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Test K-DES® N.

3 Applied in Pigs avoids the decomposition
and allows the preservation of organic matter.

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TO SUMMARIZE:

- Product K-DES® is a 25% water solution that avoids the decomposition and
allows the preservation of organic matter, not only when applied by spraying but
also when applied by immersion.

- Product K-DES® is a 25% water solution that avoids the decomposition and
allows the preservation of organic matter, even after the process of
decomposition has already started.

- Product K-DES® can be reused without reducing its preserving effect, avoids
the decomposition and allows the preservation of organic matter.

- When used by spraying, product K-DES® preserves and avoids the
decomposition and allows the preservation of organic matter for over 96 hours.
The application of a 25% water solution of K-DES® provides the samples with
an insect repellent and leaves them soft enough to ease its future treatment and
elimination.

- For the reason that K-DES® must be applied by spraying when a farming scope
is concerned, and waiting for new tests for this to be confirmed, we can draw
the conclusion that bodies can remain for a period of 96 hours without great in-
convenience for the environment.

- K-DES® is a nontoxic product, nor ADR, which avoids the decomposition and
allows the preservation of organic matter, helping the bio safety of the
environment in which it is applied.

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®
TEST K-DES III

Completed between 4th and 9th
of August 2006

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INDEX

Previous notes on the test ................................................................... 2

Day 0. Inicio – 04-08-2006 .................................................................. 4

Day 1 – 05-08-2006............................................................................ 7

Day 2 – 06-08-2006............................................................................. 9

Day 3 – 07-08-2006........................................................................... 12

Day 4 – 08-08-2006........................................................................... 15

Day 5 – 09-08-2006........................................................................... 19

Statistics Summary............................................................................ 22

Conclusions....................................................................................... 29
0BUPrevious notes on the test Test K-DES® III

Previous notes on the test

Objective

The aim is to check the application protocol that has been designed by our technical
department for the use of product K-DES® by spraying on pigs, in order to assess its
effects as a disinfectant, repellent and preservative of organic matter.

So, two pigs were taken, one of them labeled as reference sample, with no product
being applicated on it, and the other one was sprayed on with a solution of K-DES®
every 48 hours, following the established protocol.

Test Conditions

Across this document, daily observed conditions are referred to. It can be added up
that samples have been maintained in the open air, therefore under the effects of
the environment, and subjected to likely flies and insects action, proper of the rural
environment in which they were staying.

The test took place during the period between the 4th and 9th of August 2006 in the
I+D+I Technological Scientific Centre of Teaxul S.A. company, in the town of
Baiona, province of Pontevedra.

It has to be noticed that we have been under very high temperatures, uncharacteris-
tic of the zone, with the start and development of the test taking place at the same
time as many forest fires, mainly in Cangas, situated in the other side of the bay,
what caused very thick smoke clouds, making visibility and breathing difficult in the
zone where the test took place. This, together with atmospheric conditions of around
960 hPa and a relative humidity of 50%, was the cause of very specific and extreme
environmental conditions across the test.

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0BUPrevious notes on the test Test K-DES® III

For the assessment of the treatment, variables such as appearance, smell, flies and
insects presence, were used. All of them symptoms of decomposition that are not
subjective issues anymore, due to the important effects observed as a consequence
of K-DES® application, when compared to the reference sample.

The person in charge of the study, Mr. Javier Chávez, is an expert in embalming,
with many years of experience in human and animal corpse handling, which gives
him a knowledge to detect small details, proper of organic matter decomposition,
which are referred to in this report.

Also, across the execution of the test, we counted on the experience and knowledge
of the veterinary surgeon Dr. Luis Couto and on the technical support of Mr. Xulio
César Gonzalez, manager of Teaxul, S.A. and the I+D+I Technological Scientific
Center that this company owns in Baiona, where the trials took place. We thank
them for their advice and collaboration given across the whole test.

