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GENERIC COMBINATORIAL IDENTITIES

E. F. Cornelius, Jr.
Published in JP J Algebra, Number Theory and Applications
Vol. 31, No. 1 (2013), Pages 1-4
Abstract: Some well known combinatorial identities appear to be special
cases of more general identities in integral domains.
Let D be an integral domain (i.e., a commutative ring with 1 but without
zero divisors) embedded in its quotient …eld, so that division makes sense. If
d1 ; d2 ; : : : ; dn are nonzero elements of D, n 1, and d0 = 0, then the following
relations hold:

(A)

n
P

( 1)i (dn

i=1

d0 ) (dn di
d1 di

1)

=

1

This is a generalization of the familiar combinatorial identity
n
X

(B)

( 1)i

i=1

n
i

=

1

to which (A) reduces when di = i; i = 1; 2; : : : ; n. The generalization was
proved in [1], in the context of matrix inversion in integral domains.
If dn in (A) is replaced by

(C)

n
P

i=1

dn , then

(dn +d0 ) (dn +di
d1 di

1)

= 2 (dn +d0 )

(dn +dn 2 )(dn +dn
d1 dn 1 dn

1)

which is a generalization of the identity

(D)

n
P

i=1

n+i 1
i

=

2n
n

1

to which (C) reduces when di = i; i = 1; 2; : : : ; n. This is so because
2 n(n+1)n! (2n
2n
n

1)

= 2 (n

=

1)!n(n+1) (2n 1)
(2n 1)!
= 2 (n
(n 1)!n!
1)!n!
(2n)!
2n(2n 1)!
(2n 1)!
= 2 (n 1)!n! .
n!n! =
n!n!

1

and

1

then the terms in (C) become r n (r n +r) r Sn = (r n +r i 1 ) = rn r(rn 1 ri n i n 1 r n i n r (r i=1 Pn i(i+1) + 1) ri 1 (rn i+1 + 1)=r 2 = (r + 1) (rn i+1 + 1). p. d 6= 0. Q1 j 2 N. then k q(j)x = (1 + x ). a complex number satisfying jxj < 1. when. n.. to some 1 Q(x) = j=0 q(j)xj . 2. the same result is obtained. : : : . Recall that if q(j) represents the number of partitions of the integer j into the generating function for the q(j) is given by P1 distinctj parts. More generally. i = 1. d 2 D. : : : . the product dj dn (dn d1 ) (dn dj 2 ) = d2 dn .See [2]. With the conventions that d0 = dn 1 (so that dn d0 = 1) and dn+1 = 1. : : : . if r = x. Part 3. d 6= 0.1. r 6= 0. then (C) becomes a geometric i 1 n 1 Pn Pn n n series. d 2 D. Thus. and when j = n + 1. See [3]. 54. n. When di = d. (d)i dn Of particular interest is the case when the di form a geometric progression. when di = id. 2. j=0 k=1 Both thePin…nite product and the in…nite series converge for jxj < 1. To compute Sn . n. i = 1. in general Sn does not appear to have a particularly compact expression. i = 1. then the sequence of functions Sn = Sn (x) converges to some S(x). When di = ri .e. S(x) = 2Q(x) Although Sn = n P i=1 (dn d0 ) (dn di d1 di 1) 1 does reduce to n P 2n 1 when di = i=1 i. : : : n. 2. so that 1 + 1) (rn i+1 + 1) = 2(rn 1 + 1) (r + 1) 1 = Qn 1 2 i=1 (ri + 1) 1. Pn+1 then Sn = d1 1dn 1 j=2 dj dn (dn d1 ) (dn dj 2 ). i = 1. Generating function & Note 10. note that n P i=1 (dn d0 ) d1 + (dn d0 ) (dn di d1 di (dn d0 )(dn d1 ) + ::: d1 d2 dn d1 dn 1 dn ([d2 + [dn (dn + [di d1 ) + (dn d0 ) d1 1) = (dn dn dn 1 2) + (dn d0 ) (dn dn d1 dn dn ] + [d3 dn (dn d1 )] + : : : dn (dn d1 ) (dn di 2 )] + : : : (dn dn 2 )] + [(dn d1 ) (dn dn 1) = 1 )]). i=1 d(2d) = i=1 2i 1 = 2n 1 = 2 d(2d) 1 = 2 dnd 1. 2 . 2. Although the initial assumption was r 6= 0. j = 2. i. r 2 D.

. Jr. j=2 j k n. 1 l j 2 The principal hurdle in attempting analogize these generic formulas to classical combinatorics is the obvious lack of symmetry analogous to ni = nn i . 1. Fundamental Algorithms.wikipedia. Sn also can be expressed as dl ). . "Root bases of polynomials over integral domains". The article is posted with permission at http://www. and Schultz.com/doc/ 109726168/Root-Bases-of-Polynomials-Over-Integral-Domains. Vol. E. in Models. The Art of Computer Programming (Addison-Wesley.org/wiki/Partition_(number_theory) 3 1) .. Modules and Abelian Groups (de Gruyter 2008). F.. 2nd ed 1973) [3] http://en. [2] Knuth.scribd. In general. it is not reasonable to expect that i = 1. D. P. : : : . n 1.that product equals (dn n+1 P Q 1 d1 dn 1 d1 ) (dn dk (dn dn 1 ). 238-248. (dn d0 ) (dn di d1 di 1) = (dn d0 ) (dn dn d1 dn i i REFERENCES [1] Cornelius.

