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in Composite Materials Modellings
Advanced Numerical Modelling.
Scope and modelling methods.
Scope of the present presentation consist in quick listening of the
importance of numerical study on establishing the properties,
loadings system and perspectives of the numerical simulation
The present modelling situation is based on the levels:
Macro modelling
Mezoscale modelling
Nanoscale modelling
Transport phenomena modelling
Phase change and global properties modelling
Phase change and local properties modelling
Solid state transformations and residual stresses and
strains establishing
Advanced Numerical Modelling.
Scope and modelling methods.
strains establishing
Structure stresses, strains and deflections calculation
Dynamics of structure, cracks generation an growth,
fatigue verifications
Schematic aspects of a structure modelling.
Macro modelling
Transport Equations
Mass Conservation
Momentum Conservation
Incompressible fluids
Compressible fluids
Energy Conservation Energy Conservation
Phase change
a) (solid liquid, liquid solid, liquid vapors)
b) (solid states transformation and properties)
Residual stresses, strains and deflections
Stress and strain analysis using loading system and limit
conditions
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
General aspects of equations involved in mass, momentum and energy
transport have the general expression:
)
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−
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=
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genaration
of rate
outputs
of rate
inputs
of rate
ons accumulati
of rate
For mass balance equation For mass balance equation
)
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´
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−
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´
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=
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outputs
mass of rate
inputs
mass of rate
n acumulatio
mass of rate
For an infinitesimal volume element dΩ ΩΩ Ω is ρdΩ ΩΩ Ω that must be integrate
over the element to obtain the rate of mass accumulation
∫∫∫
Ω
Ω ⋅
∂
∂
d
t
ρ
Rate of mass changed from the infinitesimal surface dΓ can be
expressed by
influx/efflux = (/+) (ρ ρ ρ ρ u) (dΓ ΓΓ Γ cos θ θθ θ),
where θ is the angle between the velocity vector u and the normal outward
unit vector n to the surface dΓ.
Or, using the vector algebra:
Γ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ Γ ⋅ = ⋅ Γ ⋅ d n u n u d d u ) ( ) cos( ) cos )( (
r r r r
ρ θ ρ θ ρ
By integrals over the whole surface of the element dΓ give
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
∫∫
Γ
Γ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − d n u ) (
r r
ρ
The integral form of the equation of mass transfer become:
0 ) ( = Γ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + Ω ⋅
∂
∂
∫∫ ∫∫∫
Γ Ω
d n u d
t
r r
ρ ρ
Differential form of mass balance:
a) The aid of Gauss divergence theorem
b) The direct concept of mass conservation applied to 3D differential
control volume as applied in figure 2
a) Transformation the surface integral into volume integral:
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Mass Balance
a) Transformation the surface integral into volume integral:
∫∫ ∫∫∫
Γ Ω
Ω ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ∇ = Γ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ d u d n u ) ( ) (
r r r
ρ ρ
0 ) ( = Ω ⋅

