For use at 12:00 p.m.

, eastern time Friday March 9, 2001

FEDERAL RESERVE statistical release

Flow of Funds Accounts of the United States
Flows and Outstandings Fourth Quarter 2000

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington DC 20551

Flow of Funds Summary Statistics Fourth Quarter 2000
Domestic nonfinancial debt grew at a seasonally adjusted annual rate of 4-1/2 percent in the fourth quarter of 2000. Borrowing by households, businesses, and state and local governments picked up from the previous quarter, while the paydown of federal debt accelerated. Household debt expanded at an 8-1/4 percent rate in the fourth quarter, as home mortgage borrowing and consumer credit continued to be strong. In the nonfinancial business sector, debt grew at an 8-1/2 percent rate in the fourth quarter, but still remained below the rapid clip in the first half of 2000. A small contraction in nonfinancial commercial paper debt was more than offset by net issuance of bonds and borrowing at banks. State and local government debt increased at a 4-3/4 percent rate in the fourth quarter, with robust borrowing for new capital projects. For 2000 as a whole, domestic nonfinancial debt grew by 5 percent, the smallest increase in six years.

Federal government debt declined $296 billion, or 8 percent, in 2000. Household debt was up 8-3/4 percent over the year, about the same as the previous couple years, and nonfinancial business debt rose 93/4 percent, below the rapid pace in the prior two years. Debt growth in the state and local government sector, at 2-1/4 percent, was less than half the average recorded in the past several years, in large part owing to a substantial volume of retirements of previously refunded debt. The level of domestic nonfinancial debt outstanding was $18.3 trillion at the end of the fourth quarter. Debt of nonfederal sectors was $15.0 trillion, and federal debt was $3.4 trillion. Figures for the growth and level of debt are found in tables D.1 through D.3. Tables that show financial flows, amounts outstanding, and selected sector balance sheets are included in the remaining pages of this release.

Growth of Domestic Nonfinancial Debt Percentage changes; quarterly data are seasonally adjusted annual rates Nonfederal Total Federal Total Households Business State and local govts. -4.6 -0.6 5.3 7.2 4.4 2.2 6.6 3.6 4.3 2.7 0.3 1.7 1.9 4.8

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 1999:Q1 :Q2 :Q3 :Q4 2000:Q1 :Q2 :Q3 :Q4

5.5 5.3 5.6 6.9 6.9 5.0 7.8 5.7 7.0 6.3 5.3 5.5 4.4 4.6

4.1 4.0 0.6 -1.4 -1.9 -8.0 -2.2 -2.6 -1.9 -0.9 -5.9 -11.4 -6.2 -9.6

6.0 5.8 7.3 9.6 9.5 8.5 10.9 8.1 9.5 8.3 8.3 9.9 6.9 8.0

8.0 7.3 6.5 8.6 8.9 8.7 9.3 8.3 9.2 7.7 8.0 9.5 8.0 8.2

6.6 5.7 8.9 11.3 11.4 9.7 13.6 8.8 11.0 10.2 10.3 11.9 6.8 8.4

1. Changes shown are on an end-of-period basis and may differ from month-average data in the H.6 release.

Table of Contents




Flow of Funds Accounts, Fourth Quarter 2000 Availability of Data for Latest Quarter Debt Growth by Sector Borrowing by Sector Debt Outstanding by Sector D.1 D.2 D.3

1 3 6 7 8


Flows Table Page

Levels Table Page

Total Net Borrowing and Lending in Credit Markets Credit Market Borrowing by Nonfinancial Sectors Credit Market Borrowing by Financial Sectors Credit Market Borrowing, All Sectors, by Instrument Total Liabilities and Its Relation to Total Financial Assets Distribution of Gross Domestic Product Distribution of National Income Gross Saving and Investment Net Capital Transfers Derivation of Measures of Personal Saving F.1 F.2 F.3 F.4 F.5 F.6 F.7 F.8 F.9 F.10 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 14 15 L.10 61 L.1 L.2 L.3 L.4 L.5 58 59 59 60 60


