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• How do flaws in a material initiate failure? • How is fracture resistance quantified; how do different material classes compare? • How do we estimate the stress to fracture? • How do loading rate, loading history, and temperature affect the failure stress?
Occurs with plastic deformation Can be “graceful” failure
Little or no plastic deformation Catastrophic
Ship-cyclic loading from waves.
Adapted from chapter-opening photograph, Chapter 8, Callister 7e. (by Neil Boenzi, The New York Times.)
Computer chip-cyclic thermal loading.
Adapted from Fig. 22.30(b), Callister 7e. (Fig. 22.30(b) is courtesy of National Semiconductor Corporation.)
Hip implant-cyclic loading from walking.
Adapted from Fig. 22.26(b), Callister 7e.
Ductile vs Brittle Failure
Fracture behavior: Very Ductile Moderately Ductile Brittle
Example: Failure of a Pipe
• Ductile failure:
--one piece --large deformation
Adapted from Fig. 8.1, Callister 7e.
• Brittle failure:
--many pieces --small deformation
%AR or %EL
• Ductile fracture is usually preferred.
Brittle: No warning
Figures from V.J. Colangelo and F.A. Heiser, Analysis of Metallurgical Failures (2nd ed.), Fig. 4.1(a) and (b), p. 66 John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1987. Used with permission.
Ductile: warning before fracture
Moderately Ductile Failure
• Evolution to failure:
Ductile vs. Brittle Failure
void growth and linkage
shearing at surface
50 50mm mm cup-and-cone fracture
particles serve as void nucleation sites.
Adapted from Fig. 8.3, Callister 7e.
Fracture surface of steel Fracture surface of tire cord wire
Brittle Failure Arrows indicate point at which failure originated Brittle Failure Adapted from Fig. Steel (between grains) (metal) • Intragranular (within grains) 316 S.1 typical strengthened metal typical polymer ε • DaVinci (500 yrs ago!) observed. Callister 7e. 8 Brittle Fracture Surfaces Brittle Fracture Surfaces • Intergranular 304 S.. 8. Callister 7e. 7 Adapted from Fig. Larger samples contain more flaws! 11 12 2 . • Reason: Flaws cause premature failure.5(a). 8. Steel (metal) 4 mm 160 mm Polypropylene (polymer) Al Oxide (ceramic) • Intergranular (between grains) • Intragranular (within grains) 9 1 mm 3 mm 10 Ideal vs Real Materials • Stress-strain behavior (Room T): Stress at Cracks σ E/10 perfect mat’l-no flaws TS engineering << TS perfect materials materials carefully produced glass fiber E/100 E = Young’s modulus typical ceramic 0.5(a).. the smaller the load for failure. the longer the wire.
8. • Failure occurs when the loss of strain energy is sufficient to provide the increase in surface energy Griffith Crack ⎛a σ m = 2σo ⎜ ⎜ρ ⎝ t ρt ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1/ 2 = K t σo where ρt = radius of curvature σo = applied stress Adapted from Fig. “blunting” the crack. 13 14 Flaws are Stress Concentrators! Results from crack propagation Stress at Cracks Stress at the tip of a sharp crack approaches infinity. (=> any structure containing a crack should fail. no matter how small the crack or how light the load!) Griffith developed a thermodynamic approach: • Growth of a crack requires increase in surface energy (endothermic) • Loss of strain energy from relaxation of local stresses as the crack advances (exothermic).8(a). Crack Propagation Cracks propagate due to sharpness of crack tip A plastic material deforms at the tip. Callister 7e.Flaws are Stress Concentrators! Concentration of Stress at Crack Tip Adapted from Fig. 8. Callister 7e. deformed brittle plastic Energy balance on the crack Elastic strain energyenergy stored in material as it is elastically deformed this energy is released when the crack propagates creation of new surfaces requires energy 17 18 3 . σm = stress at crack tip 15 16 Flaws are Stress Concentrators! In spite of increased strengthening from “flaws”.8(b).
