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PUBLIC ASM LIBRAE 7 : y vms .

.WILLIAM CAREY. Frontispiece.

" BY JOHN BROWN MYERS ASSOCIATION SECRETARY OF THE BAPTIST MISSIONARY SOCIETY. \ 10URTH EDITION. 1 NEW YORK and CHICAGO. . PUELISHERS OF EVANGELICAL LITERATURE. T . SIXTEENTH THOUSAND. jTInmncf 5>* JUbell Companp.WILLIAM CAREY WHO BECAME "THE FATHER AND FOUNDER OF MODERN MISSIONS.

» • * • • •• » < ' • • • • • 1 . . ...* • • » » « • .. • *.

of a scries of Missionaryis the intention of the It may be very earnestly hoped that the admirable proposal will be so encouraged as to be carried into effect. have been " the messengers of the Churches and the glory of Christ.PREFACE. for we can conceive nothing more likely to promote Missionary enterprise than acquaintance with the labours and spirit of the men. work is the first it THIS O CO -n Biographies which Publishers to issue. as well as for presentation in the family and the school. in the high places of the Field." 4 The price at which the biographies are to be pub- lished will render them by those friends of Missions suitable for general circulation who desire to create an intelligent and fervent interest in the evangelisation of the heathen world. 5 . who.

" by J. Marshman." Those of our readers who wish to obtain further information upon the subject of this Memoir. Indebtedness is acknowledged for the materials of the present volume to the " Periodical Accounts of the " the " Life and Times of Baptist Missionary Society . Mr. work abroad. and others. George Smith." and will stimulate many hearts to sympathise either to the with the Christ-like enterprise Carey began. . H." by W. Marshman "Oriental Christian Biography. may be referred to the excellent and exhaustive work recently written It ful by now remains hope Dr. or "by holding the ropes. at home. Carey.VI PREFACE. for the writer to express the prayerthat this biography. produced in such intervals as he has been able to secure. Sutcliff. Carey. Fuller. and to . 1887. and Ward. John Taylor's " Biographical and Literary Notices. will help to inform many minds respecting the remarkable man who has been justly styled "The Father and Founder of Modern Missions . by consecrating themselves personally. C. like August. as he did." Ryland.

VII. IX. VI. CAREY AS A PHILANTHROPIST. . MOULTON AND LEICESTER. XIII. AND 33 41 53 STARTS FOR INDIA.CONTENTS.. CONCLUSION. THREE IMPORTANT EVENTS. HIMSELF AS 23 III. -139 149 . IV. VARIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES.121 131 XL CAREY AS A NATURALIST XII. THE SERAMPORE MODE OF LIFE. X. . HIS LIFE AT 9 . 63 71 86 IOI . VIII. . V. HE OFFERS A MISSIONARY. II. PAGE HIS EARLY YEARS. . . . FIRST EXPERIENCES. CAREY AND SERAMPORE COLLEGE.. . CAREY AS A TRANSLATOR. REMOVAL TO SERAMPORE. . CHAPTER I.

.

how many celebrities. with which the subject of this memoir will ever be identified. —** CHAPTER I. come nearer to the fulfilment of its we question whether the name of 9 . down to John Clare. whose birthplace. the author of the " Worthies of IF England. like his village of Aldwinkle. But as the years pass on. had died a century after instead of exactly a century before William Carey was born. he might have written a work restricted to the worthies of his own county. who may be regarded as the English Robert Burns.WILLIAM CAREY. was the and that not alone of poet fame." himself a Northamptonshire man. From Dryden. Thomas Fuller. as volumin- ous and interesting as his well-known folio. would ! The dwellers in have received biographical notice the midland shire may well be proud of the eminent men who have been born upon its soil. shall blessed purpose. and to those two hundred years. own. HIS EARLY YEARS. and the missionary enterprise.

and author of " The Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul." had been dead ten years the Rev. any distinguished man in any county or in any country will be uttered with more tender reverence and thankful wonder than that of William Carey. "the Father and Founder of Modern Missions. Todmorden . was being trained infant was being nourished . event took place on the 17th of August. with his precocious The first of these was Andrew Fuller. the lad had certainly no evidence . at which date Philip Doddridge.10 WILLIAM CAREY." three years William Law of King's Cliffe. a village with about half the populait now contains. situated three miles from the market town of Towcester and eleven from the county town." tion Paulerspury. sinew to a certain was sturdy boy of seven giving Ely whilst another boy. in the fear of — years was of College learning." and a follower of whom appears to have been largely instrumental in Carey's conversion. John Sutcliff. the second. There is reason to believe that William Carey's early ancestors were of considerable social position but if this were so. " part of the county. with all three of whom William Carey was hereafter to be brought into the most intimate fellowship. . had died but a few weeks. the writer of The Serious Call. As the home in in his cottage in the Isle of the fen breezy Paulerspury. James . the third. President of the Academy. was the scene of William Carey's birth. " Hervey of Weston Flavel. the Independent minister at Northampton. among the Tombs. the quaint pastor Lane. two years older. in the more northern . 1761 The . John Ryland. Northampton. God on the Yorkshire moorland above and a third of the same age nine — astonishing his father. who wrote Meditations and the Rev.

n w in W H K id r > o .

was taught by his father company with the village lads. William. south porch of Paulerspury Church. to which he was devotedly attached. He would lie awake at night going over his sums. 1816. for and upright character had won in the respect and esteem of all his neighbours. his father. was a journeyman " " weaver living in a cottage. of the village. and the eggs which were the prize of many a risky climb the walls too were stuck with insects. when the rest of the family were asleep. a tablet may be seen perpetuating the memory of Edmund Carey. room it became . he was cottage Pury allowed to have his interesting And what an There he kept his numerous birds. As one of his achievements . the humble tammy character of which may be seen in the illustration on the preceding page. in the eighty-first year of his The old man age. and botanical specimens were preserved with the utmost care. At the time of Edmund Carey. having obtained the two-fold office of schoolmaster and parish clerk. And surrounded by these treasures of nature. which it is said his mother often heard him doing. it which he was born. the duties of which In the the grandfather had previously performed. his father removed to the schoolhouse belonging to the Free School at the church end of in the lot to his birth. In the year 1767. he might often have been seen eagerly reading such books as his father possessed or neighbours could supply. Whittlebury Forest. his faithful services was worthy of the memorial. He soon began his eager pursuit for knowledge. who died June 15th. On the removal from the in the end to the schoolhouse. Many were the spoils he brought home as the result of quests amongst the lanes and haunts of own little ! room.12 WILLIAM CAREY. of course.

etc. often used to kill his birds by kindness. at this time 1 3 he learnt by heart nearly the whole of Latin vocabulary. voyages.HIS EARLY YEARS.. Novels and plays always disgusted me. Dyche's Two references to these early days are full of His sister Mary remarks. It is related that having fallen following incident. The plodding disposition. yet when he saw my grief he always indulged me with the pleasure of serving them again. from a tree he had endeavoured to climb. knowledge and sense of . he himself said science.. and always resolutely determined never to give up any portion or particle of anything on which his mind was at a clear set. till he his had arrived subject." not allured or diverted from it he purpose and steady in his endeavour . and I avoided them as much as I did books of religion.. more than any others. and this circumstance made me read the 'Pilgrim's Progress with eagerness. and perhaps I was better pleased with from the same motive. history. to which afterwards he confessed he owed so much. the first thing he did as soon as he had recovered from his bruises was to renew the attempt. and often took me over the dirtiest roads to get at a plant or an insect. though to no purpose." As a boy he was marked by that resolute persever' after ance which was so conspicuous a characteristic in His indomitable spirit may be seen in the life. had already begun to distinguish him. romances. . To quote again his sister " : When a boy he was of a studious turn and fully bent on learning. I recollect even with' which he would show me now the delight the beauties in tJie growth ofplants!" And : as to his literary taste in after " I chose to read books of years. He was his was firm to to improve. "Though I interest.

that being. reformers and who have used the shoemaker's philanlife to become illustrious. truly — " The childhood shows the man As morning shows the day. and to a succession of scholars and of divines. The providence poets and critics." . who was a gardener in the Little did this uncle suppose. to borrow Milton's metaphor. and which exposure to the sun most he was compelled to abandon this employment. and of Gaul. George Smith. nine miles distant from Paulerspury. and find him at Hackleton. What more natural than that attention should then be turned to the shoemaking trade. that his nephew would one day become one of the most eminent horticulturists in his Asia. God "thus linked him. the lad how to cultivate flowers and plant trees in his father's garden. in the service of Clarke Nichols. as locality. His botanical tastes were greatly encouraged by uncle. it is still. Peter Carey. "to the earliest Latin missionaries of Alexandria. as he taught village. painfully irritated. And so he set about learning the craft which has become almost hallowed by the remarkable number of great and good men who have been associated with it." says Dr. of Asia Minor. but in consequence of a peculiar skin affection from which at the time he was suffering. the special occupation in the There was little able shoemaker to whom in difficulty in finding a suit- his seventeenth year we to apprentice the lad. may we affirm In this description of William Carey's childhood not.14 WILLIAM CAREY." field At the age of fourteen William began as a labourer to earn his livelihood. who were shoemakers. thropists.

HIS EARLY YEARS.
Dr. Smith also states
:

1

5

" Coleridge, who, when at was ambitious to be a shoemaker's Christ's Hospital, apprentice, was right when he declared that shoemakers had given to the world a larger number of eminent men than any other handicraft." Among Clarke Nichol's books young Carey found a New Testament commentary. Opening its pages he saw for the first time the characters of the Greek His master did language. What could they mean ? not know. Who could help him to understand them ? Remembering a weaver in his native village who had been well educated, but whose dissolute habits had reduced him in circumstances, he traced with great care the strange letters, and asking leave of his

master to
scholar.

visit his

And
in

as
his

instruction

home he found out the indigent we thus imagine him gaining first Greek lesson, how readily

we think

of

him

in later life mastering,

his learned Pundits, the
dialects, in

many

by the help of Oriental languages and

the acquisition of which, as we shall see, he became so wonderful an adept. William was unable to complete the term of his

apprenticeship owing to the death of his master, but he soon obtained a situation as journeyman with a Mr. T. Old of the same village. In a notice of his

which Carey sent to Dr. Ryland, he thus " new master My master was a strict churchman, and what I thought a very moral man. It is true he sometimes drank rather too freely, and generally employed me in carrying goods on the
early
life

refers to his

:

Lord's Day morning till near church time but he was an inveterate enemy to lying, a vice to which I was awfully addicted he also possessed the quality of commenting on a fault till I could scarcely endure
; ;

his reflections."

In this description of his master

it

1

6

WILLIAM CAREY.

will

be observed he acknowledges a personal proOf this habit he was pensity to untruthfulness. cured by an incident which he himself relates. Referring to the custom of collecting Christmas boxes he says, " When I applied to an ironmonger, he gave
;

me the choice of a shilling or a sixpence I of course chose the shilling, and putting it in my pocket, went away. When I had got a few shillings my next care
was to purchase some
then to
little

articles for

myself; but

my
I

sorrow

I

found that

my

shilling

was a

paid for the things which I had bought by using a shilling of my master's. I now found that I had exceeded my stock by a few pence. I expected
brass one.

severe reproaches from my master, and therefore came to the resolution to declare strenuously that the bad

money was
mind which
this

his.
I

I

well

remember the

struggles of
I

had on
sin

this occasion,

and that

made

matter of prayer to God as I passed over the fields home. I then promised that if God would but get me clearly over this, or in other words help me through with the theft, I would
deliberate

a

certainly for the future leave off

all evil practices but the theft and consequent lying appeared to me so necessary that they could not be dispensed with.
;

A

gracious

God

did

?iot

get

me

safe through.

My

master sent the other apprentice to investigate the The ironmonger acknowledged having given matter. me the shilling and I was therefore exposed to shame, reproach, and inward remorse, which increased and preyed upon my mind for a considerable time. I then sought the Lord, perhaps much more earnestly than ever but with shame and fear I was quite ashamed to go out, and never till I was assured that my conduct was not spread over the town did I attend a place of
;

worship."

HIS

EARLY YEARS.

1

7

It appears that the apprentice referred to was the son of a Dissenter. The two young men and their

master frequently argued whilst seated at their benches, as is common with shoemakers, upon the William being the son and subject of religion. of a clerk, was, as might have been grandson parish

churchman. He had read " and sermons, Jeremy Taylor's Spinker's Sick Man " Visited," and to use his own words, he had always looked upon Dissenters with contempt, and had, moreover, a share of pride sufficient for a thousand
expected,

a

staunch

times his knowledge."
small
;

In

the village there was a

but he would not deign to meeting-house " enter it. Nay, he rather had enmity enough in his heart to destroy it"; but the apprentice, the son of the

Dissenter, becoming the subject of deep religious concern, showed much anxiety not alone for himself, but also on behalf of his fellow-workman. In his

tenderly and

him good books, as well as most The earnestly conversing with him. result was that William Carey's mind underwent a
solicitude he lent

great change, but the light by which he should see himself a helpless sinner and Christ an all-sufficient

He Saviour had not yet shone into his heart. endeavoured to quiet his conscience by a diligent He became observance of the forms of worship. about to establish a exceedingly zealous, going his He to of own. resolved righteousness go regularly to three churches in the day, and to a prayermeeting at the meeting-house in the evening. He meditated much, trying to form a satiscreed. Whilst he was thus encouraging his factory self-righteousness, he made the acquaintance, as before mentioned, of a follower of the Rev. William " Law, in conversation with whom he was affected in B
read and

I was. Ryland " Pray. and when I was alone this anxiety increased. I trust. a few times. he attended. "The conversation. brought to depend on a crucified Saviour for pardon and salvation. George Smith records that the good man : replied I am surprised as well as gratified at your message from Dr." he says. It is not unlikely that William Carey was induced to go and hear Scott because of the acquaintance he had already made with him. to Dr. my rather though irregular excursions prayed in his presence. give my best wrote thus Carey thanks to dear Mr.. When passing through Hackleton that minister had rested at his A short time before Scott's death master's house. &c." In his desire to inform his mind upon the truths of religion. preacher seems to have been so helpful as the Rev. of the Synod of Dort. as . as far as he was able. the Of these no preaching of surrounding ministers. Scott for his translation of the : History. and his sensible I often conversed and endeavoured to answer and pertinent inquiries when at Hackleton. He felt himself a manner which was new to him. who succeeded the equally well known John Newton in the living of Olney. I owe much of it to could " preaching when I first set out in the ways of the Lord. But to have suggested even a single useful hint to such a mind as his must be considered as a high privilege and matter of gratitude. and then." About this time a small church was being formed . I would write to him his if I of the command time. and to seek a system of doctrines in the Word of God. by these means.1 8 WILLIAM CAREY." Dr." ruined and helpless. the commentator. He far as heard I me preach only in know. " filled me with anxiety. Carey. If there be anything work of God in my soul. Thomas Scott.

which in after . Its title " " it was written with is. and evidently with the approbation of his fellow-members. Hall." Circumstances now arose which led to his marriage with Dorothy Placket. he ever treated her with noble tenderness. found all that arranged and illustrated which I I do not I had so long been picking up by scraps. experimental. . to my great injury. they sometimes applauded. Skinner of Towcester." says Carey.HIS EARLY YEARS. "in which. the object of removing various stumbling-blocks out of the way relating to doctrinal. It is interesting to " note how he Being ignorant. At some of the which of a took the form kind of conference. Help to Zion's Travellers . shop-mate preserved from whose widow was obtained and eventually deposited in the . refers to this approval. Carey put over his shop a years his old it new sign-board. in 1 9 humble meeting-house at Hackleton. though Carey had little sympathy with her husband's tastes. and his fellow-workman. the responsibility of Carey took shared this step being by the widow's sister. over the busines^. the author being the elder Robert This volume was given to him by a Mr. and this before he was twenty In consequence of his master's death years of age. helped to compose with Carey. the Carey would speak. the identical copy of which may now be seen in the library of the Baptist College at Bristol. Mrs. and practical religion ." Among the books coming into his hands was a work. remember ever to have read any book with such " rapture as I did that. the said The marriage did not prove suitable but Dorothy. The business having thus changed hands. services. this little Christian community. and though her predisposition to mental disease was the occasion of constant anxiety.

Before. Fever His little daughter in her second entered his home.20 WILLIAM CAREY. with some friends in his native village. Starvation staring him in the face. he opened an evening school. a place close by. from down. where. was inscribed with : own hand. Domestic and business troubles soon arose. though so poor was he. he attended the meetings of the Association held at Qlney. who was only a youth. though which he suffered for more than a year and a-half. By their timely aid he was . is of the writing now illegible. his brother. taken from him he himself was smitten was year and he recovered. enabled to take a little cottage in Piddington. this removal to his new home. It is college in Regent's Park. however. In his straits he was compelled to part with such things as he could anyhow spare to provide for daily wants. besides continuing his shoemaking. that he had to fast all . His trade was carried on with much difficulty. came to his relief. ague followed. The following a facsimile — his CAREY The rest S SIGN-BOARD.

As far as is known. Mr. being desirous to form themselves into a Christian Church. and though a reserved man. Carey complied why he could He thought it was because he had not not tell. Carey from that date began to gifts as a preacher with greater In the evening the Independent minister. The day was further of importance.HIS EARLY YEARS. this was the first time the two men met. The Christian people in his native village. His mother which he agreed to do once a month. 21 The day. occasion was eventful. knowing him slightly. hearing of his preaching. Shortly after they did so. because as the result of — — what took exercise his regularity. Thus began an occasional ministry which extended over a tion. invited him with some friends from Earls Barton to come to his house own In course of conversaMr. having no means to procure a dinner. the Baptist minister at Olney. declaring that if spared he would one day become a great preacher. His father. desired him to come to them also. for one of the preachers was none other than the future Secretary of the Missionary Society Andrew Fuller who was fulfilling his ministry with so much promise at Soham. a sufficient degree of confidence to refuse. conon one occasion to hear him clandestinely. went to hear him. the parish clerk. The friends at Earls Barton. He not only gave them the benefit of his . place. . and then without any personal acquaintance. expressed himself as highly gratified. invited Mr. to advise them upon the matter. Chater urged these Barton friends to ask William Carey to preach at their chapel. trived not wishing to be seen in the congregation. and partake of refreshment. and formed no mean idea of her son's ability. Chater. Sutcliff. period of three years and a-half.

1785. he united himself with the church at Olney." and to be appointed to the ministry more regular way. Mr." This evening our Church Meeting. of invited by the Church to once next Lord's Day. "Aug." God in His providence might call . wise counsels but very affectionately recommended Carey to connect himself with "some respectable " in a church. and having given a satisfactory account of the work of God upon He had been his soul." Acting upon this advice. and sent out by the Church to preach the Gospel wherever him. Ryland jun. formerly baptised Northampton. 10. W. and was by body of Christians formally set apart for the work of the ministry. that Church Meeting. Carey (see "June 14. June 17) appeared before the Church. Two extracts from the Olney Church book will appropriately close this chapter.oo WILLIAM CAREY. he was admitted a member. preach in public He was by the Rev. brother William Carey was called to the work of the ministry.

The church was in June. Mr. jun. for the most they could offer him as a stipend was . when Mr. Ryland. 1785 and not until after more " than a year of probationary preaching was it agreed universally to call their minister.CHAPTER HIS LIFE AT II. four miles for the more distant from the latter town — — regular exercise of Carey's ministerial members of the Baptist Church who services gifts. Mr. Carey. which sum was afterwards supplemented by a little had indeed grant of £5 from a fund in London. according to the custom then prevailing. Sutcliff 23 . August 1st. steps leading to his settlement. the ordination took place. Six months after its acceptance. SPHERE A soon presented itself in Moulton a village through which the high road passes from Kettering to Northampton." consideration. asked the questions. to the Three months the call was under office of pastor. were marked with extreme The first communication from the deliberation. on . MOULTON AND LEICESTER. The his desired of this world's goods. 1787.£10 per annum.

