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MULTIPLE STABLIZER Twin tail Triple tail V-tail
CONVENTIONAL TAIL A Conventional Tail is one with the stabilizer mounted directly on the fuselage and is the usual configuration of an aircraft.
ADVANTAGES Conventional tail has better stall recovery Conventional tails have advantage in terms of ―system redundancy‖ Conventional tails can more easily equipped with hydraulic, wire or mechanical systems It has no single point of failure Simplest to construct and seem to be most popular.
DISADVANTAGE The conventional tail has the "elevators" directly behind the wing so it experiences air disturbance from the wings Rear mounted engine is not possible in conventional tail A conventional tail tends to drag the stabilizer through the grass on landing, hooking tips and causing massive bending loads on the tail boom
A T-tail is an aircraft tail stabilizer configuration in which the horizontal surfaces (tailplane and elevators) are mounted to the top of the vertical stabilizer.
T tail will give better rudder authority at very high AOA and stall so as to prevent a spin T-tail allows high performance aerodynamics and excellent glide ratio The empennage is not affected by wing slipstream. At slow speeds, the elevator on a T-tail aircraft must be moved through a larger number of degrees of travel to raise the nose a given amount than on a conventional-tail aircraft.
The aircraft will tend to be much more prone to a dangerous deep stall condition. Unfavorable C.G position if empty. The control runs to the elevators are more complex, and elevator surfaces are much more difficult to casually inspect from the ground.
The cruciform tail is an aircraft empennage configuration which, when viewed from the aircraft's front or rear, looks much like a cross. The usual arrangement is to have the horizontal stabilizer intersect the vertical tail somewhere near the middle, and above the top of the fuselage.
The cruciform tail gives the benefit of clearing the aerodynamics of the tail away from the wake of the engine. Not requiring the same amount of strengthening of the vertical tail section in comparison with a T-tail design.
The V-Tail is where both the fin and stabilizer are replaced with two surfaces mounted in a Vshape approximately 45 degrees from the horizontal. The control surfaces mounted on a V-Tail control the aircraft in both pitch and yaw.
The V-tail is lighter, has less wetted surface area. V -tail produces less drag.
DISADVANTAGE Combining the pitch and yaw controls is difficult and requires a more complex control system. The V-tail arrangement places greater stress on the rear fuselage when pitching and yawing. TWIN TAIL A twin tail is a specific type of vertical stabilizer arrangement found on the empennage of some aircraft. . Two vertical stabilizers often smaller on their own than a single conventional tail would be are mounted at the outside of the aircraft's horizontal stabilizer.
TRIPLE TAIL PELIKAN TAIL The Pelikan tail is an experimental tail design for fighter jets. A twin tail can also simplify hangar requirements. the other may remain functional.ADVANTAGE If one tail is damaged. Separating the control surfaces allows for additional rudder area or vertical surface without requiring a massive single tail. Originally conceived by Ralph Pelikan .
The bigger hydraulic pumps and cylinders needed to operate the larger surfaces would add 800 to 900 pounds (360 to 410 kg) of weight to the design. might actually make the aircraft heavier. . DISADVANTAGE Using two larger control surfaces instead of four. Two tails would have a lower radar signature than four.ADVANTAGE Greater pitch control at high angles of attack.
If a tailwheel fails on landing. Two main wheels One tail dragger wheel ADVANTAGE The ability to operate the aircraft over rough terrain. . Tailwheels are less expensive to buy and maintain than a nosewheel. The two main wheels are fastened to the fuselage by struts. Because the tailwheel is castered--free to move in any direction--the plane is very difficult to control when landing or taking off. Due to its smaller size the tailwheel has less parasite drag than a nosewheel. This type of landing gear is most often seen in older general aviation airplanes. Conventional geared aircraft are much more susceptible to ground looping. it easily pitches over if brakes are applied too soon. Without a wheel at the nose of the plane. the damage to the aircraft will be minimal. Reduced landing gear weight DISADVANTAGE Requires more skill in ground taxiing Suffer from poorer forward visibility on the ground. Aircraft lack sufficient rudder authority in some flight regimes. Nose high attitude on the ground. propeller powered taildraggers are more adversely affected. TYPES OF LANDING GEAR Conventional Tricycle CONVENTIONAL LANDING GEAR Consists of two wheels forward of the aircraft's center of gravity and a third small wheel at the tail.
on either side. A steerable nosewheel or tailwheel permits the airplane to be controlled throughout all operations while on the ground. . which may be steerable.EXAMPLES OF TAILWHEEL AIRCRAFT: Cessna 170 de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver Denny Kitfox Grumman Ag Cat Maule M-5 Piper J-3 Cub Vans RV-4 TRICYCLE LANDING GEAR The landing gear on small aircraft consists of three wheels: two main wheels (one located on each side of the fuselage) and a third wheel positioned either at the front or rear of the airplane. Main gear. Airplanes with conventional landing gear are often referred to as tailwheel airplanes. Landing gear employing a rear-mounted wheel is called conventional landing gear. and the design is referred to as a tricycle gear. When the third wheel is located on the nose. Has nose wheel. it is called a nosewheel.