w σmax h 2. Callister 7e. σ σy TS ε larger TS σ design < Kc Y πamax amax < σ fracture no fracture amax 1⎛ ⎜ Kc π⎜ ⎝ Yσdesign ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ε smaller fracture σy σ 23 amax no fracture ε 24 4 . Neugebauer.D. Golden. Eng.0 0 0.5 1. OH (2001) p.Avoid sharp corners! When Does a Crack Propagate? Crack propagates if above critical stress i. (NY). MA. (30 vol%) P. Plenum Press (1986). Courtesy CoorsTek. 978-82. 61-73.0 1.5 Si crystal <111> Glass -soda Concrete <100> PS Polyester Glass 6 21 22 Design Against Crack Growth • Crack growth condition: K ≥ Kc = Yσ πa • Largest. Eng...5 2. Prod. 6.5 1.. Inc. -.F. 606. 5.. 8. pp. Composite reinforcement geometry is: f = fibers. ORNL/Sub/85-22011/2..T.e.H. (30 vol%) S. flaw size dictates design stress. (55vol%) ASM Handbook. Cornie. Loading Rate • Increased loading rate.6 0. 7. 3. 14. 82-87 1943.2W(c) is from G. Vol. Waltham.7 0. Gace et al.. --Result 2: Design stress dictates max. Vol. Callister 6e. MMC. "Development of Ceramic Matrix Composites for Application in Technology for Advanced Engines Program".increases σy and TS -. Materials Park..) r/h 1 0. Vol. CO.. 21. Becher et al.0 sharper fillet radius increasing w/h o Diamond Si carbide Al oxide Si nitride PET PP PVC PC r. sf = short fibers. Factor. Vol. most stressed cracks grow first! --Result 1: Max. σm > σc or where Kt > Kc ⎛ 2Eγ s ⎞ σc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ πa ⎠ 1/ 2 E = modulus of elasticity γs = specific surface energy a = one half length of internal crack Kc = σc/σ0 For ductile => replace γs by γs + γp 19 where γp is plastic deformation energy 20 Fracture Toughness Metals/ Alloys 100 70 60 50 40 Steels Ti alloys Al alloys Mg alloys Al/Al oxide(sf) 2 Y2 O 3 /ZrO 2 (p) 4 C/C( fibers) 1 Al oxid/SiC(w) 3 Si nitr/SiC(w) 5 Al oxid/ZrO 2 (p) 4 Glass/SiC(w) 6 Engineering Fracture Design • Avoid sharp corners! σ σo max Stress Conc. (Fig. (55 vol%) Courtesy J.decreases %EL • Why? An increased rate gives less time for dislocations to move past obstacles.. fillet radius Adapted from Fig. 1992. ASM Int. flaw size. Proc. K t = σ Graphite/ Ceramics/ Semicond Polymers Composites/ fibers C-C(|| fibers) 1 K Ic (MPa · m 0. Sci. p = particles. w = whiskers. fraction of reinforcement): 1. Fracture Mechanics of Ceramics. pp. Addition data as noted (vol. 2. Ceram. 4.5 ) 30 20 10 7 6 5 4 3 2 Based on data in Table B5. ORNL. 8. (20vol%) F. Buljan et al.2W(c). 7 (1986) pp.
