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(Cowan, Indo-Germans, 7) [“[N]ational proto-Romanticism,” Later Idea: All Europeans were descended from the Goths, and thus were all Germanic] “During the period of the Protestant Reformation, German Humanism (1450-1550) countered both Catholic and Lutheran orthodoxy by glorifying the pre-Christian, Norse traditions of the early Germanic tribes. A type of national proto-Romanticism emerged during this period, particularly among young students at German universities who argued with their Scholastic masters and emphasized an ideal German man who was young, free, and noble. This Humanism would give way in the following two centuries to the argument that all European peoples were descended from Gothic tribes, and thus were all Germanic peoples.” [Here is the origin perhaps of the idea— evinced in Leibniz and others—that all Europeans come from the Goths, and thus all of Europe is German. Let us not forget the Franks and their origination of the idea of “christendom.”] (ibid., 10) “The currency of this term [Indo-European], …was itself preceded in the Germanic principalities by the term ‘indogermanische’ (Indo-German), in keeping with the Renaissance argument that all Europeans had descended from earlier Germanic tribes.” (10) “While the wider context of Indo-German ideas extends from circa 303 BC to the present day, it is the period of Frühromantik [Early (German) Romanticism] (1796-1808) that will be of utmost concern, for this era sees the most profound and intense influence of the study of India, or ‘Indology,’ in France, England, and Germany, particularly in the work of  Novalis,  Schelling, and  Schlegel.” (20) Megasthenes “would establish and perpetuate the notion in Western minds that two of the earliest and most important European philosophers, Pythagoras (582-500 BC) and Plato (427347 BC), had amazingly gone to the Brahmin priests of India for instruction.” (20, 21) Philostratus held “that Pythagoras and Plato’s belief in the transcendental nature of the soul, or in metempsychosis…
which German humanists. The sole extant copy of the so-called Germania had been uncovered in a German monastery by the Italian scholar Enoch d’Ascoli and was reprinted in Nuremberg in 1473. This text.425 BC). (2) since Middle Ages. as well as leading them to conclude that they had been on the Eurasian continent ab origine and were still racially pure. near the source of the Indus River. such as Jacob Wimpfeling (1450-1528) and Johann Reuchlin (1455-1522).’ Herodotus states.” (41-42) [Ashkenaz (“scattered fire”): (1) son of Gomer.” “Philostratus is thus the first writer to lead Renaissance and Enlightenment thinkers to trace Pythagoreanism to Hinduism. which for Italian writers merely confirmed the inveterate barbarism of the Germanic tribes.” (40) [Tacitus’ Germania] “This kind of idealization of the past was responsible for disputes between pupils and their masters at German universities. which greatly intensified after the rediscovery of Tacitus’ De origine et situ Germanorum (AD 98). in [The History] (c. Ararat in the Causasus. grandson of Japheth. that the name ‘Aryan’ was the ancient name of the people of the kingdom of Media or Medes. descendent of Noah. highlighted for German authors the simple virtues and invincibility of their ancestors. as found in both Vedantan and post-Vedic Indian philosophy. the Sanskrit word meaning ‘noble. and with Kant’s ‘ Ding an sich’ (thing-in-itself’). used to advance their claims to autochthony and universal European dominion. his name has been associated with northern peoples.” (22-23) “Both Strabo and Arrian state that Alexander’s followers / claimed to have found. associated with Mt.had been anticipated by the Brahmins of India. using as his root arya. the prison of Prometheus.” (24) Herodotus’ The History and the term “Aryans” for the ancient Medes: “The first European to refer to the peoples who migrated from the Hindu Kush into what is now Pakistan and North-Western India as ‘Aryans’ was apparently Herodotus. (3) later scholars claimed the . The parallel drawn between Pythagoras and Plato’s mistrust of materiality and that of the Hindus will prove more profound for German idealists. who will equate Plato’s ‘Forms’ (or ‘Ideas’) both with concepts such as the existence of Brahman.