24 WILLIAM CAREY." The attempt to supplement his stipend by teaching was soon frustrated by the return of the schoolmaster. His circumstances. but a schoolmaster having recently left the village. therefore. . It is questionable. God should it into the heart of any Christian friends at a distance to assist us in our distress and necessity. attempting a collection among ourselves. as it is doubtful whether the school pence ever amounted to more than seven and sixpence per week. will bring vividly before the mind his " We are all so poor that upon temporal position.. and Mr. renders it impossible for us to send him far abroad to collect the contributions of the charitable as we are able to raise him but about ten pounds per annum. Mr. An extract from an appeal for help. if he was to leave home to collect . obvious that the income to be derived from the offerings of the poor Baptist community at Moulton It is would be insufficient for the support of Carey's family. to the care of the Rev. Northampton. he must probably quit his situation for want of a maintenance. delivered the charge to the minister. whether in any circumstances his school would have succeeded for though collect for us. If. we put would beg of them to remit the money.. however. Carey. that they may Mr. however. so that he is obliged to keep a . we could raise but a few shillings above two pounds . Fuller to the people. school for his support and as there are two other schools in the town. Ryland in Gyles's Street. when an increasing congregation made an enlargement of the meeting-house a necessity. . at the same time the peculiar situation of our minister. there seemed a good prospect of adding to his slender means by teaching. for the building. . were not very materially improved.

with a fresh supply of leather. he had less in the imparting of it. had much less faculty for This seems to have teaching than for acquiring." shown itself in the imperfect discipline of the boys.HIS LIFE AT MOULTON AND LEICESTER. Conscious that he was sadly wanting in the requisite When humorously observe. the boys kept me. Propagation Societies " The English and Scotch rather to sought provide " . for trade as a shoemaker his fdrmer experiences gave him little encouragement He to re-commence business on his own account. it was surely this idea of the evangelisation of the heathen world. such as Eliot and Brainerd and Schwartz. " William Carey had no predecessor in India as the first ordained Englishman who was sent . probably. he was compelled to resume his but not as his own master. 25 he had extraordinary power in the acquisition of " He knowledge. spiritual aid for the Colonists and the Highlanders and again. As Dr. though if ever an idea was originated in any man by the Spirit of God." His school failing. sought and obtained work from a Government contractor in Northampton and once a fortnight the village pastor might have been seen trudging along the road with his bag of boots. should not be forgotten here that whilst Carey is " The Father of Modern Missions." says his " sister. George Smith observes. But by this time his mind and heart were becoming is It engrossed with the great missionary idea. and then returning sternness. he would " ." tryly described as other noble men. its was due that to the inception probable reading of Cook's Voyages. object of sending the Gospel to the heathen. I kept the school. . had themselves been missionaries but no Society had as yet been originated for the definite It .

of the joy it would occasion if other Christian Societies. " The Gospel worthy of all Acceptation. when especially the spread of the Gospel to the most distant parts of the habitable globe was to be the object of most fervent request. who in 1777." argued Carey when he had read Fuller's work. and one of them became the Company's botanist in Madras at the — Dr. " it be the duty of all men." the issue of which work was a most needed and most powerful antidote to the antinomianism so rife amongst the Churches. The reading of the pamphlet by the ministers of the Northamptonshire Association resulted in a resolution to set apart an hour for first prayer on the Monday in every month.26 to WILLIAM CAREY. and the other by Andrew Fuller. to believe unto salvation. and Patna. entitled "An humble attempt to promote explicit agree- A ment and visible union of God's people in extra- ordinary prayer for the revival of religion and the advancement of Christ's kingdom on earth. an expression being added. one by Jonathan Edwards. copy of the first. . considerable prominence should be given to two publications." came into Carey's hands. had soon withdrawn them. as a missionary he had no predecessor in it Bengal and Hindoostan proper as the first missionary Even the Moravians. " If. where the Gospel comes. in the catholicity of their hearts. had sent two brethren to Serampore. not alone of their denomination. Heyne. would unite with them. Carey practically stood alone first. from any land to the people. The other publication was Andrew Fuller's. then it is the duty of those who are entrusted with the Gospel to endeavour to make it known among all nations for the obedience ." In any account of the origin of the Baptist Missionary Society. Calcutta.

the more convinced he became that a solemn responsibility rested upon Christians to send forth a this could knowledge of the glad tidings. This he did with such acceptance. in his school. one of these Mr. and also the they might know each other more intimately. now to be the problem of The idea kindled within him It was with him as he taught and as he worked on his bench. I saw hanging up against the wall a very large map." MOULTON AND LEICESTER." His settlement at Moulton brought Carey into frequent contact with the ministers of the association with which his Church was connected. Fuller on with began friendship occasions though. that on his descending from the pulpit. he had previously heard him preach at Olney. Carey was requested to take his place. . How be done came his constant thought." says Fuller. Carey lost no opportunity that arose in private conversation to urge upon his brethren the great question with which his At own thoughts were ever absorbed. &c. on which he had drawn with a pen a place for every nation in the known world. these meetings of the ministers. It gave tone to his sermons as it burdened his prayers. relative to its population.HIS LIFE AT of faith. " " on going into the room I remember. and entered into it whatever he had met with in reading. where he employed himself at his business. 2J The more Carey brooded over the religious condition of the world. attended their . expressing the pleasure agreement in sentiment. He did not. Fuller seized he felt at their hope that him by the hand. He of course His life-long periodic meetings. as a fire that burned. as we have seen in the preceding chapter. consisting of several sheets of paper pasted together by himself. The appointed preacher failing to appear. religion.

pondered these things in his heart. including the gift of tongues. that certainly nothing could be done before another Pentecost. Carey had mentioned the subject openly. should each propose a question for Mr.28 WILLIAM CAREY. Morris. Carey pleaded several general discussion. went to a ministers' meeting at Northampton. Mr. — Towards the services close of the evening. This was the enthusiast for asking such a question first time Mr. Mr. At length he submitted. Mr. and he was greatly abashed and mortified but he ! . accompanied by another minister of the same age and standing with himself. when the public were ended. . 'Whether the command " given to the apostles to teach all nations. in the An ever memor- We give the story words of Mr. offered several encouraging remarks. and recommended it to still him to pursue his inquiries. Carey and his friend. demanded that the two junior ministers. but however. with- out waiting for the judgment of the company. Fuller at the same time sympathised with him. but a question was imperiously demanded. Carey." was not obligatory on all succeeding ministers to the end of the world. and the company engaged in a desultory conversation. excuses. meet with the sympathy he desired whether they would hear or forbear to hear. Mr. and. he could not but continue his importunity. the minister at Clipstone: "Before the end of 1786. able scene must now be narrated. with his accustomed freedom. Ryland senior entered the room. seeing that the accompanying promise was of equal extent ? ' " The querist was soon told by his interrogator. when an effusion of miraculous gifts. would give effect to the commission of Christ as at first and that he was a most miserable ." visit During a Carey had paid to Birmingham .

call was accepted and Ryland again. But though his change of residence was in many respects a great advantage. on which account we appointed to meet every Monday evening for prayer on that affair." " said Mr. and so again we see him com- resume school teaching. coming to his formal induction. whose books were freely ." — The his brethren. were placed at his disposal. the church which hereafter was gifted will favoured with the ministrations of the pre-eminently Robert Hall. Carey made the important communication to his Moulton friends that he had received an invitation to the pastorate of Harvey Lane Church. bringing him into association with men of culture. Robinson.HIS LIFE AT MOULTON AND LEICESTER. Fuller. this gentle- man urged him to publish it. in due course. I am a Dissenter and you are a Churchman. In the April of 1789. with Pearce of Birmingham. Having informed him in the course of conversation that he had a manuscript upon the subject of missions. Mr. who had been in considerable straits for want of maintenance. Whilst at Leicester he enjoyed an intimate friendship with the rector of St. he made the acquaintance of a Mr. Mary's. We must each endeavour pelled to . yet his material circumstances little improved. the evangelical Thomas Robinson. Potts. Carey on a certain occasion. SutclifT. Between the two men there was " the most cordial understanding. generously offering the sum of £10 for that purpose — but the time for publication was not yet. 29 probably on behalf of the Moulton Chapel debt. The entry in the church-book : be read with interest " April 2nd Our beloved pastor. informed us that the church at Leicester had given him an invitation to make trial with them. from whom he met with the warmest sympathy. in Leicester.

When the annual meetings of the association came round again this year to be held at Nottingham Carey was one of the preachers. A of the heathen. do good according to our light. held at Clipstone. 2 and 3. the preachers were Mr. " that the following resolution was arrived at That against the next meeting of ministers at Kettering. and hoping that his hour had come. Beeby Wallis's back parlour." The course of events was now rapidly moving towards the formation of the Missionary Society. being." The meeting was duly held on the 2nd of October. The two divisions. . deeply moved. a Society had then and there been started. " The pernicious influence of most solemn feeling delay in matters of religion/' pervaded the assembly. "Jealousy for the Lord M of Hosts the latter. At the association meetings in 1791. He chose for his text Isaiah to be the — — liv. a plan should be prepared for the purpose of forming : — a society for propagating the Gospel among the heathen. when the public services of the day were ended. Sutcliff and Mr." "Attempt great things for God" The impression made by the discourse was so decided. in Mrs. urged the brethren no longer to delay in the matter of the evangelisation . . The brethren separated with the request that Carey should publish what it was known he had written upon the subject. ness that Such was the it effect of his earnestcounsels. had not been for SutclifT's recommending further consideration. hereafter motto of the Society. " Expect great things from God. At the same time you may be assured that I had rather be the instrument of converting a scavenger that sweeps the streets than of merely proselytising the richest and best characters in your congregation. 1792 and. Carey.30 to WILLIAM CAREY. Fuller the former taking as his subject. .

o G in Z c < n X IT. o 2 > •< O o M — > en O fm r-*^B»jfw ?ip .

In which the religious state of the different nations of the world. solemn vows were uttered. Carey promised that whatever profits might result from the publication of his manuscript should be added to the fund which the collection had started.£13. the success of former undertakings. It is too in to these must content long reproduce pages. was made." A more accurate and complete treatise could scarcely have been written. . Mr. and the practicability of further undertakings. 2s. We ourselves with simply saying that every word is worthy of consideration at the present day. plans were submitted and approved. bearing the title of " An Inquiry into the obligations of Christians. and Mr. a collection of . Hogg of Thrapston. By William Carey. As soon as possible it was printed. 6d. Fuller was appointed Secretary. are considered. Before separating. though published nearly a century ago. the ministers having retired for prayer. Treasurer.32 WILLIAM CAREY. being by no means out of date. to use means for the conversion of the heathens. and so the great missionary enterprise was duly inaugurated.

and who. in meetings a letter was be attention was which directed to a Mr. Pearce from its ': at Birmingham. and " a surprising funds being increased by sum of £yo obtained by Mr. during his residence in that country. Carey. Thomas. being largely encouraged and to who was unable supported by that truly Christian man.CHAPTER III. present. had engaged to a considerable extent in evangelistic labours. AND STARTS FOR INDIA. and where a suitable missionary or missionaries friends should be found ? At one of the business received from Mr. who in 1783 had gone out to India in the East India Company's service as surgeon on board the Oxford . HE OFFERS HIMSELF AS A MISSIONARY. Charles c 33 ." This being done. a statement for inand formation appeal was drawn up by the Committee and "addressed to their fellow Christians at large. Mr. the vital questions arose in what part of heathendom their operations should begin. THE Society being now formally organised.

solemnly engaged to him to do. Mr. Thomas was now England. This led that Brother Thomas should send a to a request narrative of himself and of his labours in India and in — ." Whilst the brethren were thus deliberating." was the " but remember that you. and Ryland. "we explore "I will . as deep as the centre of the will venture to asked. to which The congregation Carey had ministered . the Committee engaging to furnish him " with a companion." instant reply of Carey " must hold addressing Fuller." "This. The letter stated that Mr. if a suitable one could be obtained. SutclifT." When " it ? he was a gold mine in India. who should appear upon the scene but Thomas himself When Carey beheld his future colleague he rose and fell on his neck and wept. afterwards said the ropes. and that he was trying to establish a fund in London for a mission to Bengal. ! now definitely accepted. Having been impressed by perusing Mr.34 Grant. missionaries being difficulties commenced. all due inquiries. Thomas was invited to go out under the patronage of the Society. The circumstances in which made are now historic." Fuller. pledging ourselves never to desert him as long as we should live. Thomas's account greatly of the religious condition of the heathen. also to a resolution that the Secretary should make The result being satisfactory. for their departure were at once set on preparations but no sooner did they begin practically to foot carry out the great object of the enterprise than their The two . Andrew the offer was Fuller remarked that but it seemed almost earth. WILLIAM CAREY. there " "Who venture to go down." No offered his sooner was that resolution passed than Carey own services. Carey suggested that it might be desirable to co-operate.

I could not turn power all other considerations. " Their sorrows shall be multiplied that hasten . ever. Carey to accompany her husband. ." And upon for the " their pastor leaving they made an entry in their church book. 3$ Thomas and lose the services of their pastor and Sutcliff had to visit Leicester to With many heart-pangs his congregation consented to the severance. I would freely as Ryde. In Leicester. own souls. " duty prevailing. His representations But whilst his and entreaties were of no avail. referring to this hindrance. A greater difficulty arose in the reluctance of Mrs. keenly he felt may be seen in the manner in which he wrote to his wife when he had proceeded as far " If I had all the world. I love them dearly and pray for them conBe assured I love you most affectionately. Thomas himself preached from the .HE OFFERS HIMSELF AS A MISSIONARY. Tell my dear back without guilt on my soul. of the members. howsecuring a passage for the missionaries. We have been praying. some account must here be given of the valedictory services held at The forenoon was devoted to prayer. give it all to have you and the dear children with me but the sense of duty is so strong as to over. the afternoon. the prospect of a possible How life-long separation cost him unutterable grief. a sense of conciliate his hearers. so that his love to his poor miserable fellow creatures might be put on record at the same time stating that whilst they concurred with him." stantly." said one spread of Christ's Kingdom the and now God requires us to heathen. determination never wavered. it was at the expense of losing one whom they loved as their . words. But the greatest of all the difficulties was that of Before. amongst make the first sacrifice to accomplish it. children. . was loath to so .

which allotted to me. it is that . ye blessed of my Father these were hungry and you fed them athirst. in prison. Nevertheless. Come. and you visited them in .36 after WILLIAM CAREY. glory await you We my dear brethren. Peace be having unto you will . enter ye into the joy of your Lord. was urged to communicate with Mr. . in such a And these were the concluding glorious cause. the Rev. and leave all my friends and connections. having removed from Olney to the chaplaincy of Lock's Hospital. was brought to bear upon the East India Influence Company. as my Father sent Me so send I you." remarks " : Go then. Each. Carey's old friend. . I must acknowledge parting that the hope of your undertakings being crowned is with success. Every part of the solemnities of this day must needs be affecting but if there be one part which is more so than the rest. I trust. and you gave them drink us. As it became evident that no license was likely to be obtained. then at the India House. ing " My very dear brethren. myself. I could. will be addressed at the last day by our great Redeemer. great difficulties soon presented themselves. so at least I think. " the seraphic Pearce. but to no purpose." In the evening." not permit us to give more than the openSpace and closing sentences of this solemn address. departure. Pearce. 4 ' these prospects. stimulated by shall meet again. Charles Grant. the Secretary. " delivered the parting charge. who as of to the means accompanied them. it was resolved to go if possible without one. the Treasurer discoursed. go without a tear. another god. delivering to you a solemn address." On aries inquiry being made London by " the mission- and Mr. swallows up all my sorrows. from the text. Andrew Fuller. Crowns of and . Thomas Scott. .

Thomas. No. be laid against him. Carey at once sent the bad news to Fuller." afraid. The day Isle of fixed for the departure 1793. It is well if the ^250 for the voyage be not lost. induced God him for a consideration of ^250 to take the missionary The party consisted of party on board his vessel. The result was that a waiter put into his hand a card on which he read: "A Danish East Indiaman. but the vessel was the 3rd of April. who had agreed to accompany his father. and their child. aries With heavy hearts the missionfound their way back to London. Thomas went to a coffee-house to make inquiries whether any Swedish or Danish ship was likely to sail for Bengal. And whilst Carey was writing to his wife. » 37 In such a matter they believed they ought to obey rather than man. 10 Cannon Street" . to their bitter disappointment." But a Divine Providence was overruling all these trying circumstances. " to I am he wrote undone. also Carey and Felix his son. when. Under these circumstances.STARTS FOR INDIA. who had Thomas and Carey. with those belonging to them. she . Ryland. Mrs. information would and that Directors. leave will never be obtained for Carey or any other. himself. after all the inconvenience and. The adventure seems to be lost. and " We are all Fuller almost gave way to despair. and expense of the to proceed. was about to the effect that his ship it was known a person was going in not obtained a licence from the if he remained. were compelled to quit the vessel. Thomas. knowing the captain of the Oxford. now. was delayed for weeks off the Wight . the missionaries were from the ship an anonymous summarily ejected communication having been received by the captain delay. which was then in the Thames.

But Thomas was so fortunate in his negotiations with the captain. Carey and Thomas at once repaired. and £$ of his own but a bill had been sent up to Mr. and between £4. Ryland at once sat down and wrote letters to John Newton. the village where they had formerly lived. was actually the case for. begging them to find the rest of the money on promise of repayment. Carey also hoped that as he would have the opportunity of seeing Mrs. At nine Oxford. And such. This being insufficient. if possible. and the passage money to ^700. suggesting such arrange. however. Carey had only obtained £\%o of the ^"250 paid for their passage on the There was no time to spare. to secure. to whom the missionaries went on their arrival at Northampton. and £2$ for an attendant. as the party would now be increased to eight persons. Fawcett (the author of " " and other well Religion is the Chief Concern known hymns) for £200. and Dr. Rippon. involved a very large additional expense. her objection to going with him might be overcome. The easily o'clock at night the two men started for Northampton. The East Indiaman was expected shortly in the Dover Roads. This pleasing decision. her consent. who had removed from Olney to London. To No. who had removed from Leicester to Piddington. had only about £g belonging to the mission. she was willing to give . Carey again. Fuller. to Abraham Booth.38 WILLIAM CAREY. £50 for a child. intimation was correct. 10 Cannon The Street. from Yorkshire. the requisite money. on the condition that her sister should go with them. to his great relief and joy. . Ryland. by Mr. The terms would be £100 for a passenger. effect of those magic words may be more imagined than described. Mr. Mr.

on June 13th. after some further difficulty in getting the luggage. —the guns ! London. that the world might taste and see The riches of His grace ! The arms of love that compass me Would all mankind embrace " ! — he said " : Africa is but a little way from England. And so. sisters. ship here ! The signal made . is the 9th of November that the reached Calcutta.STARTS FOR INDIA. severe storms having been encountered. Madagascar but a little farther. The time on board ship was largely spent by Carey was not until in familiarising himself under Thomas's tuition with the Bengalee language. " for time and eternity most affectionately. Fare- well. South America and all the numerous and large islands in the India and . on board the Kron Princessa Maria. adieu God In these days of facility of travel. fired — and we are going with a my dear brethren and . are fine fair wind. to Dover in time for the sailing of the vessel. after a somewhat missionary party unfavourable voyage. which had been left at Portsmouth. It it Bombay may be accomplished not easy to realise the tediousness and inconvenience involved in a five months' passage. farewell May ! the of Jacob be ours and yours by sea and land. 39 ments as to accommodation that he agreed to take the whole party for three hundred guineas. His enthusiasm for the great work upon which he had gone forth increased as he approached Calcutta. when a voyage in from London to three weeks. 1793. the missionaries and their families eventually . started for the land of their adoption " Thomas is scribbling to a friend in The . Writing home to the secretary with an enlarging heart a heart like Wesley's when he wrote — : " Oh.

Oh. I hope." . that many labourers may be thrust out into the vineyard of our Lord Jesus Christ. opens on every side.40 China WILLIAM CAREY. and that the Gentiles may come to the knowfield ledge of the truth as it is in Him. will not be passed over. A large seas.

the serious consequences of these failings.CHAPTER IV. The £150 granted by 41 the . These pecuniary obligations not only embarrassed the circumstances of the missionaries. with all his excellences. but estranged from Thomas. On reaching Calcutta the first necessity was to realise their investments. As one of . Thomas had involved himself in debt. that the early trials of the mission were aggravated by the above named defects. Carey's tender affection for his colleague and high regard for his sincerity and devotion are beyond all question but there is equally no question. Thomas was so conspicuously THOUGH characterised. it must be confessed the latter had frequent occasion to lament that impetuosity and want of sound judgment by which. during his previous residence in India. Thomas's knowledge of India was an advantage to Carey as he entered into a strange land. FIRST EXPERIENCES. and as well from Carey. some European Christians who probably would otherwise have been their warmest friends.

however. go together and in general I should think best that they should be married men. afforded the place development of opportunity for the most ideas. and. with their wives and families. necessaries of would not be so great as may though we could not procure appear we might procure such as the European food. the missionaries removed to Bandel. profession and Carey had the prospect of securing a realised to . at first sight for themselves. to it might be necessary. Thomas undertook their re-sale and advantage. Company's Botanical Garden. an extract may be given showing for no the : his views upon " missionaries. The vacancy. Society for their support had been invested in articles of merchandise. to It . in which upon review he expressed his " A missionary must be continued approval of them one of the companions and equals of the people to whom he is sent. as The change was not advantageous. What were these ideas ? He had stated them in his pamphlet They may be summed up in his own terse phrase. prevent their time necessaries. being employed in procuring two or more other persons. a village close to the town of Hooghly. at least. yet natives of those countries which we visit subsist upon life. At first it appeared as if circumstances would favour their settlement in the Thomas was advised to pursue his medical city. being found too expensive for their resources." But whilst we must content ourselves with this admirable summary. as a place of residence. however. became filled by another applicant. being missionary great Carey's part a place of resort for Europeans from Calcutta. might also accompany them. situation at the Calcutta. who . As the question of the subsistence of to the difficulty of procuring the this . for two.42 WILLIAM CAREY.

.

so Thomas and Carey returned to Calcutta. Those who attend the missionaries should understand husbandry. yet so small a number would. which would be a resource to them. which has always attended supplies failed. just for their support. The trials which Carey at this time had to endure were many and bitter. no Christian friend. it would take off the enormous expense. &c. but in no period had he been brought to such straits as those he now experienced. and be provided with the necessary implements for these purposes. The time for their application had not yet come. should be wholly employed in providing for them. and nothing to supply their wants. In most countries it would be necessary for them to cultivate a little spot of ground. where indeed Carey hoped to have built himself a hut. What pathos is there in this lamentation " I am in a strange land alone. upon receiving the first crop. They would have the advantage of choosing their situation. On their return to the city . the first expense being the whole for though a large colony needs support for a considerable time. theif wants would be few the women and even the children would be necessary for domestic purposes. fishing. We have seen that in his earlier life he was no stranger to poverty. fowling. undertakings of this kind." . .44 WILLIAM CAREY. ." And besides : Thomas's . Bandel afforded no facility whatever for proceeding upon these missionary principles. after visiting for a short time a place called Nuddea. practice as a doctor Thomas resumed his and Carey obtained from one of money-lenders the use of a miserable garden-house in one of the suburbs. whenever their Not to mention the advantage they would reap from each other's company. . and to have lived like the natives. . a large family. maintain themselves.

FIRST EXPERIENCES.
these
straitened

45

means, his wife and two of his

children were attacked with dysentery. But with all these adversities there was no failing of heart. His

He knew whom he holy courage never flinched. " " All my friends are but one wrote this trusted.
undaunted hero, " I rejoice, however, that He is all sufficient, and can supply all my wants temporal and Things may turn out better than I expect. spiritual. Everything is known to God, and God cares for the mission. Oh for contentment and delight in God, and Bless God, I feel much of His fear before my eyes and in within, rejoice having undertaken the peace
!

work.
far

I

know

anxiously desire the time when I shall* so the language, as to preach in earnest to

these poor people." Ever since his arrival in the country, Carey had been under the tuition of Ram Bosoo, one of Thomas's
inquirers,

with

vernacular.

to the acquisition of the the absence of Thomas from During

a

view

India, this man in very trying circumstances had fallen again into idolatry, but Carey believing that he was

him as his pundit and under his teaching he made, as was only to be expected from his linguistic abilities, the most satisfactory progress. Whilst in Calcutta, Carey heard of some land in the
penitent engaged
;

Soonderbuns, which

it

would be possible to secure

gratis for three years, a small rent being required It was jungleafter the expiration of that period.

land and would of course need to be cleared.

The

use of a bungalow, at a place called Dehatta, was offered him until such time as he could get a

dwelling-house made for himself and his family. He was most anxious to accept this offer, but how could he reach Dehatta without means ? Again and again he endeavoured to borrow the requisite funds. At

46

WILLIAM CAREY.

