sources.
Ioan Sorin Leoveanu
1,a
, Gheorghe Zgura
2,b
1
Transilvania University Brasov, Romania.
2
Polytechnic University Bucharest,Romania
a
leoveanui@yahoo.co.uk
b
ghzgura@yahoo.com
Keywords: keyhole weld shape, phases interaction, welding sources, MHD
Abstract.
The paper proposes a numerical method for analyzing the complex phenomenas that appear in the
case of keyholes welded pool geometry. Present model consist in a succession of analyses steps,
needed to solve the interaction between the liquid/solid, liquid/protection gaze and liquid/MHD
welded arc for arc welding, or electrons, or electromagnetic waves. The liquid/solid geometry result
by dissipation of the welding power source in a matrix of many point sources. This process gives a
first approximation of temperature fields and a good approximation of the digit 3D position, and
information about the vaporization area.
1. Introduction.
The welding by fusion is an important manufacturing technique that is being used more frequently
in the modern manufacturing of various areas. In the last decade, the knowledge about fusion
welding processes has attained the level of maturity that imposes a special attention. The physical
processes that take place during fusion welding, are in the field of Magneto Hydro Dynamics for the
Shield Arc Modeling and in the area of heat transfer, melting, Marangoni convection,
electromagnetic and buoyancy forces for the welded pool in the fluid state. In the actual approach,
the models for establishing the weldment characteristics are appearing well documented in papers
[1, 6]. Convection in the weld pool is recognized as one of the important processes that determine
weld pool characteristics such as size and shape [1,2,5]. The studies in the area of that type of
sources are limited. That new shape is known in literature as keyholes and this mathematical
estimation with classical methods give unacceptable errors. Studies of those types of sources have
been made previously using numerical methods. The Marangoni condition takes a great complexity,
given by gradients of temperature and concentration. In the current paper, we use matrixdistributed
point sources to establish the heat flow and give the keyhole formation. The heat flow is given in a
threedimensional approach and the temperature field obtained in the melt is used to establish the
heat and fluid advection. The pressures of arc and gazes are considerably stationary and have no
variations in the process analysis. Based on MAC techniques, the shape of free surface is obtain
from longitudinal section of weld and from the transverse section positioned in the arcwelded
source. From the experimental verification, based on various welded joints, this approach of the
complex process is in agreement with the proposed model.
2. Numerical Analysis.
Figure 1 shows the model for the present study. The inlet position is located at welding arc point in
the section where the droplets arrive in the welded melt pool. The staggered grid is adopted in the
finite volume approach, which forms the basis of the MAC method.
Materials Science Forum Vols. 580582 (2008) pp 443446
Online available since 2008/Jun/12 at www.scientific.net
(2008) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland
doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.580582.443
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a) b) c)
Figure 1. Geometry and boundary conditions of the simulation process: a) The aspect of the welded
pool, b) the transversal keyhole shape, c) geometrical distribution of the point sources.
2.1. Governing Equations.
a) The liquid phase equations.
To analyze the fluid flow and thermal characteristics of molten metal in the welded pool formed
process, are the following hypothesis:
l) The flow is 2D, incompressible, and laminar.
2) Each thermal property of molten metal is constant.
3) The heat dissipation and the turbulent indices are calculated only in the fluid control volume.
Then the general differential equation for conservative lows can be given as:
( )
( )
S
x x x x x
v
x
v
t
j j i i j
j
i
i
+


\

+


\

= + +
(1)
The definitions of the letters, , and S are done in the table 1.
Table 1.
S
Continuity 1 0 0
Moment
v
i
velocity on x
i
direction
i i
mx x
i
f g
x
+ +
v
j
velocity on x
j
direction
j j
mx x
j
f g
x
+ +
Energy T
temperature
c
q&
The f
mx
represents the electromagnetic acceleration induced by the electric arc and the ascension
buoyancy forces, and in the analysis are induced by the arc pressure term:
( )
m b
T T g B J F = and ( )


\

=
2
2
2 2
2
0
2
exp
4
,
j j
arc
r I
y x p
....................(2a,b)
The phase fraction f
s
is considered as temperature function according to the expression:
( )
< < =
1
1
1
, 1
,
, 0
T T if
T T T if
T T
T T
T T if
T f
s
s
s
s
. (3)
444 Advanced Welding and Micro Joining / Packaging for the 21st Century
b) The solid state phase governing equation.
In the solid parts of the joint, the heat flow governing equation considered is:
s
s
s i
L
t
f
z
T
y
T
x
T
Q
t
T
C
2
2
2
2
2
2
+


