles. the evergreens grow. and when you are accustomed to looking for them. and a catbird calls it home. and must be removed. rather closely to- As gether. nor have I tried to do it. as well as of immense pleasure. will sing you any song that you will whistle back to him. You can collect no end of these in your shrubbery. Overhead they will lock together. the interior limbs.MANUAL TRAINING 231 them through a period of testing. I have aimed . Here you may swing a hammock if you please. I am aware home country that I have not outlined for you a that will suit the victims of conven- tionalism. will die out at the bottom. do not think much of arbors. You a planting circle can yourself make a living arbor by of evergreens. and the bird looking down through the glinting shadows. but rarely used. interlocking. They will ultimately be a source of considerable income. Squirrels like it. arbors. with a diameter of about twenty feet. These three plots of ground should constitute a pet retreat for both work and study especially in your old age. and you will have a most complete and shaded retreat. Nature does much better with a lot of thorn trees and grape vines that is living I affairs. that is of wooden conventionally set up to adorn the grounds. you will find them everywhere asking you to give them room and a chance.

and how this sort of a home will fascinate the young people. keep them out of mischief. how religion and art and science may pull together in our daily lives. and make them love home life home better than any other spot in the world.232 to HOW TO a is LIVE IN THE COUNTRY show how be lived than a simple much more complete home life may ordinarily lived. . how the idea of may take in thinking and loving and doing altogether.

He could shoe a horse if it came to a pinch. with bark ground by a home brook. If it rained he sat down to a shoe bench and with no mean skill made or mended shoes for his family and neighbors. Others made brooms.CHAPTER XI FINE ARTS OF A COUNTRY HOME THE old fashioned country home was rich in The Connectiarts. but to or even clocks. both indoors and out cut boy was trained not only to farm the some additional employment for rainy for he well understood that he must lose no time days. only they made hay while the sun shone. under a crusher worked out of a conglomerate that he had himself quarried from his own glen. I am 233 . wove the yarn into cloth or carpets. if he would fare well in a busy world. land. I well remember one whose pastures were filled with sheep and when he killed one for family use the skin was tanned in a home vat. His wife washed and carded the wool. It was little that such a family had to buy. and sewed what she had created into homeful garments. and there were few articles of furniture in his house that were not made by his hands. spun the fleecy roll.

household arts had its own day. to save time. I do not remember rightly. to save time. boiled in It was not so interesting and a huge iron kettle. and then they were it over night to get cold and solid. plowed and said prayed We over our spiritual lessons while no time for one thing alone. calf use. Once. Sometimes. we while of economy. generally twice a year. When a killed one quarter was reserved for home but three were sent to neighbors who had agreed was . Lye was first made by leaching home-made ashes and the soap was made in the back yard. it got into our eyes and we spluttered and spat always in vain. we had lye Ashes that were not needed for were sold to make pearlash or saleratus. honey for lime. we recited our Sun- the weekly round-up of Those were days day-school verses at the same time. we milked. ever things we could not ourselves make we swapped for. were always dipped in the evening after the milk was cared for and the dozen long wicks were daily tasks were ended. and eggs for sugar. lime. Candles. but I think that left took twenty or thirty dips before candles were of the right size. while not quite Whata home product. was made cooperatively. A attached to a rod and these were dipped into the melted tallow and lifted out long enough to cool. as I remember this soap of a Sunday morning at all the children. three times. twice.234 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY sorry for anyone who cannot remember candle dipEach of these ping or wool dyeing or soap making.

the art is lost. " " Samp Why that was our ambrosia. shelled by the owner. have that to Bee-keeping supplemented sugar making. from the tapping of the trees to the final sugarIn these days no one knows of these things. America. had no creameries in those days. although there have been some attempts I believe. bless the Lord ! make honey like the bees. Wendell Phillips Alas. would make sugar enough The whole affair was a romance for a large family. ground by itself. trees. so as not to be mixed in the miller's hopper with all sorts out it of corn. and then with the finer meal sifted was boiled all day in an iron pot on the back It was stirred by everyone who passed near the stove and after twelve hours cooking it of the stove. but we No one has been able yet. HOME come 235 to kill when their turn should Making sugar was also a domestic affair.FINE ARTS OF A COUNTRY to replace them a fatted calf. Nearly Fifty everyone had his own maple bush or grove. dwell in the country a-nd plant garIt was made of the selectest ears of corn. but we also have lost arts in was samp. who dried by the stove. but each We . fit for ! " the gods dens. have a sugaring-off a and worth make life seem deal will longer samp farmer to show the the while. wrote about the lost arts of Egypt. ing-off. at four pounds each." but I advise you to buy a gallon of maple syrup and " " That and before you die. Get some old way you it was done.

that did not come in until the hayfield and the " " barn and the kitchen were given over to help a generation that unclean. . uncouth. and at last even sewing and knitting. understand why. and untrained the rivalry knew not the art of the milkmaid. but one after another of these home arts went away from us. They no longer swapped pinks and hollyhocks and boiled down syrup over the kitchen fire. planting States and creating everywhere country homes. all of these went out of home life into huge factories. we did not isted. The spining. Such was the life of our fathers and mothers. and the soap barrel Our mothers no longer knitted attic to as they walked through the streets to make a friendly call. They were proud of the great white loaves of bread that they could pile on the shelves and the rolls of golden butter that mated them. never exThen came steam power and. not hard unpoetic life that has often been pictured. spinning. for a sweeter and more wholesome life than that which was lived by those who pioneered out of at all the New England across the continent. Girls were not ashamed to call the cows and then to draw the milk from the udder with freshly washed hands. around which clustered the dull sleeping and eating places that were called homes.236 family HOW TO made LIVE IN THE COUNTRY its own butter and its own cheese and was worth the while I assure you. carding. furniture ning wheel went to the kindling wood. We never then heard of foul milk that must be sterilized before using. shoemak- making.



they bought pianos to stand where the spinning wheel had stood. eighteen he to a reasonable must when this was lowered cost. away back in early Aryan life. The wife no longer wove and the daughter no longer milked. although the very word wife was originally weaver and the origin of the word daughter. The city was drawing the best blood and the brightest brains away from the country. heard only in the larger towns and the help of skilled physicians could be reached only at great cost. and a letter drive or walk five or ten miles to his postoffice. was milker. One weekly newspaper reached the country family now and then that cost the receiver three Even and quarter cents for postage. Everything lost track of itself and words lost their Swapping made way for that sort of commerce which needs money. where there was little that was interesting to be done and all things were toil.FINE ARTS OF A COUNTRY It left a HOME 237 lonesome home. Having a bunch of it when the hops or the plums brought a good price. stuff. Steam not only took away country industries. On these after a while the auctioneer played and the heartsick owner went into the city to find work. and the simple hearted home keepers knew not what to do with this paper meaning. Its churches got the chief talent and then the country churches died all over the hillsides and in the villages they just kept alive Music of the highest order was to little purpose. His . but so exalted town employments as to concentrate wealth and multiply by contrast town privileges.

they could not wheel in all Lancashire." This would not have been so bad if the country dweller. I am not sure that it is worth the while to put . had not felt that he was out of city cousin the world. When can do the work of ten thousand of them. Farms were sold at half cost and hun- In this way steam had England homesteads were Some of the New England States published annually a list of deserted homes given because no for there sale and the owners was them up were tired of the hard life lived on them. " beside isolation. only as interesting relics of arts that are lost." incidentally the effect of so depressing country life that the farmer became Old Hayseed. can buy soap much cheaper than we can make and candles remain only in ecclesiastical lingerie. It will not pay us now to try to dreds of fairly good deserted entirely. The some English folk thought find a single to do this. driven by steam. We keep them now We it.23 8 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY read his morning paper over his coffee " and felt that he alone was in the world. They had gone West to more fertile soil. Nearly seventy per cent of the increase of population was rushing into city life and there congestion grew sickening. restore New spinning wheel cannot be recalled so long as a single machine. These old arts of the country home went to stay most of them. yet in Kansas in 1890 they fed wheat to their hogs and corn brought so low a price that it was burned for fuel. them.

we country for three changes of dress in a day and as for automobiles. About 1890 the trolley began to fingers in among the hills. be paternalistic. to find our isolated and link them to each other and to the town. Machinery is everywhere. but the coming country life will be very full of fine arts. not to any fulness. that will reawaken content with country living. No. to carry cosmopoli- . for needle art will not So with knitting and with regain its domestic value. and some called it a socialistic move- ment. in the It have no need bles was between 1880 and 1890 that country trouculminated.FINE ARTS OF A COUNTRY HOME 239 sewing lessons into our schools. The typepenmanship. am not sure but he is must keep our eyes in our foreheads and look out for new ways of doing things as well as We new tools to do with. If my boy spells phonetically instead of lexicographically I right. but soon the carrier came. a day full of new domestic arts. I suppose that soon they will be built cheaper than horses can be bred. About the same time an inspired Postmaster General It looked to inaugurated rural free mail delivery. while interest in domestic affairs will be as great as in former days. we are not going to adopt city arts nor city ways. It will not recall the old. writer has driven out the quill and even spelling is no longer of as much value as the skill of the stenographer on the keys. run its homes. well. The newer day is surely coming in. or more so.