Bosoo as his guide, he set out in a length, with boat, taking with him his family, whose reluctance to leave Calcutta and go forth not knowing whither
they went added to the bitterness of his cup. When they had proceeded about forty miles in an easterly direction, a house apparently English-built

Ram

Upon Ram Bosoo stating was occupied by an English gentleman, Carey resolved to call upon him. And with that hospitableness for which Europeans have been generally
attracted their attention.

that

it

distinguished,

the gentleman gave the missionary " a most party hearty welcome, telling Carey that he might stop for half-a-year or longer if he pleased." Notwithstanding this kind invitation, a suitable

spot in the jungle-land was selected, the land was cleared and very soon a hut was in process
of
"

erection.

Describing
is

the

place,

Carey

wrote,

an excellent soil, it has been lately almost deserted, on account of the tigers and other beasts of prey which infest the place but these are all afraid of a gun, and will soon be the people therefore are not afraid when expelled a European is nigh. We shall have all the necessaries of life except bread, for which rice must be a substitute. Wild hogs, deer and fowl are to be procured by the gun and must supply us with a considerable I find an inconvenience in part of our food. having so much of my time necessarily taken up in procuring But when provisions, and cultivating my little farm. little is I shall house have more leisure built, my than at present, and have daily opportunities of conversing with the natives and pursuing the work of

Although the country

;

;

the Mission."

was not, however, in the Soonderbuns that God, in Carey was to pursue his missionary life.
It

FIRST EXPERIENCES.

47

His providence, was about to direct his course At Malda, some 200 miles distant, was elsewhere. a Mr. George Udny. This Christian gentleman had
been a warm friend of Thomas, contributing, during his former residence in India, very largely to his The aid, however, had been withdrawn support.

owing to Thomas's eccentricities. But a sad calamity occurred in Mr. Udny's family, his brother and his brother's wife having been drowned whilst crossing
the Hooghly. Thomas, hearing of the incident, at once repaired to his former friend. Notwithstanding the estrangement that had arisen, the interview was of a most truly Christian character, and resulted* in the old intimacy being renewed. This visit of conso-

had most important results. Udny was an indigo manufacturer and at this particular time was erecting two additional factories which would each require a manager. The positions were offered respectively to Carey and Thomas. The offers, being regarded as providential, were accepted; and so the two men proceeded to their new abodes, Carey feeling as if he were released
lation

Mr.

;

This took place in June, 1794. factory which Carey was to superintend was at Mudnabatty; and besides a salary of 200 rupees per month, he was promised a commission upon the No sooner did he find himself in these favoursales. able circumstances than he at once communicated with Mr. Fuller, the Secretary of the Society, that he should not need any more supplies, having a sufficiency, but expressing the hope that another mission would be begun elsewhere. The duties at the factory allowed time for his other pursuits, indeed he was at leisure the greater part of from prison.

The

the year for the business of the Mission.

The

capacity

vigorously at his translation. and my wife and I had agreed to do it ourselves. that in August of the same year he wrote to England " I intend to send : you soon a copy of Genesis. people. . And as he did not recover. Peter. No one would undertake it alone. Udny proposed that he and Thomas should go in his pinnace towards Thibet at the same time search was to be made for eligible spots where other factories might be built. when a lad who had lost caste and our mater (a servant who performs the most servile .Y. but in vain. he remarks " : owing — little to the superstitions of the I When my in dear to boy died could not prevail upon any one carpenters I make him a coffin. now most He made such progress in Bengalee as to be able to preach intelligibly half-anhour together. Fever prostrated him. We sent seven or eight miles for two persons to carry him to the grave. The fever did not leave return. that they might all have an equal share of shame. His occupation taking him frequently into the surrounding country. which he never failed to He commenced a school. Mark. and worked so improve. Referring to the difficulty attending the burial of his child. a child of five years. work which had ever distinguished him became conspicuous. and James in Bengalee. with a small vocabulary and grammar of the language in manuscript. of my own composing." In the following month these prodigious labours were interrupted by illness. Matthew. him until a month after his But though he recovered himself. though we had our own employ.48 for WILLIAM CARF. he had opportunities for speaking to the natives. With difficulty engaged four Mussulmen to dig a grave for him. Mr. he was called to part with his little boy. and therefore so many of them went together.

were induced to relieve us from this painful This was on Saturday. and the nature of the lowest rate of housekeeping in this country. Having had a monthly allowance. owing to circumstances over which he had no control bad seasons. We ought to be seven or eight families together and it is absolutely necessary for . the seizure of a very valuable cargo Carey continued Sometime previous — privateers. I then earnestly entreat the Society to set their faces this way and send out more missionaries. . I know now all : — the methods of agriculture that are in use. if this method be pursued. disastrous floods. I know the tricks of the natives. so as D . Seven or eight families can be maintained for nearly the same expense as one. or head man to eat. and on Monday the four Mussulmen came and told us they had lost caste for digging the grave. to this date. Fuller obtained here. offices) 49 service. or of their village. and the failure of his brother Mr.FIRST EXPERIENCES. and that the Mundul. Our families should be considered nurseries for the Mission . I have made all experiments on these heads. I look upon as the very thing which will tend to support the Mission. Carey wrote in by French — " The experience the following strain to Mr. drink. Udny's commercial position had become seriously affected. and I will now propose to you what I would recommend to the Society you will find it similar to what the Moravians do. which could not have been made without ruin had I not had these resources." at Mudnabatty until the year 1799. and among us should be a person capable of teaching school. the wives of missionaries to be as hearty in their work as their husbands. had forbidden any of the people smoke with them. And it being evident that the factory at Mudnabatty could not be continued.

Hence the Secretary had occasionally been instructed to admonish with affectionate but decided counsels. be reduced to fixed rules. . and of having nothing of our own. sent out an additional missionary in the person of Mr. but all general stock. with respect to eating. be Society. and various unforethought they seen circumstances having since occurred. which together. which for a time that we afford them substantial they have voluntarily declined. whose arrival was a cause of great encouragement." made good by the And support. a plan which was hereafter to be the foundation of the missionary and work at the celebrated Serampore. Fountain. not only was the Society willing to renew its but the committee had. One or two should be elected stewards to preside over all the management. I little recommend all living straw houses. had not fully commended themselves to certain of the Committee at home. which their ordinary render it assistance necessary — the arrears of the salary.50 to educate our WILLIAM CAREY. It is therefore all the more to the credit of the brethren in England that they should have passed the following resolution as soon as they heard of the " cessation of Carey's means of income That our brethren having in a disinterested manner declined : — income from us. in a number of should. There was a fear lest the missionaries might become too life in worldly affairs. These views as to self-support enunciated from the first in the Enquiry. previous to the passing of this resolution. at a time when they could do without it. Some of much absorbed the larger-hearted members entertained no such fear. &c. forming a line or square. worship. preaching excursions. children. drinking." Such was Carey's plan. learning.

more especially as many attend who are not our own workmen. and God is would I give for had in England. and our Mission I was much engaged for many by name. from the parts adjacent. Oh what I ! kind sympathetic friends. and many hours in which no business could be done. But I rejoice that is here. all England. For the last three in Sabbaths my soul has seeing so large a congregation. This is indeed the Valley of the Shadow to I of Death to me. whose attend- been much comforted ance must be wholly disinterested. Si Being compelled to remove from Mudnabatty. I therefore now . 1794. such as whom I might open my heart am here notwithstanding. 24-30. 3. the adventure to a speedy end.FIRST EXPERIENCES. I had intended to go and preach to more of the inhabitants of these parts. During these days. but the uttermost." "Feb. Carey opened a factory at Kidderpore on his own But events were working together to bring account. who very near my dear my heart . and was greatly affected with what might be their probable situations both spiritual and temporal." " also able to save to May 9. especially for the church at Leicester. and for lie the heathen. I found my soul drawn out after the Lord I was enabled to be instant in prayer : for the success of the success friends in of my ministry among my colleague. This chapter may fittingly close with two or three extracts from the journal which Carey kept whilst at Mudnabatty. but a return of the fever prevented me. having no one to speak to. 1795. revealing as they do the manner of man he was : — "Nov. Society. who can not only have compassion.

52 WILLIAM CAREY. and other classes of Hindoos. and Rippon " but why not from others ? . Mussulmen. and vain expectations of happiness from false and idolatrous I also took occasion to observe that both worship. a greater concern for the salvation of the heathen... "The Spirit of the Lord is from larly upon Me. my own soul warmed. of late. in the Shasters and Koran there were many good observations and rules. — how God can and forgive sin consistently with His justice. of all descriptions. and I have been enabled to make it a more importunate request at the throne of grace. may they increase more and more. in which discourse I endeavoured to prove the miserable state of unconI this verted man. such as ought to be regarded. which I look upon as a favourable token from God. rejoice in seeing a regular congregation composed of from two to six hundred people. save sinners in a way in which justice and mercy I felt could harmonize. Letters from dear brethren. Though is for the blessing of God painful to preach among careless heathens. Oh." . and by pernicious customs. because He hath anointed Me to preach the Gospel to the poor. Morris.." &c. day attempted to preach to them more reguLuke iv. as bound by a sinful disposition. but that one thing they could not inform us of viz. God has given me. I bless God that Leicester people go on well. Pearce. I hope and long it among us." " Blessed be God that we have at last received letters and other articles from our dear friends in England. . I rejoice to hear of the welfare of Zion. as spiritually poor. "June 14. and hope for good. 18. Brahmins. Fuller. I feel preaching the Gospel to be the element of my soul.

was the little Danish settlement of Serampore. prosperity. who had " to hold the ropes. by which victory the foundation of the British Empire in India was laid. fifteen above Calcutta. grew in size and influence. REMOVAL TO SERAMPORE. it had reached highest commercial led We to must now narrate the circumstances which association the of Serampore with the great missionary enterprise. at the time when it afforded protection to the its missionaries. which for many years miles ON was destined to become the home of the In the year 1755. thus originated. ment." was much solemnly promised encouraged by the deeply interesting accounts S3 . 1799. a few traders from Denmark purchased from the Nabob of Moorshedabad a plot of land consisting of twenty This settleacres.CHAPTER V. the right bank of the river Hooghly. on which they erected a factory. two years before the decisive battle of Plassey. The zeal of the godly men in this country. In missionaries.

again. The report of their arrival having been brought before the notice of the Governor. . however. and Ward the last two of whom were to form. and assured them of his protection. The hostility of the East India Company to the residence of missionaries in India had now become so decided that it was thought useless to apply to the But as in the case of Carey's so the departure.54 WILLIAM CAREY. . worthy Presbyterian. secured. An American vessel. Andrew Fuller By their were efforts no less than four new missionaries These were Grant. Grant. having been formerly under the religious instruction of the devoted Schwartz and to him they presented a letter of introduction which they had procured before their departure from the Danish Consul in London. was. most fortunately. Lord Wellesley. under the command — including besides the missionaries. and his associates were most assiduous. Charles Grant. Brunsden. The Directors for a licence. to be thus quietly effected. This excellent Christian man was not only willing to take on board the missionary party eight in number. Fountain honoured in felt himself greatly being privileged to convey such passen- — but On their arrival at Calcutta. Colonel Bie. of Mr. with Carey. a Christian man. they did not land in the city. to be married to Mr. Mrs. inquiry became to the . Mrs. Brunsden. a most was about to sail for Calcutta. The Governor. providence of God appeared on behalf of the mission. but proceeded at once Danish settlement. received from the brethren abroad. Criterion. the noble Serampore triumvirate. The Governor welcomed them with the greatest cordiality. Wickes. Their entrance into the country was not. and Miss Tidd. counsel they had received from Mr. Mrs.General. according to the gers. Marshman. Marshman.

David Brown. he granted a passassistant. with their residence at Serampore. 55 One curious mis-statement made The editor of a newspaper. and walked a mile and I felt very unusual sensaa-half to brother Carey's. in Baptist his ignorance. the inquiry urgent. after a voyage of 15. and a tedious. view is thus described This morning we left the boat. but without effect. the chaplain of the Military Orphan Society. So near to brother port to : — Carey. expressing a very strong desire that the mission should be established in the Danish settlement. It was the intention of Carey that the newly arrived missionaries should come to him at Kidderpore but this was not to be.REMOVAL TO SERAMPORE. In company with Fountain." It was thus concluded that the new comers were French spies taking advantage of Serampore as foreign Further inquiry speedily satisfied Lord territory. . announced the arrival of " four Papist missionaries. . The refusal was absolute whereupon Colonel Bie offered them a permanent home in Serampore. Ward at once proceeded to Mudnabatty. In furtherance of this project. in our present circumstances. . Carey himself was there simply as an indigo factor. who had been to Calcutta to be married to Miss Tidd. confounding with Papist. that being British territory. . the supposed Papists were very humble that Wellesley and perfectly harmless Protestants and so the four brethren were allowed to remain unmolested. brought to bear his influence. passage up the river. December 1st. . enabling him to visit Carey for the purpose of consultation. tions as I drew near the house. The inter"Lord's Day. Ward. the Company refused to permit them to proceed to Kidderpore. officially necessary. and Fountain as Carey's The Rev.000 miles. Though there was no interference .

We went to two villages on the and brother hills. I have a strong persuasion that the doctrine of a dying Saviour would. supposed by many to be the aborigines of this country. Carey was able to converse with the inhabitants in Hindoostanee. in the hands of the Holy Spirit. " brother Carey and I went up the Rajmahal hills. 1800. with in mat doors and Venetian windows. leaving. priests. pally upon They their bow and arrows with them. Carey and Ward paid several visits in the neighbourhood.56 WILLIAM CAREY. from Serasing. I long to stay here. or public religion. They live princi- and by hunting. continually carry An European would evidently be well received. ! high. ! What an interesting situation The sight of the house increased my perturbation. Carey with his wife. thirty miles almost arrived in time for morning from any European. " This day. Before . melt their hearts. and Carey became fully convinced that it would be every way to the advantage of the Mission if its seat were henceforth to be at Serampore. and." says Ward. The foot of the hills is about eight miles These people have no castes. to tell these social and untutored heathens the good news from heaven. situated a small village (Mudnabatty). and his . At length I saw Carey than I expected has rather more flesh than when in England. blessed be God he is a young man He lives in a large brick house. where a different race of people live. it consisted of an exposition in Bengalee." The next day the question of removal was discussed. two storeys still! ! . We met Harry He is less altered Charron. one of which was to the Rajmahal hills. and Indian corn listened to with eagerness." On the ioth of January. w ho was in a most trying condition of health. We worship concluding with prayer.

REMOVAL TO SERAMPORE.
four
children,

57

reached

Serampore, and

presented to the Governor,

who

received

was duly him with the

Efforts had previously been greatest friendliness. made to provide a suitable home, but in vain. It was

resolved to build six

mat
a

rooms each, a
printing-office.

school,

houses, of three or four place of worship, and a
it

The ground, however, upon which
to erect

was intended

became purchasable, and was Ward " We hoped to Again have been able to purchase land and build mat houses upon it, but we can get none properly situated. We
secured.
to quote Mr.
:

At inadequate. middle of the town

these premises was found this juncture, a large house in the

consequence purchased of the Governor's large house in the middle of the town for 6000 rupees, or about £800; the rent in four years would have amounted to the purchase. It consists of a spacious verandah (portico) and hall, with two rooms on each side. Rather more to the front are two other rooms separate, and on one side is a store-house, separate also, which will make a printingin

have

nephew a

It stands by the river side upon a pretty large piece of ground, walled round with a garden at the bottom, and in the middle is a fine tank or pool of
office.

The price alarmed us, but we had no alternaand we hope this will form a comfortable missionary settlement. Being near to Calcutta, it is of the utmost importance to our school, our press, and our connection with England." Such for many years was to be the future home of the Mission. Whilst at Mudnabatty, Carey had been fortunate in obtaining a printing-press which he had seen advertised in a Calcutta newspaper. This invaluable machine was of course removed to the new home, thereafter to render the most important service.
water.
tive,

58

WILLIAM CAREY.

To
these

celebrate the goodness of God as manifested in movements of His providence, a day was set

Before the service apart for special thanksgiving. an address to their faithful besides ended, presenting friend, the Governor of the settlement, the missionaries sent an expression of their gratitude to His Majesty,
Frederick the Sixth of Denmark, to which a most
gracious reply was returned, assuring the missionaries of the great pleasure it gave the king to have them in his territory, and promising future protection.
brief biographical notice of two of the new missionaries viz., Ward and Marshman, with whom

A

Carey was to be so intimately connected, will not be We say two ; for, in a short time after Grant and Brunsden were removed by their arrival, was also as Fountain, whose decease took place death, at Dinagepore, in which district he was seeking to In the extract in which Ward extend the Mission.
out of place.
describes his visit to Carey at Mudnabatty, it will have been observed that he referred to an earlier

acquaintance.

Just

before his

departure to India

Carey had met with William Ward, who at that time was a printer in a large establishment at Derby and with almost prophetic earnestness he had addressed him with these remarkable words, "If the Lord bless us, we shall want a person of your business to
;

enable us to print the

come

after us."

What

I hope you will Scripture influence this utterance may
;

have had in determining his after life, who can tell ? " Cast forth thy word," says Carlyle, " into the ever
living,

ever acting universe
die."

;

it

is

a seed grain that

cannot

Having thoroughly acquainted himself with every branch of the printing trade, William Ward undertook the editorship of his master's paper, The Derby

REMOVAL TO SERAMPORE.

59

Mercury, which greatly flourished under his manageThis position he relinquished for the same ment.

duty

in

editing this journal
his

connection with the Hull Advertiser. Whilst he received a visit from the

philanthropist Clarkson, with the object of enlisting sympathies on behalf of the anti-slavery movement. Very little argument was needed to secure
;

and indeed so persistently and fully did he lend his aid that his journal greatly suffered in consequence. In 1797 William Ward relinquished all
his influence his

temporal prospects, and resolved to enter the

He was recommended to become a student ministry. at Elwood Hall, the residence of the Rev. Dr. Fawcett.
"

In the midst of
"
I

my

employments and
!

pleasures," he


to

received an invitation to go to says, to leave Hull perhaps for ever

Elwood Hall
Conscience
line of life
;

commands me
combat
the cavils
;

to go, to enter

on a new
;

difficulties

dissipated of professors, half sinners half saints

and prejudices to be subject to of the bigots and the frowns of the to incur the displeasure of the mermaids
;

to live, perhaps,

on thirty pounds a year with tears to tremble
;

;

to

warn men night and day
myself should prove a

lest I

castaway." Dr. Fawcett being a

member of the Missionary Committee, and knowing how anxiously Carey was looking for helpers, very naturally considered whether any of the students under his tuition possessed the
requisite
qualifications.
It

Ward was admirably adapted conversing with him many times upon
William
"

appeared to him that and so, after
;

the subject of missions, negotiations were opened up with Mr. Fuller the result being an offer of service which was accepted.
;

I

wrote

know not whether you will be able to remember," Ward to Carey after his acceptance " a young

His services were accepted by the Society on the 16th It was a happy meeting. Neal's " in twenty quarto Candidus. but the child's eagerness for reading was most keen. man. and give me patience." new missionary was Joshua Marshman. His father was a deacon of the Baptist Church at other The The locality afforded meagre Westbury Leigh. having obtained a situation at a bookseller's in Holborn. was all alive." Milton's Paradise Lost. enough for the great work. Some others. and vital godliness . The following touching . " Don Quixote. " " History of the Puritans. His menial duties were felt to be irksome and tedious. 1798). and conversing with you on your journey to India." attaining his fifteenth year." "J ose P nus The Survey of England " in six volumes. But that person is coming to see you. Joshua left Westbury Leigh for the great Metropolis. The (October. and may be refreshed by your presence and that God may make me faithful unto death. a printer. After a three days' journey in a his his expectations.60 WILLIAM CAREY. educational advantages. fortitude. I should suppose we might have had a cargo immediately. walking with you from Rippon's Chapel one Lord's Day. and had missionaries been wanted. time in embark with I It is in the spring I hope to my heart to live and die 1 with you." &c. On waggon he reached London but employment does not appear to have answered to . zeal. to spend and be spent with you. By the time he was twelve years of age he had borrowed and read more than a hundred volumes of such works as the following Voltaire's " " — numbers. Brother Pearce set the missionary spirit whole chapel in flame. shall trust have your prayers that I may have a safe journey to you. and that person is the writer of this letter.

William .REMOVAL TO SERAMPORE. was most satisfactory. This step brought him into connection with Dr. thought that perhaps there was nothing before him but a life of drudgery. and then for some years appears The return to have assisted his father as a weaver. Three years after his marriage he undertook the trained . The fit of depression seems to have been occasioned by the sight Overcome with grief at the of Westminster Hall. he put his parcel upon the ground and sat down and sobbed but gazing around. the memorials he saw inspired him with new courage. management of a school in connection with the Broadmead Chapel at Bristol. astic duties permitting. with a braver spirit he resumed a scene is He held his situation at the Holborn bookseller's In the light of his subsequent history such surely full of pathos. and mastering his load. to the religious associations in which he had been helped to develop his Christian character he and began to exercise his gifts as a local preacher In the year 179 1 he in the surrounding villages. and his scholRyland was enabled to attend the His progress as a student . . his grief. . Such was the early history of the two men. but for a short time. he classes at the Academy. incident will be read with interest. happy one a fact which the missionaries at Serampore had abundant reason in the future to acknowledge. His choice was a most married Hannah Shepherd. The reading of the "Periodical Accounts of the Missionary Society " induced him to consider whether he ought not himself to become He was encouraged by Dr. he became suddenly overwhelmed with a feeling of sadness. a missionary. and was eventually accepted by the Committee. as he 61 On one occasion was trudging along the streets with a parcel of books for the Duke of Grafton. Ryland.

Joshua Marshman. . 62 WILLIAM CAREY. in a political sense. who has been often " the Saviour of India. be added that Marshman became the father-in-law of General Havelock.." styled. who were now to Ward and become so It may closely associated with Carey.

that Carey's missionary principles remained unaltered." things They were no doubt encouraged to enter into this . things which he possessed all was his own but they had common. circumstances considerably modified their application. THE SERAMPORE MODE OF will IT in be seen from the foregoing chapter. and was contrary to their wishes. and though future events abundantly justified the wisdom of their action. " They were of one heart.CHAPTER VI. and of one soul neither said any of them that ought of the . Instead of making their abode whilst missionaries found a mat huts. a Christian brotherhood." purchased from a nephew of the a compound of some six primitive in a " home Danish Governor. But though such a locale had never entered into their dreams. with their families. LIFE. and displayed a devotion of spirit which were in perfect accord with the simplicity and purity of their original ideal. the missionaries once instituted a manner of living. They at constituted themselves. the large house in the middle of the town. 63 .