It tends to prevent ground looping (swerving) by providing more directional stability during ground operation since the aircraft’s center of gravity (CG) is forward of the main wheels. It permits better forward visibility for the pilot during takeoff. Longitudinal instability during movement of aircraft along an aerodrome with an elevated front support during take-off run. landing. Such oscillations are called ³shimmy. Possibility of appearance of self-energizing oscillations has freely orienting wheels of a front support. Danger of emergency or even catastrophes during damage or breaking of front support. Considerably larger volumes in a fuselage indispensable for retracting the nose strut. It is especially difficult when engine is positioned inside of a fuselage nose part. and taxiing. Smaller permeability.ADVANTAGE Keeps aircraft level during take-off and landing. DISADVANTAGE Greater summary mass of struts due to the bigger height of the nose strut hence bending moment which is forced onto it by additional load from forces of inertia.´The means for elimination of this phenomenon will result in complicating and in weight increase of a structure EXAMPLES OF NOSEWHEEL AIRCRAFT: Cessna 150 Cessna 172 Cessna 182 Piper PA-22 Tripacer . Its ease of ground handling. The forward CG keeps the airplane moving forward in a straight line rather than ground looping. The nose strut is reloaded because of inertia forces action and its foot-pressure on ground is increased also during running. It allows more forceful application of the brakes during landings at high speeds without causing the aircraft to nose over.
CLASSIFICATION OF LANDING GEAR MAIN LANDING GEAR Cushions landing impact Heavily stressed area Main Landing Gear consists of the main weight-bearing structure Auxiliary landing gear includes tail wheels. skids. . nose wheels. etc.
NON-ABSORBING LANDING GEAR Includes Rigid landing gear. Shock cord system: uses ―Bungee‖ cords Spring type uses spring steel (some Cessna’s) . No flexing other than the structure. Shock-cord landing gear. sailplanes. Spring landing gear Rigid: helicopters.
and Air-Oil Oleo Spring Oleo is history by now Air Oleos are all very similar: a needle valve restricts fluid flow Air in the oleo holds the weight of the a/c on the ground Air Oleos present in both retractable and fixed gears . dissipated into the atmosphere Two types: Spring Oleo.SHOCK-ABSORBING LANDING GEAR Dissipates landing energies by forcing fluid through a restriction This fluid generates heat.
usually bolted on to the structure Often uses fairings or wheel pants Cessna 152 Advantages: Lighter weight Less complex Least costly .FIXED GEAR Non retractable.
pneumatic Critical area of aircraft maintenance for safety reasons HULLS AND FLOATS Can be single float.RETRACTABLE GEAR Designed to eliminate drag (the greatest advantage) Can be either fully or partially retractable Direction of retraction depends on airframe model Methods of retraction: hydraulic. ―Lake‖ aircraft) Floating hulls may only require wing tip floats Skis used for snow and ice (wood. electric. or multiple Definition may include floating hulls (ex. mechanical. metal. composites) Skis may use shock cord to assist angle of ski attack Skis are mounted on the same strut as tires .
and repairable Bending and deforming limits are established. and occasionally liberal Skid protectors are available.HELICOPTER LANDING GEAR Basic skid gear is common for small & mediums Wheel gear is used on sikorsky aircraft Retractable or cushioning gear may impart ground resonance Skid tubes are replaceable. as are ―bear paws‖ snow shoes Ground handling wheels are bolt-on towing additions .
banking into the turn is much more comfortable than simply turning when at speed. Similar to a car on a race track with angled bends on the track.AIRCRAFT CONTROL SURFACES Pilots control an aircraft by moving control surfaces. these are controlled by the pilot rotating the yoke left and right. Movement of the ailerons changes the shape of the wing. . creating more curvature on one side (creating more lift) and drag on the opposite wing. The ailerons are used in conjunction with the rudder to create a co-ordinated turn. AILERONS The ailerons are on either side of the wings. The aircraft 'rolls' when the ailerons are moved.
The aircraft 'pitches' when the elevator is moved. ELEVATOR The elevator is on the tail of the aircraft. Pressing the right rudder pedal does the opposite. allowing the aircraft to climb or descent. Pressing the left pedal causes the rudder to rotate to the left causing the tail to move right.RUDDER The rudder is a control surface on the tail. Rudder movement causes the aircraft nose to move left or right. The pilot controls the rudder by pressing on rudder pedals. Pulling on the yoke moves the elevator up causing the tail to go down. The aircraft 'yaws' when the rudder is moved. and the nose of the airplane to pitch up. in turn moving the nose of the airplane ot the left. Pushing forward on the yoke pitches the aircraft down. moving the elevator causes the nose of the aircraft to go up or down. The pilot moves the elevator by pulling or pushing on the yoke. .