the people of Ashkenaz are mentioned in connection with the kingdom of Ararat.’ ” (47) With the coming of the Enlightenment. who was a son of Japheth (Genesis 10:3). however. At first.] [Bailly and the origin of man on the North Pole and/or the Ganges!] “The French astronomers Jean-Dominique Cassini (1625-1712) and Jean-Sylvain Bailly (1736-1793) felt that / the presence of seashells in locales far from major bodies of salt water confirmed the hypothesis of a universal inundation and therefore corroborated the story of the Flood. and had hitherto been considered the Stamm or ‘stem’ of the Saxons. has been associated since at least the Middle Ages with northern peoples. where Noah’s ark is said to have landed. . Further calculations. Other thinkers argued that the highest mountains were known to tower between India and China. where he felt the original humans founded the arts and sciences. Knobel argued that Ashkenaz is to be identified with the German ‘race. which denotes ‘scattered fire’ in Hebrew. “detailed genealogies that traced all peoples back to Adam began to die out.) The name Ashkenaz. lead him to transfer them to the valley of the Ganges River. Prometheus was also a son of Japheth. It has also been postulated that we may recognize the tribe of Ashkenaz in Europe in names such as Scandia and Scandinavia. Bailly calculated mathematically that the earliest post-diluvian men would have been situated in the habitable regions closest to the North Pole. W. In Jeremiah 51:27.” (47-48) [Jean-Sylvain Bailly (1736-1793): Post-Flood peoples lived close to North Pole. or Iapetos. thus a grandson of / Noah and a founder of one of the tribes of the Japhetic race. for those landmasses would have emerged first as the waters of the Flood receded.name reflected in word “Scandinavia/Scandinavian”] [Iapetos in the Bible? This means Ixion is in the Bible!] “Luther accepted a theory that held much currency at the time that the Biblical ancestor Ashkenaz had ‘given’ the Germans their language. so man must have originated there. scholars such as Protestant theologian A. Ashkenaz was one of the three sons of Gomer. in the Cacausus. and the idea of a larger humanity was broken down into nations and nationalities. Well into the nineteenth century. (It might be noted that according to the ancient Greeks. more research convinced him that the valley of the Ganges was a more likely habitation.
Voltaire was possibly the greatest European admirer of India in the mid-eighteenth century and he unequivocally set India up as the original nation and center of diffusion for all knowledge of the arts and sciences. One might note. 1779). Yet. as did Montesquieu. But more immediate influences on Voltaire were Bailly. / and Ellora. were willing to concede the affiliation of Europeans with peoples of the Middle East. while religion and philosophy had moved European interest toward India in ancient and medieval times.Most scholars in the early Enlightenment. that he would not concede. like their countryman Bysshe a century earlier.” (50-51) “A disciple of the English deists. the traveler and scholar Le Gentil de la Galaisière (1725-1792).” (49) [Leibniz: German closer to Ur-language than Hebrew or Arabic! Also. the ground for thinking of India as the mother of art and science had already been prepared by various travelers who had told astonished Europeans about the ancient Indian cave-temples outside Bombay: Ajanta. Voltaire turned the theory of polygenism in favor of India in his Essai sur les moeurs et l’esprit des nations [Essay on the manners and spirit of nations] (1756). Be that as it may. Germany is the cradle of the “Causasian” race. Europeans now refocused on India through the lens of science. Elephanta. and the English writers John Holwell (1711-1798) and Alexander Dow (d. gave . This was part of his search for an ancient religion that would undermine the unique position of Christianity. for he thought that German must be closer to this original ‘root’ language than Hebrew or Arabic because German was more ‘natural. found in ‘indisputable’ Biblical and classical sources. however. however.’ less altered by history than Middle Eastern languages. but were reluctant to do the same with the monster-worshipping races who dwelled in mysterious lands beyond the tallest Nepali peaks. (-) Leibniz made Germany out to be the cradle of what would be called the ‘Caucasian’ race in his Brevis designatio meditationum de originibus gentium ductis potissimum ex judicio linguarum [Brief description of ideas on the origin of nations best derived from the judgment of languages] (1710). that knowledge had been introduced to France by Germanic tribes.] “Leibniz questioned the argument made by contemporaries that Hebrew was the first language. Holwell and Dow.