It not only has its brooks and its groves and its fresh air. without travel or cost almost. or.240 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY tan privileges to those whose homes had been hid in the most remote corners and in the back woods. to close quite legislation and the farmer has a potent say at every capital. The telephone has brought us as our city cousins. much brewed but it has a lot of new industries that wonderfully well fill the place of those we lost half a hundred years ago. The day had dawned Isolation for evening up. and cradle and bade him ride. Calcutta. in the afternoon. for the country home that the city has not and never can have. and WashWe know what Congress is doing as soon ington. London. The McCormick reaper began a change in the way of tools and the exploitation It lifted up the man with the sickle of energy. . rural was completely banished and when the telephone strung our homes on wires that talk little home under the elms expanded to take whole land at once. New York. Now I may call up Boston beand a in the fore breakfast. we knew that a new sort of age had begun. trolley carries us to the market town every half hour and once a day the carrier brings the news from Mongolia. This is the first chapter and it means that we are privileged to partake with the city and to share in The everything that constitutes modern civic life. I may visit my friend in Chicago. But has this is by no means all. The age of horse power tools was followed by electric power tools.

The new expect the home maker . railroad car must follow tracks from town to its town. but with parcels. shall live out of doors it and will We and we liberally shall know how what Nature and Art offer country life will to gather about us more to make life sweet and wholesome. but the automobile with electricity city. gasoline power or goes where it pleases regardless of the more In some ways the new country home will be no interesting than the old time house. into the market cities. with soon go by automobile through his district. My for fruit. trolley.FINE ARTS OF A COUNTRY but I HOME 241 have said enough of this under the discussion of shops. with the market. not only letters and papers. it is now hauling long lines of Ohio wagons. but it will always have a bathroom. If I wish for a teamster I in his house. am sure that O'Brien has a telephone As for the trolley. Exactly what is to come out of the telephone. Nor can distaste for this dust-raising vehicle shut it my my eyes to the fact that The belongs essentially to the country. more surely than it will have a library. distinct hold is have wider verandas. so as to free us from the wiles of customers can call on me any day speculators. geared to the track and loaded with The carrier will produce. and mail delivery is not by any means yet The telephone is already connecting us evident. with a the first aim of the housethat understanding to secure health.

We may prefer her mixture of everthe wilderness is greens and wild cherries. not merely to hire a landscape gardener. or we may choose to plant a wall of crab-apples fronted with bush honeysuckles. without In their a shout of joy and a thrill of gladness? they have no color masters like a bed Jenny Lind could not quite equal the catThe bees in their hives bird and the meadow lark. unless it you had no hand or thought in laying out. ture herself is country art. saw a nest full of those but whoever itself. so perfect in color and in form.242 HOW TO than living in a LIVE IN THE COUNTRY to be a student of the landscape. under the lindens build to beat the best architects. You will fail of making a country home if you fail to appreciate the art that is contained in all the Everywhere there is life robin's nest is simplicity and rusabout you. And after a while you will get in love with this sort of country living and doing. Forestry also comes within the circuit of the home maker's work. Nothing can be more doleful body else. . Wind-breaks will be made more of as swept away. house that was planned by somebe walking around grounds that brains together. for Napreeminently an artist. no wish anywhere not a longing put in shape somebody else's longings and whims for your occupation. if you put your hands and . ticity A blue eggs. city studios of roses. Let Nature have a free hand along your lines and plant defenses against the storm. Trying will soon make you skilful and witty in the making of gardens and lawns.

However. The bungling work that sprays the is wrong but in stuff on guess work will accomplish nothing. or in the broader sense biologists. to the land. but this bill was nearly compensatory. being organized industrially. but they can know it now. It is a new day indeed and a new purport for education. No one knew it then. It is the hand that we need to glorify and the country home must never fail to honor hand-craft.FINE ARTS OF A COUNTRY HOME 243 We are going to lay more emphasis hereafter on the simply beautiful. It is a wonderful thing when our colleges step in front of our troubles and tell us how to duplicate our crops. the brain all cases awakened to direct the . for it makes of us entomologists. at the same time mastering their enemies. It was a great day for the country when the Agricultural College Land Grant passed through ConThe Civil War was raging at a horrible cost gress. so that education no longer means the ability to parse a Latin verb. as well as for that indescribable confusion of purpose which has so generally characterized farm life. but the ability to understand and parse well Every State is the songs of the bees and the trills of the brooks and the harmonies that make up garden and orchard. The use of proper spraying materials compelled orchard owners to become practical chemists. be careful not to overdo this tendency and allow any- where about your house and grounds a suggestion of mere brains and wealth. we shall have a keener dislike for piles of old brush and unused litter.

as frequently in strawberries and grapes and sometimes in apples and Pollen must be carried pears. a rule. from one carried to another. In some plants both principles are united. He puts cross-breeding into the class of fine arts. The pollen is carefully removed from that which shall be the mother flower. sort of work can be done by art much more carefully than Nature undertakes to do it. home builders may let Nature do the Nacrossing while they tend only to the selecting. When skill of Mr. but in others. This is the one achievement that is bringing us most nearly into the crossing of sonship with the Infinite Mind Grander yet old varieties or species and making new ones at will. they are separated. and although he does not secure exactly that which he desires he is sure to approximate it. is the art of creating. Sex runs through all Nature. As . State stations have from Washington and from the become the text books of the people. plant This that involves the qualities of both parents. from one tree or vine to another to secure a perfect development of fruit.244 HOW TO Bulletins LIVE IN THE COUNTRY muscles. he to wishes has something in mind which create. Here lies the secret of Nature. and in its stead is dusted pollen from that which this it is is undertaken with the intended for the other parent. result in seed len. Burbank. and this process always breaks up continuity of form and quality. whereby new sorts The grains of polare constantly being developed.

in to destroy the poorest and make sure of the preserwork. So you this see that if you leave to Nature to finish up job. Man comes having eaten the fruit. When by careful art we have comes how It secured a cross of high value the problem to preserve it. scatter the seed. We rely upon grafting a selected sort into inferior stock. No one can guess how many millions of magnificent products have been crowded down and out by coarser stock. be careful not . If we sow must its we will not get the same apple. by root division. but in the cultivated state. by grafting. after which we have the new variety on its own roots. and by planting seed. By grafting near the ground we can sometimes rn- duce roots to start above the insertion of the scion. a rule In the wild state that is best as which has the toughest wood.FINE ARTS OF A COUNTRY turc will find HOME 245 means sufficient to do her share of the She keeps the bees and insects as well as the wind at work. happens. vation of the best. she will multiply all the time the most prolific and hardiest. however. that there is not a single apple swinging on a bough in the United States that is not more or seed less already cross-fertilized. that is best which gives the largest and sweetest fruit. When working at this magnificent art. and then the birds and animals. It has in it the spirit or life of many parents. There are three ways. In this way I have a half dozen of the very choicest plums that can be multiplied by young shoots that come up from the ground instead of by grafting.

and store them for sixteen by eight by eight. chapter on House Building concrete. Not counting your own labor and your family's labor. which have been recently made to the interests of I myself wish that we could reincountry homes. odd that you and your family can times. More to the point is the blocks at it make use. The floors you beyond five hunand roof of Southern pine may also be of your own cutting. In Florida I found that owned about two hundred acres of good building sand. We more beautiful. fireplaces and a general homefulness we in the belongs here to illustrate the additions it with large do not find can do something even better than this where our soil is sandy and something even I modern house. dred dollars. will build a fine bungalow of four rooms and a kitchen. and for this reason. My boys use a machine that cost less than forty dollars and with it turn out between sixty and eighty blocks a day. state the simplicity of log house days. Burbank has given us worthless rubbish as well as superb achievements. Mix four of sand to one of cement. your house will not cost Two thousand blocks. Even Mr.246 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY to send out for propagation anything inferior. that In my I did not discuss among our new home arts. and you can turn half of the whole State into concrete blocks. All of these are hollowed by a simple device that lessens their weight and adds strength while lowering cost. The work is attractive to young people and .

Concrete cisterns and while they never wear out. Rat-proof foundations and mouse- course include one or proof division walls are included. while at you may house with generated the same time you light your install a gasoline engine.FINE ARTS OF A COUNTRY HOME 247 they should be allowed considerable freedom in the way of inventing new styles and new methods. Here is a great . it summer and warmth paper or mortar. or for troughs needs no repairs. with home material by home hands. You will of fireplaces. and a to tank for water irrigation. steps and sidewalks make an attractive approach to your buildings and are far less perishable than brick or common stone. and your whole chimney as well as the walls of the house may be made of concrete. decreasing the danger of infection. This will develop esthetic taste and call out individual powers of action. well curbs set well into the ground keep out surface conwater. no wall fire-proof. These can be kept easily disinfected. A crete barn can be cleanliness. with a dynamo. A concrete farmhouse insures coolness in in winter. There is no better material for barn and stable floors. I have no doubt that this new art of house building. is to be the rule over a large part of the country. and can be kept sanitary and tanks. You may make more it a two story and eight room house at about double the cost. made to retain its sweetness and Concrete while thoroughly ventilated. lift Now electricity. is with the least possible attention.

on soil that before inoculation would not yield even one crop. equal otherwise to King Philip or Eldorado. and pears. about these minute organisms that our fathers never even heard of. equal otherwise to the Cuthbert. I ought surely in this chapter to recall the wonderful art of inoculating soil. There are thousands of acres of alfalfa fur- nishing three crops a year.248 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY coming in revolution. his age. or evolution rather. everywhere. in the land and air and water. but some of which are most destructive eneThe new farmer has got to know a good deal mies. need an absolutely hardy red raspberry. In horticulture just now we need a lot of new things. What are these bacteria? It is hard to tell even yet. and oranges. or he will not be able to keep up with at least a thousand kinds. not only for the interest there is in it but for the contribution made to the public. so that it will be capable of growing certain plants that otherwise it could not. the way of country home making. have under laboratory examination We most of which can be put to use. Every country home should be in this way a sort of experiment station. Everywhere in orchard and garden. We and someone must either discover or create them. and especially grapes. as well as in . only they are of infinite sorts. We need nearly seedless apples. Among the strawberries if it will do no harm little for experimenters to see they can improve a on William Belt. also a thoroughly thornless blackberry.