. FCC metals (e. Callister 7e. Moffatt. NJ.) • Key points: Fatigue.g.) flex coupling tension on bottom • Stress varies with time. 8. III. John Wiley and Sons. Ni) Impact Energy BCC metals (e.. specimen compression on top bearing bearing motor counter Adapted from Fig.G. --increases %EL and Kc Design Strategy: Stay Above The DBTT! • Pre-WWII: The Titanic • WWII: Liberty ships • Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT). Callister 7e. 8. σm. Callister 7e. Cu. Keyser..15. even though σmax < σc. Callister 7e. 8.. and J. Sfat: S = stress amplitude unsafe Sfat safe 10 3 Adapted from Fig. The Structure and Properties of Materials. -.) Fracture Toughness (Charpy) final height initial height 25 26 Temperature • Increasing temperature.18.g.severe testing case -. A. 27 28 Fatigue • Fatigue = failure under cyclic stress. 8. Mechanical Behavior.decreases toughness Adapted from Fig.makes material more brittle -.W.Impact Testing • Impact loading: -.12(b) is adapted from H. iron at T < 914°C) polymers Brittle More Ductile High strength materials (σ y > E/150) Temperature Ductile-to-brittle transition temperature Adapted from Fig.18 is from Materials Science in Engineering. 10 5 10 7 10 9 N = Cycles to failure 30 5 . (Fig. Vol. W. Pearson Education. 8. • Problem: Used a type of steel with a DBTT ~ Room temp. Inc.12(b). 4/E by Carl.19(a). Upper Saddle River. --no fatigue if S < Sfat case for steel (typ. --can cause part failure...19(b). the fatigue limit is zero! S = stress amplitude unsafe safe 10 3 case for Al (typ.. Inc. and frequency σmax σm σmin σ S time 10 10 10 N = Cycles to failure 5 7 9 • Sometimes. 8. Wulff. 29 Adapted from Fig.. --causes ~ 90% of mechanical engineering failures. Hayden. (1965) p. 13. (Fig. 8. Callister 7e.key parameters are S.) Fatigue Design Parameters • Fatigue limit..
for higher T (T > 0. increases.. strain rate material const. σ Stress (MPa) 427°C . failure stress decreases with: . Impose a compressive surface stress (to suppress surface cracks from growing) σm S = stress amplitude Adapted from Fig.29. Understanding How Components Fail. 131.) 31 2. .25. time Creep • Occurs at elevated temperature.4Tm. Callister 7e. bad bad better better Adapted from Fig.31 is from Metals Handbook: Properties 538 °C and Selection: Stainless Steels. 8.J.e.28. Tool Materials.ε σ 0 t tertiary primary secondary Primary Creep: slope (creep rate) decreases with time. p. Materials Park. 8.24. .) applied stress 200 100 40 20 10 10 -2 10 -1 1 Steady state creep rate • Strain rate increases for higher T. Callister 7e. constant slope. .increased rate of loading.31. Wulpi.Fatigue Mechanism • Crack grows incrementally Improving Fatigue Life 1. Secondary Creep: steady-state i.21.for cyclic σ: .for noncyclic σ and T < 0.cycles to fail decreases as Δσ increases. 8. Tertiary Creep: slope (creep rate) increases with time.strain hardening is balanced by recovery stress exponent (material parameter) SUMMARY • Engineering materials don't reach theoretical strength. 32 Creep Sample deformation at a constant stress (σ) vs. • Sharp corners produce large stress concentrations and premature failure. acceleration of rate. Callister 7e. 8. T > 0. 8. 8. ed..e.time to fail decreases as σ or T increases. 33 34 Secondary Creep • Strain rate is constant at a given T. 36 6 . 1985.4 Tm σ.). 1 to 6 ~ (Δσ ) a Increasing near zero or compressive σm moderate tensile σm Larger tensile σm N = Cycles to failure • Failed rotating shaft increase in crack length per loading cycle crack origin --Method 1: shot peening shot put surface into compression --Method 2: carburizing C-rich gas --crack grew even though Kmax < Kc --crack grows faster as • Δσ increases • crack gets longer • loading freq. Benjamin 649 °C 9th (Senior Ed. 8.4Tm): εs (%/1000hr) 35 . Vol. Callister 7e. Remove stress concentrators. OH. (Fig. i. 1980. • Flaws produce stress concentrations that cause premature failure. American Society for Metals. D. da m = (ΔK ) dN typ.increased maximum flaw size. Callister 7e. 8.decreased T. American Society for Metals. Adapted from Fig. (Fig. Callister 7e. • Failure type depends on T and stress: . ⎛ Q ⎞ & s = K 2 σ exp⎜ − c ⎟ ε ⎝ RT ⎠ n activation energy for creep (material parameter) Adapted from Fig. 3. σ -. Adapted from Figs. elastic Adapted from Fig.21 is from D. and Special Purpose Metals.
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