¹

\

⋅ ⋅ ∇ +
∂
∂
∫∫∫
Ω
d u
t
r
ρ
ρ
As the integral must vanish on the arbitrary control volume and the
integrant is a continuum function, it follow that the integral must be equal
with zero. So:
0 ) ( = ⋅ ⋅ ∇ +
∂
∂
u
t
r
ρ
ρ
And for an incompressible fluid, ρ = constant
0 = ⋅ ∇ u
r
b) Use the 3D differential control volume,
the left hand side of general equation, the rate of mass accumulation
within the differential control volume (∆x∆y∆z) can be expressed as:
) ( z y x ∆ ⋅ ∆ ⋅ ∆ ⋅
∂
ρ
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Mass Balance
) ( z y x
t
∆ ⋅ ∆ ⋅ ∆ ⋅
∂
∂
ρ
The influx in the control volume on the three directions is:
( ) z y u u
x x
x
x
x
∆ ⋅ ∆ ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅
∆ +
ρ ρ
( ) x z u u
y y
y
y
y
∆ ⋅ ∆ ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅
∆ +
ρ ρ
( ) y x u u
z z
z
z
z
∆ ⋅ ∆ ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅
∆ +
ρ ρ
The total net rate of mass influx is the sum of directional mass input and
the differential eq. become:
Figure 2
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) y x u u x z u u
z y u u z y x
t
z z
z
z
z
y y
y
y
y
x x
x
x
x
∆ ⋅ ∆ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ∆ ⋅ ∆ ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ +
∆ ⋅ ∆ ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ = ∆ ⋅ ∆ ⋅ ∆ ⋅
∂
∂
∆ +
∆ +
∆ +
ρ ρ ρ ρ
ρ ρ ρ
Dividing by ∆x∆y∆z and taking the limit as ∆x∆y∆z
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Mass Balance
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 = ⋅
∂
∂
+ ⋅
∂
∂
+ ⋅
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
z y x
u
z
u
y
u
x t
ρ ρ ρ
ρ
In vector form:
( ) 0 = ⋅ ⋅ ∇ +
∂
∂
u
t
r
ρ
ρ
Figure 2
Momentum Transfer Governing Equation
Integral Form of Balance Equation
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system on
acting forces
of sum
out
momentum
of rate
in
momentum
of rate
on accumulati
momentum
of rate
The first and second term of righthand site of equation consist in
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
The first and second term of righthand site of equation consist in
two component, convective and viscous flux transfer
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−
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´
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system on
acting forces
of sum
momentum
viscous net
of rate
momentum
convective net
of rate
on accumulati
momentum
of rate
( ) Ω ⋅ ⋅
∂
∂
∫∫∫
Ω
d u
t
r
ρ
∫∫
Γ
Γ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − d n u u ) (
r r r
ρ
∫∫
Γ
Γ ⋅ ⋅ − d n
r
τ
 Rate of momentum accumulation
 Rate of net convectiv momentum
 Rate of net viscous momentum
Momentum Transfer Governing Equation
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Similar with the mass balance consideration:
∫∫
Γ
∫∫ ∫∫∫
Γ Ω
Ω ⋅ + Γ ⋅ ⋅ − d f d n P
b
r
∫∫∫
Ω
Ω ⋅ ∇ − d P f
b
) (
( ) ( ) ( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫∫
Ω Γ Γ Ω
Ω ⋅ ∇ − + Γ ⋅ ⋅ − Γ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − = Ω ⋅ ⋅
∂
∂
d P f d n d n u u d u
t
b
r r r r r
τ ρ ρ
 Rate of net viscous momentum
 Sum of forces acting on system
Differential Form of Momentum Balance Equation
( )
( )
b
f P n u u
t
u
+ ⋅ ∇ − ⋅ ∇ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ −∇ =
∂
⋅ ∂
τ ρ
ρ r r r
r
) (
2
b
f P u u u
t
u
+ ∇ − ∇ = ∇ ⋅ ⋅ +
∂
∂ r r r
r
µ ρ ρ
(1) (2) (3)
(4)
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Momentum Transfer Governing Equation
(1) (2) (3)
(4)
z
u
y
u
x
u
t Dt
D
z y x
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
b
f P u
Dt
u D
+ ∇ − ∇ =
r
r
2
µ ρ
Observation:
mass (ρ ρρ ρ) x acceleraţion(Du/Dt) = viscous forces – external
forces
Boundary Conditions.
1) Prescribed inlet or outlet conditions
2) Free sleep conditions
3) Nosleep conditions
4) At liquid/liquid interfaces the momentum flux and speeds
perpendicular with the interface are continuum
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Momentum Transfer Governing Equation
perpendicular with the interface are continuum
Governing Equations of Energy Transfer
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−
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¹
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´
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=
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)
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¹
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¹
¦
´
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system on
acting forces
of sum
momentum
viscous net
of rate
momentum
convective net
of rate
on accumulati
momentum
of rate
General expression of energy balance
¹ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹ ¦
of rate of rate energy of rate
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
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+
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¹
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´
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−
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)
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¹
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¹
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´
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−
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)
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¹
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¹
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´
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=
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´
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) 5 ( ) 4 (
) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 (
generation
heat of rate
done work
of rate
out energy
of rate
in energy
of rate
on accumulati
energy of rate
The therms (1),(3) includes the thermal, kinetic and potential energy per
unit volume of the fluid, with equation