" and then we began to have berry gardens that were worth the while. have to learn how to sympathize with trees We and shrubs. all trees their will It will and purpose. these things. day. any more than a stable full of horses. " There be strawberries in abundance in New England. from the introduction of Wilson's Albany strawberry and the Red Antwerp raspI In my childhood there were in our gardens berry. not in the general. if he thinks while he If you get gloomy or lonesome. He will run across problems everywhere. and each man can very work for himself. none of these things. while around the fences black raspberries were occasionally sowed by the birds. but in the particular. never do to think that can be even trimmed much less fed alike. in 1629. converse with your seedlings your vegetable children and you will refresh your spirit wonderfully. at least twenty years later mouthful or twenty-to-a-quart sort. go out and works. HOME 249 easily find a field of we need improvement. said. William Wood. exactly alike. and one may gather sixteen quarts in half a This was about the state of affairs until 1850. Pruning and trimming and helping a tree must be- . and The country home maker has to study all sheep.FINE ARTS OF A COUNTRY stables. remember the whole history of garden berries in American gardens. cows. enter into as we do with animals. only quinces and gooseberries. The race of huge berries began. and in our pastures five hunand meadows were wild strawberries dred to the quart. the one-to-ahowever.

yet I see no rea- son why with proper care an orchard may not live around two hundred years. not style and with of stupid help. somewhat now being worked out by the most wonderful inare the half hundred who Of now in existence. not one but is closing in on problems the solution of which will render our homes not only richer in crops. but in sciences and arts. devitalized with suckers. Trees are forced in the nurseries. fed with commercial fertilizers or rank manure. I think sixty years in these days is considered a satisfactory period for an orchard. arts of indoor life. electric power in the place . Poor orchard! not die an early death? Why The fine arts that will be evolved in the garden. Quite as notable as those out of doors will be the Refinement will mark the com- show but the spirit of order and enlightenment which comes from the right sort of culture. meadow. orchard. ing home. When we have made over the kitchen. then allowed to overbear when young and when altogether out of good condition a professional trimmer is let loose among them should at it two dollars a day. not sufficiently pruned at setting.250 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY gin when it is first transferred to our soil and must continue as long as the tree lives. and shop of the future country home can only be guessed by those is acquainted with what our agricultural colleges stitutions of this age. the housewife can take her position without lowering The true kitchen is really a labher womanhood. bearing fruit all the time.

those days we had wonderful jars of pickles and pots of preserves. was one . the name of the first woman who It ever put up a can of strawberries or cherries. just as the alphabet does. In Seventy-five years ago it had not been invented. Shall we ever else have a cook book that will include simply the science of the matter and that teaches us how to eat in order to live and be strong? There in the is way a simple index of country life to be seen careless mind disthe table is set. It would give me real pleasure to place here. A covers itself in confusion. in capital letters.FINE ARTS OF A COUNTRY HOME 251 oratory. or even many years. in the placing of food upon the table without order. and cooking is as high an art in chemistry as the experimentations of a college laboratory. no one had yet dreamed. can deserves a whole article to itself. but the art of keeping the whole tin The pear and the uncooked berries through the entire year. These little things cost not much in the way of labor. The refined use of flowers throughout the house will do much to make life cheerful and cooperation more easy. Really the woman's corner of a daily newspaper records more inventions than can be found anywhere in daily life. The combinations which bring forth nourishment from weeds as well as vegetables and fruits. but they go into character. but they spell out a good deal. are becoming numberless. but the table of another woman reveals the esthetic sense cultivated just trifles to be sure.

sells of cans in China and Japan. operating the churn. green peas. in her silks and jewels. washing dishes. in a way that our mothers could not have foreseen. its love apple by the millions " " pleasure in A cently led me through her store room with a pride equal to that shown in the ball room. Only the other as well as heat could store that we came news day power. as- New It lies in piles paragus. To-day the can in is as common in South Africa as Jersey. a new and novel discovery already applied irr English kitchens. and a dozen other the That marvelous novelty of our mothers. little home is finding its pride and Every turning winter into summer. defying the plow or the shovel to cover it. of the finest arts yet invented. say- It is one liv- However. scrubbing floors. as she waved her hand over the hundreds of cans and " I did this with my own hands. to bring water into the kitchen and hot water into the chambers." ing. luxuries. while the electric power is switched . redressed wealthy friend. everywhere. all in this jars. whereby electric-born heat is stored for use. peaches. we count most of indoor ing on the presence of electric power to light the house and the outhouses.252 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY of those rare inspirations that change the whole domestic and social life of the world. now the tomato. It lies beside the cabin of the Southern negro. emptied of corn. All the world has gone a canning. sweeping and cleansing the house of dust.



but very far ahead of it in its arts and its sciences as well as its pleasures and its profits. but now . its freedom of simplicity and its association with Nature. left form will not only be the equal. but we are surely going forward to make indoor life more beautiful and less taskful.FINE ARTS OF A COUNTRY off HOME 253 for several hours of work at the churn or other service. and will also have its rural charms. supreme among and the Munsons and the Budds and the Baileys to marshal mankind and lead the world. go backward to pick up the charming industries of elder days. Agriculture It is or land tillage in any for the Burbanks the industries. not a whit behind town life. This it seems to me is what the country home is going to be. It will have shall not We about all that heretofore has been associated closely with the crowded town.

coal bills and meat bills and taxes count in In addition to the country as well as in the city. We have inless volved more or of a reply in several of the pre- ceding chapters. I these should not be willing to difficulties Facing invite into the country anyone who does not stand try to I am going to a fair chance of overcoming them. I am willing to I hard can just hear a brook all day and work would 254 . The our problem of health are double is not to be dodged.CHAPTER CAN WE MAKE XII IT PAY? at last. experience costs. WE trees come to this problem it and if we this cannot solve in the affirmative for everyone whole business of making country homes is out of the question. we want now is to get at Land costs. and wages forty years ago. we must keep a horse and a cow and some other domestic animals as cooperators and their feed cannot be had for nothing. but of economy. " so A letter from if I Chicago says. show you that the majority can do this and is what they were we shall find out that making a country home not only a matter of sentiment. one family. must feed and clothe his and plants cost. what the dollars and cents. common needs.

know that these larger fruits will ten years. than to give you half a dozen of these letters. One I have it of them writes. thing. can understand the difficulty of making adequate replies to the thousand and one different temperaments. You will do well almost any- where among the trees and brooks. What I want is to own a piece of land and nobody to lord it over me or tell me what to do with it. Only those who have answered three hundred most of them on let- ac- count of these chapters as they appeared in magazine form. nor very little inside eight or But am I do not know what varieties to quite sure what part of the coun- . I am willto own mistakes do a lot of stand and ing by my learning. that is beauty. Evidently what you want is what Nature offers first." Her husband wrote on the back of the sheet. with different tastes." ters of inquiry in a single year. before discussing the matter in dollars and cents. IT PAY? 255 do my sewing out under an apple tree. involving I do not believe I can do a better capital and health. is a practicality about it and I did not " hesitate to answer. plant. an orchard and run I for several years without profit.CAN WE MAKE like to . I want some fresh air and then I want some fresh things out of my own garden for dinner. but you comprehend the fact that the beautiful and the useful are identical." but there " Here is sentiment enough for anybody. as I have. " I money enough bring I to plant in wish to grow apples.

A good apple tree. Washington. Can you spend time to give me " a few hints? Go to Cornell young man I answered. and how to handle your fruit and market it. " letter reads. where you can learn the latest information this To " about varieties.256 try is HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY most desirable in which to settle. teachwhere we shall be . This has to do partly with careless apple growing and it has to do with insects and fungus. We are two ers. but ignorant apple growing will leave you out of pocket. This year all our apples are in Oregon. and California. Scientific apple growing should yield one hundred dollars to each tree." letter and my readers can pick out of this response a whole lot of information My that is Another not on the surface. how to plant trees as well as select them. and we want to get women. every four years. excepting what I got out of your book on the Orchard. About trimming and grafting and budding and mulching I know nothing. University. while Colo- rado and the Pacific States are very tempting. should yield four " want to eight barrels of apples per year. to find out is the best yielders Now what you and those that bear annually. or some other agricultural college for two years. well cared for. and how to ward off the effects of a warm March. tired out. After you have secured this training you can buy property safely either in New England or in New York or in Missouri or in Michigan.