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1BUDay 0. Inicio – 04-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

Day 0. Inicio – 04-08-2006

Before the start of the test

Pigs were sacrificed at 2,00 pm, being taken to the test place at 5 pm, and being left
in a meadow, separated a distance of 10 metres from each other, in order to avoid
that corpse fauna from one animal could cause any effect on the other.

Then, the first application of the product was done, with an air temperature of 34ºC,
moment shown by next pictures. The study consisted of two pigs, one of them used
as a reference sample, labelled as A, though the other one, labelled as B, was
sprayed on with a litre of a 25% water solution of the product.

Right after the application of the product on pig B was concluded, first flies around
the reference animal started to appear.

Start of the test

OBSERVATIONS

K-DES® is a translucent product, not crystalline, of quick action and with a very par-
ticular smell, what allows to differenciate treated from non-treated samples, in a se-
cure and easy way.

Application of the product is done in an easy way by pressurized spraying on the bodies
to be treated, which easies the adhearence of the product to the body surface, thus
getting a high grade of impregnation.

As mentioned above, 2 pigs were selected, and classified as follows:

First pig (A) was used as a reference, not being previously treated.

Second pig (B) was sprayed on with, approximately, a litre of a 25% water solution
of K-DES®.

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1BUDay 0. Inicio – 04-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

REFERENCE - A

SPRAYING – B

SPRAYING – B

During application, spraying was made mainly on soft areas and orifices of en-
trance to the animal body, namely mouth, ears, anus, abdominal zone and a
wound that was made in the neck during the animal sacrifice.

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1BUDay 0. Inicio – 04-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

Next pictures show the environment in
which the test was carried out.

As it can be observed, there is no pro-
tection against insolation and conditions
are the same as the ones given in plain
nature, being the same ones as if the
animal was left aside in the farming ex-
ploitation premises.

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2BUDay 1 – 05-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

Day 1 – 05-08-2006

First day of study. Sample measurements were made at 5 pm, with an air tempera-
ture of 35ºC. No application of K-DES® was done on the recipient sample.

During the first 24 hours, and just by looking at it, initial effects on the reference
animal could be observed, i.e. releasing of excrements and the action of flies on the
corpses. The fact that the amount of flies was very large caused, along 24 hours,
the acceleration of the decomposition process and for the smell to be very notice-
able.

As for pig B, that was treated with K-DES®, a characteristic smell of the product
could be perceived, with just a few flies around the animal that would not land on it
due to the repellent effect of the product.

As it can be seen, the difference between both animals is noticeable just by looking
at them, only after 24 hours.

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

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2BUDay 1 – 05-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

Flies tend to land on soft areas and on orifices of entrance to the body (mouth, anus,
wounds,...) and, as it can be observed in these pictures, after 24 hours, mouth colo-
nization has already started. It must be had into account that, though we can only
see the external part of it in the pictures, flies are also doing their work in the inside.

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3BUDay 2 – 06-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

Day 2 – 06-08-2006

Second day of study. 6th of August, at 5 pm, with an air temperature of 35ºC. Tem-
peratures reached 36ºC along the day and the effect of the smoke from forest fires
in near towns were evident. Conditions were so extreme that, as it can be proved
from next pictures, the thermometer that was being used for the test, went broken.

Sample A - Reference

On this day, we can already observe the advanced state of decomposition of refer-
ence pig, as well as a large amount of worms, flies and a big swelling all over its
body.

Putrefaction smell is very strong, thus making almost unbearable to stay close to the
animal.

Sample B - Spraying

As for pig B, smell of K-DES® is still perceptible and, just by looking at it, no great
changes can be observed, only a slight swelling in the head, due to anaerobic fermen-
tations caused by organisms in charge of decomposition.

Since at the time of the check, it had been 48 hours from the first application of K-
DES® , a new application of the product was done on animal B.