(-) Voltaire emphasized that pure races advance and mixed ones do not. scientists such as J. in believing that Nature is uniform. Blumenback first to use term “Caucasian.” (1) Georgians’ physical beauty and (2) association of Noah’s Art with Mt. he felt. Heva. who attempted to study human races empirically as Linnaeus had done with plants. as Vico had pointed out. and because. for whom science and theology were the same category of inquiry.” .prominence in their writings on India to the ancient wisdom of the Brahmins. were narrowing the gap between the hypothetical and the actual. Voltaire similarly attributed a degree of antiquity to India that enabled him to undermine Judeo-Christian doctrine. Eve. had in turn learned them in India. Voltaire was distinctly mechanical-minded. He found no use for the stories of the Old Testament in his search for the origins of the human spirit. Influenced by philosopher and poet Bernard le Bouvier de Fontenelle (1657-1757). The Caucasus is also the traditional site of the imprisonment and punishment of Prometheus. like Plato. however. as were so many of the thinkers of his time. and Brahma. who. he saw that his philosophy was continually threatened by the monogenecists. Blumenbach (17521840). came to be associated with the figure of Agni-Shiva as educator of man. some of whom attempted to turn the Bible against itself by proving that Moses had stolen his revelations from the sages of ancient Egypt. yet.F. as noted above. He argues that the names and figures of Adam. supported the dangerous idea of the infinite power of God. whose arguments. which. and Abraham were derived from the Hindu Adimo. (3) association of Prometheus with Mt. as Philostratus had indicated. notably by basing arguments on similarities of proper names. Ararat] “In Germany. Ararat. Noah’s Ark had apparently landed on the Caucasian Mount Ararat. Prometheus’s theft of fire for man is usually seen as an allegorical representation of man’s gaining knowledge.” (56) [J.” (52) “Diderot and many other of the philosophes were of the deist school.’ because he felt that the Georgians were the most beautiful and noble-looking ‘white’ race. Blumenbach was the first to use the term ‘Caucasian. respectively. F.
however. His fundamental act is thus a self-confirming act of the will. Man thus has the capacity to assert himself even against God. Outside this bastion of reason. in his expounding a new humanism in the guise of a new Hellenism. for Descartes. man is thus free only within the circle of his self-thinking. Dionysus’s affiliation with India is already to be found in GrecoRoman texts.(58-59) [Winckelmann transfers “Gothic” fixation to the Greeks. made possible by the fact that this will. liberty. which is meant to master this chaos. is infinite.” (65) [German Romantics identify Spinoza’s quietism with the Hindu caste system. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) would be deeply influenced by Winckelmann’s Hellenism and Wilhelm von Humboldt (17671835) / would politically institutionalize it when he became Prussian Minister of Education in the form of the new humanist grammar school: the gymnasium. and youth. Winckelmann’s work is to a not insignificant degree a response to the problem of German identity and in many ways runs parallel to the concurrent movement of the Gothic Revival. is ultimately to will. but we should ask: Is there here a great insight into a possible Germano-Celtic connection?] “Winckelmann signaled a break with the Latinist Humanist tradition. This principle is the basis for human freedom and the mastery of nature. does not have God’s perfect knowledge and is therefore not omnipotent. and found Spinozism in the ancient Sanskrit texts. Spinoza’s philosophy expresses little sympathy with nature alongside a . Descartes’ universal science. as has been noted. however. To think. simplicity. thus depends upon a demonstration that God is not malicious and does not deceive us.] “Despite his affiliation of nature with God. the chaos set loose by the possibility of a malicious God still reigns. like that of God. He would attach to Greece qualities that had heretofore been associated with the ancient Goths – nobility. (-) Winckelmann sought to demonstrate that the progress of Greek art towards perfection owed much to the climate of Greece. which sought to discover authentic German roots. Man knows that he is and knows that he is as a thing that thinks.” (64) [Here Cowan is quoting Gillespie xiii-xiv] “Descartes believed he had found a ground for human knowledge that was invulnerable to all deception in his principle ego cogito ergo sum. In the first instance. Man. however. These are qualities associated with Dionysus and.
