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Proceedings of the Twenty-second (2012) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference Rhodes, Greece, June 1722, 2012

Copyright 2012 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE) ISBN 978-1-880653-944 (Set); ISSN 1098-6189 (Set)

Non-Linear Static Analysis of Vertical/Batter Pile-Wharf Structures

Bilge Doran1, Yaln Yksel1, Caner akr2, enol Korkmaz1, Aytu Sekin1 and Mustafa Krolu1

Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Esenler, Istanbul, Turkey 2 CSM naat Ltd.ti, Istanbul, Turkey

Seismic performance evaluation of a pile-wharf structure based on performance-based evaluation criteria is set forth by the Turkish Code for shore structures (TCCHS, 2007). TCCHS (2007) recommends two methods namely strength-based design and deformation-based design for design and evaluation of pile-wharf structures. According to TCCHS (2007), a pile-wharf structure is expected to withstand D1 level of earthquake ground motion with minor or no damage (Serviceable Damage Level) and D2 level of earthquake ground motion with shortterm loss of serviceability (Controlled Damage Level). The nonlinear interaction between soil and pile should somehow be considered in the pushover analysis. In this study, nonlinear static analysis (Pushover) of the vertical and batter pile-wharf structures are separately accomplished according to TCCHS (2007) and results have been discussed.

KEYWORDS: Pile-wharf structures; nonlinear soil springs; pushover


As the scale and distribution of the possible damage on a structure will be related to the structure system in terms of evaluation of earthquake performance; damage criteria for the designed structure system shall be known (Yksel and evik, 2010 and PIANC, 2001)). Generally; pile wharfs which are planned in a parallel manner with the shoreline as well as the wharfs which are planned vertically are both important elements of shore transportation. Piles, which are structural elements of each of these coast structures, may be designed vertical or batter manner. On the other hand; batter piles which provide an important performance under the horizontal loads that occur during seismic activity or landing, mooring or handling crane movements, cause the system to act in a more rigid way when compared to vertical piles. Due to the fact that the intensity of the

damage generally focuses on the batter piles as a result of massive releases of tension during earthquakes; TCCHS (2007) suggests the use of batter piles. Many pile wharfs and caisson docks have been damaged after 1995 Kobe (Japan) earthquake (Chiou et al, 2011). Yksel et al. (2003) did the extensive site investigations about the damages of coastal and port structures after Kocaeli earthquake in 1999. Takakashi and Takemura (2005) have analyzed the effect of liquefaction on a pile wharf which has damaged after 1995 Kobe (Japan) earthquake, and discovered that, a liquefiable sand layer may not cause a higher deformation in the ground or in the structure. Roeder et al (2005) have analyzed the behaviors of different pile arrangements under the influence of the earthquake. Vahdani et al (2011) have tried to designate the structural performance of a port structure in California under the influence of earthquakes in different levels by using nonlinear pushover analysis. Boroschek et al. (2011) have analyzed dynamic features of a pile wharf, having a length of 375 m, under the influence of triggered vibration. Siyahi et al. (2011) have investigated seismic performance evaluation of a pile-wharf structure based on performancebased evaluation criteria as set forth by TCCHS (2007). In this context, the pile-wharf structure has divided into several section for seismic performance evaluation. Seismic performances of each section have separately evaluated. Usage of design and evaluation principles according to performancebased design and evaluation of pile wharfs has been adopted as a principle in TCCHS (2007). There are two main methods; involving a) deformation-based and b) force-based design and evaluation in the subjected regulations. Force-based design methods are used in normal and simple structures while usage of the deformation-based design method shall be adopted for special and normal structures. Design and evaluation according to deformation-based; involves optimization of the structural elements of the dock or port in a nonlinear manner. This study involves a nonlinear analysis which has been performed by application of deformation-based design principles according to TCCHS (2007) on a selected pile wharf.