Less asymmetric yaw after engine failure with engines close to the fuselage. particularly in the critical take-off climb phase. or suspended on pylons below the wings.e. i. or other nacelles is crucial. If a larger diameter engine is desired in a later version of the airplane. due to eliminating wing-pylon interference.. Lower fuselage height permitting shorter landing gear and airstair lengths. on top of the fuselage. thereby reducing CLmax. This is one reason for the aft-engine arrangements.LOCATION OF AIRCRAFT ENGINE Engines may be placed in the wings. it is difficult to place engines under a wing and still maintain adequate wing nacelle and nacelle-ground clearances. they pose a threat to the basic wing structure in the event of a blade or turbine disk failure. the detailed spacing with respect to wing. They may be mounted on the aft fuselage. tail. and make accessibility for maintenance more difficult. However. or on the sides of the fuselage. on the wings. no flap cut-outs Less drag. above the wings. fuselage. Other advantages are: Greater CLmax due to elimination of wing-pylon and exhaust-flap interference. Wherever the nacelles are placed. Such installations also eliminate the flap in the region of the engine exhaust. make It very difficult to maximize inlet efficiency. the entire wing may have to be redesigned. . WING-MOUNTED ENGINES Engines buried in the wing root have minimum parasite drag and probably minimum weight. Their inboard location minimizes the yawing moment due to asymmetric thrust after engine failure. AFT FUSELAGE ENGINE PLACEMENT When aircraft become smaller.
and may cause a locked-in deep stall. Thus a greater center of gravity range is required. This requires a large tail span that puts part of the horizontal tail well outboard of the nacelles. This leads to more difficult balance problems and generally a larger tail. necessary with aftfuselage mounted engines. The result can be an excessive roll rate at the stall.well behind the center of gravity of the payload. Aft fuselage mounted engines reduce the rolling moment of inertia. At very high angles of attack. the Handley Page Victor and the Avro Vulcan Bomber (V Bomber Force) . The wheels kick up water on wet runways and special deflectors on the gear may be needed to avoid water ingestion into the engines. Vibration and noise isolation for fuselage mounted engines is a difficult problem. The wing weight advantage of wing mounted engines is lost. The success however was short-lived as the design was plagued by structural problems which ultimately changed the way airliners were constructed following a series of tragic crashes of the type. De Havilland Comet De Havilland started about this design at the introduction of its DH Comet in 1949 which earned the name as the world’s first commercial jet airliner to reach production. This can be a disadvantage if there is significant rolling moment created by asymmetric stalling. the nacelle wake blankets the T-tail.DISADVANTAGES The center of gravity of the empty airplane is moved aft . This engine configuration was reflected on other British aircraft designs such as the Vickers-Armstrongs Valiant.
ENGINE PYLONS UNDER WING .
experimental and model.2 Airborne early warning and control o 2.4 Experimental Aircraft . in general. the atmosphere of a planet. Aircraft are produced in several different types optimized for various uses.1 Military transport aircraft o 2.2 Bomber o 1. which includes not just combat types but many types of supporting aircraft. military aircraft. The two major categories of classification are Military 1 Combat aircraft o 1.1 Fighter o 1. or. and civil aircraft.4 Electronic warfare aircraft o 1.3 Attack aircraft o 1.3 Reconnaissance and surveillance aircraft o 2. which include all non-military types.6 Multirole combat aircraft 2 Non-combat aircraft o 2.5 Maritime patrol aircraft o 1. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil.Aircraft Classification Base on Purpose An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.
This may be for political or national security reasons. aircraft that do not fulfill the standard definition are called fighters. Since World War I. after the late 1960s interceptors became less important due to shifting from bombers to intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) for nuclear warfare. whose main mission is to attack ground targets. . The success or failure of a belligerent's efforts to gain air supremacy hinges on several factors including the skill of its pilots. Because of the importance of air superiority. and small size relative to other combat aircraft.Combat Aircraft Fighter A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft. A fighter's main purpose is to establish air superiority over a battlefield. and fielding a viable fighter fleet consumes a substantial proportion of the defense budgets of modern armed forces. Often. Being used since the First World War. particularly bombers and reconnaissance aircraft. and destroy them relying usually on great speed and powerful armament. Many fighters have secondary ground-attack capabilities. and some are designed as dualpurpose fighter-bombers. for advertising purposes or other reasons. as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft. since the dawn of aerial combat armed forces have constantly competed to develop technologically superior fighters and to deploy these fighters in greater numbers. the tactical soundness of its doctrine for deploying its fighters and the numbers and performance of those fighters. achieving and maintaining air superiority has been essential for victory in conventional warfare. The hallmarks of a fighter are its speed. Interceptor aircraft An interceptor aircraft (or simply interceptor) is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to prevent missions of enemy aircraft. manoeuvrability.