¹

\

+ + ⋅ = energy potential
u
T C E
V
2
2
ρ
Term 4 include the work done by the fluid on surroundings, so he
consider the pressure, viscous heating and shaft work
Term 5 include the heat generation caused by Joule effect, chemical
reactions and phase transformation.
In the application, the kinetics and potential energy, therms (1), (2), (3)
are neglected as compared with thermal energy. The therm (4) can be
neglected too in some applications and the aspect of energy balance
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Governing Equations of Energy Transfer
neglected too in some applications and the aspect of energy balance
equation is reduced to thermal equation.
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+
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−
)
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´
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=
)
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´
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generation
heat of rate
out energy
thermal of rate
in energy
thermal of rate
on accumulati energy
thermal of rate
The first and second righthand site of the equation can be write
together using the convection and conduction expression of heat flow.
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+
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)
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¹
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´
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=
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¹
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¹
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´
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) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 (
generation
heat of rate
conduction
by in energy
thermal of rate net
convection
by in energy
thermal of rate net
on accumulati
energy
thermal of rate
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Governing Equations of Energy Transfer
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)
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¦
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¹
¦
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´
+
) 4 (
generation
Similarly with the mass balance integral equation the integral form of energy
balance equation get the form
( ) ( )( ) ( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫
Ω Ω Γ Γ
Ω ⋅ + Γ ⋅ ⋅ − Γ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − = Ω ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
∂
∂
d g d n q d n u T C d T C
t
V V
&
r r r r
ρ ρ
(1)
(2)
(3) (4)
Terms (2) and (3) called “surface phenomenon” get the phenomenon across
the frontiers of the volume control (named control surfaces). Indicate the net
influxes of thermal energy due to convection – bulk fluid flow and conduction.
If g is the heat generate per unit volume that is considerate constant over the
volume. Then the term (4) become energy generate inside the control volume.
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Governing Equations of Energy Transfer
volume. Then the term (4) become energy generate inside the control volume.
Differential Form of Energy Balance Equation
( ) ( ) Ψ + + ⋅ ∇ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ −∇ = ⋅ ⋅
∂
∂
g q T C T C
t
V V
&
r
ρ ρ
g T T u C
t
T
C
V v
&
r
+ ∇ ⋅ + ∇ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − =
∂
∂
⋅
2
λ ρ ρ
Or, for subsonic fluid speed
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Governing Equations of Energy Transfer
t ∂
Or:
g T T u
t
T
C
V
&
r
+ ∇ ⋅ =
(
¸
(
¸
∇ ⋅ +
∂
∂
⋅
2
λ ρ
And, using the notation convention for derivation the aspect of
balance of energy become
g T
Dt
DT
C
V
& + ∇ ⋅ = ⋅
2
λ ρ
Boundary and limits conditions
0) Knotweed initial temperature
0 ) , , (
0 0
= = = t for z y x T T or T T
1) Prescribed temperature
b b b b
z z y y x x boundary the on T T = = = = ; ;
2) Prescribed heat flux
b
b
y
x
x x
q
y
T
q
x
T
=
∂
∂
−
=
∂
∂
−
=
λ
λ
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Governing Equations of Energy Transfer
b
b
b
b
z
z z
y
y y
q
z
T
q
y
=
∂
∂
−
=
∂
−
=
=
λ
λ
3) Prescribed convective fluxes on boundary
) (
) (
) (
S
b
S
b
S
b
z z
z z
y y
y y
x x
x x
T T h
z
T
T T h
y
T
T T h
x
T
− =
∂
∂
−
− =
∂
∂
−
− =
∂
∂
−
∞
=
∞
=
∞
=
∞
∞
∞
λ
λ
λ
4) Radiation heat flux
) (
S inc r
x x
T T h
x
T
b
− =
∂
∂
−
=
λ
( )( )
2 2
S inc S inc r
T T T T h + + ⋅ = σ ε
Similarities among the transport phenomenon
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
If we analyze carefully the three transport equations we shall see a lot of
similitude between them. Good understands and solve of one of them
make easy the understand and solve of all of them. For that, let to see
the similarity and differences between the three phenomenons.
Aspects of Fluxes Diffusion
Aspects of fluxes diffusion from Oy direction
Mass transfer
(Fick low )
dy
d
D j
A
AB y A
ρ
− =
,
Momentum transfer
( Newton viscous low)
dy
du
x
yx
µ τ − =
Heat transfer
(Fourier conduction)
dy
dT
q
y y
λ − =
Where, λ,DAB,µ are transport coefficients of the T,ρA and ux.
If the Measure Units of this coefficients become similar, then the
equations become full analogues. For mass and momentum, the MU is
similar, m
2
/s. For heat conduction, [J/m
2
/s/
o
K]
ρ
λ
α
⋅
=
p
C
T C d
p
) ( ⋅ ⋅
− =
ρ
α
The heat flux expression become:
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Similarities among the transport phenomenon
dy
T C d
q
p
y
) ( ⋅ ⋅
− =
ρ
α
General expression of diffusive fluxes become
{ } { } { } gradient eq transfer ty difuzibili flux . × − =
( )
dy
d
D j
A
AB y A
ω ρ ⋅
− =
,
( )
dy
u d
x
yx
⋅
− =
ρ
υ τ
Convective transfer
( )
S A A C
S A A
y
A
AB
y y A
y
D
n
, ,
, ,
0
0 ,
ρ ρ
ρ ρ
ρ
− ⋅ Κ =