In the "Periodical Accounts" . and then another. we do without week . 1800. One of our resolutions is that no one of us do engage in private trade but that all be done for the benefit tion. and pray.64 WILLIAM CAREY. All preach and pray in turn one superintends the affairs of the family for a month. brother Carey or to the translation. of the Mission. . and one binder. I to the printing-office. we meet with this entry in Ward's Journal: "January 18th. read . have At us press-men. not alone because of the New Testament precedent. At eight the bell rings for we assemble in the hall sing. one folder." How pleasantly these rules worked. and the whole-hearted consecraful which characterised the Serampore home. . fellowship. Felix. and from a further : : . but from what they knew of its practical working in the Moravian settlements. the affectionate esteem. Most delight- were the disinterestedness. . the humility. family worship Breakfast. Our compositor having five left us. after some seven months' " About six o'clock we rise experience of them brother Carey to his garden brother Marshman to his school at seven brother Brunsden. which we have at three. may be gathered entry. . Saturday evening is devoted to adjusting differences. we print three half-sheets of 2000 each in a . After dinner we deliver our thoughts on a text or question this we find to . . twelve o'clock we take a luncheon then most of . and has the regulation of the medicine chest brother Fountain is librarian. This week we have adopted a set of rules for the government of the family. . and pledging ourselves to love one another. read and sleep before dinner. goes reading proofs brother Marshman to school. brother Carey is treasurer. shave and bathe. and the rest to the printingoffice. Afterwards.

" Five years later the original rules were developed into a form of agreement. May." To this pleasing record we may add the opening sentence of a letter sent about this date to the Society We bless God. and have little or no supper. Bengalee preaching once or twice in the week. amongst our desire is to strive together for and that mind. and part of the day learns We meet two hours before breakfast on to bind. a more Christlike compassion and devotedness. In the afternoon. I read and try to talk We drink tea about Bengalee with the brahmin. and October. after prayer. We have seven. and the conversion of the heathen around us. if business be done in the office. or a bolder faith in God than this Serampore fraternity. keep their schools till after two. Felix is very useful in the office William goes to school. spirit of unanimity and brotherly love We trust we can say we are of one us. It is far agreement of the too copious to allow E . We question whether any document was ever published evincing at home " : : — a finer religious sympathy. a loftier spiritual ideal. we Bengal heathen. 65 Brother and sister Marshman be very profitable. the first Monday in the month. At night unite our prayers for the universal spread of the Gospel. and we hope perience a increasing. and each one prays for the salvation of the . which it was resolved should be read publicly at every station at their on the first Lord's three annual meetings. that as a family we exHis goodness in continuing.SERAMPORE MODE OF LIFE. the furtherance of the Gospel. which is always immediately after tea. Day in January. On Saturday evening we meet to compose differences and transact business. and on Thursday evening we have an experience meeting. viz.

many " respects they are far inferior to himself.66 WILLIAM CAREY. Marshman's. ANCIENT CHAIRS AT SERAMPORE. Ward's. is ill-qualified to become a missionary. Dr. . Marshman's Mr. of insertion in this volume. example of In preaching to the heathen. . We few sentences to indicate its character. we must keep to the Paul. though he may know that in Mrs. He who to draw them too proud to stoop to others. . Dr. occurring under one or other of the eleven points to which Carey and * his colleagues is pledged their adherence. the Crucified. though every line of it can only give a deserves thoughtful perusal. and make the great subject of our It would be very preaching Christ. easy for a missionary to preach nothing but truths. Carey's. in order to him. .

Oh. . CAREY S PULPIT.SERAMPORE MODE OF LIFE. at all times. in . that these DR. . The doctrine of Christ's expiatory death and all-sufficient merits has been. . without any wellgrounded hope of becoming useful to one soul. This doctrine and others immediately connected with it have constantly nourished and sanctified the Church. To gain this confidence we must. the grand means of conversion. absolutely necessary that the natives should in us. and then they will not fail to become the matter of our conversation " It is to others. have an entire confidence and feel quite at home our company. be willing to hear their complaints. 67 and that for many years together. SERAMPORE. and must ever remain. glorious truths may ever be the joy and strength of our own souls.

indeed. We should also recollect is how back. . It is only by means of native preachers that we can hope for the universal spread of the Gospel throughout this immense continent. . All force and everything haughty. and set them right in the necessity of a holy conversation. ters exceedingly in their estimation.68 WILLIAM CAREY. therefore. open. reserved. . ward human nature in forming spiritual ideas. and forbidding. self-denying. conversation. and entering upon a holy. is a loud call to us to 'go forward. except. " . In this respect we can scarcely be too lavish of our attention to their improvement. is a very necessary should remember the gross darkness in duty. We ought to be easy of access. so as to reprove them with tenderness. fostering every kind of genius.' So far. . of Christ. as God has qualified us to learn those languages which are It becomes us also to labour with . and we must decide upon everything brought before us in the most we must and impartial manner. . when the eternal salvation of souls is sacrifice the " commands the object. it becomes us ever to shun with the greatest care. . give them the kindest advice. We can never make sacrifices too great. "Another part of our work is the forming our native brethren to usefulness. The help which God has afforded us already in this work. and on all occasions to treat them as our equals. which they were so lately involved. and cherishing every gift and grace in them. having never had We any just and adequate ideas of the evil of sin. To bear the faults of our native brethren. or its consequences. all our might in forwarding translations of the sacred Scriptures in the languages of Hindoostan. All passionate behaviour will sink our characupright. to condescend to them as much as possible. we .

all these are the attainments. is to fit us for the discharge of these laborious and unutterably important labours. our gifts. . and a heart given up to God in closet religion. as a means. time. all to God and His cause. our families. and the cultivation of personal religion. LIFE. . will fit us to become the instruments of God in the great work of human Redemption. which more than knowledge. believing prayer. Let us often look at Brainerd. competent knowledge of the languages where the missionary lives. whatever distance may separate us. lies at the root of all personal godliness. and let each one of us lay it upon his heart that we will seek to be fervent in spirit wrestling with God. . Let us give ourselves up unreservedly Finally. fervent. a " A mild and winning temper. Let us never think that our to this glorious cause. . pouring out his very soul before God for the perishing heathen. . Prayer. That which. . are our own. is the being instant in prayer. we should endeavour not to . without whose salvation nothing could make him happy.SERAMPORE MODE OF necessary. with unwearied assiduity in acquiring them. Oh. 69 we consider it our bounden duty to apply . " . secret. or all other gifts. our missionary labours. Let us then ever be united in prayer at stated seasons. Let us ever have in remembrance the examples of those who have been most eminent in the work of God. or even the Let us sanctify them clothes we wear. in the woods of America. " The establishment of native free schools is also an object highly important to the future conquests of the Of this very pleasing and interesting part of Gospel. be unmindful. our strength. that He may sanctify . till He banish these idols and cause the heathen to experience the blessedness that is in Christ.

us for His work Let us for ever shut out the idea of laying up a cowry for ourselves or our children.. even in the most prosperous gale of worldly prosperity. worldly spirit. If we are enabled to persevere in the same principles. and no one should pursue — own exclusive advantage. No private family ever enjoyed a greater portion of happiness. the Mission is from that hour a lost cause. the moment it is and every evil work. we may hope that multitudes of converted souls will have business for his reason to bless God to all eternity for sending His Gospel into this country.. when we first united at Serampore." . quarrels. If we are enabled to glorify God with our bodies and spirits which are His our wants will be His care. may do something on his own . If we give up the resolution which was formed on the subject A of private trade. will admitted that each brother account. than we have done since we proposed to have all things common.70 ! WILLIAM CAREY. succeed.

The name of Pal. with the aid of Carey and Marshman. " I am a great sinner a great tears he cried out " save me Sahib save me sinner am I Thomas. With of himself as a sinner. An accident. the dislocated limb was replaced. the publication of the first Bengalee New Testament and the appointment to the professorship in . and. pointed him to Christ. the College at Fort-William. the missionary doctor tied him to a tree. THREE IMPORTANT EVENTS. causing the dislocation of his arm. led him to apply On arrivfor the surgical assistance of Mr. the first Hindoo convert was KrisJinu By trade he was a carpenter. this chapter reference will be made to three events which occurred during the early residence the baptism of the first convert at Serampore : IN . Thomas.CHAPTER VII. and had been con- He complained indeed more vinced of his sinfulness. ing. 71 . dwelling most earnestly upon the all-sufficiency of the Saviour's righteousness. It was discovered that Krishnu had previously heard the Gospel. : ! ! ! ! disowning all power to save. than he did of his pain.

's house. court.J2 WILLIAM CAREY. K. sat within the house. . talked appeared to have learned more of the Gospel than we They declared for Christ at once. and K. Krishnu was living within easy reach of the missionaries. . 7. The former but the latter relapsed into heathenism his zeal and sincerity by eating persevered. This expected. and went to her relations. and I went to Everything was made very clean. This morning brother C. Some of them scarcely ever . company of Europeans. and I in the and the women Brother C.'s wife said she had received great joy of it from it. C. who heard with great attention. and spoke to a yard-full of people. by Ward. He gladly accepted their invitation. declaring that they had not only cured his arm. . : interest — 6. went to K. Two other natives had also been awakened to of these Fakeer and Gokool. but had brought him the news of salvation.'s wife and her sister were to have been with us in the evening but the women have many scruples to sitting in the . Two in entries in connection with these circumstances the missionaries' journal. "Lord's Day. and Gokool with brother . are full of "Dec. and declaring in favour K. Brother B. though trembling with cold. showing rice with Krishnu. . work was new. Krishnu's house. family became very deeply impressed in favour of Christianity but Gokool's wife left her husband. is very poorly. even ! to brother C. religious concern . and so was invited to seek regular instruction from them. thus losing his caste. . This morning brother C. Dec. A whole family desiring to hear the Gospel. Krishnu being Krishnu's wife and of different caste from his own. the children at the The women door.

HINDOO CARPENTERS. .

but to the river. Gokool and Krishnu dared to partake of a meal with Europeans. their Thus did the two Hindoos solemnly renounce much to the astonishment of the native servants who were in attendance. which in its influence upon the religious future of India cannot be over-estimated. joyful sound. This was done deliberately. has almost waited till hope of his own success has In their holy excitement they confidently expired. for at length. some one desires us to begun to speak for the women dare not little distance a remove to . We always About a fortnight after these occurrences an incident took place. after long years of trying toil." " exclaimed. his wife's sister. and if they meet a Sometimes when we have European." said Ward. who shall shut it? The chain of caste is broken. were greatly moved with gratitude and joy. Carey and Thomas castes. oh. Krishnu's wife and Joymooni. in a street. permitted to see the firstfruits " Brother Carey. but to no purpose. " Thomas and Carey were Rasoo. the a and prayer by Carey. run away. with of their labour. go out." to fill their jars at the river. a never to be forgotten occasion. The meeting closed " with singing the hymn beginning Salvation. Two thousand people gathered to- gether and cursed the converts. come by us obey. The missionaries. the two men. a serious disturbance arose amongst the : native population. who were dragged before the Danish magistrate.74 WILLIAM CAREY." As soon as it was known that these Hindoos had broken caste. as may be readily imagined. as thai . recounted their experience previous to baptism. prefacing the significant act with prayer. The door offaith is opened to the Gentiles. who " shall mend it ? At a later meeting the same day.

however. and shall it ever be A mortal man ashamed of Thee?'' Ward preached on the subject of baptism. Krishnu. Fearing their lest disturbed. that had been made between his daughter and a man to whom she had been betrothed but again the accusation failed. A number in of Europeans. the baptismal hymn : — the Bengalee language. by this act professed to put off all the debtahs (demi-gods) and all sins. as was also the Governor of the settlement. official 75 not only dismissed the charge brought against them. December the 28th. presented himself for the observance of the women Christian ordinance. After prayer. the missionaries sought the friend. It was arranged for the baptism to take place on Lord's This was on the last Day. "Jesus. Sabbath in the year 1 800. the the baptism of the converts would be good offices of readily Governor of the settlement.THREE IMPORTANT EVENTS. the magistrate declaring that the consent of the girl should be requisite to the marriage. who of his protection. But on the previous day a great disappointment was caused by Gokool and assured them the expressing a wish to defer their baptism. Carey's son. and to put on Christ. and the person about to be baptized from among them. and Mohammedans were present. declaring we did not think the river sacred it was water only. but commended them for the step they had Krishnu was then indicted upon a charge of taken. refusing to keep a marriage contract. Portu- guese. he (Carey) went down into . The service began by singing. But the journal further describe this memorable scene " Brother Carey then spoke for a short time : — let in — Bengalee . and. was constant. with Felix. Hindoos. .

leading down into the water. and the converted native fortitude sufficient to renounce his caste. took him by the hand and held him for some moments and though unable to make him understand a single word. Son. on his eldest son. the Felix talked them and Krishnu opened his heart. even in the most orderly congregation in England. knew whether Gokool and talked to also . Bengalee. feeling. who had was indeed an interesting spectacle in the palanquin to see ! it. came from dressing. using English words. Brother B. Did ye not tremble. and baptized him. Felix and accompanied him to I his house. anything more decent and impressive. this (to them) new and sacred ordinance. of How ' ! Lord full Hosts in Bengalee for the amiable are Thy tabernacles. at fifteen first years of age. lady. About nine o'clock. see brother C. After this Krishnu went down and was baptized the words in The All was silence and attention. when in the stone and clay name of the Father. to tell us that Gokool and the women were brought again to wish for baptism.y6 WILLIAM CAREY. one of your When votaries shook you as the dust from his feet ? ! K. . " To the same day. almost and his tears restrain not could Governor every one seemed to be struck with the solemnity of I never saw. a missionary. We unusual women wished with scarcely to hear of Christ. and Holy Spirit. Ye gods of . I could see that she thanked him from her heart for renouncing the worship of devils. taking his son Felix in his right hand. O Krishnu at the close said he was I of joy. (Brunsden) lay In the afternoon the Lord's first Supper was celebrated ' time. with their . who had been witness to the ceremony. and the proceedings of the day to them. the water. he came to our house joyfully. a German .

Carey. and that. Carey was administering the he was obliged to be put under whilst of baptism. after fifteen years' labour. effect of the recent events The greatly to excite his upon Thomas had been highly wrought temperament. Carey's mental malady had so increased that at the same time she had to be forcibly confined to her own room. The delight of seeing at last. my soul. and that when Mr. my soul. an actual conversion from Hindooism. f] minds towards our Saviour. thou. It may be mentioned here that Krishnu is the author of the well tion of known communion hymn. forget all no more : The Friend. restraint in the rite mission house. forget Him not. : a transla- which " the first so often sung in our English services verse of which reads as follows is — Oh. And further. is event. Fernandez came they would be baptized. to which we refer in this the publication of the first Bengalee New Testament.THREE IMPORTANT EVENTS. of this eventful day was sadness and anxiety on account of the with mingled health of both Mr. the New Testament was so near completion that he hoped to have the translation and first . Blessed day " ! however. Carey wrote to his sister In declaring his belief that the translation of the Scriptures was one of the greatest desiderata in the world that it had accordingly occupied a consider. Mrs. comand so. pletely overmastered his excitable brain . through mercy. The joy. who thy misery bore Let every idol be forgot. December. whilst on a journey from Mudnabatty to Calcutta. 1796. Thomas and Mrs. But. able part of his time and attention." The second hnportant chapter. oh.

and he of the faithfulness of the translation. The memorable day was the 7th of February. would be near ^3000 sterling that being .000 copies. On the completion of this great undertaking a special meeting was convened for the purpose of The missionaries and the giving thanks unto God. which the printer had agreed to print at about one and two-pence per sheet. was sung Let the of Christ dwell in : Word — . Carey going " through the whole with his pundit in as exact a manner as he could. about six shillings per copy. . and stating that the whole expense of printing 10.78 revision of it WILLIAM CAREY. being subscribed for." and the had composed for Marshman which following hymn. Fuller. with 500 additional copies of Matthew's Gospel for immediate A subscription list had been previously opened at thirty-two rupees per copy." Carey informed the Secretary. paper included. Mr. the occasion. the pundit judging of the style and syntax. that the New Testament would make six hundred pages of letter-press in octavo. 1801. It was not until nearly four years had passed that the New Testament appeared. though it was felt the translaneeded to be considerably revised. The number of copies to be issued was 2000. fifty copies distribution. This was in March. 1797. finished in the course of three months. realised. cutting a The hope was tion new fount of type for the purpose also expressing his opinion that the offer was cheap. with the sisters. " you richly. Great care and assiduity were bestowed upon it. Krishnu offered prayer Carey delivered an exhortation in English and in Bengalee from the words: . Carey in the meantime working upon the translation of the Old Testament Scriptures. were present. Hindoo brethren.

.CAREY AND HIS PUNDIT.

80 " WILLIAM CAREY. So long in darkness held His love designs His people pray . hath His Word revealed To this bewildered race. precious book divine ! Illumined by thy rays. Nor idol praises sing . We rise from death and sin. the chaplain. The glories of our King Nor to blind goroos turn. gracious Saviour. dark as night. But upon the assurances of the Rev. And tune a Saviour's praise : The shades of error. His providence prepares the way. and without interruption the work was allowed to proceed. To smile upon Thy Word Let millions now obtain Salvation from the Lord . His apprehensions were excited. deign. " Now shall the Hindoos learn . 11 Deign. Diffusing heavenly light around. Hail. This book their Shasters shall confound. the Governor's apprehensions were allayed. D. : . " We bless Who the God of grace. and Government interference was threatened." The establishment the of press at Serampore the attracted attention of Lord Wellesley. We shall hereafter have occasion to refer to Carey's laborious as a translator. of the pacific and loyal character of the Governor-General. . Brown. Vanish before Thy radiant light. Nor let its growing conquests stay Till earth exult to own the its sway. and invaluable to be services The third important event proposed noticed in . missionaries' intentions.

the people to justice. whom Hence they would be called to administer he established the Fort-William College. One morning a letter from Mr. Carey. who were of opinion that for . went over. F . and the Rev. I ought to accept it. approved to fill a station in it. The naturally publication of the Bengalee New Testament The directed attention to Mr. D. I had but just time to call our brethren together. called be should that I thought The Rev. Brown and Mr. Claudius Buchanan Vice-Provost and to my great surprise I was asked to undertake the Bengalee Professorship.William. In Carey's own words we can best see the spirit with which the offer of this important and " I always highly honourable position was received but never entertained a of the institution. inviting me to cross the water to have some conversation with him upon this subject. : — . I. Buchanan were of opinion that the cause of the Mission would be furthered by it and I was not able to reply to their arguments. and honestly proposed all my fears and objections. Brown is Provost. Both Mr. provided it did I also not interfere with the work of the Mission.THREE IMPORTANT EVENTS. that the education received by the civilians was and especially did he feel the seriously inadequate necessity of their acquaintance with the vernaculars of . Brown came. 81 this chapter is the appointment of Carey to a Professorship in the Government College at Fort. This collegiate institution was founded by Lord It had appeared to the Governor-General Wellesley. however. knew myself to be incapable of filling such a station several reasons with reputation and propriety. eminent scholarship it disclosed pointed him out at once as the teacher who might fittingly occupy the Bengalee chair and he was communicated with upon the matter. .

statutes to — accommodate those who are not of the Church of England (for all professors are to take but for the certain oaths. and a small sum besides to furnish him with decent clothing for his duties at the college. with the exception of some ^40 needed for his support and that of his family. that he should never have . proposed me. favourable ideas of me. They proposed me that or the the to Governor-General. with a salary From teacher he became of £600 per annum. to capable of fulfilling the duties of the station which Mr." to the State . his the like spirit of noble generosity distinguished his the boarding-school which colleague. .. two other names were inserted viz. the whole of this income. I therefore consented . Marshman . As to my ability. who is next. day. afterwards of Sanscrit and of Mahratta. or visitor of the College. I . I certainly am not disaffected but the other is not clear to me. . Brown replied. Mr. if he had had the smallest doubts on I wonder how people can have such those heads. was devoted to the Let it also be stated that purposes of the Mission. and . but they insisted upon it that could not satisfy me they must be the judges of that.82 WILLIAM CAREY. position was that of teacher of Bengalee. Lordship asked if I was well affected to the State. and make declarations) accommodation of such. His first professor and as professor of the three Oriental But with emoluments rose to ^1500. They told him patron had been a missionary in the country for seven years or more and as a missionary I was appointed A clause had been inserted in the to the office. his under that obligation. they I was convinced that it might. who are not included When I was proposed. languages a disinterestedness which is beyond all praise. with fear and trembling. lecturers and teachers.

o o w f w H a o G W O > r o cj H H > 1 > <! n »—4 H .

seated upon his magnificent success. was submitted . One of Carey's students who had gained marked distinction in the study of Sanscrit was required to give a declamation in that language. so much so. students acting as appeared as moderator.84 WILLIAM CAREY. both European and Native. their professor No effort and no expense were spared to make this annual demonstration a The Viceroy. In the year 1804 Carey was the moderator. upon which the Serampore brotherhood had been founded none of the brethren engaging in private trade. throne. The august and wealthy. taking only some . he won the esteem and affection equal to his office of students and colleagues alike. an imposing building which had been erected the previous year at no less a cost than £140. Marshman . . whilst Carey himself was appointed to deliver the address to the Viceroy. was respected may be gathered from a remarkable incident which occurred some four years after his The scene of the incident was the appointment. disputants. but all being done for the benefit of the Mission. To say that Carey filled his high professorial position with credit were only to record a fact which was confidently anticipated from his well known He did more than prove himself linguistic abilities. The occasion was the annual when three of the most successful disputation. gathered from all parts of the Empire. official residence of the Viceroy. had been placed under his care having prospered beyond all expectation. Thus faithfully was the plan strictly observed. it After this address had been prepared.000.£34 for personal requirements. was attended by the most distinguished in state and society and learning. How greatly he . that its profits amounted to about £1000 a-year Mr.