strategic bombers can be used for tactical missions. firing torpedoes at them. Strategic bomber A strategic bomber is a heavy bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of ordnance onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating an enemy's capacity to wage war. strike fighter. e. A-26 Invader. or more recently F-111 Aardvark. although they are usually described using more precise names: ground-attack aircraft. . factories and cities. multirole fighter subclasses).4. Unlike tactical bombers.Bomber A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground and sea targets. Tactical bomber A tactical bomber is a bomber aircraft with an intended primary role of tactical bombing— attacking tactical targets. interdictor. Russia and China (leased from Russia) maintain strategic bombers.g. This implies that either aircraft's range or ordnance is insufficient to use it effectively as a strategic bomber. Most heavy bombers are strategic. or – in recent years – by launching cruise missiles at them. Examples of aircraft that could be accurately described as tactical bombers "by design" include the: Airco DH. light or medium bomber. by dropping bombs on them. dive bomber. The United States. and F-117 Nighthawk. and fighter aircraft (most notably fighter-bomber. In addition to strategic bombing. Fairey Battle. such as enemy's troops and military equipment. strategic bombers are built to fly into an enemy's heartland to destroy strategic targets. B-26 Marauder. B-25 Mitchell. major military installations. which are used in the battle zone to attack troops and military equipment. A variety of aircraft classes performed tactical bombings through the course of history. All light bombers and most medium bombers fulfill the tactical role.
But they are also employed in other missions. The interdiction prevents or delays enemy forces and supplies from reaching the battlefront. they are often equipped with air-to-air missiles for self-defence. The strike fighter is a closely related concept. In contrast to fighter aircraft. attack aircraft are not necessarily intended for air-to-air combat. maritime reconnaissance aircraft. is a fixed-wing aircraft designed to operate for long durations over water in maritime patrol roles—in particular anti-submarine. but puts more emphasis on air-to-air combat capabilities Attack aircraft Attack aircraft are military aircraft with primary role of attacking targets on the ground or sea. However. also known as a patrol aircraft.e. with greater precision than bombers and prepared to face stronger low-level air defence. antiship and search and rescue.i. Electronic warfare aircraft An electronic warfare aircraft is a military aircraft equipped for electronic warfare (EW) . The term has generally fallen from use. with the express intent of interdicting the enemy's military targets. or by the older American term patrol bomber.Interdictor An interdictor is a type of ground-attack aircraft that operates far behind enemy lines. This class of aircraft is ideal for close air support and naval air-to-surface missions. Maritime patrol aircraft A maritime patrol aircraft (MPA). degrading the effectiveness of enemy radar and radio systems. most notably those involved in logistics. for example air interdiction or offensive counter air. .
although still used. it is distinct from fighter-bombers.Multirole combat aircraft A multirole combat aircraft is an aircraft designed to perform different roles in combat. Strike fighter In a current military parlance. a strike fighter is a multirole combat aircraft designed to operate primarily in the air-to-surface attack role while also incorporating certain performance characteristics of a fighter aircraft. Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. whereas fighter-bombers are designed as fighters and then adapted to other roles. The airto-air combat role has been normally performed by fighter aircraft. and Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II. aircraft that carry similar duties are typically called multirole combat aircraft or sometimes strike fighters. attack aircraft are developed for the attack role first and any fighter capability is entirely secondary. This term. It differs from attack aircraft primarily in its origins. Fighter-bomber A fighter-bomber is a fighter aircraft that is modified or used primarily as a light bomber in the tactical bombing and ground attack roles. So a multirole combat aircraft with air combat role and other secondary role such as air-to-surface attack is as often called a multirole fighter. Nowadays. has less significance since the introduction of rockets and guided missiles into aerial warfare. Examples of contemporary American strike fighters are the McDonnell Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle. Non Combat Aircraft . As a category.