¹

\

−
∂
∂
−
≡
∞
∞
=
=
Fluxes transfer for mass, momentum, energy
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Similarities among the transport phenomenon
( )
S f
S
x
y yx
u u C
u u
x
u
− ⋅ =




¹

\

−
∂
∂
−
≡
∞
∞
=
'
0
µ
τ
( )
S
S
y
y y
T T h
T T
y
T
− ⋅ =





¹

\

−
∂
∂
−
≡
∞
∞
=
=
0
0
λ
ρ
{ } difference potential
t coefficien
transfer
zone boundary
the on flux
×
)
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¹
¹
´
¦
− =
)
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¹
¹
´
¦
Expression of convective fluxes
Aspects of fluxes convection
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+
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)
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¹
¦
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¹
¦
¦
´
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+
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)
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¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
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´
¦
=
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)
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¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
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´
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) 4 ( ) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 (
s generation
of rate
fluxes viscouse
or diffusive
of rate
fluxes
convective
of rate
ons accumulati
of rate
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Similarities among the transport phenomenon
( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫
Ω
Φ
Ω Γ Γ
Φ
Ω ⋅ + Γ ⋅ ⋅ − Γ ⋅ ⋅ Φ ⋅ ⋅ − = Ω ⋅ Φ ⋅
∂
∂
d g d n f d n u d
t
) ( ) (
r
r
r r
ρ ρ
( )
( )
Φ Φ
+ ⋅ ∇ − Φ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ −∇ =
∂
Φ ⋅ ∂
g f u
t
r
r
ρ
ρ
Results, integral and differential unified equations
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Phase Change Inside Control Volume
The problems that use mathematical formulation of the solid/liquid or
liquid/solid transformation are named Stephan problems.
Generalities
Generally, that modelling process is developed on transport
phenomenon modelling with the additions of mass balance and phenomenon modelling with the additions of mass balance and
energy balance modification in the area where the phase change
occur
In the liquid/solid process some aspect appear and can generate
defects,
The specifically volume of the liquid and solid is not equal and the
shape of solid domain can differ from the shape of liquid domain,
the flow of liquid phase around the solid interface can generate
different concentrations and give segregations
The latent heat of transformation modifies the heat gradients in
the neighborhood of the interface and the solidification speed and
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Governing Equations of Energy Transfer
the neighborhood of the interface and the solidification speed and
the microstructure will be modified.
When the alloys are in process of solidification, the species are
rejected or absorbed inside the solid phase and the defects at micro
scale can appear
S
S n f
L
L
n
T
R H
n
T

¹

\

∂
∂
= ⋅ ⋅ +

¹

\

∂
∂
λ ρ λ
( )
S
S
S n L
L
L
L
n
C
D R k C
n
C
D 
¹

\

∂
∂
= − + 
¹

\

∂
∂
0
*
1
Where
λ
L
, λ
S
thermal conductibility in liquid
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Phase Change Inside Control Volume
λ
L
, λ
S
thermal conductibility in liquid
C
L
,C
S
the species concentration in
liquid phase
D
L
,D
S
diffusion constant in liquid
respective solid phase
C*
L
the liquid equilibrium species
concentration
Ko the C
S
/C
L
concentration relation
R
m
the raze of the solid phase
Boundary Heat flow distribution
Boundary Species mass
distribution
Solvers variants
•Fixed grids and use the solid fraction proportion
•Variables grids
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Governing Equations of Energy Transfer
•Variables grids
•Transformed grids
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Phase Change Inside Control Volume
( )
t
f
Q T
t
T
C
S
L V
∂
∂
⋅ + ∇ ⋅ ⋅ ∇ =
∂
∂
⋅ ρ λ ρ
Composites
Fixed grid method
t
T
T
f
Q
t
f
Q
S
L
S
L
∂
∂
∂
∂
⋅ =
∂
∂
⋅ ρ ρ
( ) T
t
T
T
f
Q C
S
L V
∇ ⋅ ⋅ ∇ =
∂
∂