" Such was the distinguished Viceroy's opinion of the man who some twelve years previously had been a humble Baptist minister trying to add to his meagre salary. A having seen it in its amended form. the Vice-Provost. Carey held his position of Professor until 183c. by school teaching and boot and shoe mending. Carey's truly original and excellent I would not wish to have a word altered. who. feared that the address might consequently be Instead. 35 Buchanan. . rejected. to Mr. as Carey has said. within four years of his death. Buchanan and Brown. though approving of the reference. without Carey sentences of flattery. was sent to the Viceroy for his approval before its public presentation. and to his sympathy with the evangelisation of the natives. Carey did not think it improper that reference should be made to his vocation as a missionary.TtikEE IMPORTANT EVENTS. considerably enlarged it and inserted some draft of it. speech. insufficient for a livelihood. Lord Wellcsley replied as follows : — " I am much pleased with Mr. I esteem such a testimony from such a man a greater honour than the applause of Courts and Parliaments. however of this being the case.

felt it necessary to exercise the greatest prudence but with all their careful endeavour .CHAPTER VIII. was not to be expected that the Serampore proceed without individuals of position and influence had befriended the missionaries. colleagues. threatening not only the existence of the press. one purely military was accepted as the but for some time the incident was true cause utilised for party purposes. but of the Mission itself. VARIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES. Various causes were assigned for this outbreak ultimately. serious difficulties arose. not to give offence. IT political Though Carey and his prejudiced against their enterprise. and opponents of the missionary enterprise were not slow to discover a — . therefore. Sepoys massacred several officers and a number of men. public sentiment both at home and abroad was to labours would be allowed interference. In the year 1806 two native regiments mutinied who were stationed with European soldiery at the The fortress of Vcllorc in the Madras Presidency. 86 .

there was grave need for the wisest caution. arrived . and further. Sir George Barlow. of the Peace could It not reply in the evident. had expressed a wish that he (Carey) should not interfere with the prejudices of the natives by preaching to them or distributing books or pamphlets amongst them . they were not permitted proceed to Serampore. Governor-General. replied. Representations were accordingly made to the authorities that for the sake of keeping the peace. and should it be desirable. 8/ connection between the mutiny and the presence of missionaries in the country. Chater and in Calcutta. Carey." he wrote to the Committee of the Society. deportation. This anti-missionary when two to additional spirit so far prevailed that brethren. however. to restrict their operations. applied at once to the Justices of the Peace for an explanation and was informed that the Robinson. inquired if the communication had been made in writing. " in which the apostles were when commanded not to We teach nor preach any ' true. Messrs. hearing of the detention. to command their absolute possessions. and even preserving the British it was imperative to keep a close watch upon the men at Serampore. hearing this. That Carey felt a crisis is was had arisen seen by the manner in which he described " : the difficulty of the position are much in the situation. that the converted natives were not to go into the country to spread Christianity amongst the people. sight of it is to obey you rather than God. but the Justices affirmative.VARIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES. judge ye/ be right or not for us to make the same reply in the first instance? On the one hand our prospects of God Would it . more in this name Whether it be right in the ! They. Carey. that his colleagues were to observe the same line of conduct .

Eagerly watching any pretext that might arise. The cause is God's. Lord Minto. was allowed to let for a time to continue as usual. and those opening doors for which a few days ago engaged our attention and animated our exertions. and we may not only enjoy our present privileges. is in God. however. with the advice of our best friends. for Carey " continued We are not doubtful respecting the final success of the Gospel in these countries. and will never be deserted by Him though He may permit temporary obstructions to arise. and at once break up the Mission. which has been settled at so great an expense. Wc. are shut by this cruel message the consequence is that souls are perishing on every side. with certain restrictions. usefulness. success are obscured. and we are forbidden to administer the remedy which God has put into our hands.88 WILLIAM CAREY. To act in open defiance of the wish of the Governor-General might occasion a positive law against evangelising the heathen. but obtain the liberty which we have so long wished for. who had succeeded Sir George . other hand. Brown. The anti. trust that this will be a peculiar We subject of prayer with us. and we shall endeavour to improve the privileges yet remaining. But through representations which were made to the magistrates." But these adverse circumstances had no power to daunt their courage or shake their faith. though : hope Our greatly distressed at the present occurrence." . they were not tardy in bringing before the notice of the GovernorGeneral. the chaplain. disposed opposition cease. have for the present chosen the latter line of conduct. On the . the work at Serampore.missionary their for party were not. especially by Mr. it is probable that even if we yield a little to the present storm it may soon blow over.

Carey on receiving it was righteously indignant.VARIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES. the Danish Governor forwarded an explanation to the authorities with expressions of regret for the inadvertence. Upon information thus obtained and laid before the Supreme Council. The Governor of Serampore. and the Secretary in the Secret and Political Department. that he was quite willing pamphlet to submit all the Serampore publications for the inspection of the Government. 89 Barlow. trusted. who were hostile to the Mission. could have been safely On behalf of the missionaries. Carey replied that he was not aware of the publication of the sentiments to which objection was taken that abuse was not a weapon of which he approved that he would undertake to suppress the obnoxious and further. did not intend to let the matter come thus easily to an amicable end. a certain publication in the shape of a Persian which had inadvertently issued from the Serampress. an official communication was despatched to Carey. Upon furtively inserted by a Mohammedan as moonshee translator. who had been employed and who. Carey was peremptorily summoned before the Chief Secretary to the Government. under whose protection the . tract pore The tract in question reflected violently upon the being interrogated. and requiring the removal of the press to that city. They employed spies to attend the meetings of the missionaries. When Carey returned to Serampore. and to secure copies of the pamphlets distributed amongst the people. it a Persian was thought. he found upon inquiry that the objectionable strictures had been religion . . which went as far as to prohibit the services held in Calcutta. of Mohammed. . But the members of the Government.

for The the result order . Stewart. and seldom has a deliverance been more evidently an answer to prayer. We were all overwhelmed with distress . but to increase prejudice in England. To these of misrepresentation. Twining. Hostile AngloIndians not only did their utmost to keep alive the opposition in India. especially those which were written by a Mr. felt himself insulted. "has a more remarkable interposition been known." he further wrote to Sutcliff.'" "Seldom. justified the manner of procedure. it replied in his own trenchant controversies were being waged Whilst these for the became increasingly evident that as the time drew near (1813) . it was therefore resolved presentation to draw up a memorial for the Governor-General. Pamphlets were circulated in this country.90 missionaries WILLIAM CAREY. After much consultation and prayer it was thought and best to pursue a conciliatory line of action . " all things Blessed be God. saved us. and assured them of his continued friendship. and pamphlets. Major Scott Wearing. calumnies. Our deliverance now continue to be quiet with us all " ! has been great and it may be said with propriety. that God 'has stretched forth His hand against the wrath of His enemies." in But though the missionaries thus rejoiced what they felt to be a signal interposition on the part of God. but I am upon God such as persuaded that we all felt a reliance we have scarcely witnessed before." wrote Carey to Fuller. Fuller style. and previously to to seek an interview with his Lordship. appeals to full Col. Mr. the hostility was not silenced. and that His right hand has . requiring the removal of the Press was revoked the Government simply accepting Carey's condition that publications should be submitted for approval. and base and unfounded fears. were living.

Amongst ing those who rendered help the mission cause the in most the effective were William Wilberforce Commons and Marquis Wellesley in the Lords. To convey to our readers some idea of the character of the debate we shall quote one or two passages from two speeches one delivered by an opponent. " are only begun when you have converted one caste never will the scheme of Hindoo conversion be realised till you persuade an immense population to suffer by whole tribes the severest martyrdom and are the missionaries whom this Bill will let loose on India . — fit revolution engines for the accomplishment of this great ? Will these people.VARIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES. : — . and the other by Mr. as their leader. 91 renewal of the East India Company's charter. apostates from the loom and the anvil (he should not have said the anvil but the awl. their representatives in Parliament with all necessary information. for Carey was originally a shoemaker) and renegades from the lowest handicraft employments. they were most unremitting in supplyfree entrance of missionaries into India. Fuller to propagate the Christian religion. be a match for the cool and sedate controversies they will have to encounter should the brahmins condescend to enter into the arena against the maimed and crippled gladiators that presume to grapple with their faith ? What can be apprehended but the disgrace and discomfiture of whole hosts of tub preachers in the conflict ? " . crawling from the holes and caverns of their original destinations. The debates upon the renewal of the charter extended over several weeks. Wilberforce " Your struggles." declaimed Mr. the friends of missions should direct their efforts towards securing the introduction of clauses permitting the and liberty With Mr. Marsh.

and his first care was to qualify himself to act a distinguished part in that truly noble enterprise. Marshman. situation. Dr. All sir. Of several he has this in of these languages he has already published grammars. in which last his proficiency is acknowledged to be greater than that of Sir W. : — among other low epithets bestowed on them. has established a seminary for the cultivation of the Chinese language.92 In the WILLIAM CAREY. or any other European. Mr. Another of these Anabaptist missionaries. of as. he applied himself to several of the Oriental tongues. one of which he thus con" cluded In truth. he had the genius as well as the benevolence to devise the plan. which has since been pursued. Wilberforce delivered several speeches. which he has studied with a success time. He resolutely applied forming a society himself to the diligent study of the learned languages. may perhaps value better suited to their principles an estimate of and habits of . but to those who are blind to it their moral and even afford their literary excellences. with which he prosecutes his literary labours. in one of lowest stations of the was Carey. are entitled to our One of them. Carey in the Sanscrit. scarcely inferior to that of Dr. for communicating the blessings of Christian light to the natives of India. after making a considerable proficiency in them. he is labouring indefatigably as a a warmth of zeal only equalled by that with missionary. sir. more especially to that which I understand is regarded as the parent of them all. course of the debate Mr. Jones himself. these Anabaptist missionaries. It is a merit of a more vulgar sort. they have been contemptuously termed. the Sanscrit. highest respect and admiration. of one or two of them a dictionary. and contemplation still greater enterprises. originally all but under the disadvantages of such a society. and.

and a site procured in Lai Bazaar. inhabitants. temporary building was first erected. sir. acquiring from . the petition being signed by 115 of the many of whom were merchants of the respectability. such the merits. Before leaving the record of these events. Ward also. the missionaries felt A worship Plans were consequently drawn out." On the 13th of July the bill passed the Commons and was accepted by the Lords. which periodical most drastically' successfully combated the scurrilous attacks the Rev.various exercise of their talents. Soon for after the settlement at Serampore. and that it had met with a favour- . are the exertions. which they thus support by their contributions only less effectually than by their researches and labours of a higher order. we would not omit a reference to the effective service in securing this triumph of religious liberty rendered by the and of Quarterly Review. which permitted their free entrance into India. and which. throw the whole into the common stock of the Mission.£1500 per annum each by the. the clauses relating to the missionaries. as recently as last year.£1000 to . 93 that these men. having been previously inserted by a large majority of votes. Sydney Smith in The Edinburgh. Such. contained in its July issue a most admirable article on Christian Missions. and in 1807 Carey informed Sutcliff that a petition had been presented to Government for permission to build a new chapel. another of the missionaries. subscriptions were solicited.VARIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES. calculation. for so I shall not hesitate to term them. such the success of those great and good men. and Mr. first the importance of providing a place and religious instruction in Calcutta.

" vvc meet with numerous passages indicating his marvellously " abundant labours. lecturing or preaching. WILLIAM CAREY. such as the following Brother Carey. in a conversation of nearly two hours. he agreed to conduct the week-day services and to preach in turn with his brethren on the Sunday an evidence of his extraEvery hour of every day ordinary power for work. On New Year's day.reading. laid before the Mussulmans. who had come to our house.William College took him regularly to Calcutta. : . He was almost ubiquitous as far as engagements in Serampore and Calcutta were concerned. 1809. the chapel was duly opened. As Carey's duties at the Fort. compilation of grammars or dictionaries.94 able response. with translating or proof. Turning over the leaves of the " Periodical Accounts. of the week seems to have been occupied either — INTERIOR OF LAL LAZAAR CHAl'EL.

.

" a lecture every Monday afternoon on astronomy." number of those who to increase. yet he eagerly seized any opportunity And the knowledge of the Saviour. and talked to them sometime about the way of way of salvation. Mrs. Morris in 1803. he readily went forth on evangelistic tours proclaiming the glad news of redeeming mercy." this the washerwent Carey morning among again men. are seeking salvation continues Mr." " My time is so much occupied with the second life." Being in Calcutta from Monday evening till Friday evening. — Brother edition of the New Testament and the remaining part of the Old." " Lord's Day. and Krishnu accompanied me away tracts. whilst his professional engagements and his literary pursuits detained him so fully in Serampore and Calcutta. together with my other necessary " The avocations." These are but a sample of the entries continually occurring. This morning brother Carey went into that part of the town where the washermen " Brother live." " Carey preached in " English and Bengalee. &c. and rejoiced my heart." " To-day. Carey's " room was filled with Brother Carey always delivers inquirers yesterday. geography." On other occasions. Carey . preaching in many villages." he wrote to Mr. &c. giving Towards the close of the year 1807. whenever there was the possibility of release from other duties. the whole is completely engrossed. brother Carey and I went to Chinsurah. "for about twelve days. They were tolerably attentive. that arose for itinerating with a view to extending " I went a journey in July last. testifying to his almost superhuman endeavours. I constantly preached on Wednesday and Thursday evenings. that.g6 the WILLIAM CAREY.

from her mental condition. to accompany her INDIAN WASHERMEN. was removed by death. in the first instance. 97 had been in India seriously wanting.VARIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES. husband may have been affliction. however. Her reluctance. For many years she a great sufferer previous to her residence symptoms of the mental malady which so developed in her later life had not been . fine nobleness to his character he bore the affliction . in some measure due to this Apart. she does not seem to have possessed those endowments and qualities which would have fitted her to be the companion of one so eminently gifted as was Carey But with a tenderness and forbearance which give 3.

domestic trial. received with every expression of . all the more remarkable when we remember how depressing must have been this " It will serve. she had resided in the south of Europe. but had been recommended to try the She accordingly determined to climate of India. her mother being the Countess of sisters being the wife of the to the King of Denchamberlain Graff Warnstedt. C. the she became seriously concerned upon the subject of From Tranquebar she visited Serampore religion. Fuller. of the and mark Being a lady royal ranger of delicate constitution. and one of her there. the turn of her mind was such as prevented her from feeling even those ideal pleasures which sometimes attend maniacal persons. "to give some idea of the strength and energy of labours appear Dr. that the arduous* Biblical and since literary labours in which he had been engaged his arrival at Serampore. forests. Marehman." In the following year Carey married Miss Charlotte Emelia Rumohr. who was of a noble family in the Duchy of Sleswick. Whilst visit the Danish settlement at Tranquebar. was in the next room In communicating the but one to his study. She was attacked with a fever which terminated in about a fortnight. of course. without repining. were prosecuted while an insane wife. frequently wrought up to a state of the most distressing excitement. Carey's character." and as the result of reading that volume.98 WILLIAM CAREY. and was. She had been in a state the most distressing. Alfeldt. the eighth of December last it pleased God to remove my wife by death. and tried to sustain the sufferer His prodigious with his never-failing sympathy." says J. " Carey wrote. " Governor placed in her hands Pascal's Thoughts. On Indeed." intelligence of her death to Mr. for these last twelve years.

The Bible was her daily delight. was given to the Mission. and became not only greatly interested in them but was strongly attracted to them by Her sympathy with their character and labours. May 30th. and in which she had intended to reside. It may be mentioned that the house she had built previous to her marriage. having lately experienced the greatest domestic loss that a man can sustain. we had as great a share of conjugal happiness as ever was enjoyed by mortals. My dear wife was removed from me by death on Wednesday morning. about twenty minutes after midnight. which Carey sent to Dr. during all which season.VARIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES. Ryland on the occasion of her death will show how eminent was her " I am piety. We had been married thirteen years and three weeks. Q9 respect and cordiality by the Governor. Miss Rumohr was introduced to the missionaries and their families. I believe. Three months previous to her arrival the missionaries had accepted the protection of this same good man. happiness was incessant. fellowship with them led to a careful examination of the Scriptures and a most thorough consecration of heart and life to the Saviour. She was eminently pious. and lived very near to God. and so certainly 937727 . As far as her strength would allow she entered most warmly into all her husband's pursuits. she evinced those made her accession to the Serampore mission-house most welcome to all its members. and letter : The next to for God my Her solicitude she lived only for me. . Colonel Bie. Carey. She was about two months above sixty years old. and how great the loss he sustained now called in Divine Providence to be a mourner again. its rent being applied to the support of native preachers. On Christian dispositions which her marriage with Dr.

My loss is them irreparable. and it was cleared lame persons by a monthly allowance. with much sympathy in my affliction. particularly those for female native children.) She was removed from me. could have supplied the place of a husband.) support beyond anything I have no domestic strife to reflect on. (4. but in the still I Divine this will. (2. Italian. She was full of compassion for the poor and needy. and never to pass by a difficulty In this respect she was of up.) She suffered no long or painful affliction. I consider as a precious legacy bequeathed to me.100 could she at WILLIAM CAREY. however. and till her death supported several blind and till English versions. eminent use to me in the translation of the Word of God. yet no one. and add ever felt in other trials. a thing for which we had frequently bitterness to affliction. nor all united. She had long lived on the borders of the heavenly land. Nothing. It was her constant habit to compare every verse she read in the various German. She entered most heartily into all the concerns of the Mission. and had long supported one at Cutwa of that kind. that any to conceal attempt anxiety or distress of mind would have been in vain. I have met . French. and I think lately became more and more heavenly in her thoughts and conversation." . all times interpret looks.) She was ready to depart. and into the support of schools. So many I dare not but perfectly acquiesce merciful circumstances affliction attend very heavy as still yield me (i. sure expressed our wishes to each other for though I am my brethren and my children would have done the utmost in their power to alleviate her affliction had she survived me. (3. but tenderness my for each others feelings could induce either of us for a minute to attempt a concealment of anything.

eternity alone can fully measure. in the earnest hope that he might be able to explain the memory Dyche's lad. select all the saints. To be permitted to give the Bible to a heathen nation is indeed to render a service. *\ TO 1 \ individual X higher honour can surely be attained by any than that of communicating to a people the revelation of God's mercy and will as it is contained in the sacred Scriptures. It is not to that as a he who child had committed surprising Latin Vocabulary. the influence of which. CAREY AS A TRANSLATOR. Such an honour have not those whilst increasingly seen in its purifying and ennobling effect upon the manners and character of successive -generations. IOI . and. and amongst few who have possessed it none have been so honoured as the subject of this memoir. that he might carry the tracing to an acquaintance in his village home who had some scholarly learning.CHAPTER IX. as an on his first sight of the characters of apprentice the Greek alphabet had carefully traced them. In the first chapter of this volume reference was made to Carey's early linguistic proclivities.

As he realised more fully the nature of the Bengalee tongue. with that plodding which was so conspicuous a characteristic in settled his disposition. On commenced . found his work of translation an interesting and His imperfect knowledge delightful employment. have become distinguished by his acquisition of foreign tongues. but the hope of acquiring words. the moonshee saying it was rendered into very good Bengalee. of the language necessarily made his task exceed- • own ingly difficult. put fresh life into his soul it. comparing it with all the versions he possessed. he began. to use his . mysterious should. the learned with the . because he was able to go through nearly a chapter every day. its beauty and copiousness. After a week had elapsed he had finished correcting the first chapter. and that the heavens and the earth included all the material creation. During his voyage he had made such progress under the instruction of John Thomas as to have And within two writing Bengalee. man expressed his account of the creation. Bengalee and Hindoostanee. was a considerable embarrassment. but he was able to . he showing pleasure it to a pundit. but remarked the omission of any mention of a region to whom Carey communicated beneath the earth the new idea that the earth was a planet. as a missionary. to apply himself to the work of translation. The fact of two languages being spoken. As soon as Carey acquired a sufficient knowledge of the vernacular of the people amongst whom he on his arrival in India. months of landing he actually began the correction of and was at once practically initiated into Genesis the immense difficulties of the task upon which he had thus early entered. and he was constrained to bless God.102 WILLTAM CAREY. and his literary achievements. letters.

copies." he desire for the work grew. inasmuch as they had "scarce a word in use about religion." adding " in his beautiful humility.' If like David I am only an instrument of gathering materials. of the idea getting types from England and. we think to print in . and another build the house." will . and a thousand other Though he sometimes felt discouraged. however. going on. though I hope we shall be able to put Genesis. be more than compensated by the reflection that we have put into the hands of many heathens a treasure greater than that of diamonds. though the expense is about ten times what it is in England. or more. for repent. labours will not be in vain in the Lord. I trust my joy not be the less. hope to be master of both in time. have. but he found that as far as the poor were concerned very many of the terms were quite unintelligible. write both. rendered "Blessed be God. his things." . "I feel a growing desire to be always abounding in the work of the Lord and I know that . This will." In 1795. for the present. writing from Mudnabatty to the I Society he said " : The it translation of the Bible is may be thought but slowly. We the ordinary way.CAREY AS A TRANSLATOR. to the press by Christmas." As soon as a portion of the Scriptures was translated it was Carey's practice to read it to several hundreds of the natives in that way he ascertained how much of it could be understood. having no word for love. I am encouraged by our Lord's expression He that reapeth (in this harvest) my ' : receiveth wages and gathereth fruit unto eternal life. 103 little thus in his journal " : I understand a of and August. and by multiplying it probable that those Scriptures will be preserved in the Bengal tongue. could say. given up as there are types in Bengal.

long benighted region. Pearce of Birmingham received a letter from Carey. heart begin to feel a sacred and increasing pleasure in the contemplation of the certain downfall of the kingdom I The of darkness in this long. Fuller almost the completion of the New Testament. abundantly at the translation. much without I am to lament. I yet No would together. he began to compose a compendious grammar of the language. Thomas wrote. and the Pentateuch . part of which we cannot withhold " : — Although I have not written in the most en. and educating the youth. and increases greatly in the knowledge of the language. greatly desire that something may be done . and entered upon the stupendous task of compiling a dictionary. for all the finest stations in England put abandon the mission to the heathen I have : much in within and my element — nay. work to which Christ has put His hand will infallibly prosper. lated." In November.104 WILLIAM CAREY. . Now . 1796. couraging manner respecting my own labours do not suppose that I am weary of my work. The and was application met with a cheerful response the with that select suggestion parts accompanied of the sacred Scriptures should be pubHshed. not. About this " Brother Carey labours most time. . . but I am but as it were beginning to enjoy the pleasure of communicating to these people of so very strange speech my . at the same time appealing to the Society for an annual grant of at least a hundred pounds to be applied to the purposes of printing. Before the close of 1795. Mr. and I The New Testament is nearly transthe publishing of it is a very great object. By the middle of the following year we find him able to report to Mr. and not wait for the completion of the whole.