You can plant enough fruit trees to start with then keep hens and if you are in the right place you can keep a couple . know anything about industrial trainand we are willing to give way to those who We believe in this new sort of learning and don't We think the boys and girls ought to have it. of boarders. have about two We We thousand dollars apiece. we ing it. to go to a warmer climate where you can work all winter. You have capital enough buy twenty acres of land in Michior California. A new sort of teachfit coming into our schools and we are not for ing do. Very good. That will take care of us until we have had some experience. want outdoor and the doctor insists on my having . in good health. we are not over fifty-five. and not a " bit afraid of using our hands. this I one. to dred dollar house and a two hundred dollar barn. life.CAN WE MAKE free IT PAY? 257 the dirt. enlarged for it. to put up a seven hungan. strain and get close to are willing to do outdoor work and don't suppose that country living consists merely from continual nerve We in cultivating pinks is and roses." I " I Quite a bunch of letters is illustrated by have worn myself out with shop work. on the whole. will it not? Now tell us where you think we should go? Honest. if the future demands should advise you. with hotbeds and other attachments. want to learn how to grow things. homely. Florida. either of us." To this letter I replied. Build your house so that it can be more occupants.

but I have disinclination to calling anyone into the country who has nothing to carry him over the ex- perience period and the possible depressions from ill health. you something to sell the first year. which will yield you something the second year. but I have only eleven hundred dollars thirty-eight years of age. Meanwhile you can plant fruit trees for the future and you can have a berry garden. HOW TO I LIVE IN THE COUNTRY had some exwhen a boy. am perience in farm life to begin on. My husband and I always pull together . A few honor." " clerk In your case I should say it would be wise to it awhile longer. make your This trial property near a will give somewhat in this way. But if you cannot secure more capital. Find private customers as soon as possible and treat them with the utmost Make your name highly respectable. strong hundred or three thousand doldo not know you personally. if thereby you can raise your I capital to twenty-five lars. Can I start now at gardening and make a living? I have a wife and two children. Buy a small city and start in on truck gardening.258 it. economize in your foods and you must not waste a dime on tobacco. You will have to give you milk." Another letter pleases me better than any that I She have quoted and it comes from a woman. hens will give you chickens and eggs and a cow will Here you are. 1 t " writes. " It will be necessary to keep your own horse and do your own marketing.

" To this letter I answered. also. burn it. are healthy. world so good as hens to do this. The amount of income in such a case as yours is not the point. We have been reading your articles and we sure. They have done me vastly more good than harm. What we want of you is to tell us whether you would combine with raising fowls raisDon't you think that we could get ing small fruits. at least part of the year.CAN WE MAKE IT PAY? 259 and we are going to pull together in another direction. and we have a lot of stick- We We to-it-iveness. however. fairly honest. partly because we like to and partly because we think there is a living in it. have and We been reading 's book. We are going to raise hens chickens. but we do not believe one-half that he says. The point is to keep down the bugs and the trypeta flies and There is nothing else the rest of the vermin. not even the I take it. a good deal of use out of our hens by letting them have the run of a small orchard? If this letter bothers you. are going to have a country home We do not write to ask you where we shall go. Give a part of your fowls the run I of an apple orchard. that we have decided for ourselves. surely shall not go away from the city expecting to get rich at once. you will cultivate birds birds. " You have hit it just Plant a plum yard and let it be a chicken yard right. nor ought I to undertake to tell all in the . at the same time. have a neighbor whose fifty chickens have had the range of my gardens and orchards all summer.

twelve and fifteen years of age. that she was living on a very small income. posrent it at first and start in with a garden of sibly Then branch into the flowers and strawberries.260 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY you how much you will earn. A enable her to educate these girls to a fashionable She was thinking of finding a country home. widow wrote me some time since that she was possessed of two girls. toss load of hay on a pinch. and forego luxuries. harness a horse. Foreigners who come to this country succeed as a rule in country home making. She off a ought to be able to have a swarm of bees." The best thing about out of doors and do them as well as indoors. woman to find a suburban residence. vised this . In the country it is imto thrive without woman can see things the possible make it pay. without thinking it unwomanly. Those extravagant stories that some authors indulge in are not the stuff to make good country homes. or milk a cow. keep money in hand. but not large enough to life. Simply do your level best on the track you have selected and you can surely the last letter I have quoted is the cooperative spirit. fortunately a fixed affair. where their training would be largely in matters of natural science and where they could themselves earn I adtheir own living while they were learning. and it is almost invariably because they live simply. while the whole family works together in the field and in the house.

after you have become fairly well acquainted with the land and its suiroundings. stay long enough to comprehend the climate.CAN WE MAKE shrubbery and shrubs flowers. and lilies could have quoted mislead the letter writer and tulips I make mischief. that you somewhat and be Three letters turn must go out prepared to rough satisfied with a moderate in- come. each one of them about the inquiring exploiting companies that are sending out circulars bidding for these new country home makers with inducements that are startling. Then. it IT PAY? I 261 caring for green house flowers. up here next. never buy a rod of land until you have seen it. much I It will not be a severe judgment to say the larger part of this advertising is not have seen some pitiful results from the . but there is this one single reply to be made in all such cases. that they in do not have shrubberies or large Here again only to that amazing results. The fact is conditions and temperaments vary so greatly that it is utterly impossible either in a letter or in a book to give anything more than a This one thing holds good general outline of advice. What they have to say is sometimes true. a blunder about many green houses. all it the time. should consist of a would have a lilacs and other of saleable that furnish is large quantity This stock. and then you must know your relations to market and your probable relations to neighbors. that true.

From the letters which I have quoted I want you to gather one thing. Always know toward prosperity or which way you are facing months. unless it be when in the suburbs of a town where strawberries settling this other exception. ment. Then he should compel his expenditures to tally with this forward looking. Gardening as a rule city people. carrots. unless you have carefully gone over the conditions so as to be sure that there will be a balance in your favor each And then you must keep a bank account as year. that is. Every man should have a budget. and fowls Running in debt is not advisable.262 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY credulity of poor people who have let loose of their small capital for a piece of property adjacent to swamps. bankruptcy. showing that industry is profit- Have your outgo and your income down I like the idea of in figures. soon as possible. is the easiest hold for ordinary There are not so many secrets about growing beets. Nothing so stimulates industry as having a deposit able. There is where a young man is possessed of good health and muscle and without bad habits is willing to commit himself to an honest experiwill bring in a quick return. and beans as there . Every one must have some to when the capital going country. potatoes. he should look ahead and determine as nearly as possible what his outgo and income are likely to be during the coming twelve drawing up a budget. if not itself under water.

cession from July to September. but with the worst sort of blundering you can hardly fail to get first agricultural paper will carry enough vegetables for home consumption the year and the waste can go to your cow and horse. You have to make your soil. I could easily repeat a lot of fine stories. or with a field of beans or peas. You must not count on large returns until you have planted considerable experience as well as seeds. rods by four. and good mellow soil it must be to give you good re- to planting for market. multiply the strips according to the amount of vegetables you are prepared to truck and sell. get plenty of green peas during the same For string beans and shell beans you will strip call for a third strip six need another Potatoes will turns.CAN WE MAKE Any good IT PAY? 263 are about growing plums and apples and cherries. but this I have told you about in another chapter. . In the Now when you come Southern States we try sweet potatoes and cassava and never expect to find the market overstocked. You will from the same field period. There is of course much more to gardening than appears on the surface. about one rod by four or five. as well as cultivate your plants. but you can learn most of this as you move on. get your table corn in suc. only you would probably be misled by such stories. you through your experiments and lead you safely to success. What you can do will be something like this from a garden five rods square. showing what somebody has done with an onion bed.

This is just the succession you desire. first of July we begin currant picking. These hundred dollars will improve for five or ten years and will gardens each acre. One acre of red raspberries. It is a capital berry to handle. confidently expecting to net at least one hundred dollars from rants Black raspberries accompany the curand red raspberries follow immediately after. so that we find one sort succeeding another in such a way that we can do a great About the deal of the handling by home pickers. berries will bear the first year. only one must be up and doing with it early in the morning. but that the raspberries will need a year to grow their canes which in succession. about one hundred plants of strawberries and one hundred of You have already learned that strawraspberries. for a single family of five. Sundays not excepted. you will find the ruling prices to be at least fifteen cents a quart. If you prefer to begin with a berry garden and go you will need for home consumption. never bear two years Now once more multiply your plot according to the size of the business you are to conduct. . and from two acres you are probably picking to the value of three with an increase each year. and if sold directly to your customers.264 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY into small fruit growing. carefully tilled and marketed. and are themselves succeeded by the blackberries. Nature has arranged this matter of small fruit ripening very nicely. ought to bring you about fifty bushels of fruit.

There is no better winter food than what you can grow yourself if you will learn how it upon to put it up. These specialties win big prices for awhile but soon glut the market You see I am of income during the not counting on any large amount first year or two.CAN WE MAKE IT PAY? 265 be profitable even longer. except only where celery or some other hobby has secured the field. is almost sure to combine truck growing and orcharding. only we must have a full family supply at once. you will get from the same ground another crop and it should average twenty dollars to every apple tree that is in perfect condition. with more or less early pears and apples. The surplus from strawberry beds or vegetable beds must be canned for winter use. little later you may depend that a small canning establishment will make A . In the South we start with oranges. but we do years. you will net these years at least four dollars per barrel. however. I am to-day selling my extra select Spys for six dollars per barrel. Right after the berries follow the cherries and then the plums. Later. much to profit during the first five not expect look We our Japanese persimmons and mulberries and loquats and plums for fruit about the third year from planting. and after that both the apples and the pears that go into winter storage. after your apples are well grown. The Southerner. If you learn how to handle apples as they should be handled and secure private customers.

can have a storage of plums. throw bushels of Wild scoke makes andandelions into their yard. constantly enlarge your gardens by plantYou can have the beautiful everywhere ing them. and once or twice a year distribute and plow them under. that every acre may double its produce until the whole land the suckers is a garden. is offered out of hand by Nature.266 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY a profitable department of every home. it is not only of big food value. " " and the hated purslane is a other superb greens The third. Lima beans constitute one of the most delicious and nourishing of all foods. save your dried ones. and You are not getting rich. are yqu? vegetables. but if you wish your hens to lay eggs. and a good income is in sight. just as also a small cider press will turn waste into profit for the orchard. and this is just your what Americans must learn. All this time keep your compost piles building. A good deal. berries. and that from wild gooseberries can hardly be surpassed. troublesome dandelion is a blessing in disguise. as well as the useful. Wild grapes make better jelly than the vine- yard grapes. as well as all the bush beans you do not use or sell In the course of five years you during the summer. from your raspaway but berries. all this while. you are at least on the road to comfort. less You soil are not a good country home maker un- grows richer constantly. pears. Well. and this you secure while you not throw Do .