usually outside of the commercial flight routes in uncontrolled airspace. or those constructed by engineers. tactical. operational and strategic airlifts onto unprepared runways. The system is used offensively to direct fighters to their target locations. AEW&C units are also used to carry out surveillance. and defensively in order to counter attacks by enemy forces. Used at a high altitude. the United States Navy operates AEW&C aircraft off its Supercarriers to augment and protect its carrier Command Information Centers (CICs) . plus a highly mobile and powerful radar platform. military transport aircraft were used for delivering airborne forces during the Second World War and towing military gliders. and are to the NATO and USA forces trained or integrated Air Forces what the Command Information Center is to a Navy Warship. weapons and other military equipment by a variety of methods to any area of military operations around the surface of the planet. Some military transport aircraft are tasked to perform multi-role duties such as aerial refuelling and. Originally derived from bombers. So useful is the advantage of command and control from a high altitude. including over ground targets and frequently perform C2BM (command and control. battle management) functions similar to an Airport Traffic Controller given military command over other forces. the radars on the aircraft allow the operators to distinguish between friendly and hostile aircraft hundreds of miles away. ships and vehicles at long ranges and control and command the battle space in an air engagement by directing fighter and attack aircraft strikes.Military transport aircraft Military transport aircraft or military cargo aircraft are typically fixed and rotary wing cargo aircraft which are used to deliver troops. both air and ground. AEW&C aircraft are used for both defensive and offensive air operations. Airborne early warning and control An airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) system is an airborne radar system designed to detect aircraft.
though the label is broader. It may be a modified civilian aircraft. or only limited defensive armament.g. A surveillance aircraft does not necessarily require high-performance capability or stealth characteristics. many of which are based on conventional designs and hence are experimental only in name. this implies that new aerospace technologies are being tested on the aircraft. rather than for traffic monitoring. Surveillance aircraft usually carry no armament. This role is increasingly being filled by satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). observation (e.g.S. law enforcement and similar activities. They are equipped with cameras and other sensors. border patrol and fishery protection. TARS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Surveillance aircraft have also included moored balloons (e. battlefield surveillance. These aircraft may be specially designed or may be modified from a basic fighter or bomber type. Experimental Aircraft An experimental aircraft is an aircraft that has not yet been fully proven in flight. this includes most homebuilt aircraft. The term "experimental aircraft" is also sometimes used to refer to aircraft flown with an "Experimental" category airworthiness certificate. artillery spotting). airspace surveillance.Reconnaissance aircraft Reconnaissance aircraft are primarily used to gather intelligence. This article concentrates on aircraft used in those roles. In the U. Surveillance aircraft A surveillance aircraft is an aircraft used for surveillance—collecting information over time. Often. . They are operated by military forces and other government agencies in roles such as intelligence gathering.
. helicopters. both private and commercial. The aircraft may be modified to withstand the flight conditions imposed by training flights. Civil and Commercial Civil aviation Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying. Military and civilian units can perform air-sea rescue.Air-sea rescue Air-sea rescue (ASR or A/SR. submarines. Specialized equipment and techniques have been developed. Most of the countries in the world are members of the International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO) and work together to establish common standards and recommended practices for civil aviation through that agency. Trainer (aircraft) A trainer is a class of aircraft designed specifically to facilitate in-flight training of pilots and aircrews. navigation and/or war fighting skills without the danger of overextending their abilities alone in a fully featured aircraft. also known as sea-air rescue ) is the coordinated search and rescue (SAR) of the survivors of emergency water landings as well as people who have survived the loss of their sea-going vessel. with two or more seats to allow for student and instructor. Civilian pilots are normally trained in a light aircraft. The use of a dedicated trainer aircraft with additional safety features—such as tandem flight controls. forgiving flight characteristics and a simplified cockpit arrangement—allows pilots-in-training to safely advance their real-time piloting. ASR can involve a wide variety of resources including seaplanes. rescue boats and ships. representing all non-military aviation.
the pilot.) without receiving any kind of remuneration." General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to corporate jet flights. It refers to "all civil aviation operations other than scheduled air services and non-scheduled air transport operations for remuneration or hire. business meetings. GA is larger in the number of flights (and flight hours. . though less than all the airlines combined. and Private aviation includes pilots flying for their own purposes (recreation.S. and General aviation (GA). GA carries 166 million passengers each year. in the U. particularly scheduled service on airlines. Some countries also make a regulatory distinction based on whether aircraft are flown for hire like: Commercial aviation includes most or all flying done for hire. General aviation General aviation (GA) is one of the two categories of civil aviation. aircraft. and most of the world's airports serve general aviation exclusively.. including all passenger and cargo flights operating on regularly scheduled routes. and operator must all be authorized to perform commercial operations through separate commercial licensing. more than any individual airline. etc. All scheduled air transport is commercial. including all other civil flights. Normally.S. but general aviation can be either commercial or private. registration. and operation certificates.) In the U. private or commercial Although scheduled air transport is the larger operation in terms of passenger numbers.Civil aviation includes two major categories: Scheduled air transport. The majority of the world's air traffic falls into this category.