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

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3BUDay 2 – 06-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

The presence of many flies in the anal area of the reference animal can be ob-
served, as well as excrement and internal liquids spilling, in both cases. This is a
common phenomenon caused by internal decomposition process, since we only
intend to slow down its effect by the use of K-DES®

In the pictures on the left, a detail of the
reference animal head can be seen,
after turning it upside down and being
able to see the side that was touching
the ground. If carefully observed, we will
note that the surface is full of larvae,
fact that is not happening on the animal
that was treated with K-DES® as we can
check in next picture.

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3BUDay 2 – 06-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

In this picture, apart from checking the state of the head of the animal that has
been treated with K-DES®, we can also see the temperature reached by the ther-
mometer that, as seen in this picture, went broken.

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4BUDay 3 – 07-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

Day 3 – 07-08-2006

Third day of study. Along the day 7th of August, temperatures were still very high,
with an air temperature of 35ºC at 5 pm.

Sample A - Reference

The amount of internal and external insects is very noticeable on reference animal,
with its effects on the animal corpse being observed perfectly.

At this moment, the smell expelled by this animal is very unpleasant and nauseating,
as we can guess once we have seen its grade of decomposiiton.

Sample B- Spraying

In pig B, not many changes can be observed, after the second application of the
product has been done.

After applying the product, the few insects that were present were eliminated by the
action of K-DES®, what made it easier to slow down the natural process of decom-
position.

In the next pictures, differences between both animals can be observed.

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4BUDay 3 – 07-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

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4BUDay 3 – 07-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

This is the appearance of the animals once they have been turned upside down in
order to observe the side that was touching the ground.

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

In this set of pictures we can see how flies attack all the soft areas and orifices of
entrance to the reference animal body, as well as the presence of many larvae in all
those areas. In some of them the tissues have been already destroyed.

As for the animal that has been sprayed on with K-DES®, there are some signs of
internal decomposition, but very slight if compared to the reference animal’s. No
larvae can be seen outside due to the repellent effect of K-DES®, which keeps
them inside the body.

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5BUDay 4 – 08-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

Day 4 – 08-08-2006

Fourth day of study. Day 8th of August. Data take was done at 5 pm, with an air
temperature of 32ºC.

Sample A – Reference

In case A, the action of internal insects and necrophagous fly larvae, have caused
the expelling of gases and the widely extended consumption of the animal soft tis-
sues, thus getting the animal into an advanced stage of decomposition, only after
four days from the sacrifice, as we can check in next pictures.

As it can be guessed from its state, the smell expelled by the animal could be clearly
perceived from several metres away.

Sample B – Spraying

Animal B showed the first internal worms since, as indicated before, application of
K-DES® by spraying can slow down the external process of decomposition, but it
cannot stop it.

However, the amount is very small, and they don´t accelerate the decomposition
process since, right after coming out, they die because of the effect of the product
that is present. The smell of pig B is not very significant and its appearance is not
deteriorated very much.

Since this data take was done after 96 hours from the start of the test, a third and
last application was done on animal B.

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5BUDay 4 – 08-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

It shows the presence of many larvae and internal insects appeared in the refer-
ence animal, in the head, abdominal and anal areas.

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5BUDay 4 – 08-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING– B

As it can be seen in these pictures, the stage of decomposition of reference animal,
if compared to the state of the animal that has been treated with K-DES®, is very
significant, and we can clearly see and just by looking at it, the benefits provided by
the treatment with this product, after 96 hours from the sacrifice.

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5BUDay 4 – 08-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

After turning the animal upside down in order to see the evolution of decomposition
under the body, a high grade of dehydration as well as the size and amount of pre-
sent larvae can be observed.

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6BUDay 5 – 09-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

Day 5 – 09-08-2006

Fifth day of study. Day 9th of August, at 5 pm, with an air temperature of 34ºC, mo-
ment at which the observation was done.

Sample A – Reference

In next pictures we can observe the advanced stage of decomposition of the animal
after having been kept 5 days in the open air. It shows the disappearance of most
part of the tissue and organs, in the head as well as in the abdominal areas, with
many necrophagous insects being present (larvae, worms, ...), which were in the
inside feeding themselves.