but they will run up a mill in destroying everything and yet not satisfied. and these by plums and other fruits. but one hundred bushels of currants. while excluded from the gooseberries and the strawberries. however. where biddy can range the fields twelve . You could not handle a crop of five hundred bushels of strawberries without a good deal of hired help. Be sure also to have good poultry fences between A little management yourself and your neighbors. I have. and it does not vary greatly in different parts of the country. a good deal of sympathy with those who prefer to start their country experience with poultry raising. do not involve you very heavy expenses. The price of eggs is not likely to fall below thirty cents in the winter and twenty in the summer.CAN WE MAKE IT PAY? 267 arrange your planting so as to keep up a succession of fruit ripening through the whole year. curculios and other noxious bugs. nor At any rate let laying enough to make it pay. Only you must have a cheap home food. where they will keep lawns and vegetable gardens cleared of crickets and grasshoppers. or the hens will not only take your table waste and steal your small fruits. succeeded by one hundred bushels of berries. It is a much easier problem in the South. The market is always sure. this tion established between cost of keeping matter be well thought out and a good proporand income from eggs and broilers. while they keep you busy. bill. will give a good wide range for your hens.

Always pet your biddies. talk with them if as they understood you. The tame ones are the best layers and you will be taking your basket of eggs to market twice a week from twenty hens and bringing home I should like to instead what groceries you need. would home in- one hundred and twenty-five dollars clear for the balance. home Now on a place of ten or fifteen acres.268 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY months of the year. I simply think that with tions. make some figures here concerning broilers and eggs. and they will soon be much more manageable. Kill the crazy ones that fly and yell if you go near them. to the market that you have. come This does not count in the incalculable benefit dePlace rived from the bees in pollenizing your fruit. provided you have basswoods and wild cherries blossoming near by as well as a few acres of berries and fruit trees. you will take up from six hundred to a thousand pounds of honey You may figure out the income according annually. which you can grow in unlimited supplies. common is sense and study of condi- raising fowls life in a capital way of beginning the country. From these hives with ordinary care. consider the bees. but all of these estimates are dangerous. rumors that they damage your fruit no credit in the . but my estimate be. and twelve to fifteen hives. after deducting one hundred pounds for use. You have only to add cassava and sweet potatoes. allow no one to scare them. with honey from sixteen to twenty cents a pound.

Just here let us consider. are over my side of the fence. as I have suggested in the orchard. orders like trained soldiers. and get on with very little outside assistance. a woman can make a fair living. A will require house slops once a day take about all the daily table waste. but not all of them. In Texas the women are running dairies. or a dozen hens. fowls and bees and mushrooms and flower gardens and a vegetable garden. furnishes her own food and something of a surplus. and in the fruit sections not a few have canneries and make money at it. You rible will observe that I am dodging around It has this ter- question of help constantly.CAN WE MAKE . As a rule she finds less trouble with help than a man. become a problem in the country. good able to furnish a vegetable gardeners who plant for succession. however. Her With bees. You can. provided we are not good deal of home work and do a deal Still I know some of the best ourselves. IT PAY? 269 by puncturing they eat only where orioles or hornets have done the mischief. I have a neighbor who has over one hundred hens and Her forty turkeys obey her they are all named. Bees and chickens fall In Florida easily to the women's side of the work. and that will She will need . with the garden and table waste feed one pig. or a cow calf. if you prefer. all alone. while others are goose farmers. with the addition of a small cannery to use up wasting fruit. I know at least one who bakes for a half dozen neighbors and.

only you can never al- low them to be stunted. raise your own meat. and a single pig. It is curious how much fuel is constantly being provided in the trimmings necessary to keep first class have been able from my kitchen stove with fuel for You can gardens and orchards in healthy order. getting all the surplus The highly milk. Or you can feed a pig or a calf much of this stuff. I ten acres to supply my six months in the year. or its equivalent. The waste apples in your orchard should be turned to vinegar and cider and here comes in another himries Do . to turn your waste into food and What make money We learn out of what some people throw away. pleased professor next year kept six pigs. and that pig. regular milking. go too heavily into strawbergrove Feel your way. as I have shown and your own vegetables. must not only use up waste. but we must to reduce outgo to a minimum.27o HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY steady attention. soon became a notable hog. during the last thirty years. but in the fall these were is you want still pigs and utterly worthless. or apples in the North. and her individual whims must be understood. for after that all the feed in the world will not make one of them worth a A college professor had two Jersey cows tuppence. I know country families that round and one hundred buy coal for the whole year this adds to their expense from fifty to dollars. not begin your country experience by exploitDo not plant a big orange and displaying. ing or in the South.



doing more mischief than they do good. peas be abundantly by every garden. A recent bulletin from an agricultural college reports. are as nutritious as and meat and should beans. We A waste our soil-making and buy fertilizers not half as good. and all their fruit as eat. that over one-third the cows that are kept for dairy purposes do not pay for their feed and care. possible as ever to save in these lines. " Not a few farmers buy every vegetable that they excepted. From in- sects alone we are losing one-fifth of the products of the United States. while poor storage reduces our properties another fifth. IT PAY? As one 271 travels about the country he will be surprised at the amount of money invested in tools that are left to the friction of storms and the wear of the weather. from accurate tests. potatoes well as most of their meat. country home with an orchard of ungrafted or trees gone all to suckers and brush." few hens straggling about. Every country school house should teach economThere is nothing in country life that cannot ics.CAN WE MAKE dred dollars from ten acres. fruit. but makes stuff his own fertilizers. does not . The French farmer not only raises his own vegetables and supplied all his nearly food. Yet it is just as a They have Potatoes. be overcome by application of thought and labor and it is this overcoming that makes life worth the while. Recent discussion of high prices has also brought out the fact that the bulk of country homes do not produce their own food.

The first year. while the apple trees have not been trimmed for thirty years. and more is waste lost from bad bit every of this storage. and this grown with intelligence. Ceran the immense amount of is tossed into food tainly waste heap or fed to worthless animals. This left us with a very small with necessary tools. but buying left us in debt one hundred dollars. half of it under We paid sixty dollars for a horse and thirty for a cow. Nothing pays in the country but the best. added to our stock by borrowing one hundred and fifty dollars. and at the end of this season we had twenty-five chickens. We added fifty acres more and trucked the whole of it. buying also a wagon.272 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY It will pay to dig out your old-fashioned curpay. neighbor has large orchards. for It will My the plums are covered with knot and the pears are blighted. us sum up this matter of a complete country home. our trucking gave balance in pocket. but neither of them pays. " The next year we sold two hundred and sixty- . as well as careless cooking. Indoor is fully as disastrous as outdoor waste. with a litter of pigs. as I have outlined it and see what it all comes to. I will let the truck farmer speak for home let Now himself. rants and grow the Red Giant and the White Grape. double the crop at least and more than double the market returns. two of them. onecultivation. tells on the problem whether a country pays. " We rented a farm of fifteen acres. The next year we us a balance of nine dollars.

three cows. from raspberries two hundred dollars. he will from a five acre farm of fruit run on the intensive principle that is with diversified crops. at the end of five years from strawberries and cherries he will take one hundred dollars. and four calves. from pears seventy-five to one hundred dollars. from currants one hundred to two hundred dollars. but a full kit of tools and a splendid team of horses The next altogether worth three hundred dollars. he will also be selling a surplus of both milk and butter.CAN WE MAKE five dollars IT PAY? 273 worth of pigs. while his milk pans are full as well as his " " butter crock good. He will also have his family cow and a good work horse. hen yard. and cow yard. that is The when and I his place is completed. speak from experience as well as observation. an apple and pear orchard. and from apples probably not more than one hundred dollars more. each one carefully worked on scientific principles at the end of the second year be about even. a fruit garden. . sweet butter with no barn and there is an abundance of thick cream flavors If he is near town for his berries and for cereals. year brought us a good cash balance of three hundred and forty dollars and we have been doing better and better ever since. from honey seventy-five dollars. If I am not mistaken. a vegetable garden." fruit grower has created a flower garden. bee yard. from plums one hundred and fifty dollars. We had at the end of the year no cash in pocket.

if your horse has plenty of alfalfa hay. a clothing according to the size and habits of the family. a moderate sized family. A and Items of food can be conreduced siderably by buying at wholesale. Add two hundred dollars for sense dominate. including sugar and flour. quite balancing all that she gives back to the family.274 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY other side of the problem runs about this way: you will probably need for help during the currant and berry season to the extent of one hun- The dred dollars. The cow with slops and June cut hay will require no mill feed whatever. One dollar per week is quite enough for this expense. but we shall be able to a good deal more than double the income from large In my . where good diet bill. can live well with an outgo of from five hundred to seven hundred dollars per year. You add at least one hundred dollars more for to ought books and excursions. but will have to buy mill stuff for the horse at a cost of about fifty dollars per year. If now we add five years more to our experiment. but this is entirely unnecessary. we shall probably not be able to add largely to the income from small fruits. common am judgment and with knowledge of what I asserting. doctor's bill is rarely essential. your own For your horse and cow you will grow fodder. have to add from fifty to one hundred dollars per year for fuel. sundries. A good family cow is often an item of enormous expense. with moderate tastes and industry. one hundred dollars per year for We groceries.