nearly boundless love of God. who would positively identify [Spinoza’s] acceptance of destiny with the Hindu caste system. in a sense. This emphasis on willing the subordination of the passions is one of the emphases that Kant’s Romanic successors were to find in Hindu texts. transcendental idealism. and would rediscover his formulation of God and nature in the Sanskrit texts translated at the end of the eighteenth century. and finally. founded on anxiety about the relationships between modernity. Young rebels believed that the Aufklärung that had begun fifty years earlier had failed by depriving man of his soul. commits suicide. which was received by German society as both sacrilegious and subversive. soon to write his profoundly influential [ The Sorrows of Young Werther] (1774). from Roseman 48-49: “They had the sensation that contemporary society had gone . and German culture of its ability to establish itself on a global stage. [Herder] encouraged the young Goethe. in an act of nihilism. and Vedanta. leading them to draw parallels between Spinoza.” (71) “In 1770. and nature. religion of its meaning. He does not acknowledge the salvation that Christ’s sacrifice has brought to his believers. male suicides that would affect many of Romanticism’s protagonists. Goethe’s book provided one of the spurs for a spate of young. but audaciously takes no comfort in this identification. (-) He would…be rescued from oblivion. In the novel. as Spinoza had maintained. by the German romantics. but argued that the infinite essence of human existence must transcend such illusions.” (72) [Path forward to nature] Direct cit. in Strasbourg.” (70) “Kant argues that freedom is not the caprice of the passions but their subordination to moral law.” (72) [Sturm und Drang group of the 1770s—first dramatic modern intergenerational conflict] “The Sturm und Drang group in the 1770s seems to represent…the first dramatic modern manifestation of youthful rebellion and conflict between generations in Germany. emerging nationalism. Werther identifies himself with Christ. (-) [Kant’s immediate successors] accepted the notion that the material world is made up of finite representations.
pathetic.” (74) [Herder--Volk is the source of Truth] In Another Philosophy of History Concerning the Development of Mankind (1774). He argues in his essays on the aesthetics of tragedy that what is most important in art is that the pleasure we take from the beautiful. to the growth of his spirit of hostility toward the Enlightenment founded on a defense of emotion against reason. that her husband enjoyed most of all Kant’s lectures on physical geography. the English language. but forward to nature. however. the early Romantics. The roots of Herder in the mystical Pietism of Johann Georg Hamann (1730-1788). in which Schiller argues that the universe is a divine work of art and that man’s destiny is enlightenment and / perfection. would find a path forward to nature in the work of Herder. Hamann opened the way for Herder’s study of folk poetry. and sublime strengthens our moral sentiments.] “…Kant was a tremendous influence on Herder’s ideas about India. (74) [Herder’s idea that geography influences racial peculiarities from Kant.] Herder was “influenced by his 20-year friendship with the pietist and mystic Johann Georg Hamann (1730-1788). an idea that the Romantics would take up. whose interests reflected his background as a theologian.” . Herder argued “that the Volk was the source of all truth…”. this may account for much of his later interest in the physical environment. however. Shakespeare.” (72-73) “…Schiller attempted to locate this path to nature in his now almost entirely lost master’s dissertation Philosophie der Physiologie. in the work Über den usammendhang der tierischen Natur des Menschen mit seiner geistigen [On the Connection between the Animal and the Spiritual Nature of Man] (1780). and most importantly. and historian. linguist. Its main ideas were doubtless repeated. More importantly for questions of Indian studies. which he considered the chief factor in the development of national peculiarities.disastrously wrong and the true Germany might only be reached by a path which in the first instance led. not back. is the fact that both the Sturm und Drang and their successors.” “Caroline Herder stated in her Erinnerungen [Memoirs] (1820).” (73) [The roots of the Indo-Germanic nexus in Herder.
associated with the bodhisattva of compassion Avalokitesvara.]“A much more staid man. along with Voltaire. perhaps ironically.000 BC. which appeared in successive translations and travelers’ tales. trans. In his Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht abgefaßt [Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View] (1798).” (78) [Herder’s Outlines for a Philosophy of the History of Mankind places man’s genesis in a Perso-Indian mountain region. as had Kant. Cowan? Check trans. Kant shared one of Buffon’s most essential views – the first society had arisen East of the Caspian Sea around 30. that migrations of entire peoples have resulted in no change of character due to relocation. and he modified Bailly’s popular astronomical theory by placing the origin of mankind in Tibet. of Churchhill]. was related to Mani’s prayers for escape from embodiment. At the same time. which has been for ages a second nature to the gentlest of people” [Herder. as had Kant] In his Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit [Outlines for a Philosophy of the History of Mankind] (1784-91). in favor of the possibility of an ogygian Perso-Indian mountain region. Ideen. would fuel Herder’s ‘boiling’ over the study of Himalayan cultures. though he followed Voltaire in opposing climatic determinism. and that therefore the mingling of stocks was not good for the human race. natural character had its seat in the composition of human blood. nevertheless. as Kant was. He believed that national character was in human blood and he opposed the mixing of races. an opponent of climatic determinism. Kant tried to connect Manichaeism with Hinduism by arguing that the Sanskrit mantra ‘O mani padme hum.(75) [Kant: Man originated in Tibet 30. He also equated Adam and Abraham with Adimo and Brahma. from the deep-rooted power. Like several of the German anthropologists of the time. Kant argued that innate. . he argued. as Voltaire had before him.000 BC. Kant. 269.’ the famous prayer for the end of all suffering. Kant’s imagination was captivated by this idea [!]. “Herder rejects the genealogy of Germans that traces them to Japeth.” (79) “The most ancient hierarchy upon Earth reigns on the mountains of Tibet: and the castes of the Hindoos indicate their primeval establishment.