¹

\

∂
∂
− λ ρ
( ) ( )
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
≤ =
∈ ∈
≥ =
S S
S L S
L S
T T f
T T T f
T T f
1
,..., 1 ,..., 0
0
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Phase Change Inside Control Volume
L L m L
C m T T ⋅ + =
) )( 1 ( ) 1 (
0 0
0
T T k
T T
k C
C C
f
m
L
L
L
S
− −
−
=
−
−
=
2
) ( ) 1 (
L m
m L L S
L
T T
T T
k
Q
T
f
Q
−
−
⋅
−
=
∂
∂
−
Level model
) ( ) 1 (
L m
T T k T − − ∂
Scheil model
2
) ( ) 1 (
L m
m L L S
L
T T
T T
k
Q
T
f
Q
−
−
⋅
−
=
∂
∂
−
BrodyFleming model
(
(
(
¸
(
¸


¹

\

−
−
− ⋅ − =
−k
m
L m
S
T T
T T
k f
1
1
1 ) 1 ( α
1
1
1
1
−


¹

\

−
−
⋅
−
⋅
−
=
∂
∂
−
k
m L
m
m
L S
L
T T
T T
T T k
Q
T
f
Q
a
f S
t D
λ
α
⋅ ⋅
≅
4 ( ) ( )
( ) k
k
m
k
L m L S
L
T T
T T
k
k Q
T
f
Q
−
−
−
−
−
⋅
−
⋅ + ⋅
=
∂
∂
−
1
2
1
1
1
1 α
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Phase Change Inside Control Volume
Linear model
S L
L
S
T T
T T
f
−
−
=
S L
L S
L
T T
Q
T
f
Q
−
=
∂
∂
−
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Largecapacity groundsupported tanks are used to store a variety of
liquids, e.g. water for drinking and cooling energetically and industrial
systems, fire fighting, petroleum, chemicals, and liquefied natural gas.
Satisfactory performance of tanks during strong ground shaking is crucial
for modern facilities. Tanks that were inadequately designed or detailed
have suffered extensive damage during past earthquakes [27] or external
exceptional loads. The knowledge of forces and pressure acting on the
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
exceptional loads. The knowledge of forces and pressure acting on the
tanks walls during the earthquake, explosions, tsunami and other natural
or military exceptional loads plays essential role in reliable and durable
design of structure resistance tanks, which are made from steel or
concrete and working at the soil level, inside the soil or over the soil level.
From the last big earthquake the knowledge of the fluid movement inside
the waste reservoirs and tank become more important until now
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
The geometry and type of
boundary conditions inposed to
fluid.
The earthquake acceleration
spectras on OX an OY
directions
l) The flow is 2D, incompressible, and initial laminar.
2) Each thermal property of incompressible fluid is constant.
3) The walls deformations are small and the structure move between the
earthquake with the instant acceleration of the quake.
4) The time computed effects of the quake on the tank is double that total
earthquake time
5) The heat dissipation and the turbulent indices are calculated only in the fluid
control volumes of the bulk.
Work reduced Hypothesis
( )
( )
( )
S
x x x x
x x x
v
x
v
x
v
t
k k j j
i i k
k
j
j
i
i
+