CAN WE MAKE fruits. somewhat out of repair perhaps. IT PAY? 275 apple trees that will return one hundred dollars at the end of five years will return five The hundred dollars at the end of ten years and eight or It nine hundred dollars at the end of fifteen years. but reI turning a very handsome sum the very first year. or four have seen very much better chances than I have outlined. where an old place comes into the market. but with a good The care of such deal of fruit already obtainable. ware or Maryland. I first two. able to all depends upon your being get along with a small income during the years of your country life. three. in in A peach orchard often drops into the market. crops. turn it is very difficult to sift the case and secure . or five hundred even. have noted a large number of bearing orange and grapefruit groves sold at a nominal figure. a place requires patience and scientific principles of In Florida I pruning as well as feeding the trees. the market is five thousand miles away Where. and an apple orchard souri or Dela- Mis- Oregon that is as good as clear profit. Growing for market in these days is quite a different problem from what it was before the railroads undertook to carry our produce a thousand miles to It compels our trusting middlemen with our sell it. can find places in New England where the income would be just as liberal from apples and pears. the ordinary grower loses entire control of his fruit or grain as soon as he puts If he gets an inadequate reit on board the cars.

am I writing for those thoroughly cultivated. under training. to grow first for home use and second for market. Make and sure that your gardens are up to date. and then turning them into We have quite too much of this work on and while it creates false ideals of homes going chateaus. . growth. Extensive farming does not come at all within the reach of these chapters. either as concerns a costly house and pretentious grounds. not go to the extreme of Thoreau. or in the way of costly habits of Leave not the same frills. I am aware that this cannot always be done. The eating and clothing. out everything that savors of city streets and artificiality. but not defying. giv- ing you the very best products of creation. The glory of the country is simplicity and naturalness. as the glory of glory of the country is the city. modern discovery in and cutting off your expenses off every direction. Expand slowly. I am considering only a small country home. but in every case you can adopt the principle that I have urged. Nor men of wealth who exploit the country by buying up large tracts of farm land. for this reason that I have strongly recommended that you do not plant yourself very far from a town large enough to absorb your surplus. including farm houses. of living We need in a self- constructed hut in the wilderness.276 HOW TO It is LIVE IN THE COUNTRY justice. but we should leave formality Fit yourself into companionship with the trees and keep your brains busy controlling.

it is withdrawing from production some of our richest acres. for those who have battered themselves against the problem of earning a living at city employment and done nothing else than merely to secure daily bread. Young men as the I specially advise to turn to agriculture Our city boys should find places with skilled farmers. cannot afford to have done. bring with you every bit of information and To Come out from contraining that you can secure. everyone I would say this business of going into the country is not a matter of play or of sentiment. if possible. uate I would say.CAN WE MAKE IT PAY? 277 and home life. This is the better part of the good story. where they can secure a training supplementary to most hopeful of the industries. that by merely getting away from houses country life to be a success requires knowledge. that country life stuff to work on. add now a few years at an agricultural college. if it has . We mum I am writing and this chapter is specially intended for those people who are waking up to the fact that the best life for the majority of people is country life. To a college gradanything given by the schools. on the conbe shall acre brought to its maxitrary. industry. economy. makes men. and all the better qualities that make up the best human whole character. thriftiness. that every power to feed our increasing population. gested life with the understanding that you cannot change your lot and paved streets. This is exactly what we need.

apparently with no other than individual intent. was the swapping of home-made goods. land in those gether when they lived a mile apart and the woods came up everywhere within sight The forest held two-thirds of the edges. make every little community complete in were pioneering across the continent. while a third had grass One had 278 . homeclothing. apple seeds. with a grist mill every fifty miles. and its log church. another some a few currant bushes. eggs went to the store for sugar and in one way and another we traffic made food and home-made to managed itself. husking corn together was not only a matter of economics In those days nearly all but of social pleasure.CHAPTER THE SOCIAL SIDE OF XIII COUNTRY LIFE people used to get very close to- COUNTRY from the road. its store on one of the corners. but somehow groups came about and each one had its district school by the roadside. We days and we built our houses along the fought wild animals in company and we joined forces for planting and harvesting. its We Each family brought something out of Connecticut or Massachusetts home that it divided its with neighbors.

Have largely held the meanconsidered ever you These were all needs and common bound neighborhoods. and they all worked together for common welfare. another shoes.SOCIAL SIDE OF COUNTRY LIFE 279 There was at least one horse pinks and hollyhocks. by and by. and no boy was above field work. and another weaving the . On Sunday the people gathered in one union " church on the commons. Mothers ing of the word neighborhood? ice. could call on neighbors' daughters for a week's servat any pinch. and doing all sorts of things without hire. and they had not wealth. tools in hesitated to call their homes tilled a Common. Individuality worked itself out by one making brooms. The fields were largely by mutual aid were used in common. changed all this good will into hard cash in the place of kindliness. and crops common. This was what the Pilgrims had done. all people were truly brothers and sisters. and neighbors they were in the sense much importance of the parables of Jesus. building each other's houses. closely by cooperation. The day of sects and of a future paved city not come had divided worship in. It was a meaner life that. and one yoke of oxen to begin with. The people swapped news as freely as they listened to long prayers." and the good of the service was quite as largely social as it was religious. while friendly gossip about neighborhood matters was very justly considered of as as information about the golden life. no one felt above doing house work.

full of glee of rivalry.280 HOW TO rolls soil. carpets were sewed. and vegetables in every house candles were dipped. a line of farmers racing across the meadows. was a cozy life that worried very little about transportation and none at all about railroad rates or coal bills. McCormick reapers marched the through grass or the grain. LIVE IN own THE COUNTRY Yet all tilled and meat. The sickle had already disappeared and now the Instead of the scythe was destined to follow. abolished sewing The multiplication of newspapers and the societies. the raised their homemade It stockings or otherwise contributed to the clothing of both sexes. and there was not community a millionaire in the world. with a widening commonweal. and the wool of the farmyard was spun into yarn which went into homespun of the neighborhood. quilts quilted. with one man to drive the team of horses. The larger cities did not number one hundred thousand inhabitants. Indoors the humming of the spinning-wheel had already been hushed and the quilting bee and the knitting matches made now way for machinery. and the villages were merely nuclei of the farms. The parson glorified God and served the for what he could get. In this way the United States was being made out of commonwealths. soap was boiled. rise of the modern magazine were at the cost of the gossiping crowds that The sewing machine had been accustomed to gather . The revolution that began about 1850 affected our social relations quite as much as our physical conditions.

Churches naturally suffered. Country life was losing its zest and its unity. his vegetables. He had to think of Canton and Singapore as something more than missionary stations. for the country folk preferred to lie on their backs with newspaper or magazine. The farmer who formerly swapped his veal. we shall not after awhile learn a closer friend- ship and cooperation with our neighbors. Not so many cared to hear the opinion of the parson. men who linked him to the remote markets. It is very strange if. what was bound to come about. Before the end of the century Sunday lost its The flux supreme control over the scattered country folk. of the people grew strong toward town life. instead of walking two or three miles to a preaching service. while good will and sympathy became more necessary. when shaking hands with customers half way round the globe. More was heard of city life and a longing was awakened for participation in civic advantages.SOCIAL SIDE OF COUNTRY LIFE 281 news at the village tavern or the corner grocery and distribute it freely among the homes. or to read the Bible or Uncle Tom. where social craving could be more easily satisfied. Everywhere cooperation became more difficult. especially as much of the literature that was now floating into their homes contradicted it. This was there Under the impulse of this new social demand . and his honey had begun to ship his cotton and his apples into regions that he himself could He must learn to trust a race of middlenever visit.

spreading over every State and Those who had multiplying its groups of associates. schools and it was clear that we were in an off-clearing that looked to still more revolutionary changes. was a blind progress that was made. About 1890 the agricultural colleges had begun to All bring country work into alliance with science. enrich rural life. and men like Burbank stood in the place of those heroes public attention. all sorts art associations. about of the world was the accumulating knowledge to be laid down at the door of the farmer. bringing to the front those economic questions which can only be settled by New fruits and new flowers began to cooperation. but the progress was inevitable and sure.282 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY grew up the Grange. he invited not only neighboring colleges but church associations. He and argued that the time . of labor leagues. but began to get through the tariff cordon and reach the markets of the world. who had previously occupied Farm produce not only reached " open McKinley invented the phrase door. With the experiment stations bulletins were issued freely to be distributed. the seaboard cities." which meant free access for Kansas corn and Minnesota wheat into the ports of Korea and South District schools began to drop into town Africa. President When President Butterfield of the Massachusetts Agricultural College held a conference on rural affairs in 1908. heretofore discussed cattle and soil and tools and It crops began to reach out after world problems.

and other A industrial enterprises in common met his approval. of middlemen and transportation interests. Cooperative buyand ing marketing among farmers he especially dewhich should free them from the impositions sired. completing the tendency toward unification that would give to country children as good advantages as if they lived in town. parcels post and a postal savings bank seemed essential elements to the new country life. So it was that in one way and another country life was renewing its fellowship. Mutual insurance companies. and coming into a new sort of associated completeness. the languages that are spoken and sung and whistled in our fields and woods. President Roosevelt appointed a Commission on Rural Improvement. more ancient than those taught in our colleges. their working in common.SOCIAL SIDE OF COUNTRY LIFE 283 had come when the country people must get together. There are languages our culture from the corn lot. to abolish isolation and create again an effective community life. He hoped to see the country church re-established as a vivifying force. community dairying. He outlined what he proposed as im- provement of country schools. he said. pooling their interests and doing their thinking and We must all get. . The time has come. More lecturers libraries and farmers' institutes with wiser might well be hoped for. He would see country roads made as serviceable as macadamized driveways. he argued.