Then it seems that (k0 + k1 + : : : ) is the sum of all partitions of n. 2 The coe¢ cient ck of xk in [e] is the number of ways in which exponents of the x0 s taken from one or more of the polynomials in [d] add up to k. P (x) can be expressed as PP (x) = k=1 1 1xk .1. and [3]. it follows that ck = q(k) for 1 k n. The number of ways is just p(k) for 1 k n. 2. According to [3]. As noted P1 in the article. To see this. that k0 k1 ::: k0 +k1 +:::=n 4 . of degree n(n+1) . Let Pn Pn (x) = j=0 p(j)xj . 3. k. One relationship that the author to establish is that Q between the polynomials Pn was attempting n j k Qn (x) = q(j)x . and P (x) = Q n j=0 k=1 (1 + x ). Let [c] PPn (x) = (1 + x + x2 + : : : + xn )(1 + x2 + x4 + : : : + x2n ) 2 (1 + xn + x2n + : : : + xn ) = [d] (1 + x1 + x1+1 + : : : + x1+:::+1 )(1 + x2 + x2+2 + : : : + x2+:::+2 ) (1 + xn + xn+n + : : : + xn+:::+n ). = PP (x) = ( 1 1 x )( 1 1x2 ) ( 1 1xk ) 2 2 4 k (1 + x + x + : : :)(1 + x + x + : : :) (1 + x + x2k + : : :) .. Equation (2. of degree n. See [4]. express [a] PQn = (1 + x)(1 + x2 ) (1 + xn ) as [b] PQn (x) = 1 + c1 x + : : : + ck xk + : : : + cn xn + : : : + c n(n 1) x n(n 1) 2 . P1 P (x) = j=0 p(j)xj . : : : . Part 3. which can Q1 be expressed as the in…nite product PQ (x) = k=1 (1 + xk ). Suppose P k0 + k1 + : : : is a partition of n. : : : .POSTSCRIPT TO PUBLISHED VERSION Earlier drafts of this article contained erroneous or confusing statements that have been deleted in the published version. As before. Part 3.3). Generating function & Note Q1 7. n. 2 The coe¢ cient ck of xk in [b] is the number of ways to get exponents of the x0 s in [a] to add up to k. where p(j) represents the number of partitions of j. Since those exponents are distinct and consist of 1. In turn. Generating function. so that the …rst n + 1 terms of PPn (x) are the same as the terms of Pn (x). An analogous result obtains for the generating function for all partitions. p. the generating function for distinct partitions is Q(x) = j=0 q(j)xj . k0 + k1 + : : : = n. PPn (x) can be written as [e] PPn (x) = 1 + c1 x + : : : + ck xk + : : : + cn xn + : : : + c n2 (n 1) x n2 (n 2 1) . i. 2 It turns out that Qn (x) equals the …rst n + 1 terms of PQn (x).1.e.

n. See http://www. However. if ai 6= 1. if an = n + 1. then an 1 2 1 + 1 a1a1 + (1 a1a)(1 a2 ) + : : : + (1 a1 ) (1 an ) = (1 a1 ) (1 an ) . [4] denotes http://www. or p(n) = k0 k1 ::: k0 +k1 +:::=n 1 n P (k0 + k1 + : : : ).edu/vstein/alg/antheory/preprint/andrews/ chapter.princeton.com/groups/algebraic-identity-innumber-theory-4510047. Similarly. 1.psu.5816553869760548865?qid=167e8f1c-8c7c-444a-b15bd3f740944753&trk=groups_items_see_more-0-b-ttl. the utility of these latter expressions is unclear to the author. in this case. ANOTHER GENERIC IDENTITY In an integral domain embedded in its quotient …eld. REFERENCES [1]. The k0 k1 ::: k0 +k1 +:::=n P1 generating function P (x) = j=0 p(j)xj then could be written as 1 P P n P (x) = [ (k0 + k1 + : : : )] xn with the usual combinatorial conn=0 k0 k1 ::: k0 +k1 +:::=n 0 vention about 0. then 1 + 2=1! + 3=2! + 4=3! + ::: + (n + 1)=n! = 1=n!. [2] and [3] denote the references in the article.S. Readers skeptical of using Wikipedia as a reference may be relieved to know that Princeton University does. P (k0 + k1 + : : : ) = nq(n).edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Partition_% 28number_theory%29. 0 x0 = 1. http://www.pdf. or q(n) = k0 >k1 >::: k0 +k1 +:::=n Q(x) = 1 P n=0 [ P k0 >k1 >::: k0 +k1 +:::=n 1 n P (k0 + k1 + : : : ) and k0 >k1 >::: k0 +k1 +:::=n n (k0 + k1 + : : :)] xn . : : : .math. GENERIC IDENTITIES FOR COMPLETE HOMOGENEOUS SYMMETRIC POLYNOMIALS 5 .P (k0 + k1 + : : : ) = np(n).html. In the domain of integers. n = 0.linkedin.

21. Vol.com/groupAnswers?viewQuestionAndAnswers=&discussion ID=5853868262944694276&gid=4510047&commentID=5857882543507922944& trk=view_disc&fromEmail=&ut=32vF0siYJIbCc1.com /doc/16010484/Identities-for-Complete-Homogeneous-Symmetric-Polynomials. 109-116. http://www. https://www. JP J Algebra. BOUTIN’S IDENTITIES ARE GENERIC Boutin’s identities are generic. See "Identities for complete homogeneous symmetric polynomials". No. 1 (2011).linkedin. 6 .Some classical identities for complete homogeneous symmetric polynomials are generic and may even hold for commutative rings with identity.scribd. terms may equal 0. Number Theory and Applications. For characteristic 6= 0.