Sample B - Spraying

In case B, once again, the effect of K-DES® application over the external decompo-
sition process can be observed.

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

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6BUDay 5 – 09-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

Note the organ disappearance in animal A, as well as the great amount and big size
of larvae, unlike B, which is kept in a significant state of preservation.

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

REFERENCE – A SPRAYING – B

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6BUDay 5 – 09-08-2006 Test K-DES® III

Enlargement of the picture of the reference animal above, on the fifth day of test.

This is the state of the reference animal, at 10,30 pm on the last day of test, right
before removing it for its elimitation.

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7BUStatistics Summary Test K-DES® III

Statistics Summary

Now, a chart summary of observations done by the expert, is shown.

Temperatures

Day 0 1 2 3 4 5
T at data take instant (ºC) 34 35 35 35 32 34
1
Maxcimum T (ºC) 28 30 32 30 31 28

Chart of Temperature

40
Degrees Celsius

35
30
25 Data take time
Maximum (1)
20
15
10
5
0
Day 0 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5
Days

Note: It has to be remarked that temperatures on these dates were influenced by the
large amount of forest fires in the region, having conditions of atmospheric pressure
and relative humidity that were not common for the region.

1
This temperatures were measured in Santa María de Oía observatory, which is located a
few kilometres away from Baiona, at an altitude of 450 metres, what means a difference of 4
or 5 degrees between the temperature reached during the study and official temperature.
Besides, it has to be taken into account that measurement points in observatories are always
sheltered, what means that measurements values are lower than those registered in the
open air.

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7BUStatistics Summary Test K-DES® III

On the other hand, it has to be remarked that pigs were lying in a meadow, in the
open air, and exposed to around 11 hours of insolation a day, with no rains all along
the study.

Smell

Evaluation of registered data:

0 Proper smell of product K-DES®.

5 Unpleasant smell due to decomposition processes.
10 Unbearable smell due to decomposition processes.

Day 0 1 2 3 4 5
Sample A 0 3 6 9 10 10
Sample B 0 0 1 2 3 4

Chart of Smell

10
9
8
7 Sample A
6
Sample B
5
4
3
2
1
0
Day 0 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5

Days

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7BUStatistics Summary Test K-DES® III

Presence of external insects (flies and others)

Evaluation of registered data:

0 no insects.

5 considerable amount of insects.

10 many insects.

Day 0 1 2 3 4 5
Sample A 2 5 7 8 6 3
Sample B 0 0 0 1 3 3

Chart of Presence of external insects

10
9
8
7 Sample A
6 Sample B
5
4
3
2
1
0
Day 0 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5

Days

Note: The amount of insects that were present around reference animal was smaller
on the last day of test, since the state of decomposition of the animal was no longer
attractive to flies, and most of the tissues were already disappeared.

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7BUStatistics Summary Test K-DES® III

Presence of internal insects (larvae and necrophagous ones)

Assessment of registered data:

0 no larvae and/or necrophagous insects.

5 considerable amount of larvae and/or necrophagous insects.

10 many larvae and/or necrophagous insects.

Day 0 1 2 3 4 5
Sample A 0 0 5 7 10 10
Sample B 0 0 0 3 3 4

Chart of Presence of internal insects

10
9
8
7 Sample A
6
Sample B
5
4
3
2
1
0
Day 0 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5
Days

Note: it must be recalled that, larvae and necrophagous insects that were observed,
died once in touch with K-DES®.

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7BUStatistics Summary Test K-DES® III

Other signs of decomposition

Swelling

Evaluation of registered data:

0 no body swelling due to decomposition processes.

5 moderate body swelling due to decomposition processes.

10 big body swelling due to decomposition processes.

Day 0 1 2 3 4 5
Sample A 0 3 7 9 7 1
Sample B 0 1 3 3 4 5

Chart of Swelling

10
9
8
7 Sample A
6 Sample B
5
4
3
2
1
0
Day 0 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5
Days

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7BUStatistics Summary Test K-DES® III

Dehydration

Evaluation of registered data:

0 no body dehydration due to decomoposition processes.