Flows Table Page

Levels Table Page

Households and Nonprofit Organizations Nonfinancial Business Nonfarm Nonfinancial Corporate Business Nonfarm Noncorporate Business Farm Business State and Local Governments Federal Government Rest of the World Monetary Authority Commercial Banking U.S.-Chartered Commercial Banks Foreign Banking Offices in U.S. Bank Holding Companies Banks in U.S.-Affiliated Areas Savings Institutions Credit Unions Bank Personal Trusts and Estates Life Insurance Companies Other Insurance Companies Private Pension Funds State and Local Government Employee Retirement Funds Money Market Mutual Funds F.100 F.101 F.102 F.103 F.104 F.105 F.106 F.107 F.108 F.109 F.110 F.111 F.112 F.113 F.114 F.115 F.116 F.117 F.118 F.119 F.120 F.121 16 17 18 19 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 L.100 L.101 L.102 L.103 L.104 L.105 L.106 L.107 L.108 L.109 L.110 L.111 L.112 L.113 L.114 L.115 L.116 L.117 L.118 L.119 L.120 L.121 62 63 64 65 65 66 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 77


Flows Table Page

Levels Table Page

Mutual Funds Closed-End Funds Government-Sponsored Enterprises Federally Related Mortgage Pools Issuers of Asset-Backed Securities Finance Companies Mortgage Companies Real Estate Investment Trusts Security Brokers and Dealers Funding Corporations

F.122 F.123 F.124 F.125 F.126 F.127 F.128 F.129 F.130 F.131

32 32 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 36

L.122 L.123 L.124 L.125 L.126 L.127 L.128 L.129 L.130 L.131

77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 81

Gold and Official Foreign Exchange Holdings SDR Certificates and Treasury Currency U.S. Deposits in Foreign Countries Net Interbank Transactions Checkable Deposits and Currency Time and Savings Deposits Money Market Mutual Fund Shares Federal Funds and Security Repurchase Agreements Open Market Paper Treasury Securities F.200 F.201 F.202 F.203 F.204 F.205 F.206 F.207 F.208 F.209 37 37 37 38 39 40 40 41 41 42 L.200 L.201 L.202 L.203 L.204 L.205 L.206 L.207 L.208 L.209 82 82 82 83 84 85 85 86 86 87


Flows Table Page

Levels Table Page

Agency Securities Municipal Securities and Loans Corporate and Foreign Bonds Corporate Equities Mutual Fund Shares Bank Loans Not Elsewhere Classified Other Loans and Advances Total Mortgages Home Mortgages Multifamily Residential Mortgages Commercial Mortgages Farm Mortgages Consumer Credit Trade Credit Security Credit Life Insurance and Pension Fund Reserves Taxes Payable by Businesses Investment in Bank Personal Trusts Proprietors’ Equity in Noncorporate Business Total Miscellaneous Financial Claims Identified Miscellaneous Financial Claims - Part I Identified Miscellaneous Financial Claims - Part II Unidentified Miscellaneous Financial Claims Sector Discrepancies Instrument Discrepancies

F.210 F.211 F.212 F.213 F.214 F.215 F.216 F.217 F.218 F.219 F.220 F.221 F.222 F.223 F.224 F.225 F.226 F.227 F.228 F.229 F.230 F.231 F.232 F.11 F.12

43 44 44 45 45 46 47 48 49 49 50 50 51 51 51 52 52 52 52 53 54 55 56 57 57

L.210 L.211 L.212 L.213 L.214 L.215 L.216 L.217 L.218 L.219 L.220 L.221 L.222 L.223 L.224 L.225 L.226 L.227

88 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97

L.229 L.230 L.231 L.232

98 99 100 101


Balance Sheet Table Page

Reconciliation Table Page

Balance Sheet and Reconciliation Tables
Households and Nonprofit Organizations Nonfarm Nonfinancial Corporate Business B.100 B.102 102 103 R.100 R.102 104 105