and the last sheet printed the week previous to the date of his letter. they conclusions. But the preparation of the Bengalee Version did not consume the whole of the time and energies of the Serampore brethren. 105 it be mangled or perhaps lost for it does not appear so great an object to every one as it does to me." By March." The year 1809 was the memorable year in which In September the Bengalee Version was completed. other important work in translating . he adds. Ryland. poison at the fountain head. to that purpose before I die. because I consider the importance If an of having the translation as just as possible. submitted certain critical difficulties to the judgment of his friend. contemporaneously with that undertaking. 1797. It was not until 1801. that the precious volume was published in the meantime the translation of the Old Testament was carried on with The care with which Carey prosecuted his vigour. but required several revisions before being finally prepared for the press. or false doctrines may be refuted or corrected itself. of that year Carey was able to inform Sutcliff that the translation had been finished the last Monday in June. whose Hebrew scholarship After citing the passages upon was of high order. work is strikingly seen in the way with which he . for.CAREY AS A TRANSLATOR. because the Hebrew Scriptures may be consulted and the but here a mistake would be like error detected . as we have seen in a previous chapter. by recurring to the words of Scripture and even a false translation in a country like England could not be productive of lasting mischief. " I have the Doctor's help. lest . Dr. the New Testament was completed. individual draws wrong from Scripture. he desired which been thus particular.

the person who assists me in Brother Marshthe Hindoostanee being a Mahratta. man has finished Matthew. it We say the Serampore must never be forgotten that Carey was largely assisted by his colleagues. and instead of Luke has begun the Acts. but given up. and each of us took man took Matthew and Luke brother Ward. and have proceeded as far as the second Epistle of the Corinthians in the revisal . "We sometime ago engaged in an undertaking. some attempts were made to engage Mr. The had brethren. Ryland will show. The Persian was also at the same time much talked of. to say nothing until was : but an unforeseen providence made accomplished It is as follows it necessary for us to disclose it. because letter too is of interest from the fact that it not only gives credit to their labours. it of which we intended . engaged in into Maharastia.106 WILLIAM CAREY. . Mark and John and myself. We in accordingly hired two moonshees to assist us our share brother Marshit. . and about six chapters of the Revelation. and I have done the Epistles. . Brother Ward has done part of John. Gilchrist in the translation of the Scripture into the Hindoostanee language. commonly called the Mahratta language. I undertook no part of the Persian translating but instead thereof. but expresses the willing- ness and delight with which he recognised the efforts of others who were not of Serampore. By something or other it was put by. the remaining part of the . or rather not engaged in. . New Testament it into Hindoostanee. received attention. About a year and a half ago. At this time several considerations prevailed upon us to set ourselves silently to work upon a translation into these languages. How justly Carey himself recognised their co-operation the following letter to Dr.

and the Hebrew is Bible before me while I translate the Bengalee. for me to what we had been about. Buchanan informed me that a had translated the Gospels into Hindoostanee and Persian. Thus the matter stood. I translate with Bengalee. In replying to an objection which had been raised by some friends in England as to the employment of natives who were not Christians in the work of translation. and wish all speed to those who do anything in this way. he unconsciously bears testimony to the leading and more considerable part which he himself performed " Whatever helps we employ. last immediately from the Greek. Hindoostanee. I am very We will glad that Major Colebrooke has done it. I have never yet suffered a single word or a single mode of construction to pass without examining it and seeing through it. Three of the every letter with my own the and I translations Sanscrit — — viz." . Brother Marshman with the Greek or Hebrew.. and had made a present of them to the College." But whilst Carey in his humility and large heartedmilitary gentleman was ever ready to acknowledge the co-operation of his colleagues. say necessary and had it not been for this circumstance. till a few days ago Mr. gladly do what others do not. there can be no question that the introduction of the Scriptures to the people of India ness was mainly due to his own labours. and that the College Council This made it had voted the printing of them. and I a few into Mahratta. and correct : — hand. and my own hand the two . I read every proof sheet twice or thrice myself. 107 they have done a few chapters into Persian. and compare brother Ward reads every sheet.CAREY AS A TRANSLATOR. we should not have said anything until we had got the New Testament pretty forward in printing.

William. I am . I have translated several of the above. is think I can speak with translated and conducted through not included in the above number. His .. Bengalee. besides versions in three varieties of the Hindoostanee New Testament. and the Old Testament in eight. and to not disposed yet magnify my own labours. therefore.. and superintended : — with as brother much care as I could exercise the translation all. These varieties excepted. occupy in the Government College at Fort. In the Society's Annual Report for 1825. he was appointed translator to the Government. most learned pundits from all parts of India he was. besides the languages of Kurnata. . Malay. Hindoostanee. And here let it be observed that Carey had from the first been impressed with the absolute necessity of acquiring a knowledge of Sanscrit —the root language of . and Tamil several surrounding nations.108 WILLIAM CAREY. with several others. Orissa. and China. a letter " from Carey is quoted in which he states The New Testament will soon be published in at least thirtyfour languages." The removal of the Mission to Serampore and in particular the position which Carey was called to I the press. brought into association with eminent natives who were able to render him the very best possible assistance. Mahratta. were circumstances of the greatest advantage and still more was this the case when. As early as the year 1804 we find that his ideas were so extensive that he contemplated the translation of the Bible into at least seven languages — viz. which Marshman some confidence of them. such as of Burmah. . and printing of them The Chinese Bible. Telinga. official duties necessitated the employment of the .. in addition to his position as Teacher and Professor of Oriental Languages. Bhote.

Ryland that he had read a consider- able part of the Mahabarat . in order to stand merely upon the same ground that I now stand upon. a person will be able in a short time to acquire that which has cost me years of study and toil. Two of these are now in the press. thus opening the treasures of God's Word India. and two years later he had almost translated the Sanscrit grammar and and in course of time first dictionary into English the New and then the Old Testaments were issued ." he wrote to Dr. and to attend closely to their irregu. Without some such step. elementary books are the labour will be greatly contracted and provided. Ryland. from the press. 109 many given of them of the Indian tongues. Nepalese. Gujeratee. and the most difficult And no more convincing proof could be all. Orissa. obliges me to study and write the grammar of each of them. in 181 1 Being he resolved to prepare a grammar of all the different languages in which the Scriptures had been translated " or might be translated. however. Kashmeera. published grammars Sanscrit. Kurnata. I have. and I hope to have two or three I . therefore. . and the Mahratta. The which lies me of so necessity upon acquiring many languages. " they who follow us will have to wade through the same labour that I have. If.CAREY AS A TRANSLATOR. the To these have resolved to add grammars of the Telinga. larities and peculiarities. of his linguistic capacity and extraordinary industry than this most astonishing fact. and Assam languages. the Bengalee. to the more learned part of the community of fully alive to the importance of laying a foundation for Biblical criticism in the East. already of three of them namely. that after little more than two years' residence in India he was tell able to Dr. Punjabee.

as we propose to do. more of them out by the end of next This may may " not only be useful in the way I have stated. and then to give the synonyms in the different languages derived from the Sanscrit. How can these men translate into so great a number of languages ? know what may be done till they try what they undertake. and then those derived from other sources. year. I am now printing a dictionary of the Bengalee. my materials for. with a portion of one of the Translation Memoirs — . which will be pretty large.' " Before closing this chapter. as soon as my Bengalee dictionary is finished. begins more words than any two others.110 WILLIAM CAREY. with examples of their application. ' now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace. of course. intend always to give the etymology of the Sanscrit term. Lord. which I have been some years collecting for this purpose. This work will be great. with the* Hebrew and Greek terms answering thereto always putting the word derived from the Sanscrit term first. . an universal dictionary of the Oriental languages derived from the Sanscrit. for I have got to page 256. Should I live to accomplish this. I have and indeed have been long collecting mind. but I mean to begin to arrange the materials. in the manner of Johnson. and it is doubtful whether I shall live to complete it. the and to give the different acceptations of every word. I think I can then say. quarto. To secure people in Few and persevere the gradual also in • perfection of the translations. and the translations in hand. however. That letter. I mean to take Sanscrit. so that that of the terms deduced from it in the I cognate languages will be evident. and am not near through the first letter. but serve to furnish an answer to a question which ' ' has been more than once repeated. as the groundwork.

and found a preventive. however. for the native method of paper manufacturing was such as to render books made of it invariably a prey to worms and insects in the space of five or six years. the first sheets of a work which lingered in the press were devoured by the voracious insects before the last sheets were The missionaries. of fire.CAREY AS A TRANSLATOR. printed. became equal to the necessity. memoirs which were issued of informing friends at Ill at intervals for the sake which was being made the mention of one or two incidents must not be omitted. The This steam-engine. On the ioth of March. by manufacturing it so as to be proof against the destructive attacks of insects. which effectually defied the destroyer. and studied its mechanism under the instructions of the engineer. a most serious missionaries' printing-office. — home as to the progress The improvement upon the native paper for press purposes. the calamity overtook 1812. John Clarke Marshman. unless some antidote . Marshman. importation of a steam-engine of twelve horsepower for working their paper-mill was a striking evidence of the enterprising spirit of the missionaries. . was an immense advantage indeed. and excited almost as much interest as the first steamboat or the first railway. to quote again Mr. According to Mr. Gentlemen of scientific tastes who had never had an opportunity of seeing a steam-engine came to Serampore. The natives crowded to see it. was the first ever erected in India. without incessant care were exercised. could have been devised it had been almost useless to have continued the publication of the Scriptures." as they called the machine which equalled the achieve- " ments of Vishwu Kurmu the architect of the gods.

They are of so ready a mind that we must even stop the contributions. the loss by the Serampore fire is all repaired and so constantly are the contributions pouring in from all parties. that the Secretary. Such. But so remarkable was the degree of sympathy excited amongst the friends of the Mission at home. large quantities of paper. and the whole of the materials he had been collecting for years.£ 10. A Fire. Fuller made this welcome announcement " : Well brethren ! the money is all . and complete his favourite scheme should his life be prolonged. inflicted most several founts of type. however. paid. Fuller.112 WILLIAM CAREY. and most pitiable of all. had been established at Calcutta. loss included thirty pages of his Bengal Dictionary . which raged . his destroyed. One who was present at the Committee meeting has recorded the words in which Mr. but cherished the hope that he might be enabled to repair the loss. had the unspeakable pleasure of intimating to the Committee that no more contributions were needed. that I think we must in honesty publish an intimation that the whole deficiency for which we appealed to them is removed. wherewith to make his dictionary of all the languages derived from the Sanscrit. were Of manuscripts Carey suffered most. not to mention furniture. distressing loss for three days. in and out of the denomination. many valuable manuscripts." It should be stated in this chapter that a Bible Society. auxiliary to the parent Society in London. The total loss was estimated at nearly . the whole sum required having been subscribed in fifty days. was his tenacity of purpose that he did not for a moment despair. Mr. numerous copies of the Serampore works and other books. taking the place of the corresponding committee of which Carey and his .000.

it was the custom of the missionaries to acquaint the friends of the Mission with their progress in the work of translation by publishing what they designated memoirs. As intimated above. which was printed off about three years ago. the last volume of the Old Testament was printed off about two years ago. has rendered it necessary to print a new edition of the whole This edition. scarcely a single copy has been left for some time past. royal octavo. and the third of the Psalms. and some other parts of the Old Testament. the brethren hope to bring the whole five volumes into one volume of about 1300 pages. And no truer idea can be obtained of their prodigious labours. In the Sanscrit. the fifth edition of the New Testament. The continual demand for this version. and the New Testament into a neat duodecimo of about 400 pages. 113 two colleagues were original members. on a large octavo page. will consist of 4000 copies. is nearly exhausted. The first edition of the New Testament is quite H . therefore. Let parts of the seventh memoir be reproduced and be read with the remembrance that by far the major portion of the results enumerated were effected by Carey "1. and two very moderate volumes. : — edition of the New Testament. which will form the sixth Scriptures. From this Society the Serampore brethren received from time to time substantial help in publishing their trans- lations. " 2. and their astonishing erudition than by perusing one of these statements. containing 5000 copies. In Bengalee. and of the different parts of the Old. and of the New Testament 2000 extra. and printing in double columns. the demand being so very great.CAREY AS A TRANSLATOR. of a reduced size. By using a new fount of types.

"3. also. his intimate fit instead of their versions. It 4000 last copies. as a comparison of independent more than half through the 2000 copies.114 WILLIAM CAREY. in this exhausted. Of the first edition of . for which his long residence in the western provinces of India. This will likewise be printed in double columns. press. persons long and intimately with the acquainted language. In the Orissa language the whole Scriptures have been long published. and the whole It will Scriptures be comprised in one volume. consist of 2000 copies. and perspicuous version in this widely extended language. The first edition of the New Testament being exhausted. which is own made by . volume of the Old Testament in the Mahratta language was published many months ago. with an extra number of 2000 New Testaments. The edition of the New Testament being nearly exhausted. chaste. in the large octavo size. and the demand for this version still increasing. the last volume of the Old Testament was published nearly two years ago. and acquaintance with their popular dialects him. Chamberlain having prepared another version of the New Testament in this language. will be of the utmost value in -ultimately forming a correct. is half through the press. they are printing "4. and Mr. the brethren have prepared a second edition. " Of this edition of the New Testament. so that a version of the whole Scriptures in that language is The now completed. In the Hindee. and the numerous calls for the Scriptures language by the literati of India have induced the brethren to put to press a second edition of the whole Scriptures. which consists of " 5. the brethren have resolved in this eminently edition to print his version of the New Testament.

Excepting the Mugs on the borders of Arracan. and in the first. " In these five languages the whole of the Scriptures are now published and in circulation in the last four of them second editions of the New Testament are in . the New Testament has been printed off. begun twentysix years ago. are in the press. addition to the In New Hagiographa. and Testament. however. no one of the nations of India has discovered a stronger desire for the Scriptures than this hardy race and the distribution of almost every copy has been accompanied with the pleasing hope of its being read and . 3. the 1 1 5 New Testament not a single copy being left. In the following ten languages the New Testament is published or nearly so. the sixth edition of the New Testament. 2. besides the New Testament. In the Pushtoo or Afghan languages. In the Chinese language the translation of the Old Testament was completed several years ago. the press. in a duodecimo size. In the Sikh language. they have put to press a second edition. " valued. has been the desire of this nation for the New Testament. the the Prophetic Books are now The Historical books. and will probably be published before the end of the ensuing year. and other parts of the Old Testament. the Pentateuch and the Historical Books are " printed off. and the Hagiographa is advanced as far as the middle of the book of Job. and in some of them the Pentateuch. and a second edition will probably be called for before the Old Testament is wholly published. the nation supposed by some to be descended from the ten The tribes. that the whole edition is nearly distributed. the Bengalee. which will comprinted off. the Pentateuch. So strong.CAREY AS A TRANSLATOR. " . the whole plete Scriptures. " i.

as the opportunities for version have been exceedingly and they (the missionaries) have little prospect of establishing a mission in that province.Il6 WTLLIAM CAREY. 4. also. As this province comes immediately under " the care of the Bombay Bible Society. however. the character being similar to the Bengalee. and the Pentateuch is printed as far as the book of Leviticus. is . 5. press. an edition of the Old Testament has been put to press in the large octavo size. "7. the brethren intend to resign to the Madras Auxiliary Bible Society. the New Testament has been printed off these eighteen months in its own character. "8. the New Testament till has been printed off nearly two years. is Pentateuch also advanced at press as far as the book of " Leviticus. in double columns. the New Testament now happily brought through the press. In the Wuch or Mooltanee language. the New Testament was completed above eighteen months ago. thirteen years after retaining the first pundit in this language. In the Kunkuna language. "6. on the completion of the Pentateuch at to relinquish this translation to them. it is intended. which will very considerably lessen the expense. this distributing limited. both in form and size. But. with those of a pecuniary nature. the New Testament was published two years ago. In the Gujuratee language. they have dismissed the pundit and discontinued the translation. This translation. these circumstances. shall be more favourable. when the Pentateuch is finished. and the vicinity of this country to Bengal rendering it highly desirable to proceed with the translation. In the Telinga or Telugu language. and the Pentateuch is advanced at press as far as the book of Numbers. In the Assam language.

and thus in twenty-one of the languages and extensive far most the these and India. is the intention of the brethren to relinquish the first of these. the Kurnata. " in about a month. which version has been in hand nearly eight years. the Nepal. "9. by It important. In the Bikaneer language. the Marwar. the New Testament will be published. that the}' may be better able to attend to the remaining languages in which no version " is begun by any one versions all in besides. the Kurnata. to the Madras Bible Society. as mentioned in a languages the New Besides these fifteen in which the being published. and is printed in the Naguree This version was begun nearly seven years ago. own. also. pages. and will be finished at press 10. About ten months more. will bring these through the of press. the Bhughulkund. The remaining now in following ten. It is II? makes between printed in the eight and nine hundred pages. who the language. that they may give their attention more fully to those in which no others London Missionary now studying are engaged. the New TestaIt contains eight ment is now finished at press.CAREY AS A TRANSLATOR. there are six other languages in which it is brought more than half neat type of its former memoir. translation the brethren intend to resign to their brethren from the are Society. In these ten Testament may be considered as It is printed in a through the press. on the New Testament being completed. New Testament is completed. they have reason to hope. which are the press — hand are the . and the Oojein versions. the Harotee. These are. and This Deva Naguree character. the To these we may add the New Testament in Kashmeer language. hundred character.

To this the brethren have been constrained by the low state of the translation fund. the entire Scriptures or portions of them had been translated into forty languages or dialects and between the issue of the . the Hindee. . at the time of Carey's death. After the publication of this memoir of the translations. as well as the ease with which pundits could be procured. the translation the heavy expenses occasioned by new editions of the Sanscrit. the Bengalee. Dogura. to Mark and the Kumaoon." Besides these versions. printed as far as the Khoshul. and the Cingalese. it is made languages mentioned has been discontinued. should the public enable them to resume them again. or upwards o>{ thirty -one million pages of the Old and New Testa- ments passed through the press. Kanouj. arising principally from will be seen. Gudwal. have been however. Carey was . and Khassee. an interval of nine years. " In these ten versions. languages now in the press. ninth and tenth memoir. The Jumboo. and John Magudha. no less than ninety-nine thousand volumes. to Matthew. a sufficient progress to render the completion of them in no way difficult. and Munipoora. be supposed that the translations were incapable of improvement. therefore. . founts of type of other languages were prepared at the Mission Press such — as that of the Persian for Henry Martyn's version.Il8 " WILLIAM CAREY. Bhutuneer. that in several of the therein. until. In comparing this memoir with the last. they guided by a due consideration of the importance and the distinctness of the different languages in which they are engaged. however. the work at the Press continued unremitting. It must not. and the Orissa In discontinuing these.

iv. in the following Eastern languages :— I. . 16).FAG-SIMILE OF THE TEXT. "The people which sat in darkness saw great light" (Matt.

All the literature was of a poetical nature. in 1875 he said. and is an awkward medium of expressing true and Christian ideas in religion. well aware that he was laying the foundation upon which others might work. and poetry not like Homer's as to the ideas and the colouring. Wenger to Carey's prodigious achievements will suitably bring this chapter to a In a speech he delivered at a public meeting close. Carey. to those people they found that the only version intelligible was the Pushtoo version of the New at Testament made Serampore by Dr. The latter eminent man thus refers to his own and Dr. When Dr. Carey came. he found the language scarcely so far advanced as the Greek was in the time of Homer. has made rapid strides . but like the poorer parts of the Odyssey as Dr. Yates and Dr. Dr. Carey was able to accomThey were plish one fourth of his translations. Wenger entered into his labours. "I feel bound to state that it passes my comprehension how Dr. making the versions more perfect. when some friends wished to introduce the Gospel among the Afghans near the Peshawur frontier." will be something very The testimony of Dr. Since then. Carey was the first Bengalee to versification. About twenty years ago. the language but when it has become it thoroughly Christianised different. prose writer of any note.120 WILLIAM CAREY. Yates's efforts upon the " That it will be the final or Bengalee Bible : — standard version I do not expect. pre-eminently useful in their day." . His successors. for the language is still in a transition state.

. or the enactment of righteous and beneficent laws to teach the ignorant the first rudiments of knowledge to instruct the barbarous in the primary to systematise languages and arts of civilization create literature to deliver from the abominable and to help to hurtful customs of ancient superstitions strike the shackles from the slave to relieve the hunger of the famine stricken to heal bodily diseases and sicknesses to raise woman to her true position How could . . to transform the habitations of cruelty into homes of 121 . . the principles of which are antagonistic to all oppression and cruelty and To stimulate and assist the endeavours of wrong. the Friend of man who are the bearers of a Gospel. . . . . statesmen who have sought the repeal of unjust and inhuman. . . have foremost in ever been first and MISSIONARIES social and amongst it seeking the amelioration of the condition of the people civil whom they have lived and laboured. have been otherwise with those whose Great Master was.CHAPTER X. CAREY AS A PHILANTHROPIST. and is.

The first reform which Carey helped to effect was the prohibition of the sacrifice of children at the great annual . testimonies are multiplying as to their maniCross. It was fitting that first sent forth by the English missionary English Society should lead the the first way in philanthropic And no memoir of well-doing. their commendations.122 purity and love WILLIAM CAREY. withholding fold CHILD SACRIFICE IN THE GANGES. and their work is being understood. William Carey would be complete which did not record his benevolent endeavours to improve the social condition of the natives of India. these humane objects. these kindly ministries have ever possessed the sympathies and commanded the energies of the missionaries of the — passes on. and even blue books are not Government positions. As time better Men of high civic and benevolent usefulness. and their influence more truly gauged.

he made his report as full as possible. That declaration afforded the Governor-General the justification he required for issuing a proclamation making the custom illegal. Udney. Another abomination. once directed the attention of Lord Wellesley to these inhuman practices. was Suttee : the immolation of widows on the burning pile of their dead husbands. festival at 1 23 Gunga Sangor. He at Mr. as he assured Mr. observed. And when the next festival recurred. but was even denied to have ever existed. the natives quietly assented. and many were the children who year by year were drowned devoured by alligators and sharks. In this report he declared that the Hindoo shasters gave no warrant for the Gunga Saugor perpetrations. so much so that in the course of time the practice of these cruelties not only fell into disuse. Carey's entered the Supreme Council. Fuller would be the case. this commission being intrusted to him on account of his position at Fort -William His report was to include the results of College. Sepoys were despatched to the spot to see that the law was instructed to inquire into the matter . its geograthe word for Ganges. Saugor for sea.CAREY AS A PHILANTHROPIST. Sacrifices were consequently held to be of great merit. The supposed arise is virtue of this particular place was thought to phical situation. and with such effect that Carey was and report to Government. to the abolition of which directed his most determined efforts. and Gunga and as at this particular spot the from river flowed into the sea. Very graphic is the descripCarey . In the year 1801. And strange to say. the confluence was believed to give special sanctity. inquiries into other superstitious customs as well as the sacrifice of children and. in the waters or friend.