¹

\

∂
∂
Γ
∂
∂
+


¹

\

∂
∂
Γ
∂
∂
+


¹

\

∂
∂
Γ
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
ϕ ϕ
ϕ ϕ
ϕ
ϕ ϕ
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
Γ
ϕ Γ S
Continuity ρ 0 0
MomentumOX
v
i
velocity on x
i
direction
µ
MomentumOY v
j
velocity on x
j
direction
µ
MomentumOZ v
k
µ
Energy T
temperature
j
x
j
g
x
+
∂
∂ϕ
j
x
j
g
x
+
∂
∂ϕ
c ρ
λ
q&
k
x
k
g
x
+
∂
∂ϕ
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
Boundary conditions
In accord with the figures, the fluid in contact with the walls will In accord with the figures, the fluid in contact with the walls will
be accelerating with the same acceleration that acts on the
wall. In our case, with the consideration that the walls are rigid
and there deformation is are neglected, the acceleration will
be equal with the acceleration gives by earthquake spectral
accelerations.
Boundary condition on cells in contact with the walls
For fluid flow analysis, either the slip wall condition or the noslip
wall condition is adopted according to the size of a cell and the
magnitude of velocity. When the walls move, the convection
coefficient between fluid and solid boundary is calculated, based
on Re
x
and Pr numbers in the fluid cells. The heat flow equation is
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
on Re
x
and Pr numbers in the fluid cells. The heat flow equation is
used only to calculate the fluid temperature distribution variation in
the quake action. For water and other liquids the temperature is
not important but for oils and liquefied gases the knowledge of
fluid temperature and pressure becomes important. The equations
for boundary domain in contact with solid walls become
j v i u v
a v
y
p
v
y
v
u
x
v
t
v
a u
x
p
v
y
u
u
x
u
t
u
Y
X
r r
v
⋅ + ⋅ =
⋅ + ∆ +
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
− =
∂
∂
⋅ + ∆ +
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
− =
∂
∂
ρ µ ρ
ρ µ ρ
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
j v i u v ⋅ + ⋅ =
Where a
X
and a
Y
are the spectrum of quake
accelerations transmitted to the walls. In accord with
the 3) hypothesis, that accelerations will be take in
calculus equal with the earthquake accelerations
The free boundary surface of the fluid
t
T
x
v
m n
x
v
x
v
m n
m n
x
v
m n
T
j
j
x x
i
j
j
i
x x
x x
i
i
x x
i j i j
j i j i
∂
∂
=
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
∂
∂
+


¹

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+ +
∂
∂
γ µ
2 )
( 2
Tangential stress condition
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
The free boundary
geometry conditions
Normal stress condition
a
j
j
x x
i
j
j
i
x x
i
i
x x
x
v
m n
x
v
x
x
n n
x
v
m n
j j j i i i
φ µ =
(
(
¸
(
¸
∂
∂
+