Flows Table Page

Levels Table Page

Supplementary Tables
Nonprofit Organizations Consolidated Statement for Federal, State, and Local Governments Private Pension Funds: Defined Benefit Plans Private Pension Funds: Defined Contribution Plans Flow of Funds Matrix for 2000 Balance Sheet of Households and Nonprofit Organizations with Equity Detail F.100.a F.106.c F.119.b F.119.c 106 108 110 110 112 L.100.a L.106.c L.119.b L.119.c 107 109 111 111 113




Flow of Funds Accounts, Fourth Quarter 2000
This publication presents the flow of funds accounts for 2000:Q4. Data revisions and other changes. The statistics shown in these tables reflect the use of new or revised source data. Most significant revisions appear in recent quarters; however, new source information resulted in changes to data for earlier periods. The revisions include the following: 1. Net capital transfers, as shown in NIPA table 8.29 in the Survey of Current Business, have been incorporated into the flow of funds accounts (table F.9). The household (table F.100), nonfinancial corporate business (table F.102), state and local governments (table F.105), federal government (table F.106), and rest of the world (table F.107) sector tables now include capital transfers. In addition, the inclusion of capital transfers affects the flow of funds measures of personal saving, which are shown on the derivation of measures of personal saving table (table F.10). For a discussion of capital transfers in the NIPA see “A Preview of the 1999 Comprehensive Revision of the National Income and Product Accounts,” Survey of Current Business, August 1999, pp. 13-14. 2. In the private pension funds sector (tables F.119 and L.119), data have been revised to reflect figures from the U.S. Internal Revenue Service/Department of Labor/Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation Form 5500 filed for plan year 1997. 3. In the nonprofit sector (supplementary tables F.100.a and L.100.a), data for 1997 have been added to reflect newly available information from the Internal Revenue Service/Statistics of Income division. In addition, the allocation of assets and estimates of liabilities have been revised from 1987 forward. Explanatory notes for tables D.1, D.2, and D.3. Domestic debt comprises credit market funds borrowed by U.S. entities from both domestic and foreign sources, while foreign debt represents amounts borrowed by foreign financial and nonfinancial entities in U.S. markets only. Financial sectors consist of government-sponsored enterprises, federally related mortgage pools, and private financial institutions. Credit market debt consists of debt securities, mortgages, bank loans, commercial paper, consumer credit, U.S. government loans, and other loans and advances; it excludes trade debt, loans for the purpose of carrying securities, and funds raised from equity sources. Growth rates in table D.1 are calculated by dividing seasonally adjusted flows from table D.2 by seasonally adjusted levels at the end of the previous period from table D.3. Seasonally adjusted levels in flow of funds statistics are derived by carrying forward year-end levels by seasonally adjusted flows. Growth rates calculated from changes in unadjusted levels printed in table L.2 can differ from those in table D.1. Relation of Flows to Outstandings. Estimates of financial assets and liabilities outstanding are linked to data on flows. However, figures on outstandings contain discontinuities or breaks in series that could affect analysis of particular relationships over time. Specifically, outstandings in the flow of funds accounts are related to the flows in the following way:
Outstanding t = Outstanding t-1+ Flow t+ Discontinuity t where “t” is the time period.