\

+ + + = . (4)
2.2. Boundary Conditions.
Heating and cooling is supposed to arise by convection and radiations on the entire internal and
external boundary. For fluid flow analysis, either the slip wall condition or the noslip wall
condition is adopted [9, 10], according to the size of a cell and the magnitude of velocity. When the
alloy is melted, the convection coefficient between melt and solid boundary alloy is calculated,
based on Re
x
and Pr numbers, by solving with modified Cellular Automata Method the fluid flow
and heat flows system of equations in the neighboring surface. The system, in dimensionless form,
and under consideration that:
x
u
y
u
x
T
y
T
v u
) (
2 =
(
(
+


\

+ + + .. (11)
Normal stress condition:
a
j
j
x x
i
j
j
i
x x
i
i
x x
x
v
m n
x
v
x
x
n n
x
v
m n
j j j i i i
=
(
(
+


\

+ +
.. (12)
2.4. Weld Pool Shape Estimation from Initial heat flow conditions.
The heat source model is based on the MyhrGrong method [1],[5]. The heat source is divided into
many horizontal and vertical point sources that are included in the welded area. This method makes
Mass
0
= +
y
v
x
u
. (5)
x momentum
2
2
2
2
Re
1
~
~
~
~
y
u
y
u
u L y
v
v
x
u
u
L
= = +
.
(6)
Heat
y
T
y
T
v
x
T
u
L
~
Pr Re
1
~
~
~
~
2
= + . (7)
Solution
shape:
L
Nus
h
f x
x
= . (8)
for meltslag interface the solution of the system
have shape function:
n
L
m
x
a Nus Re Pr = . (9)
for meltsolidified alloy the shape function is:
( )
2
1 1
1 1
1
Pr Re Pr
m n
L
m
x
c b a Nus + = . (10)
Materials Science Forum Vols. 580582 445
possible the modeling of different welded geometry (like keyhole) without using the heat flux
distribution. The establishment of the points heat sources, in agreement with the welded pool
geometry coordinates, consist in mathematical shape, in the solving of the optimization problem.
Minimom ) (
1
S a
nP
s
s
I U q +
=
With conditions: 0
i
q
impus
is
s
is
T T
S a
s
s
I U q
3. Results and Conclusions.
In the Figure 2, the fluid flow speed obtained by the model is presented in the plane xOz of the
welded pool. The heat generated by the viscous effect of flow and the function for estimation of the
turbulence of flow are presented. In the Figure 3, the heat flow aspect in the section yOz is
presented and the heat flow in the case of 3D welded model is presented.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
Figure 2. The initial dates for calculus of sectional fluid flow characteristics. a) Heat
Flow in the Welded Poole Area, b) Welded Fluid Flow Zone Meshed, c) Temperature
distribution and Mesh for the Fluid Flow in the Weld Pool for initial Fluid Flow
Conditions) Vx  Fluid Flow distribution in Longitudinal Section, e) Vz Fluid Flow
in the Weld Longitudinal Section, f) Heat dissipated by viscous flow in the
Longitudinal Section.
a) b) c) d) e) f)
Figure 3. The heat flow aspect in the 2D yOz section and in the 3D welded pool.
a) Vy, b) Vz, c) Stream, d) Turbulence factor, e) Heat generate by viscous flow, f) Final temperature.
4. References.
[1] O. Grong. Metallurgical Modelling of Welding. Second Edition. The Institute of Materials.
1994.
[2] H.S. Carslaw and J.C. Jaeger: Conduction of Heat in Solids; 1959, Oxford, Oxford University
[3] R. Hultgren, R.L. Orr, RD. Anderson and K.K. Kelly: Selected Values of Thermodynamic
Properties of Metals and Alloys; 1963, New York, J. Wiley & Sons.
[4] N.N. Rykalin, A.I. Pugin and V.A. Vasil'eva: Weld. Prod., 1959, 6, 4252.
[5] O.R. Myhr and 0. Grong: Acta Metall. Mater., 1990, 38, 449460.
[6] N. Christensen: Welding Metallurgy Compendium, 1985, University of Trondheim,
[7] CE. Jackson: Weld. J., 1960, 39, 226s230s.
[8] O.M. Akselsen and G. Sagmo: Technical Report STF34 A89147, 1989, Trondheim (Norway),
[9] A. A. Amsdenand F. H. Harlow: Report L.A. 4370, Los Alamos Scientific Lab., (1970).
[10] B. D. Nichols and C. W. Hirt: J. Computational Physics, 8 (197 l), 434.
446 Advanced Welding and Micro Joining / Packaging for the 21st Century
Advanced Welding and Micro Joining / Packaging for the 21st Century
10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.580582
Modelling the Heat and Fluid Flow in the Welded Pool from High Power Arc Sources
10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.580582.443
DOI References
[5] O.R. Myhr and 0. Grong: Acta Metall. Mater., 1990, 38, 449460.
doi:10.1016/09567151(90)901516