First Indian war of independence, 1857

Introducti on

Indian’s first war of independence was termed by the British as sepoy mutiny. This failed attempt to unit Indian against the invading British and to restore power to the mogul emperor Bahadur Shah marked the end of the mogul empire and sealed India’s fate as a British colony for the next 100 years.

Background
India form the ancient time is always a land of deep traditions and faith, which created numerous social barriers for the Indian working for the British army. They valued tradition and faith more then anything in their lives and were afraid and anxious of losing them. In 1856, it was rumored that additional troops were to be recruited for service in Burma, where they could not follow their religious rules. Again, Christian missionary efforts among troops were to receive encouragement. This rumour made the sepoys restless. The zamindars of the time wanted to protect their interest in the wake of land reforms by the British and founded anti-English activities. But the whole ant-English activity was triggered when the British introduced new rifle cartridges rumoured to be greased with oil made from the fat of animals. The fat of cows was taboo to Hindus while Muslim were repelled by peg fat.

Starting of the Violence
The violence started on May 10, 1857 in Meerut, when Mangal pandey, a soldier in the Army shot his commander for forcing the Indian troops to use the controversial rifles. Indians constituted 96% of the

the Sikh soldiers of the Punjab area remained loyal to the British throughout. That is why it is called Sepoy Mutiny. Bahadur Shah. Nominally the besieging force. Many native Indian states. surrendered to the Indian soldiers of . The Sikh troops and the gurkhas were all along loyal to the British Army. the British commander sir Colin Campbell had a difficult task in quelling the disturbance as the revolt had quickly spread to kanpurand Luck now. Causes of failure There were certain reasons behind the failure of the resistance. The arrival of more British troops finally led to the defeat of the mutineers by john Nicholson. commander of the relief force. influenced by the example of powerful Hyderabad. did not join the rebels. The Sikhs were a strong and well-trained army. they were themselves besieged by the mutineers. And the aging Bahadur Shah was neither a brave general nor an astute leader to inspire the people to be united for a single cause that was to save their form the usurpers. On June 8. overlooking the city of Delhi. Still. the British recaptured Delhi. the pensioned descendant of the Mugil dynasty. After six days of street fighting.300. Bahadur shah was captured and was exiled to Burma. This action was the turning point in the campaign and is known as Siege of Delhi. a British relief force defeated an army of mutineers at Badli Sari and took up a position on the famous ridge. The local chiefs encouraged scattered revolts in hopes of regaining their lost privileges. was popularly acclaimed as the leader of resistance.000 British Army and the violence against British quickly spread. who made a daring attempt to intercept their train. who the British had conquered using the Indian soldiers. Another important reason was that. The primary reasons were lack of leadership and unity of the part of Indians and the cruel suppression by the British Army. Kanpur a city controlled by British on the Ganges 250 miles southeast of Delhi.

by the Act of the better Government of Indian its political authority was entrusted to a secretary of state. which the Company had carried for some time. Ashrafur Rahman (Riad) . while many Indians remained bitter and would never trust their rulers again. The British afterward became cautious and defensive about their empire. the mutiny proved the last straw on the heavy load of criticism and opposition. Almost one hundred years after the fist war of independence the Indians re-gathered their momentum for home rule after the emergence of Indian National Congress and Mahatma Gandhi. In August 1858. Conclusion In England. The final stage of the mutiny took place in central India. In August 1858 the British crown assumed control of India from the East India Company and in 1877 Queen Victoria was crowned as the Empress of India. the leaderless Indians were soon pacified. 1857.June 28. After his capture and execution in April 1859. The mutiny played a vita role in Anglo-Indian history. which was aroused by a roving band of rebels under the Maratha general Tatya Tope. and was the scene of massacre before it was recaptured by the British on July 16.

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