Discontinuities result from changes in valuation, breaks in source data, and changes in definitions. For most series, the value of the discontinuity is zero for nearly all time periods. However, in a few instances, the discontinuity is nonzero for almost all time periods, or is quite large in a particular quarter, such as a period when there is a sharp increase or decrease in equity prices or a major break in source data. The discontinuities in a series can distort estimated rates of growth in assets and liabilities between periods. In order to minimize these distortions, percentage changes in assets and liabilities in flow of funds releases should be calculated as: Percentage change t = (Flow t / Outstanding t-1) * 100 Preliminary Estimates. Figures shown for the most recent quarter in these tables are based on preliminary and incomplete information. A summary list of the principal sources of information available when the latest quarter’s data were compiled is provided in a table


following this introduction. The distinction between “available” data and “missing” data is not between final and preliminary versions of data, but rather between those source estimates that are fully ready when the latest quarterly publication is compiled and those that are not yet completed. However, the items that are shown as available are, in general, also preliminary in the sense that they are subject to revision by source agencies. Margins of Uncertainty. Flow of funds statistics are subject to uncertainties resulting from measurement errors in source data, incompatibilities among data from different sources, potential revisions in both financial and nonfinancial series, and incomplete data in parts of the accounts. The size of these uncertainties cannot be quantified in precise statistical terms, but allowance for them is explicitly made throughout the accounts by the inclusion of “discrepancies” for various sectors and instrument types. A discrepancy for a sector is the difference between its measured sources of funds and its measured uses of funds. For an instrument category, a discrepancy is the difference between measured funds borrowed through the financial instrument and measured funds lent through that instrument. The size of such discrepancies relative to the main asset or liability components is one indication of the quality of source data, especially on an annual basis. For quarterly data, differences in seasonal adjustment procedures for financial and nonfinancial components of the accounts sometimes result in discrepancies that cancel in annual data. Availability of Data. Flow of funds statistics are updated about ten weeks following the end of a quarter.

are also available electronically through the Internet at the following location: The Internet site also provides quarterly data beginning in 1952, organized in compressed files that correspond to the tables published in this release. There are files for quarterly data for seasonally adjusted flows, unadjusted flows, outstandings, balance sheets, and debt (tables D.1, D.2, and D.3). There is a separate file for monthly data from January 1955 onward for the debt aggregate published in the Board's H.6 statistical release, “Money Stock and Debt Measures.” A Guide to the Flow of Funds Accounts is available. The 1,200-page Guide, in two volumes, explains in detail how the U.S. financial accounts are prepared and the principles underlying the accounts. The Guide can be purchased for $20.00 from the Board’s Publications Services. Publications Services accepts orders accompanied by checks as well as credit card orders. The Internet site for this release at the location shown above contains a link to an order form for the Guide that can be mailed or faxed to Publications Services. Subscription Information. The Federal Reserve Board charges for subscriptions to all statistical releases. Inquiries for releases should be directed to: Publications Services, Stop 127 Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System 20th Street and Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20551 (202) 452-3244

This publication — the Z.1 release — is available from the Board's Publications Services. Flow of funds data


Availability of Data for Latest Quarter

Available at time of publication 1. National income and product accounts (NIPA) 2. Households and nonprofit organizations sector (tables F.100 and L.100) Preliminary estimates, seasonally adjusted, for 2000:Q4.

Major items missing Unadjusted flows since 1999.

Estimates for this sector are largely residuals and are derived from data for other sectors. Availability of data depends on schedules for other sectors. Data for consumer credit, which are estimated directly, are available through 2000:Q4. The source for nonprofit organizations data (tables F.100.a and L.100.a) is the Internal Revenue Service Statistics of Income. Data for nonprofit organizations are available for 1987 through 1997. Quarterly Financial Report (QFR) of the Census Bureau through 2000:Q3; Internal Revenue Service Statistics of Income data through 1997; securities offerings, mortgages, bank loans, commercial paper, and other loans through 2000:Q4. Internal Revenue Service Statistics of Income data through 1997; bank and finance company loans and mortgage borrowing through 2000:Q4. Mortgages, bank loans, loans from government-sponsored enterprises, U.S. government loans to farms, and equity in government-sponsored enterprises through 2000:Q4; preliminary data for checkable deposits and currency and trade payables through 1999. Statistics of Income data since 1997; QFR data for 2000:Q4.