flight training. scheduled flights operate from around 560 airports in the U. Homebuilt aircraft. general aviation provides more than one percent of the United States' GDP.000 in Canada). for example for military purposes. Sports gliders benefit from creating the least drag for any given amount of lift. though their differences from sailplanes are covered below. accounting for 1. homebuilt. known as motor gliders are also used for gliding and soaring. gliding.300 airports available for public use by pilots of general aviation aircraft (around 5. General aviation involves a wide range of aircraft types such as business jets (bizjets).. light-sport aircraft and very light jets have emerged in recent years as new trends in general aviation. but have engines which can be used for extending a flight and. including private flying. skydiving and many others. to name a few. air ambulance. do not soar. warbirds. Glider aircraft that are used for purposes other than recreation.General aviation is particularly popular in North America. They have rigid wings and an undercarriage. racers. Glider (sailplane) A glider or sailplane is a type of glider aircraft used in the sport of gliding. air charter. police aviation. for some types. Some gliders.3 million jobs in professional services and manufacturing. In comparison.S. firefighters and medical transports. bush flying. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. Aircraft such as hang gliders and paragliders are foot-launched and so are described in separate articles. The vast majority of aircraft today are general aviation types. aerial firefighting. and over 1. General aviation covers a large range of activities. According to the U. Homebuilt aircraft . and this is best achieved with long. trainers. thin wings and a fully faired narrow cockpit. gliders. with over 6. aerobatic types. for takeoff.200 airports in the U. both commercial and non-commercial.S. Aircraft with these features are able to climb efficiently in rising air and can glide long distances at high speed with a minimum loss of height in between.S.
or 650 kilograms (1. 600 kilograms (1. These aircraft may be constructed from "scratch. These and related operations are called aeromedical. Air ambulance An air ambulance is a specially outfitted aircraft that transports injured or sick people in an medical emergency or over distances or terrain impractical for a conventional ground ambulance.Also known as amateur-built aircraft or kit planes. is a small aircraft that is simple to fly and which meets certain regulations set by a National aviation authority restricting weight and performance. A medically staffed and equipped air ambulance provides medical care in flight—while a nonmedically equipped and staffed aircraft simply transports patients without care in flight." from plans.400 lb) for aircraft intended for operation on water. Military . Common equipment for air ambulances includes medications. Like ground ambulances. CPR equipment. homebuilt aircraft are constructed by persons for whom this is not a professional activity. or from assembly kits. It must have a maximum stall speed of 45 knots (83 km/h. fixed undercarriage (except for amphibious aircraft which may have repositionable gear. in Australia the Civil Aviation Safety Authority defines a lightsport aircraft as a heavier-than-air or lighter-than-air craft. a maximum speed in level flight with maximum continuous power (Vh)—138 mph (120 knots) CAS. the same aircraft may be used to search for missing or wanted people. with a maximum gross takeoff weight of not more than 560 kilograms (1. and a single non-turbine engine driving a propeller if it is a powered aircraft. Light-sport aircraft A light-sport aircraft. 52 mph) in landing configuration. an unpressurized cabin. In some circumstances. and gliders which may have retractable gear). also known as light sport aircraft or LSA. For example.200 lb) for lighter-than-air craft. a maximum of two seats. other than a helicopter.300 lb) for heavier-than-air craft not intended for operation on water. ECGs and monitoring units. and stretchers. air ambulances are equipped with medical equipment vital to monitoring and treating injured or ill patients. ventilators.
VIP transport or business jet tend to be used by the firms that build. nonrigid-wing aircraft or lighter-than-air aircraft in police operations. ground support. search and rescue.organizations and NATO refer to the former as Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) and to the latter as Casualty Evacuation (CASEVAC). fixed-wing aircraft are sometimes used to transport personnel and equipment. and some are used by public bodies. Police services commonly use aircraft for traffic control. In some major cities. air patrol and control of large-scale public order incidents. private jet. but the opposite is not true: many general aviation flights (such as banner towing. high-speed car pursuits. government officials or the armed forces. is a term describing a jet aircraft. sell. crop dusting. Business jets may be adapted for other roles. designed for transporting groups of up to 19 individuals. observation. such as the evacuation of casualties or express parcel deliveries. sparsely populated areas. and others) . In large. private flights are always general aviation flights. or bizjet. police rotary-wing aircraft are also used as air transportation for personnel belonging to SWAT-style units. buy and charter these aircraft. Business jet Business jet. charter. Police aviation Police aviation is the use of rotary-wing aircraft. Private aviation Private aviation is the part of civil aviation that does not include flying for hire. The more formal terms of corporate jet. executive jet. In most countries. fixed-wing aircraft. usually of smaller size.