Herder fell in line with Montesquieu and Winckelmann in constantly stressing the importance of physical environment. who saw an insuperable barrier between nature and culture (which is why his “natural man” had to remain hypothetical).” (86) [Fichte’s extreme subjectivism] “By dispensing with Kant’s things-in-themselves and by emphasizing the unity of theoretical and practical reason. While Fichte was not interested in affiliations between the Germanic states . such a belief was incompatible with the tenets of that philosophy. maintaining that all peoples. Herder saw no such barrier. oder Idealismus und Realismus [David Hume on Belief. Fichte sought to establish the unity of critical philosophy as well as of human experience.” (84-85) “Herder maintained that Spinozism was theistic. or Idealism and Realism]. Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (1743-1819). against the idea that Germans were a chosen nationality. warning. The Pantheismusstreit (“Pantheism Controversy”). The publication of Jacobi’s Über die Lehre des Spinoza [On the Teaching of Spinoza] that year precipitated the debate. that it was materialistic. of climate on the development of cultural organisms. his antagonist. not merely Germans. he scrutinized the new transcendental philosophy of Kant. in the appendix to his David Hume über den Glauben.(81) “As opposed to Rousseau. along with education. focused attention generally on the apparent disjunction between human freedom and any systematic. He found the process of the development of culture to be the antithesis of the social contract. (-) In contrast to Voltaire and Kant. and also sparked a related argument with Judiac scholar Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786) over the alleged / pantheism of Lessing. as it came to be called. on the other hand. should be encouraged to discover and develop their own capacities. and subjected Kant’s remarks concerning things-in-themselves to devastating criticism. for nature and nation were synonymous. Jacobi’s work continued to ignite controversy in 1787 when. and heredity. He observed that although one could not enter into critical philosophy without presupposing the existence of things-inthemselves. philosophical interpretation of reality.” (83) “Herder himself stayed within the universalist bounds of the Enlightenment. international intercourse.
leads to his instant fame. including that of pastor. Schulze criticized the idea that things-in-themselves are the cause of representations as inconsistent with the rest of Kant and Reinhold’s philosophies. His essay also argued that Reinhold’s account of self-consciousness was infinitely regressive.” as Reinhold had called it. He turned the tables on Schulze as well.” Fichte’s essay “Toward a Critique of All Revelation” (1791).” . which is material and not merely formal. but on norms. He felt that the kind of distinctions and relations that one is supposed to make according to Reinhold’s philosophy should be conceived along more Kantian lines as basic acts of synthesis in accordance with normative rules.] (“Schulze’s anonymously published essay “Aenesidemus” proved to be devastating for Reinhold’s philosophy and career. Enthralled with Kant. “Aenesidemus. by asking why we should assume that we must begin a discussion of Idealism with a “fact of consciousness. for it required all consciousness to involve representations. [‘We certainly do require a first principle. The Allgemeine Literatur Zeitung commissioned Fichte to write a review of “Aenesidemus. “Versuch einer Kritik aller Offenbarung” [“Toward a Critique of All Revelation”] (1791). however. when the author was revealed to be Fichte. who had thought of embarking on several different careers. But such a principle does not have to express a fact. or any fact at all. it can also express an Act. In the review. Fichte conceded to “Aenesidemus” that Reinhold could not make good on the basic claims of Kantian thought. purposefully or inadvertently. since a self-conscious subject therefore had to have a representation of itself. Fichte attempted to impress him with a short piece audaciously / entitled. contributes to a nineteenth-century tendency to see Hindu and Buddhist ideas as nihilistic.and India. omitted Fichte’s name and preface.” (86-87) [Schulze’s essay “Aenesidemus” critiques the Kantian “things-in-themselves.” which appeared early in 1794. his extreme subjectivity. he became an instant celebrity. His publisher. leading readers to assume the author to be Kant himself. and therefore should be based on a fundamental mode of acting that serves as the basis for other norms. as had Herder.” also became the launching point for Fichte.’] Fichte argued that the kind of philosophical science Reinhold was attempting to construct was not based on facts. which borders on solipsism.