3. Nonfarm nonfinancial corporate business (tables F.102 and L.102)

4. Nonfarm noncorporate business (tables F.103 and L.103) 5. Farm business (tables F.104 and L.104)

Statistics of Income data since 1997.

Revised data for consumption of fixed capital and undistributed profits since 1999.


6. State and local governments (tables F.105 and L.105)

Gross offerings and retirements of municipal securities, deposits at banks, and nonmarketable U.S. government security issues through 2000:Q4; selected financial assets through 1999:Q2 from the comprehensive annual financial reports of state and local governments that account for most of the holdings of the sector, and data from Standard & Poor’s on local government investment pools. Data from the Monthly Treasury Statement of Receipts and Outlays through 2000:Q4; Treasury data for loan programs through 2000:Q3. Balance of payments data through 2000:Q3; NIPA estimates, data from bank Reports of Condition, and Treasury International Capital System data through 2000:Q4. All data through 2000:Q4. All data through 2000:Q4 for U.S.-chartered commercial banks, foreign banking offices in the U.S., bank holding companies, and commercial banks in U.S.-affiliated areas. All data through 2000:Q4. All data through 2000:Q4. All data through 1999.

Selected financial asset items since 1999:Q2.

7. Federal government (tables F.106 and L.106)

Treasury data for loan programs for 2000:Q4.

8. Rest of the world (U.S. international transactions) (tables F.107 and L.107) 9. Monetary authority (tables F.108 and L.108) 10. Commercial banking (tables F.109 through F.113 and tables L.109 through L.113)

Balance of payments data for 2000:Q4.

None. Data since 1999 for branches of domestic commercial banks located in U.S.-affiliated areas.

11. Savings institutions (tables F.114 and L.114) 12. Credit unions (tables F.115 and L.115) 13. Bank personal trusts and estates (tables F.116 and L.116) 14. Life insurance companies (tables F.117 and L.117) 15. Other insurance companies (tables F.118 and L.118)

None. None. Data since 1999:Q4.

All data through 2000:Q3. All data through 2000:Q3.

Data for 2000:Q4. Data for 2000:Q4.


16. Private pension funds (including FERS Thrift Savings Plan) (tables F. 119 and L.119) 17. State and local government employee retirement funds (tables F.120 and L.120) 18. Money market mutual funds (tables F.121 and L.121) 19. Mutual funds (tables F.122 and L.122) 20. Closed-end funds (tables F.123 and L.123) 21. Government-sponsored enterprises (tables F.124 and L.124) 22. Federally related mortgage pools (tables F.125 and L.125) 23. Issuers of asset-backed securities (ABSs) (tables F.126 and L.126)

Quarterly data through 2000:Q4; Internal Revenue Service/Department of Labor/Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation Form 5500 data through 1997.

Form 5500 data since 1997.

All data through 2000:Q3.

Data for 2000:Q4.

All data through 2000:Q4.


All data through 2000:Q4. All data through 1999. Data for FHLBs, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, FCS, FICO, REFCORP, and Sallie Mae through 2000:Q4. All data through 2000:Q4.

None. Data since 1999. None


All data for private mortgage pools, consumer credit, business loans, student loans, consumer leases, and trade credit securitization through 2000:Q4. All data through 2000:Q4. Mortgage data through 1998:Q1. All data from SNL REIT DataSource through 2000:Q3; preliminary data for 2000:Q4. Data for firms filing FOCUS and FOGS reports through 2000:Q4.


24. Finance companies (tables F.127 and L.127) 25. Mortgage companies (tables F.128 and L.128) 26. Real estate investment trusts (REITs) (tables F.129 and L.129) 27. Security brokers and dealers (tables F.130 and L.130) 28. Funding corporations (tables F.131 and L.131)

None. Data since 1998:Q1. Final data for 2000:Q4.


Estimates for this sector are largely residuals and are derived from data for other sectors.