J. president of the Great Northern. with sufficient capital to buy up the sixteen thousand square miles of deserted farms in New York and then and New England. making farm homes atThey would have the telephone in every house.284 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY The commission reported. first announced the doctrine that railroads and farms were not lies. should become distributive. that the improvement of farm life should be pressed forward from both the sanitary side and the esthetic side. capital for the purchasers until their first crops . resell at cost. the country fairly requires the interest its full The concentering social forces government. in opposition. the genius of industrialism. which seemed to the independent farmer impertinent. He would provide. put it in shape for use. was welcomed finally as giving strong propulsion to a new suburbanism and a life. while rural free mail delivery gave a The commission daily zest to the isolated home. without depending upon occasional trips to the tavern. The appointment of this commission. and the report should be studied in our common schools and read in all our families. broader country Almost immediately a new phase and a most important one for country life came about in an alliance of trade and transit with the farmer. tractive as well as economical. but the closest al- President Brown of the New York Central suggested a syndicate. binding together the community. J. Hill. he said. held that the city had had and that now of share of attention.

. I think. carrying trade cannot overtax the producer without injuring itself. Yoakum. This sort of cooperation. Chairman of finding this out. carrying the best trained workers across the country from town to town. giving demonstrations of crops.SOCIAL SIDE OF COUNTRY LIFE 285 were in hand. begun by corn trains. these trains was. farmers and railroads have something to cooper- ate with and something to cooperate for. and it is forreal policy of the industries is to work The tunate that the leaders of our industrial system are Mr. and how to combat insect to handle milk best to how the soil. has widened into a very strong fellowship between agriculture and commerce. for the together. but the seventh or eighth crossed the Central Lines before the end of 1910. The heavy reductions in freight rates of the last few years have been absorbed by middlemen and not shared by either the producers or the consumers. how fertilizers and farm what manage way were needed. B." Agricultural education which the colleges and their bulletins had been confined to was now widened by a plan of educational trains. All peoples and all classes thrive together or they suffer together. in pests The first of while accepting bird alliance. F. It is eminently wise. said in a recent address before the " The Farmer's Education and Cooperative Union. In this way the capitalist is striking hands with the laboring man to put him in shape for a country home. the Frisco System. in Illinois.

the retention of only the best animal stock. with avowed purpose of securing the drainage of swamp lands. intensive tillage during the growing of the crops. Heretofore State action has been confined almost These altogether to the patronage of State fairs. Following this work of the railroads. the production of food for men and animals on the farm itself.286 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY farm the Naturally this new era of good will led on from trains to railroad farms. collections of the people and their products were at one time of considerable value. with winter cover crops in the North and summer cover crops in the South. whereby that State will undertake the crowd out to farms. The proposi- to assist the neophytes until tillage has become remunerative. better plowing. the securing of a large amount of humus. preventing barnyard and other waste. at the Governor Hadley of Missouri is head of a well-thought-out plan. They are of less importance at the present day because we do not need so much the exhibition of horse speed and immense . These are already established by several of the leading railroads. the selection of seed of the best varieties. the States have begun the solution of farm problems through finally the collective action. over to actual tion is movement of the congested owned by the State and turned settlers at cost price. with implements that will bring up the subsoil. establishing the value of crop rotation. and keeping of careful accounts as well as accurate memoranda of tests and their results.

and have bought up large tracts of land. at ten dollars an acre or even less. ing to their own comforts and creating homes. and are doing with them nothing at all in the way of adding to the production of the country. present to secure sanitation. including not a few of the very richest farms. The Hadley plan as is it will be prosecuted based on a general fact by Governor that most of those are anxious to leave city congestion are moneyless as well as homeless. this has reached own State to take in the whole Southwest. especially in Arkansas and Texas and Florida and Georgia. It is then divided chased. create beautiful landscapes and elaborate but is all. while add- They . some extent the whole South. Governor Hadley has already brought about a National over his and to Farm Homes Association.SOCIAL SIDE OF COUNTRY LIFE 287 vegetables as we do the demonstration of soil problems and the best way of making timothy grass give The State is needed at us four tons to the acre. thirty-two of these being clustered about a central farm of one hundred and sixty acres. for all betterment schemes begin with those who are well-to-do. It is very fortunate that this is who so. as into forty acre farms. This central farm becomes the residence . industrial education. Just now we are greatly in need of increasing the food products of the United States and the poorer classes will do this. The wealthy have been on the move for many years. Land is purit can be in large sections. that houses. and carry the land tiller safely through crises.

land. When we undertake the dissolution of the con- gested mass we are always country life is unendurably lonesome. on a basis of good judgment. mutual helpfulness. met by the fact There is that also . grass and grain growing. in ten yearly instalments. ment of the farms is such as to bring about a mutual exchange of social courtesies. it is a combination of school and work. are the figures. very similar to what has been projected for our common schools themselves. In other words. Life in the city is reduced to a comformity that makes it fences. $300. stock and teams. There is the germ here of a new style of country life which may go much farther. This colony system is fundamentally sound. and tools at $100. He shall have general supervision of his neighbors. such as are being turned out by our agricultural colleges. from truck farming. This teacher or head of the system will attend to the marketing of products and will steadily lead the way to independThe arrangeence. buildings and $400. cattle and chickens. coincident with profit. with games in common as well as work. Beginning with the second year they will be expected to return what has been advanced to them. The first year it is proposed to exempt these purchasers from taxation. This it is estimated can be easily done. to bring about the most economical and thorough methods of handling soil and crops. $400.288 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY of a skilled agriculturist. Here nearly impossible for the individual to act by himself.



or carry this plan farther to a group of eight tory. There is no reason why every in should have its own food laborathe world family These four greatly reduced and the cost of feeding four families is cut right in two. It is the woman is building she not cut that suffers most. In other words. Or you may go still farther and have your community bank in . we establish a community instead of a family. and their fields Their drives ran into each other. especially in times of sickness. only considering or twelve. By combination the labor is might be made to cover as many country homes as you please. and by this sort of off from a daily chat with her neighbor. Now venient plant your union school at the most conand central point. Indeed it convenience.SOCIAL SIDE OF COUNTRY LIFE this 289 advantage that where a dozen families are planted near each other we are able to secure a cooperation in industries apart from agriculture. Two families going out together and intending to occupy twenty acres each can build their houses in adjacent corners so that their neighborliness may be felt. with breakfast room and broad verandas in the center of the plot. had a common kitchen. each building on the corner of a sixty acre lot. I have seen this scheme carried out on a larger scale by four families. Organize your union it church and allow to occupy the school auditorium and you have a completed community. were separated only by a line of families wire.

fruit growing. a tree commission should be appointed. which is unoccupied of course in the evening for school purposes. and all other local questions that pertain to the indoor or outdoor comfort and society. This sort of community. are not really two offices and may be united for such a community as we suggest. made up of recent recruits city life. dially welcome into country life. and some of those refinements which we can very cor- from With all the rest. holding its we weekly meetings in the same school building. house painting.29o HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY Church and school conjunction with the post-office. We will understand trees very cordially or scientifically. we must presume to have brought with it a good deal of taste for music. liance The Grange keeps the families in close alit may cover the general subject of town improvement. but in every community there is at least one person the utterly misdirected trimming that is cannot presume that our city friends . we conceive a system of this sort developing shall soon find a Grange organized. architecture. so that the neighborhood and lated. street vegetation shall not be mutiin One of is the chief troubles just now the country going on. yard improvement. or there may be separately a rural art and This last association will have for its aim to study road improvement. while we train by If the young people to the broadest ethical aims. Of course our aim is to secure moral and intellectual improvement. wealth. intellectual development.

however. dropped down deep into rock and planted above possible infection. naturally into the hands of the people involved. to carry the settlers over the inSuch a movement. but doubtless may do a good deal. Unless you can have an artesian well. Your city colony will come with an instinct for this sort of united action.SOCIAL SIDE OF COUNTRY LIFE to 291 whom The can be wisely referred this matter of com- munity art. and it has been worked out in more ways than one. describing a kitchen of this sort which had become quite the center of a considerable group of homes. Not long since I came upon a casual note in a California paper. must slip itial crisis. tance that there shall be an abundance of pure water and the most sanitary disposal of waste. there must be cooperative water supplies. but a sewer rarely gets through a line of neighbors into a proper outlet The same difficulty occurs with without opposition. as Missouri proposes. water for purposes from springs community pumping It is of the utmost importhat lie among the hills. It was not only giving satisfaction to the mothers and wives. State can aid along these lines not only by its free mail delivery and its school system and its postal savings bank. Cooperation in drainage would seem to be so reasonable as to find no opposition. . suggestion of a cooperative kitchen is not entirely novel. but was developing domestic art and establishing refinement that could The scarcely be considered in individual homes.

of our feelings and gral life. It is to be of cement. There is no reason why cooperation should not go somewhat farther. a real house is a growth of the self. cooperative building is likely to win consider- . stock it with fish that will eat larvae. It will have the best of water supply and perfect sewerage. combined effort in any community in the use of kerosene to infect fully A would entirely rid us of both flies and mosquitoes in a very short time. what he Chambless has invented It may be as long as an endless house. it It is also a child of the spot that occupies. and across valleys with a house wall liable to meet some facts of a stern sort. would be Still. you please. It will be lighted by electricity and heated by the same power. calls A Mr. or a modernized cliff-dwellers' establishment. THE COUNTRY insects To the neighborhood of unity also One stable left requires un- cleaned will infect a mile square with is flies. with a railroad in the basement. One mosquito breeding cesspool enough as large a neighborhood with that pest. and on paper it looks like the Chinese Wall. as well as any number of elevators. This plan would save the hucksters and farmers from driving from house to house.292 HOW TO rid a fullest LIVE IN of action. have unnecessarily become tolerant of dangerous enemies. If you have a small We lake. without encroaching on inteBuilding in the country should not defy the very spirit of independent home life. Engineering up hill. however. home our aspirations. Edgar S.