For Fichte. negatively.” of an infinite will that is as essential to humanity as it is to divinity. for as this took hold in Germany.” that is. in Fichte’s view. The shift would contribute to the replacement of the Judeo-Egyptian model of European ancestry in the last quarter of the eighteenth century with the Indian model. as African. blood and language being the focal points.] “The rise to prominence of the Indian model of European origin would be aided by neo-Hellenism. ancient Egyptian culture came to be seen. reason must be a unity of the empirical “I” and the “Not-I.” .(89) [Fichte’s “absolute I. one sees the move away from the coexistence of humanity and nature or divinity.” (93) [Eclipse of the Judeo-Egyptian model of European ancestry (1775-1800) by the Indian model. Fichte identifies the noumenal realm with that of the will. however. as the importance of blood and language eclipsed that of the transmission of philosophical and scientific reason. Both of these.” a cosmo-theanthropic will. Kant’s dualism is unacceptable. In the thought of Fichte. it was a subject-imposed distinction based on norms.] “…[F]or Fichte. The subject strives to subordinate the objective within itself in an effort to attain absolute being. Fichte concluded that the core distinction between subject and object was itself subjectively established. both of the individual human subject and the objective world. as he felt Kant himself should have seen. felt both on the level of recognizable emotions and on the more subconscious level of instincts. the key problem to be solved in completing the system that Kant had begun was the problem of self-authorization – that is. are expressions of the unhindered movement of the “absolute I. that there is no way of reconciling the “I” and the “NotI.” (92) [Fichtean solipsism] “Fichte would eventually conclude. and the consequent demand that the objective world be annihilated. the “Kantian paradox” of what it means to say that we are responsible only for acting in accordance with the norms that we ourselves authorize.” and thus took the fatal step of eliminating the “Not-I” altogether. toward the assertion of human freedom as absolute. no longer philosophy and science.
a great expansion in archeology performed by Europeans abroad. see p. (96) “In the notes to Oupnek’hat (the title by which is it more commonly referred). Left p. for.’” (94) Published in 1771. “ignited a revolution in the study of language.’” (94-95) The Upanishads (finished 1657) were originally translated into Persian by or for one Dara Shukoh (1615-1659). for he understood the text as attributing all material things to Dinge an sich. 99. and the explosion of the modern science of philology. This influx of new sources and the diffusion of knowledge of Indian religious literature in Europe would be described in 1803 by Friedrich Schlegel as the Second Renaissance – an ‘orientalisches Renaissance. 110 . not only did the translation lay the foundation of comparative philology. Now many Western scholars had access to it. Anquetil-Duperron compared the Upanishads to the system of Kant.” He also published a Latin translation of the Upanishads in 1801-02 [known as Oupnek’hat. it was also the first European translation of a religious text not to take the biblical scriptures as its point of departure.(94) “The period between 1750 to 1830 saw the rise of the comparative study of religion. 95-96] that would influence the German Romantics greatly. sl. Ouvrage de Zoroastre. who wanted to reconcile Hinduism and Islam. The philosophy of the Upanishads would until the 1930s be attributed to the socalled ‘Aryans. Anquetil-Duperron’s Zend-Avesta.
der Mark Roseman. 2004.BIBLIOGRAPHY Robert Bruce Cowan.Phil. The Indo-Germans: An “Aryan” Romance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1995. Johann Gottfried von Herder. 1965. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ideen zur Philosophie Geschichte der Menschheit. City University of New York. Berlin: Aufbau. Generations in Conflict: Youth Revolt and Generation Formation in Germany 1770-1968 . D. Dissertation. Michael Allen Gellespie. Nihilism before Nietzsche. 2006. .
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