¹

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
2
φ
a
= (p
ext
)/ρ + γ
T
/R
m
γ
T
is the surface tension function of temperature
p
ext
is the pressure of gas phase inside the tank
R
m
is the local mean radius of the free surface
geometry conditions
Initial and load conditions
Because the problem is time dependent, the initial conditions consist
in imposing null speed value for v
x
and v
y
and the gas pressure equal
with the atmospheric pressure at sea level. The temperature was
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
with the atmospheric pressure at sea level. The temperature was
considerate equal with 20
0
C and the walls reservoir streams null too.
After the first time step, the quake event is considerate and the
spectra given in the figure 2 was applied on the liquid/solid boundary
accordingly with figure
Solution and results
Pressure variation from 1s,
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
Pressure variation from 1s,
2s, 3s, 4s for two reservoir
geometry (H/L) and filling rate
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
Speed on OY directions for 1s – 10s and for sec. 35 and 40
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
Pressure dynamics
inside the fluid
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
Time history of heat
generated by viscous friction
Inside the fluid bulk
Turbulence factor time
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
Turbulence factor time
history
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
Speed on OX axis time variation
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
Speeds on OX axis for
dt = 1s
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Dynamics of fluid inside a reservoir.
Fluid flow Stream time
variation
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
The wind loading is considered by Devenport(1998) in three
categories:
a) Extraneouslyinduced loading based on naturally turbulent
oncoming wind. The weak of upstream obstructions enhance this
categories buffeting.
b) Unstable flow phenomenon such as separations,
reattachments and vortex shedding generate a secondary type of reattachments and vortex shedding generate a secondary type of
forces
.
c) The movementinduced excitation of the body generate by the
deflection of the structure create fluid flow too. This phenomenon
with a strong unsteady states character gives the complexity of
the fluid flow around the flexible tall structures. The modern
design of flexible tall structures must request to earth quakes
events and wind loads, cases that represent a state of the art of
the civil engineering.
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
The Eurocode and most used standards are highlighted by Allsop (2009) as
the most flexible and inclusive code for normal buildings. The quasistatic
methods offered by these codes are only applicable for buildings with methods offered by these codes are only applicable for buildings with
structural properties such that they are not susceptible to dynamic excitation
(Metha, 1998). Thus, the tall buildings, those with high slenderness ratios
and/or asymmetric planes, exceed limitations and are advised to be tested
in the wind tunnel.
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
Numerical analysis
The domain of computing is established in the figure and the wind
input speed diagram in the figure 2. The system of partial
differential equations is give on the forms of mass conservation ,
momentum conservation and energy conservation
( ) 0 = ⋅ ∇ +
∂
V
r
ρ
ρ
( ) 0 = ⋅ ∇ +
∂
∂
V
t
r
ρ
ρ
( ) ( ) g p V V V
t
r
r r r
⋅ + −∇ = × ⋅ ∇ + ⋅
∂
∂
ρ ρ ρ
( ) ( ) ( ) T V p E E
t
∇ ⋅ ∇ = ⋅ + ⋅ ∇ + ⋅
∂
∂
λ ρ ρ
r
Index
Ox
Value
[m]
Index
Oy
Value
[m]
Index
Oz
Value
[m]
L 96 Y 96 Z 96
L1 6 Y/2 48 H1 21
L2 21 Y1 36 H2 69
L3 46 Y2 33 H3 12
L4 3 Y3 24
L5 36 Y4 24
L6 18
Domain
geometry
and
notations
Values of
domain
geometry
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
) ( ) ( ) ( q q q
h g f q + + =
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
+
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
p E u
uw
uv
p u
u
f
E
w
v
u
q
q
2
) (
; ;
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
( ) ( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
+
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
+ =
p E w
p w
vw
uw
w
h
p E v
vw
p v
uv
v
g
q q
2
) (
2
) (
;
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
( )
2 2 2
2
1
1
w v u
p
E + + +
−
= ρ
γ
v
p
c
c
= γ
γ
law polytrophic gas considered in the present
Where c
p
and c
v
are the specific heat at constant pressure, respectively constant
volume
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
1.Boundary and Initial Conditions and input particularities
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Buildings domain geometry Wind input time variation on
surface P1
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
Results
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Pressure on façade tall building
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
a) t=0.152484 s b) t=0.299869 s c) t=0.446137 s d) t=0.592342 s
Wind speed time variations (OX axis)
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
e) t=0.731194 s f) t=0.871237 s g) t=1.534835 s h) t=5.39784 s
Wind speed time variations (OX axis)
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
Façade pressure time variation history
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
a) t=0.299869 s b) t=0.446137 s c) t=0.592342 s d) t=0.731194 s
e) t=0.871237 s f) t=0.985921 s g) t=1.107586 s h) t=1.245531 s
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
i) t=1.390198 s j) t=1.534835 s k) t=1.679116 s h) t=5.39784 s
The map of pressure on the facade of the tall building for
different moment of the aplication.
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Time dynamics of the pressure on the tall building façade
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
a) t=0.871237 s a) t=1.390198 s a) t=2.114628 s a) t=5.39784 s
The pressure map on the back surface of tall building for diverse moments of the loads
application.
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Pressure Dynamics on the Back Surgace of Tall Building
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
a) t=0.871237 s b) t=1.390198 s c) t=2.114628 s d) t=5.39784 s
The pressure map on the right surface of the tall building for diverse moments of the
application
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Pressure Dynamics on the left side tall building surface
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
a) t=0.871237 s b) t=1.390198 s c) t=2.114628 s d) t=5.39784 s
The pressure maps on the left surface of the tall building for diverse moments of
application.
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Pressure dynamics on the right surface of the tall building
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Speed on OX axis (u) in the middle plane of the modelled area
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Wind speed on OY axis (v) in middle plane
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Wind speed on OZ axis in the middle plane of the domain
•Conclsions
The gas dynamics modelling based on Euler PDE system of equation can
solve the problems of wind loads on tall structures without using the
NavierStokes PDE system of equation with diverse turbulence flow
models for accurate flow dynamics.
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
models for accurate flow dynamics.
A combination between the two modelles can be used because the gas
speeds are low in the case of wind loads and the gas is practical
incompressible. The turbulence area of flow, that in the civil engineering
have a huge area of the domain (6080%) in the cases of wind loads on
tall buildings can be simulate using the Euler system of equations and the
complicated turbulences models can be avoided
Thank you dear students and
Kosice Technical University
TRANSPORT PHENOMENON MODEL
Applications in Civil Engineering
Wind loads simulation
Kosice Technical University
for that short time together