asparagus.SOCIAL SIDE OF COUNTRY LIFE 293 able progress. berry gardens. and truck patches. From and celery. keep the cars loaded nearly all the year round. grand fact about American tillage that great cattle number of cows ranges are passing out very rapidly. not only in number but in cost. much adoption would at least serve to get rid of many of the unmeaning structures which are now occupied by country home makers as mansions. except relatively. potatoes. while the same are fed by green soiling and silage. it disappear and great meadows are cut in slices. Intensive farming we understand to be the tillage of a small lot in such a way as to get as much from as others get from ten times the acreage. followed by beans. these small homesteads. If you believe the present concities will Our gestion is to be tolerated. has also some features to commend it. This us much closer brings Big pastures very together. as inventions multiply. lettuce. Mr. a need. The fugreat rifts . As the century gets into the twenties and thirties there will be double and then treble the number of country residences. Cities will widen out and open with of trees and sodded playgrounds. beside Skyscrapers are a mood. Its dead. not grow smaller. Edison's concrete house that is to be cast in a mould and served up to each as grave stones are furnished to the family. not gardens innumerable. and melons. and will follow the tower of Babel. I am confident that you are mistaken. while the mile long corn fields are subdivided into apple It is a orchards.

or its successor. We are not very far from a motor that will carry our produce market at an insignificant cost. of and trolleys. Suburbanism will spread out for miles beyond the core of population. Edison is now testing the limits of his storage in battery that will need charging only once to one hundred and fifty miles. tools something to work with way in the soil and vehicles to convey our produce to market. well fed and housed. whose interest Neither do they unof the profits for themselves. transit will deliver animal Aerial most of the goods that are sold and allow the storage houses and stores to be at a much greater distance from the shoppers. will have a little chance of free motion without killing old people and Horses will be out of the problem. Still farther from the roar will be the intensive garden and farm. cept for the pleasure of those who love friends better than they love machinery. is of course to get a large share men. without isolation and without We have made immense strides in the crowding. but for the majority of the producers this is imposOur surplus goes to middlesible as things are. exchildren. with the same population. The automobile. I believe in private customers as far as possible. derstand how to handle my pears and your strawber- . and every home will be surrounded by its adequate garden.294 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY ture city will cover three times the present space. and you will find a population of six hundred millions. Mr.

In that this zone widened to forty or fifty miles. smooth for transit. speeding among the before breakfast. instead of waiting to have it our way more than we go brought to their doors? It is not quite clear how far aviation may help along this line. autos. We But are we quite sure. plow together and reap together and Why not? We do this possibly store together. Our touch customers early in the day present limitations for producers who must is about ten miles This possibly twenty for non-perishable products. must have State roads. and turn the whole The automobile land into one overspread garden. to find what they country homes. that ere long city purchasers will not come theirs. trolleys. over a distance of twenty-five or thirty miles each morning. so that produce wagons may reach a safe speed of twelve miles an hour. way we shall equalize conditions. is it impossible . way as to bring them to the consumers without We shall see the vehicle before long that will speed the producer to the consumer. creates a narrow zone about each city. the to this most desirable points way country life. in this forest of telephones. want for the day's supply. and other discoveries and inventions that are crowding the beginning of the twentieth century. shall We as soon as our goods leave home why .SOCIAL SIDE OF COUNTRY LIFE ries in 295 such a loss. outside of which there is a very restricted opportunity for the We need and must have gardener and orchardist.

The vision does not as yet go beyond the rural free delivery of mail and the use of automobiles for market purposes and for tillage. There would be no lack of individualism life if social should go even farther. as I have suggested it may This would cerkitchen and its cellars. and while in one sense complete by itself. One thing is assured: the dream of the farmer has greatly changed of late. why may there not be own When is grain elevators for an associated group of homes and fruit storage houses for a whole group of families? I am its not so sure but that the future country its barns. adjusted to farm work. seriously lacking in its power to move with the world's evolution. quite distinctly severed from association with its neighbors. begins to think of a parked farm community. tors. but he has an enthusi- asm over something that is to make country life marvelously beautiful and rob it of its most severe features of isolation and toil. His vision is no longer that of an isolated house. as well as to the sanitary side of country home making. raying out from a He central school almost all and library and closely associated in conceivable ways through miles of extent.296 HOW TO have its LIVE IN THE COUNTRY Is it as soon as they are harvested? after all a per- manent shall necessity that each and every country home separate barns and storage cellars? threshed cooperatively and marketed grain all of our homes have swift mowhen cooperatively. . home will lose also lose tainly contribute greatly to the esthetic side.

fruit. better without spines. ity. birds. tools always and better animals more intelligent cooperation between all that goes to make up the country home. and blackberries will grow folk in turn better fruit . Things have gone heretofore on this conti- . by the conservation of our forests and the drainage of our swamps. but a higher years ago our fathers were on a level. bees. mean mean better men and women and . horses. In bidding goodbye to my readers I wish to remind them that I have already warned them that they should rarely buy land that they have not themselves inspected. dogs. Progress is not a chance achieveof Nature as applied to hortibut the law ment.SOCIAL SIDE OF COUNTRY LIFE These dreams are likely to lead 297 him into schemes that are half thought out and to put him into the power of heartless speculators. and human folk. we shall react to a nearer social equal- Many will we be on another. flowers. We are already reaching out in this direction. As immigration comes is to a final balance and there no longer a rush of the dissimilar and undigested social element. We shall master even climate after awhile. Better level. thorns will be eliminated from berries as well as roses strawberries will be as large as pears. Every relic of barbarism tends naturally to drop off. and that a large part of the speculative projects for country home making in common are treacherous efforts to get the money of the common people without any adequate returns. culture.

there will be a deal less failure to win a good living. for it shows how fundamentally the law of good all things. all presides the good will of the human Darwin has shown how even the angleworms serve as plowmen and sub- soilers. The more you study this matter the more you will in the be confirmed view that Nature has ordered cooperation everywhere. which specific by I would call it the era of wind-breaks the time gins in Alaska. a treaty not only of peace but of friendship between all things that live and the Life that per- meates " should like to have you read Mutual Aid. at all a controlling principle. and over all and through director. trees when everyone will understand the sacredness of and will know their social importance.29 8 HOW TO LIVE IN THE COUNTRY A nent very much haphazard. I will operates through Nature. few men have been allowed to destroy the wind-breaks of vast territories. ." a book written by Prince Kropotkin. that God allowing the blizzard to sweep over territory Clean down to Florprotected by forests. and when it comes about that we appreciate fully our social duty and civic obligation. bees and flowers associate. Antagonism is not and there is nothing that shows this better than a true country home. The country home is in reality an alli- ance. till is nothing to stop the fury of a storm that be- If you should ask me for some term to designate the coming era. where collies and cows cooperate. there ida the oaks and the pines have been wasted.

SOCIAL SIDE OF COUNTRY LIFE If you think 299 are po- mistaken. while indoors we have a new sort of trained leaders in domestic economy and domestic science. but knowing the ity. As" a matter of fact. lecture school will no doubt yet be. Telephones are probably as afforded as cheaply possible already. not as mere recluses or scholars. It really is itself a great farm. practically. so associated with our homes that the old and the The young will be at school together. The prothoroughly practical and experimental. The telephone tea have already mentioned. these men and women are taking their places as social leaders. if temporarily. College is hardly a descriptive name for these institutions. fessors of gardening and agronomy become naturally associated with us in our outdoor work. litical we are at an end of evolution you The parcels post has got into every is acknowledged by all parties as a social necessity. in this way. when our homes will be something more than individual retreats. but there is no reason platform and why they shall not transmit to a group of homes I lectures and debates. for that word has become identified too closely with schools where scholarship is the end and not the means. agricultural college is steadily becoming associated with farms and is likely to go much farther in The the same direction. Mr. when they can be halls. but it is in all soberparty ness a part of coming country life. they teach practical things that make for prosperit to the people. Roosevelt in one of his most pungent ad- .

for what The men and women on the farms stand farming requiring the highest intelligence. myth of history that the divine mind planted a gar" " is a worker and I den. " My also Laborare work. that can endure the strain of modern life. not only for your individual comfort. warn recent progress made in city life is not a full pleteness. I advise you to educate your boys and girls for the most intelligent farm life. I advise you to stop gloriWork fying worklessness and honor achievement. to supply the cities with fresh blood. by methods of is country. and the comdresses." I advise you to get a home in the country. This great moveest orare" to work is to worship. It is to make the American Republic safer and stronger. to continue and feed the hungry nations. for our civilization rests at bottom on the wholesomeness. but because it places you world of high responsibility. as well as natural life more wholesome. ment outward from congested life must be understood in its breadth as well as its intensity. it is God-like. Father.300 HOW TO " I LIVE IN my THE COUNTRY countrymen that the great measure of our civilization." said Jesus." Luther graved on his seal. in a relation to the It is not a goes beyond economics. says. the attractiveness. we need to clothe the development of men in the open country. who shall be the stay and strength of the nation. clean bodies and clear brains. as well as the prosperity of life in the fundamentally best and most needed in our American life. Upon the development of country life rests ultimately our ability. .

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