5 moderate grade of body dehydration due to decomposition processes.

10 high grade of body dehydration due to decomposition processes.

Day 0 1 2 3 4 5
Sample A 0 0 0 3 5 8
Sample B 0 0 0 0 0 0

Chart of Dehydration

10
9
8
7 Sample A
6
Sample B
5
4
3
2
1
0
Day 0 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5
Days

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7BUStatistics Summary Test K-DES® III

Comparative chart of observed parameters

10

8

6

4

2

0
Whithout Whith Whithout Whith Whithout Whith Whithout Whith Whithout Whith

K-DES® K-DES® K-DES® K-DES® K-DES® K-DES® K-DES® K-DES® K-DES® K-DES®
Smell Presence of Presence of Swelling Dehydration
Ext. Insects Int. Insects
Day 0 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5

This chart shows all the measurements appeared in charts above, thus we can
check the differences between the animal which has been sprayed on with K-DES®
and the one which has not.

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8BConclusions Test K-DES® III

Conclusions

Results obtained from the test that has been carried out with pigs and to which this
documents refers, corroborate conclusions on the biocidal, repellent, and preserva-
tive of organic matter effect of K-DES® , which notably contributes to the preserva-
tion of a more hygienic environment, thus avoiding unpleasant situations and, even,
zoonosis that is likely to arise from those situations, and transmision of illnesses.

According to the test, and after having specifically analyzed the results, we can draw
the following conclusions:

- K-DES® reduces unpleasant smell, proper of organic matter putrefaction.

- K-DES® very notably reduces the amount and size of larvae and necro-
phagous insects, proper of animal corpses internal decomposition.

- K-DES® reduces body swelling, proper of body putrefaction.

- K-DES® reduces body dehydration, proper of animal corpses putrefaction.

- As a summary of all the above mentioned, we must draw the conclusion that
product K-DES®, causes the effect of preventing decomposition of organic
matter once it has been applied by spraying, thus slowing down the process.

- K-DES® causes the effect of stopping the process of decomposition of or-
ganic matter, even when it is in an advanced stage.

- K-DES® causes a repellent effect against flies and insects, providing the
bodies with protection against external agents action, what can intervene in
the process of putrefaction of organic matter.

- Product K-DES®, preserves and prevents organic matter from decomposition
for a period of over 96 hours.

- The repellent effect of K-DES® avoids flies landing on the corpses and the of
egg-laying process, as well as it prevents bodies from being a vehicle of in-
fection and from accelerating the process of decomposition.

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8BConclusions Test K-DES® III

- Due to its biocidal effect, K-DES® eliminates larvae born in the inside as
soon as they come outside.

- On the other hand we can draw the conclusion that, if applied in the way it
has been done through this test, it means an alteration to corpse fauna de-
velopment. Although this development at an internal level cannot be avoided,
it has been modified and reduced, (having a smaller amount of larvae with a
smaller size). This phenomenon might be caused due to the impossibility of
larvae coming outside, because of the repellent and biocidal effect of the
product, or due to the alterations caused by the product at an external level,
which are transmitted to the interior of the corpse, thus changing internal
conditions.

- These results have been achieved from a reduced number of pigs, but if ex-
trapolated to an exploitation with a bigger number of corpses, flies and other
insects living in the environment, we reckon that flies and insects would act
much sooner and with a greater intensity, thus accelerating the process of
putrefaction, mainly in individuals that have not been treated with K-DES®
and so making the differences clearer to observation.

- So, we could draw the conclusion that, the applicaiton of a solution of K-DES®
by spraying on an animal corpse after its death, and repeating the applica-
tion every 48 hours, would slow down the processes of putrefaction and de-
composition for a period of over 96 hours, without causing unpleasant or
harmful effects to the environment where the corpse is being preserved, thus
avoiding the spreading of contagious illnesses and keeping a cleaner and
more hygienic environment.

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