aircraft owners are allowed to perform basic maintenance tasks (such as oil or tire changes) on their own aircraft. The majority of active pilots hold a Private Pilot license. In private flight the pilot is not paid. In many countries. and all aircraft operating expenses are generally paid by the pilot. For example. by historic arms of military forces.are commercial in that the pilot is hired and paid. if a commercially licensed pilot flies a registered plane to visit a friend or attend a business meeting. than are required for Commercial pilots who are paid for operating an aircraft. if aircraft operating expenses total $120 for a flight with pilot and three passengers. For example. a private pilot could legally fly a multi-engine complex aircraft carrying numerous passengers for non-commercial purposes (no compensation paid to the pilot. or to share the joys and convenience of general aviation with friends and family. In some countries such as the United States. not the aircraft or pilot. most countries would consider this to be a private flight. each of the three passengers could pay not more than $30 (one fourth) of the expenses with the remainder paid by the pilot. in Canada and the United States. private aviation operates to less strict standards than commercial aviation. aircraft operating expenses for a flight may optionally be divided with any passengers up to a pro rata amount. For example. but only licensed mechanics may perform those tasks on aircraft used for commercial operations. which determines whether the flight is private. Warbird Warbird is any vintage military aircraft now operated by civilian organisations and individuals or. and a pro rata or larger portion of the aircraft operating expenses paid by the pilot). in some instances. such as the Battle of Britain Memorial . Private pilots normally are not required to demonstrate the same level of proficiency on their flight tests and take fewer and less rigorous medical examinations. It is the purpose of the flight. Conversely. Many private pilots fly for their own enjoyment.
or cargo jet) is a fixed-wing aircraft designed or converted for the carriage of goods. not the type of aircraft or pilot that determines whether the flight is commercial. a two-seat Cessna 150 towing a banner for money would be a commercial flight. a commercial pilot may have to demonstrate more maneuvers to a higher standard. For example. a flight instructor is normally allowed to fly for money in a private aircraft owned by the student — but the above requirements hold for most flights where money changes hands. rather than passengers. They are usually devoid of passenger amenities. while a large jet flown by its owners for a private vacation would not be. Typically. A commercially registered plane may require more frequent or more extensive maintenance. In most countries. a commercial certificate or registration requires higher standards than a private one. and may need to pass more frequent medical examinations. freighter. even if the pilots were commercially certificated and the jet were commercially registered. a flight may be operated for money only if it meets three criteria: the pilot must hold a valid commercial pilot's certificate the aircraft must hold a valid commercial registration the operator must hold a certificate or some other authorization for commercial operations There are some exceptions — for example. Commercial aviation Commercial aviation is the part of civil aviation (both general aviation and scheduled airline service) that involves operating aircraft for hire to transport passengers or cargo. For example. Cargo Aircraft A cargo aircraft (also known as freight aircraft.Flight. and generally feature one or more large doors for the loading and . It is the purpose of the flight. the RAAF Museum Historic Flight and the South African Air Force Museum Historic Flight. airlifter.
Freighters may be operated by civil passenger or cargo airlines. Types of Fuselage Types of Fuselage on the base of External Structure . by private individuals or by the armed forces of individual countries.unloading of cargo. The fuselage must be strong and streamlined since it must withstand the forces that are created in flight. which means "to streamline‖. depending on the type of the aircraft. However most air freight is carried in special ULD containers in the cargo holds of passenger aircraft. Fuselage The word fuselage is based on the French word fuseler. Fuselage is the main structure of the aircraft. which holds both human and cargo.
you exert a type of stress which is called tension. When you grasp a football at both ends and push. The landing gear struts of an aircraft are also subject to compression. 1: Subsonic 2: High-speed / supersonic 3: High-capacity subsonic 4: High-maneuverability supersonic 5: Flying boat 6: Hypersonic Types of Fuselage on the base of force-resisting structure Tension Tension is the stress which tends to pull things apart. (see figure 1-2a) fig 1 .2a tension stress Compression Compression is the opposite of tension. . It is the stress which tends to push materials together. When you try to break a length of rope. the ball is subject to compression.
some materials will break before they bend and often are unacceptable for aircraft construction. carry only shear. You put a bending stress on a bar when you grasp it with both hands and push the ends together or when you bend a paper clip. while the upper side is subjected to compression. The wing spars (interior structural members) are subjected to bending while the aircraft is in flight.2 c bending stress Shear Shear stress is caused by forces tending to slip or slide one part of a material in respect to another part. as a rule. (see figure 1-2c) fig 1 . bolted together. Obviously. This type of stress is also exerted when two pieces of metal. Bolts. but sometimes they carry both shear and tension. This is the stress that is placed on a piece of wood clamped in a vice and you Chip away at it with a hammer and chisel. are pulled apart by sliding one over the other or when you sharpen a pencil with a knife.2d shear stress . The rivets in an aircraft are intended to carry only shear.Bending This type of stress combines tension and compression. The lower side of the spar is subjected to tension. (see figure 1-2d) 1 .