She was standing by the pile. stood by her. . began ing my might against what they were doing. whether this sweetmeats. or a woman — burning herself with the corpse of her husband. we got out of the boat to walk. and added in a very surly manner. for no evil would But she in the calmest manner mounted the pile. when we saw a number of people assembled on the river side. which was made of large billets of wood about two feet and a-half long. with her hands extended as if in the utmost tranquillity of spirit Previous to her mount. to fear nothing. he sent to Dr. I inquired whether his wife would die with him. of his first acquaintance with that horrible superstition " As I was returning from Calcutta. called kivy. and danced on it. for We were near the village of the first time in my life. and that I should certainly bear I exhorted the witness of it at the tribunal of God. in his chart of the Hooghly River. and two wide on the top of which lay Her nearest relation the dead body of her husband. I asked them. for what they were met and they told me. They told me it was a great act of holiness. Ryland. . They answered . and near her was a small basket of I asked them. I saw the Sahamoron. that if I did not like to see it. and desired me to go. woman not to throw away her life. They answered yes and pointed to the woman. was the woman's choice. that I was determined to stay and I would not go see the murder. .124 tion WILLIAM CAREY. follow her refusing to burn. telling them that it was a shocking murder. or whether she was brought to it by any improper influence. Noya Serai (Rennel. I might go I told them that farther off. spells it Niaserai) . as it was evening. was of no then and to exclaim with all use. that it was I talked till reasonperfectly voluntary. to burn the body of a dead man.

Hurree Bol!' which is a common shout of joy. had she groaned. on account of the mad noise of the people and it was impossible for her to struggle. Two bamboos were then put over them and held fast down. who picked them up and ate them as very holy things. she then lay down by the corpse and put one arm under its neck. and of horror at what we had seen." down. We made much objection to their using these bamboos. ing the pile.CAREY AS A PHILANTHROPIST. It was impossible to have heard the woman. and an ' invocation of Hurree. was poured on the top. down upon them like the levers of a press. exclaiming loudly against the murder. on account of the bamboos. which are held . and to prove to us that her dying was voluntary). We could full To induce the Government to prohibit so wicked . or melted preserved butter. and fire was put to the pile. went round. and insisted that it was using fire force to prevent the woman falling getting declared it was up when the burnt her. 1 25 the relation whose office it was to set . or even cried aloud. and the other it. she scattered the sweetmeats above mentioned among the people. led her six times round it. owing to the dry and combustible materials of which it was composed. which immediately blazed very fiercely. but them. This being ended. Hurree Bol. No sooner was the fire kindled than all the people set up a great shout. at two intervals As she that is. only done to keep the But they pile from left not bear to see more. fire to it. when a quantity of dry cocoa leaves and other substances were heaped over them to a considerable and then ghee. thrice at each circumambulation. and danced as above men- tioned (which appeared only designed to show us her contempt of death. height over . and she having mounted the pile. the wife of Hur or Seeb.

step was to enlighten the minds of the people of England upon the subject. By these means it was ascertained that more than four hundred cases occurred in a year. to enable him to bring the subject before the Council. Unfortunately Lord Wellesley was about leaving India. Representations. had his administration continued. the abomination would have been brought to a speedy end. descriptive of the custom. cruel a rite. Whilst these inquiries were proceeding. and . diligently examined the Hindoo writings for the purpose of collating the vari- ous passages bearing upon the custom. is hereby declared illegal. were sent first The home to the Society for general circulation. with the result of largely increasing the number. To Lord William Bentinck. the Company's territories in these terms " : The practice of Suttee. one of the wisest and most recent benevolent of Indian Governors. Statistics were carefully obtained by agents who were employed to watch and report every instance of suttee taking place within a radius of thirty miles round Calcutta. with the help of his learned pundits. Carey. Udney. These statistics and references were then intrusted to Mr.126 WILLIAM CAREY. or probably. his rule with the solemn to put determination upon an end to the cursed rite and forthwith a proclamation was sent throughout the length and breadth of . or of burning or burying alive the widows of Hindoos. As it was. no less than twenty-four years had to come and go before the horrible superstition was made to cease. and Carey and his fellow missionaries spared no labour. The children enactment prohibiting the sacrifice of was quoted as a precedent for further reform in the same direction. Further and more searching investigation was made. belongs the dis- He entered tinguished honour of abolishing suttee.

&c. The tender hearts of the missionaries had been deeply moved as they contemplated the sad and neglected condition of the seven thousand families of the Portuguese. poorer than either Hindoos or Mussulmans." several 127 Then followed minor regulations. the proclamation was duly translated and ready for With what intense gratification must the circulation. The preparation was instantly put aside. The Governor-General's secretary was at once despatched to Carey. literally the poor of the city. by assiduous application. it was thought well to publish it in both English and Bengalee. There could be no delay for delay meant more sacrifice of human life. noble-hearted man have transcribed the regulations intended to abolish at last a cruel superstition. The secretary found Carey preparing for the Sunday services. And . Some decided reform had been effected. exclusive of Armenians. but the charity had been mismanaged. had now helped to bring to an end. more than those of any other. the thought of which for so many years had harrowed his soul. For the benefit of this Eurasian population. requiring him to translate the notification into the vernacular.CAREY AS A PHILANTHROPIST. before the Sabbath closed. and the funds left for its support had been abused. Marshman and Ward. The Benevolent Institution for Instructing the Children of Indigent Parents originated in the philanthropic sympathies of Carey and his two colleagues. punishable by the criminal courts. He felt his place to be at the desk rather than in the pulpit. a free school had been in existence for many years. but the school was most inadequate to the needs of those for whom it had . and which his own efforts. To prevent any misapprehension of the purport of the proclamation. living in Calcutta. It was Saturday afternoon. Greeks.

is over the girls. Mr. and near 30 girls. and so highly patronised at home by the nobility and gentry. 1811. it gave instruction been founded. a most valuable and active man. and that happy method which enables Lancaster himself to instruct above a thousand poor children in . Carey and his coadjutors desired an institution which should be free to all who might come for daily And in May. a member The instruction of our church. all from instruction of a thus debarred being moral nature appears but too plainly in their growing up in the practice of every vice to which their abject The plan of instruction state exposes them. who. some of them the remote descendants of Hindoos and Mussulmans. and a very pious woman. have been by their poverty precluded the advantages of Christian education. year we added opened There are now in it about to it a school for girls. . only to those whom it received as boarders. . Its simplicity is admirably suited to convey instruction to the untutored mind. . And moreover. we find him writing to teaching. their . " Dr. and is con- ducted upon Lancaster's plan. meets with considerable encouragement. : A 140 boys. One of our deacons. matured by Mr. Ryland in the following strain year ago we in a free school This Calcutta. Royal Family.128 WILLIAM CAREY. and have never been favoured with Christian instruction in a there are The effect of language they could understand. is well adapted to meet the circum- stances of these numerous and wretched victims to ignorance and vice. and even by the . occupying the lowest walks of life. superintends the boys. . Lancaster. Leonard." One or two extracts from the first Report sent to " In this city this country will be read with interest : — numbers of persons bearing the Christian name.

was placed with me as a boarder. pupils is truly novel. wishing to train up this boy to useful life. native Portuguese. They consist of Europeans' children. and In addition to instructed in writing and arithmetic. they are instructed in Bengalee. and taught to read the Scriptures in that language in which indeed. . sale. Whether the other two died or not. by his I will relate.. The children admitted life still lower. and one hundred and fifty dollars had the high grati- fication of carrying them safely to his ship. brought him to our school. in one of his late trading voyages. regards variety of colour. after being some little time in the school. . cooped up like hogs and upon inquiring into their circumstances found they were fattejiing for the k?iife. Armenians. country." I . in a part inhabited by the Battas. that the Benevolent Institution is conducted. . I cannot say but Captain W. and The history of some of them involves Abyssinia. had occasion to touch on the coast of Sumatra. It is are taught to read the Scriptures in English. them TJiomas Chance. for Captain W. instantly bargained for them. natives of Sumatra. . this. a lad of about twelve years old. and accounts. Mozambique. fifty. they understand them more readily than The description of our they do in English. where. is 1 29 an expense which would scarcely board exactly fitted to extend the same benefit to at the multitudes of children here. writing. and were for . Captain W. generous benefactor. . as it Mussulmans. with such upon variations as circumstances require. and religion.CAREY AS A PHILANTHROPIST. as it is nearly vernacular to them. who this are in a sphere of plan. who. he one day observed three boys confined in a kind of wooden cage. circumstances somewhat interesting that of one of . among other things. Hindoos. London.

shortly afterwards altered to Its editorship was that of The Friend of India. In addition to these memorials of Christian philanthropy may be mentioned the establishment of a Leper Hospital. But the Benevolent Institution for the instruction of Eurasian children was not the extent of Carey's philanthropic efforts on behalf of the children of India. to maintain this Institution in the was attended with much 1826 Carey felt difficulty. effort. Reference should not be omitted here to the publiThis was cation of the first vernacular newspaper. It may be added that the Institution survived its founders and continues to the present day. year himself justified in making an appeal for Government help. The debt which had accumulated was removed. there are still many parts of India where. if it were not for Christian missions. schools for In the year 18 17 we find no natives were opened. a sum for repairs was voted.130 WILLIAM CAREY. issued by the Serampore press in 18 18. The cruelties to which the victims of leprosy were commonly subjected so wrought upon Carey's heart. less than forty-five such schools established in the about Calcutta. The In Friend Marshman. Wherever mission stations were founded. districts which number was hereafter though now at the present time Government schools widely prevail. to intrusted of India the cause of humanity and religion was henceforward to find a most' important and influential ally. and an annual subsidy was granted of ^"240. no instruction whatever would be imparted. And greatly increased. which met with a favourable and and generous response. The however. that he could not rest until a home had been provided in which at least some of the poor afflicted creatures might receive suitable medical treatment. . under the title of The News Mirror.

constrained him carefully to observe the strange animal life and vegetable varieties of a foreign land. that. "consecrated cobblers. in itself. and his remarkable linguistic abilities. his spiritual gifts. men who same Very soon fields after his arrival in the country. it was more than sufficient to deserve respect indeed. the propensities which. had Carey gone to India* simply to follow the pursuits of a naturalist and not as a missionary of ." " "tub THE apostates from the loom and anvil. in all probability the very sneered would have been the first to extol. as a boy. Jesus Christ. Apart from his eminent piety." especially lampooned the missionaries.CHAPTER XL CAREY AS A NATURALIST. ribald epithets. . the knowledge Carey possessed in not a few branches of natural history was so considerable and so scientific." with which a certain clerical reviewer more preachers. were as unworthy as they were ungentlemanly and unchristian. led him to search the and woods around his home to convert his own little room into a at Paulerspury and museum for his various specimens.

132 WILLIAM CAREY. and the latter are so tormenting as to make one conclude that and mosquitoes flies in if the Egypt were mosquitoes. entirely unlike European birds. Ants are the most omnivorous of all insects we have eight or ten sorts very numerous. in a former letter." In a later communication he remarks " I observed. pigeons. and intend at some future time to transmit them to Europe. but others. 1795. plovers. ants destroy everything on which they fasten they will eat through an oak-chest in a day or two. one species of crow. The beasts here have in general not been unnoticed. we meet with one of his letters " The natural : history of Bengal would furnish innumerable novelties I am making collections and to a curious inquirer. the plague must . but I have seen some of which I have never read. beasts. as in England. but that the undescribed by any authors. have never been distinct . reptiles. The termes or white . minute descriptions of whatever I can obtain [he kept books for birds. like those in Europe . I have about twelve sorts of grylli or grasshoppers and crickets. described as I think there are almost which have been country many species hitherto undescribed as I have ever seen descriptions of in the world. fishes. early as March. ortolans. &c. We have sparrows and water-wagtails. Common (or gnats) are abundant. Butterflies are not so numerous . geese. that the beasts have been in general described. and devour all its contents. and in fact new species are still frequently coming under my notice. snipes. would fill a volume. I believe. in which he entered his observations]. ducks. but flies I think are all different. teal. As India but a little these sentences in when he had resided in more than a year. Insects are very numerous. Birds are very numerous many. in this : birds were surprisingly numerous. and common fowls.

sickles. Scorpions of two sorts. must have been considerable. 1 33 have been almost insupportable. It will be remembered that in our sketch of Carey's boyhood we referred to his early love of flowers. diately upon his settlement at Mudnabatty. " Apply. and also a yearly assortment of all garden and flower seeds. desiring to utilise his practical knowledge." Carey's acquaintance with some sections of the science of geology. he wrote to England. who lived in the village." But it was on removing to Serampore that his found full scope. the gardener. as it will be a lasting advantage to this country. and other agricultural implements might be sent out to him. those subjects resulted in very material benefit to and lays that country under a debt of obligawhich can never be discharged. Here are beetles of many species. by the help of such instruction as he received from his uncle India. particularly with mineral ores. and the delight with which he cultivated his father's garden.CAREY AS A NATURALIST. Land crabs in abundance. and I shall have it in my power to do this for what I now call my own country. requesting that scythes. and an amazing number of other kinds of insects. and seeds of fruit-trees. botanical tastes and purposes Attached to the mission home was a large piece ot land which under Carey's cultivation reached such a state of excellence and importance as to compare ." he said. " to London seedsmen and others. the sting of the smallest not mortal. at the same time giving minute instructions as to the way in which they should be packed. But it was in botany and agriculture that he most His practical interest in delighted and excelled. tion ImmePeter. plough wheels. as we find that amongst his many honours he was elected a fellow of the Geological Society.

country he brought to a more perfect whilst other varieties he introduced. spirit from the dead. Jonathan. Shut close their leaves while vapours lower Whose But. A treasure Strange as a in a grain of earth. Carey. he expressed a particular desire that some field cowslips and daisies should be included. possibly through oversight for years afterwards a Sheffield Garden. The delightful feelings with which the sight of that simple home flower affected his heart in the following have been beautifully imagined poem Mont- composed gomery : — by the missionary poet. 1 Thrice welcome. shook the bag over some shaded soil. and shortly afterwards to his great joy he saw springing up an English daisy. declaring them equal to any that were offered for sale in Covent Requesting from home a parcel of garden seeds. favourably with the Company's botanical garden in indeed his son. little IN INDIA. He found in the . little English flower beneath our natal skies. . In rose or lily. when the sun's gay beams arise. . James THE DAISY Thrice welcome.134 WILLIAM CAREY. Thine embryo sprang to earth. affirms that it Calcutta . ! English flower mother-country's white and red. till this hour. It does not appear that this wish was fulfilled. and that with remarkable and permanent success. botanist sent him a bag of British seeds. My Never to me such beauty spread Transplanted from thine island bed. anxious that none of the contents should be lost. . roots and . contained the best and rarest botanical collection of Fruits and vegetables which he plants in the East. condition was justly proud of the cabbages he grew. tribes.

mind. I '11 I call to . " Nc Carey's garden was indeed his dear delight. For joys that were. Thou. never pluck a flower. only thou. Thrice welcome. . 1 35 Follow his motion to the West. Oh for the April sun and shower. Thrice welcome. little English flower I '11 rear thee with a trembling hand. The arrangements made by him were on the Linnaean system and to disturb the bed or border of the garden was to touch the apple " so tender was his of his eye. fresh and green. thick as starlight. And place in God my trust. scions. and it is here he enjoyed his most pleasant moments of secret devotion and meditation." says arrangements of this his favourite retreat . one. art little here. how. little English flower To this resplendent hemisphere. In gorgeous liveries all the year . With unabased but modest eyes. Like worth unfriended and unknown. Nor cease to gaze till daylight dies." Another testifies that and fondness for with plants that he would sympathy .CAREY AS A NATURALIST. stand In every walk that here may shoot ! — Thy A and thy buds expand. hundred from one root. of that fair land. Yet to my British heart more dear Than all the torrid zone. . ! Thrice welcome. " was allowed his to in interfere the son. The sweet May dews. little English flower To me the pledge of hope unseen When sorrow would my soul o'erpower." The umbrageous avenue he . saw thee waking from the dust Then turn to heaven with brow serene. or might have been. 1 Where Flora's giant offspring tower. Then fold themselves to rest. Where daisies.

was laid aside through failing . a list being taken from his lips of over 250 plants grown in the garden. the Government Botanist. He trained them the botanical dr.136 planted his is WILLIAM CAREY. gardeners. He entered Carey's employ as a boy and in his old names . Walk. The high authority in which Carey was held is seen from the simple fact that when Dr. who five was and living years ago may be living still. age could give the botanical name of nearly every plant or flower. and taught of all the plants and trees. carey's mali or gardener. Roxburgh. still known as Carey's own The accompanying one of these picture represents gardeners.

a standard work. in the Missionary Herald'of 1821 God. on the 14th of September. he 1 37 undertook to edit and print the Hortus BengalensiSy or a catalogue of the plants of the Honourable East India Company's Botanic Garden in Calcutta. Several of the most opulent natives have joined it and I hope it will ultimately be of great benefit to the country. matter which had received no attention. Andrew came the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of And just as the former and far more important India. who encouraged me to make an attempt in consequence of which I published a The prospectus. and circulated it throughout India. requesting him to become its patron. a. I am as healthy as I ever remember to have been. and their spears into pruning hooks. Some months ago I had a conversation with Lord Hastings on the subject." Fuller tells us that the Baptist Missionary had its origin in the working of Brother Society mind and from that prolific mind certainly Carey's . And when Dr. I wrote to Lord Hastings. Roxburgh died. the paper Researches. which consists already of about fifty members. In the year 181 1. published and still is. an Agricultural and Horticultural Society was formed.CAREY AS A NATURALIST. I have for some time back had much at heart appearing eventually in a Ten later : — the formation of an Agricultural Society in India. to which he acceded. and more especially on the cultivation of timber. enterprise was indeed feeble and obscure in its begin- . volume of the Asiatic we meet with the years " I bless following. he wrote a paper on Agriculture. By desire of the Society. which became. he that botanist's Flora Indica. result is that. and contribute to prepare its inhabitants for the time when they shall beat their swords into ploughshares. . health. .

India. societies in it . It exists to-day with membership.133 ning. more than three himself. It flourished and as already intimated Lord Hastings was as its first secured a large patron. Carey started the Society. nothing daunted. formed the model of the Royal Agricultural Society of England." and for learning and insight more than deserves to be reproduced here verbatim not consist Dr. if we may compare smaller For things with greater. such WILLIAM CAREY was the case. enjoying the advantage of a considerable annual grant from Government and has also succeeded in establishing three other similar . George Smith. the meeting that was convened after Carey issued his prospectus —which prospectus occupies of nearly six —did closely printed pages in the seventh volume of the " Periodical Accounts. rapidly. Europeans besides Marshman and But. According to Dr. with the Scientific Society.

natural and supremely important part which a native ministry would be certain to perform in the evangelisation of India very early the earnest engaged thought of Carey and his THE fellow As sober-minded and practical missionaries.CHAPTER XII. they saw clearly enough that to whatever extent their feeble numbers might be strengthened by European reinforcements. CAREY AND SERAMPORE COLLEGE. Hence we find Krishnu Pal. evangelistic journeys. climate. knowledge of fellow-countrymen. the first Hindoo convert. and to devote himself as an itinerant in questionable to create . were obvious and un- and therefore no opportunity was lost and promote it. encouraged to instruct inquirers. as missionary i39 . &c. men. The immense advantages of such an agency. unless it were by the efforts of an indigenous Christian agency. the millions of the heathen would never become enlightened. by no means the visionary fanatics some imagined them to be. In the natural course of things. arising out of considerations of language.

the idea of a missionary training which for years had been under consideration. setting forth the objects contemplated. might be suitably trained. and which. and India will never be turned from her grossness of idolatry to serve the true and living God. to Ryland " : — have bought a piece of ground adjoining the mission premises. therefore. was so greatly developed that Carey wrote thus institution. But we should be glad to see. as new stations. and the number of the converts multiplied. the time arrived when it was felt to be absolutely necessary to provide an institution in which native Christians desiring to devote themselves to evangelistic and pastoral work. unless the grace of God rest abundantly on converted natives to qualify them for mission work. operations extended. on which there is an old house. and unless by the instrumentality of those who care for India they be sent forth to the field. a better house erected. In my judgment. for the present may be sufficient for the instruction of those We whom God may give unto us.140 WILLIAM CAREY. Consequently. I conceive that the work of duly preparing as large a body as possible of Christian natives of India for the work of Christian pastors and itinerants of India. is of immense importance. before our removal by death. it is on Native Evangelists that the weight of the great work must ultimately rest." In the following year a prospectus of a College was issued. It was proposed thoroughly to instruct the students . English missionaries will never be able to instruct the whole The pecuniary resources and the number of missionaries required for the Christian instruction of the millions of Hindoostan can never be supplied from England. in 1817. and having gifts and graces for such service. schools and churches were formed.

One prominent feature in the proposed Institution was its unsectarian character. recesses of European science and enrich their own language with its choicest treasures. both in the doctrines 141 they were to combat. Lord Hastings. But the knowledge of English was only to be attempted after that of the Sanscrit had been acquired. In appealing to the public for support Carey and his colleagues most generously announced their intention to subscribe from their personal resources the sum of ^"2500. instruction in English was not to be neglected.CAREY AND SERAMPORE COLLEGE. who ex- . especially in dealing with learned would be placed at great disadvantage. It was firmly believed that if ever the Gospel was to prevail in India it would only be as native was natives. On to this prospectus being drawn up it was submitted the Governor-General. it does not follow a be studied as language to great advantage by youths of superior thus enabling them to dive into the deepest talent . the rights of conscience being most caredetailed calculation was made as fully respected. A to the annual expense of maintenance. But whilst supreme importance was attached to the acquisition of the vernaculars of the people and the sacred classic language. without which knowledge it was felt the Christian teacher. opposed to native in demonstrating its excellence above all other systems. and the . The " be stated it would vain to Though prospectus : attempt to enlighten a country through the of any language besides that English could not its medium learned own. doctrines they were to teach much stress being laid upon the desirability of acquiring a knowledge of Sanscrit. And was proposed to invest the government of the College in the Governor of Serampore and the three it senior missionaries.

intended for the public rooms. Thus encouraged. more than four The staircase room was ninety feet in length. was purchased. with two staircases of cast iron. twenty-seven in width.142 WILLIAM CAREY. pressed his most hearty approval and his wish to become the first Patron. eventually enlarged to ten acres. was also most cordial. are indebted to to thought We following description centre building. was supported by two rows it was intended of Ionic columns for the annual . intended for the library. was ninety-five feet in length. of large size The ing. and consented Governor of the College. and elegant form. spacious grounds were surrounded with iron railand the front entrance was adorned with a noble Birmingham. and terminated at the south by a bow. river was composed of feet in diameter at the base. The Danish Governor. Krefting. Col. sixty-six in It was originally breadth. twenty-seven The portico which fronted the feet by thirty-five. and forty-seven in height. supported on arches. likewise cast at . of the same dimensions and twenty-six feet in height. was a hundred and thirty feet in length and a hundred J. and twenty in height. Krefting further showed his interest in the Institution by sending Col. eight were of spacious dimensions. The hall on the ground floor. prepared at Birmingham. : Mr. be the most suitable. classes. examinations. Marshman for the " The and twenty in depth. which. C. Of the twelve side-rooms above and below. if His Majesty approved. six columns. to be the first a copy of the prospectus to the King of Denmark." gate. a plot of land in a most eligible situation. might also be laid before the Royal College of Commerce at Copenhagen. but is now occupied by the The hall above. and a plan for the College buildings was The Grecian style of architecture was designed.

.

It " is superscribed with this striking heading in Missionary Funds and Lives saved. could not but affect the appeal which Mr. it would be tedious and unprofitable to enter. insert here the appeal which was We made to friends in this country. The differences. The sooner But should any of our readers those differences are forgotten the better. sympathy. Into the unhappy differences which arose between the Serampore brethren and the home Committee. revisited his native land. however. particularly in Scotland. who showed visited their practical of the college . as well as sets forth plainly the object for which they pleaded. the spread of Christianity hastened by Centuries." —the Mission. Mr. Mr. Ward. and under a India Divine blessing. corresponded with the breadth of prises of the translations. the During the erection of the College Buildings. all Serampore missionaries and the schools. in some ^"4000. on account of ill health. Marshman adds size of the building The scale proposed to establish the college. feel drawn to the investigation of matters relating to the Serampore controversy. nevertheless Ward made in person on behalf many were the friends. " : Mr. with such help as they could obtain in India. on which it was and to which the the other enter- was necessarily accommodated. had undertaken the cost of the buildings were to be applied to the annual — as resulted America and with good effect." . Ward tions also The appeal the Serampore brethren. we venture to express the opinion that the honour of Carey's noble character would not in the least suffer from such an investigation. which contribu- — support of the Institution. inasmuch as it shows the spirit of Carey and his brethren.144 WILLIAM CAREY.

Of these more than 60.000. recently converted to Christianity. from what funds could they be supported ? " From hence it is manifest that. committed to British Christians them? but what have they hitherto done for There does not exist at present in India one . they must be taught by converted natives. these are lying in wickedness and destitute of Christian teachers. Where shall sixty thousand missionaries be found ? and if they could be found. if half the sixty millions could be brought under instruction. care of these sixty millions Divine Providence a peculiar manner. that these native itinerants need better instruction in the Christian doctrines. teach fifty different all can. it is supposed. if the heathen in India should ever be called.CAREY AND SERAMPORE COLLEGE.' " It is further evident that British Christians never individual exertions. acknowledge. speaking more than . They . Forcibly impressed with this fact. Dr. ' : Christian teacher for each million of souls. ' ' " The in has. 1 45 "The population of Hindoostan. Carey and his colleagues at Serampore have regularly sent out into the field as many of the native converts as had the smallest gifts to be useful and nearly fifty natives of India are now employed under them.' all nations. amounts to no less than 1 50. giving five hundred souls to each missionary. Except a few all heathen. languages or dialects for this would require. notwithGo ye into standing the command of the Saviour — Go teach ( all the world and preach the Gospel to every creature.000 of souls.000 are British subjects. not less than sixty thousand missionaries.000. in K . by their own these tribes. with concern. and that upon the converted natives themselves the great weight of this immense cultivation " must rest.

and entire ignorance even of the first principles of revealed religion. when converted from a state of gross error. give.146 WILLIAM CAREY. — vast importance. or if we feel a ' sums raised in England and Scotland should be applied to the erection of buildings. Dr. as at first proposed. but to give them that knowledge of the Divine word. idolatry. but be formed by the Society into a fund. by Aquila and Priscilla. except in these persons. were .' learned education to rare a instances.' " It is not intended. and without which the hope of real good from him is small indeed. that they may go out into the work prepared like ' Apollos. and that this interest shall be applied in giving Scriptural preparation. scarcely able to read. of primary necessity. and taught the way It is not intended to of the Lord more perfectly. to as many native missionaries as possible. and the case of all others in future whom God may at graciously call to this it work. if would obey the command of Christ Go. not a learned education. and of the foundation principles of the system of redemption. and placed under their own inspection. " Mr. yea. teach ' : we all Christian compassion for all these millions perishing for lack of knowledge. Carey and his brethren have begun a Christian Seminary Serampore. Ten . remitting the interest to Seram- pore every year. for giving Scriptural knowledge and correct doctrinal views to these native missionaries . order to become really efficient agents in this most important work some of them. that the nations ' . which is absolutely necessary to a Christian teacher. Ward has begun to solicit the aid of British a few of them have come forward with Christians great liberality the object appears to all to be of . " To meet their case. and placed by them in the hands of trustees.

In the knowledge of the language. in a capacity of enduring the heat of the climate during itinerancies. about two years and a-half after the prospectus had been issued. by the the rivers. the English missionary. 147 pounds. upon all of these millions important undertaking. latter. destroyed annually on the funeral piles. . at present. in access to the natives. in the expense of his education and support. immensely this. strangled. Still. the natives in their present infant state be able to accomplish nothing. hope. what nobler object could a donation or a legacy to this amount be applied ? In what way could a person appropriate such a sum. however. sufferings of all those victims of superstition. . perishing without are British and without Christians called Christ. By all . the King of Denmark directed his representative at Serampore to present a . translations . he would be worth ten of the native missionary into the harvest every year . . without the instructions and superintendence of the English — . by . and receive from its applicaDid a native missiontion such a high gratification ? the same knowledge and the same grace ary possess as a European one.CAREY AND SERAMPORE COLLEGE. would these considerations. and of all those in the graves for the living. or thrown into the alligators by their own mothers yea. would send one and and would him to maintain £15 a-year perpetually." In 1 82 1. in is to assist it conceived. and on the roads to the sacred places all over India. and in the probability of the continuance of his life there is no comparison. or the interest of only £200. is as absolutely necessary as the native for. under the wheels of the car of Juggernaut. in children mouths of the cries smothered. therefore by the value of all the exertions hitherto made by the importance of all the . teacher.

is and it believed. Carey. in the altered educational and social in circumstances of India. Year after year. document. by which instrument the permanency of the College was secured being placed upon the same basis as other Colleges and Universities . and other its the sciences. exists it And. with empowered in . increasingly useful come. it to Christian sympathy. Zoology.000. bearing testimony to invaluable service tion of India. Carey published his last forth the utility of the institution. It is not expected that we should narrate in these pages the history of the College. together with the co-operation of his brethren. the cost of erecting this noble edifice reached some ^"20. and five years subsequently he granted a charter of incorporation. and Lecturer on Botany. years to . amongst other privileges. of which amount the Serampore brethren contributed no less a proportion than £1 5.£iOO. the annual rent of which at the time was nearly . thus giving most convincing proof of their disinterested devotion. certain large house.in the settlement to the missionaries. being Europe the right to confer degrees. that as an institution existing mainly supremely for the training of a native ministry. which Carey still. as Professor of Divinity. in the evangelisa- In 1832. Before its completion. College was able to issue its Report.148 WILLIAM CAREY. Thus nobly did His Majesty add to his many royal favours. under the presidency of Dr. or attempt to estimate great and far reaching usefulness. thus so largely helped to originate. will prove.500. and. setting and commending The College.

CHAPTER XIII. those at home and others who had been his fellow-labourers in the Sutcliff. the long period of forty-one years Carey was He spared to labour for the good of India. at several attacks of illness especially was this periods the serious case in when through an accident. amongst and Thomas. . India. 1823. Ward. experienced . From that illness he never appears to have fully recovered. him in the establishment Fawcett. he concentrated his efforts upon certain pursuits with that diligent persistency by which he had ever been characterised. And 149 that great work he had strength sufficient to accomplish. however. Chamberlain. he had. His chief desire was to complete the last revision of the Bengalee version. But though he was under the necessity of somewhat restricting his manifold duties. followed by severe he was brought to the brink of the grave. out-lived nearly all who were associated with FOR Fuller. During this prolonged residence in unbroken by any return to England. work abroad. of the Mission : Ryland. CONCLUSION. fever. Pearce. .

which is to me a . expected that his race was run. and commented with deep feeling on the encouragement which that history affords.1§0 WILLIAM CAREY. Just forty years ago. his health had so much improved. Leechman. and takes his turn in all our public exercises. On these occasions we Lord our public and private trials. Through this long period of honourable toil. in the spring of 1833. Dr. that Our friends at home are not agitate our spirits. and those also which we as particularly spread before the individuals are called to bear. that Mr. have also a private monthly prayermeeting held in Dr. with other complications. . for. We meeting of uncommon interest. held . with which it is our honour and privilege to be connected. Carey read part of the history of Gideon. we give full expression to the joys and sorrows. the hopes and fears. Repeated attacks of fever. At our last meeting. address to encourage us to persevere in the work of the Lord. but the end was not yet. who then arrived from England to assist him. forgotten on these occasions. was able to describe his condi" tion and circumstances in the following terms Our venerable Dr. both those which come upon us from the cause of Christ. he administered the Lord's Supper to the church at Leicester. In 1831 he gradually enfeebled his constitution. as we are quite alone." may be heard that Christ's kingdom may . Carey's study. apparently inefficient means. that the cause of God can be carried on to victory and triumph by feeble and On these occasions. the first of this month. he delivered an interesting . on the first of this month. and started on the : — morrow to embark for India. the Lord has mercifully preserved him and at our missionary prayer-meeting. Oh that our united prayers come. Carey is in excellent health.

and can only say. more it ago. 151 With a view to lengthen his invaluable life. by everyone appears to be the will of God that I should How long that may be continue a little time longer. and feel. " My it the tranquil state of his mind being able to write to you : — now is quite else. 'All the days of come. but I believe. I am too weak to walk more than just across the house. and I am but the time when. . and.CONCLUSION. brought to him for revision. As long as his strength permitted he would be drawn in .' my I appointed time will I wait till my change was." His interest in his garden remained to the last. But that necessity which is inexorable compelled him at last to take almost entirely to his couch when thus yet even have he would proof sheets prostrated . I leave with ready to depart God. indicating. unexpected by me. and now and then to read a proof sheet of the Scriptures. and it appeared that death would be no more felt than the removing from one chair to another. I trust the great point is settled. his friends strongly urged him to relax his labours. but with his inveterate repugnance to inactivity he would sit and work at his desk when his physical strength was altogether unequal to his mental energy. a tranquil mind. I am now able to sit and to lie on my couch. generally. In the autumn he was able to write to his sisters the following letter. I leave entirely with Him. as it does most beautifully. reduced to appeared as if my mind was extinguished and my weakness of body and sense of extreme fatigue and exhaustion were such that I could scarcely speak. nor can I stand even a few minutes without support. two months or such a state of weakness that . I have every comfort that kind friends can yield.

was encouraged and inspired by the interviews he requested. hereafter to take so important a part in the educational and religious progress of India. Lady William Bentinck was most assiduous and kind in her attentions Dr. Wilson. Saviour. and. you have been speakrecalled.152 WILLIAM CAREY. he at length the dying man ' found that he was ' : accordingly and this is gracious solemnity ing about Dr. Culross in his " Men Worth " On one of the last occasions on Remembering." . turning. Duff. the Bishop of Calcutta. Carey's He stepped back what he heard." instantly replied Marshman. Carey when I am gone. say nothing about Dr. Pray* Duff knelt down and prayed. spoken with a Mr. Carey." " Far be it from me.' Duff went away rebuked and awed. which occurred during one of Mr. and then said Good-bye. till whispered. brother Marshman will turn the cows into the garden. — . Carey speak about Dr. As he passed from the room. And when that enjoyment was no longer possible his head gardener was regularly summoned into his room to receive instructions. Dr. Duff's affectingly narrated visits is most by Dr." which he saw him if not the very last he spent some time talking chiefly about Carey's missionary — — life. in a moment of " depressed feeling. "though I have not your botanical tastes I shall consider the preservation of the garden in which you have taken so much delight as a sacred duty " During his last days he was visited by many friends. An incident missionary's . was amongst those who sought his presence. he thought he heard a feeble voice pronouncing his name. When I am gone. On one occasion. and earnestly craved the venerable ! . he exclaimed. the young Scotch blessing missionary. with a lesson in his heart that he never forgot. Duff. a chair to visit his beloved resort. Mr.

153 his fellow With Marshman and Mack and other of Two missionaries he held most delightful converse. when in the prospect of death. His Christian experience partakes of that guileless integrity which has been the grand characteristic of his whole life. when he was yet able to I am sure that he said to his friends. I think I know that all- The ascertaining of that had been his object in much honest important self-examination. sincere sorrow from representaesteem and profound Government. to thus wrote Mack Mr. I I know anything of have come to Him. and should not be surprised were Nor could such an he taken off in an hour. so far as I am aware. It would only be weakness occurrence be regretted. and the result was the peaceful assurance that his hopes were well-grounded. and whom he had been enabled so long and so With every expression of devotedly to serve. life. Having pursued the inquiry to this result.' fact myself. He is ripe for glory. whom. and if Christ will save all that come unto Him — ' . Christopher Anderson of Edinburgh " : — Respecting the great change before him. he so entirely trusted. and to have committed all that concerned and death to the gracious care of God in We wonder much perfect resignation to His will. he seems to have been enabled to dismiss all further anxiety on the subject from his mind. 1834.CONCLUSION. with such humble dependence. his life in us to wish to retain him." and already dead to all that belongs to On the 9th of June. Often. in the seventy-third year of his age. and of the Danish tives of the British . that he is yet alive. his spirit passed away to the Saviour. has converse. his before death. days Mr. a single shade of anxiety has not crossed his mind ever since the beginning of his decay.

do make this my last will and testament in manner and form following Serampore. His last will and testament interest " I.000 rupees. Taylor's by — ' ance. shells. wife. being in good health and of sound mind. called the Mission all . of sister Societies. my all collection and my books I of Bibles in foreign languages. " all right and title to the to present wife. — . and other natural Also the folio curiosities and a Hortus Siccus. executed any such right or Secondly I disclaim — title. or supposed myself to have. property belonging amounting to 25. insects. "Fourthly will — desire my for. as well as of the Serampore missionaries and the native Christian Church. my previously to my marriage with her. the whole of my museum. which was settled upon her by a particular deed. was presented which Hortus edition of Woburnensis. more or less.154 WILLIAM CAREY. corals. and every part and parcel thereof and do hereby declare that I never had. in the Italian and German that languages. Grace Carey. I direct that my library. collect from my library whatever Grace Carey. " First — : — I utterly disclaim to the premises at or any right or title Serampore. Government. From the failure of funds to carry my Fifthly former intentions into effect. his remains were laid to rest in the graveyard belonging to the Mission. consisting of minerals.' Hebrew ConcordLord me to Hastings. Doctor of Divinity. residing at in the province of Bengal. books in the for English language she wishes her " and keep them own use. "Thirdly I give and bequeath to the College of Serampore. : — will be read with William Carey. Premises.

.

a like sum having heretofore been paid to my sons Felix and William. S. Sixthly It " — was a similar sum to my intention to my son Jonathan .156 WILLIAM CAREY." . that the following inscription. for her proper use and behoof. "(Signed) W. or any part of it. and helpless worm. with the exceptions above made. to whom I also bequeath all my household furniture. and nothing more. Jabez Carey. executors to this my last will and testament. funeral be may be paid that . can be advantageously disposed of by private sale and that from the . either above or below. and whatever other effects I may possess. of Calcutta. as there may be room viz. and request them to perform all therein desired and ordered by me. William Robinson. be sold by public auction. the Rev. may be cut on the stone which commemorates her. John Mack. of Serampore. William Carey. poor. it be given to my wife. before every other thing. H. wearing apparel. and revoke all other wills and : ' — — . " (Signed) William Carey.' " Eighthly I hereby constitute and appoint my dear friends. proceeds 1500 rupees be paid as a legacy to my son. On Thy kind arms I fall. Charlotte Emilia Carey and . M'Intosh. . . born August 17th. and the Rev. Jones. to the utmost of their power. unless it. Grace Carey. — — testaments of a date prior to this. " all Seventhly — I my lawful debts direct that. my as plain as possible that I may be buried by the side of my second wife. 1761 died 'A wretched. have bequeathed Carey but God has so prospered him that he is in no immediate want of it I direct that if anything remains. " Ninthly I hereby declare this to be my last will and testament.

CONCLUSION.

157

When
many

the fact of Carey's death became known, were the memorials by which religious and

philanthropic societies testified their estimate of his character and labours. The Baptist Missionary Society, of which he was one of the founders, and the first missionary, placed this record upon its minutes
:

"That

cordially sympathise on this mournful occasion, with the immediate connexions of Dr. Carey, by whose death not merely the missionary
this

Committee

with which he was most intimately associated, but the Christian world at large, has sustained no
circle

common
this

loss.

The Committee

gratefully record, that

venerable and highly-esteemed servant of God had a principal share in the formation of the Baptist Missionary Society ; and devoted himself, at its very commencement, to the service of the heathen, amidst complicated difficulties and discouragements, with an ardour and perseverance which nothing but Christian benevolence could inspire, and which only a strong

and

lively faith in

God

could sustain.
for the

Endowed

with

extraordinary talents

languages, he delighted noble purpose of unfolding to the nations of the East the holy Scriptures in their own tongue a depart:

acquisition of foreign to consecrate them to the

ment of sacred labour in which it pleased God to honour him far beyond any predecessor or contemporary in the missionary field. Nor was Dr. Carey
less

eminent

Throughout Saviour, by the

for the holiness of his personal character. life he adorned the Gospel of God, his
.

spirituality of his mind, and the uprightness of his conduct, and especially by the deep and unaffected humility which proved how largely he

had imbibed the
" In

paying

spirit of his blessed Master. this brief and imperfect tribute to the

memory

of this great and good man,

who was

long

158

WILLIAM CAREY.

their associate in missionary exertion, and have never ceased to regard with feelings

whom

they of the

utmost veneration and respect,

it is

the anxious desire

of the Committee to glorify God in him. May a review of what Divine grace accomplished in and by this faithful servant of the Redeemer awaken lively

and strengthen the devout expectation that He, with whom is the residue of the Spirit, will favour His Church with renewed proofs of His love and care by thrusting forth many such labourers into
gratitude,

the harvest."

Other societies, such as the Religious Tract Society, and the British and Foreign Bible Society, expressed similarly high esteem, as did also the Asiatic and the Horticultural and Agricultural Societies. During his lifetime Carey's great attainments and distinguished merits had called forth honourable

Some three years after his appointment recognition. as Professor at Fort-William College, Brown Univerthe United States, conferred upon him the Scientific societies degree of Doctor of Divinity. admitted him to their membership, the Linnaean whilst the Society, and the Geological Society Horticultural Society of London constituted him
sity, in

;

Men of highest position a corresponding member. in the service of the State, such as the Marquis of Wellesley, Lord Hastings, and Lord William
Bentinck, appreciated and extolled his worth. Robert Hall, the great preacher, who, fifteen years after Carey's departure for India, succeeded him in
the pulpit of Harvey Lane Chapel, Leicester, thus refers, in a funeral sermon for Dr. Ryland, to his

predecessor
"

:

By none will the removal of our excellent be more deeply felt than by our missionaries in

friend

India,

CONCLUSION.

159

and especially by the venerable Carey, whom he was means of introducing into the ministry, a circumstance which he sometimes mentioned with honest
the

triumph, after witnessing the career of that extraordinary man, who, from the lowest poverty and
obscurity, without assistance, rose by dint of unrelenting industry to the highest honours of literature,

became one of the first of Orientalists, the first of missionaries, and the instrument of diffusing more
religious knowledge among his contemporaries, than has fallen to the lot of any individual since the

Reformation a man who unites, with the most profound and varied attainments, the fervour of an evangelist, the piety of a saint, and the simplicity of
;

a child."

And John Foster, the celebrated essayist, wrote to the Rev. John Fawcet in this characteristic strain " The retrospect of my long life is deeply humiliat:

ing,

with individuals

whether judged of absolutely, or by comparison who have gone from indefatigable
their

Christian service to

glorious reward.

In this

view it is not without a profoundly mortifying emotion that I can repeat the name of Dr. Carey, unquestionably the very foremost name, of our times, in the whole Christian world. What an entrance his " has been into that other world
!

place Carey had secured in the esteem and affection of good men of

As we

thus

record

the high

all

sections of the

Church of

Christ,

we would

recall

the sentiments, with which, like the Great Apostle to the Gentiles, between whom and himself it is no irrev-

erence to say there was
his early labours, this great favour,

much

in

"

I

rejoice that

common, he pursued God has given me

to preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ' I would not change

. I desire no greater reward. station for all the society in England." May THE END • W I'ARTKIUCB AND CO. and can receive no higher honour. LONDON. . 9 PATEKNOSTKK KOW.l6o WILLIAM CAREY. . much as it nor indeed. for all the wealth in the world. my I prize I but be useful in laying the foundation of the Church of Christ in India.

.

.

m .

.«*»..