Multi fuselage Multi fuselage contains more than two payload areas or more fuselages in an airplane.2e torsional stress Types of Fuselage on the base of numbers Single Fuselage Single fuselage contains only one payload area or contains only one fuselage in airplane.Torsion Torsion is the stress which tends to distort by twisting. All the members (or major portions) of an aircraft are subjected to one or more of these stresses. (see figure 1-2e) Fig 1 . for example. Some members can carry only one type of stress. The aircraft engine exerts a torsional force on the crankshaft or turbine axis. Sometimes a member has alternate stresses. Twin Fuselage Twin fuselage contains two payload areas or contains two fuselages in an airplane. such as compression one instant and tension the next. normally carry only tension. an . Wire and cables. You produce a torsional force when you tighten a nut on a bolt.
Fuselage construction Truss structure .
All members of the truss can carry both tension and compression loads steel tubing welded together or aluminum alloy riveted or bolted into one piece with cross –bracing achieved by solid rods or tubes . The truss framed fuselage covered with fabric. The truss type fuselage may be sub classified as Pratt Truss type The primary strength members are the four longerons were connected with rigid vertical and lateral members were made of strong steel wire and were designed to carry tension only. Geodesic Construction . Warren Truss type In this construction.A truss is a rigid framework made up of members such as beams. the longerons are connected with only diagonal members normally al members in the truss are capable of carrying both tension and compression. compression loads are carried every other member and the alternate members carry the tension loads the space between the two bulkheads is bays. When load acting in one direction. struts and bars to resist deformation by applied loads.
A similar construction using aluminum alloy was used in the Vickers Warwick with fewer materials than would be required for other structural types. instead of plywood.Geodesic airframe fuselage structure is exposed by battle damage Geodesic structural elements were used by Barnes Wallis for British Vickers between the wars and into World War II to form the whole of the fuselage. A simple form of this used in some amateur-built aircraft uses rigid expanded foam plastic as the core. In this type of construction multiple flat strip stringers are wound about the formers in opposite spiral directions. and rigid and had the advantage of being made almost entirely of wood. A later form of this structure uses fiberglass cloth impregnated with polyester or epoxy resin. including its aerodynamic shape. where the layers of plywood are formed over a "plug" or within a mold. forming a basket-like appearance. The logical evolution of this is the creation of fuselages using molded plywood. This proved to be light. strong. as the skin. The geodesic structure is also redundant and so can survive localized damage without catastrophic failure. in which multiple sheets are laid with the grain in differing directions to give the monocoque type below. A typical early form of this (see the Lockheed Vega) was built using molded plywood. A fabric covering over the structure completed the aerodynamic shell (see the Vickers Wellington for an example of a large warplane which uses this process). the exterior surface of the fuselage is also the primary structure. with a . Monocoque shell In this method.
and interior equipment such as seats and luggage bins. Semi-monocoque Sectioned fuselage showing frames. These frames are then joined with lightweight longitudinal elements called stringers. No plywood-skin fuselage is truly monocoque. An example of a larger molded plywood aircraft is the de Havilland Mosquito fighter/light bomber of World War II. The use of molded composites for fuselage structures is being extended to large passenger aircraft such as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner (using pressure-molding on female molds). but requiring more effort in finishing (see the Rutan VariEze). attached by riveting or by bonding with special adhesives. since stiffening elements are incorporated into the structure to carry concentrated loads that would otherwise buckle the thin skin. a series of frames in the shape of the fuselage cross sections are held in position on a rigid fixture. The fixture is then disassembled and removed from the completed fuselage shell. stringers and skin all made out of aluminium This is the preferred method of constructing an all-aluminum fuselage. eliminating the necessity of fabricating molds. which is then fitted out with wiring.fiberglass covering. The use of molded fiberglass using negative ("female") molds (which give a nearly finished product) is prevalent in the series production of many modern sailplanes. controls. These are in turn covered with a skin of sheet aluminum. Most modern . First.
which eventually led to all-metal aircraft with metal covering all surfaces. where a large number of identical aircraft are to be produced. and from discrete masses such as the engine) is taken by the surface covering. all the load from internal pressurization is carried (as skin tension) by the external skin. it makes possible higher pressurization levels and larger windows for passenger comfort as well as lower weight to reduce operating costs. this form is suitable for series production. Both monocoque and semi-monocoque are referred to as "stressed skin" structures as all or a portion of the external load (i. not requiring a complete fixture for alignment. and elasticity of the components available for construction and whether or not a design is intended to be "self jigging". Materials Early aircraft were constructed of wood frames covered in fabric. . On the 787. Some modern aircraft are constructed with composite materials for major control surfaces. from wings and empennage. or the entire fuselage such as the Boeing 787. The proportioning of loads between the components is a design choice dictated largely by the dimensions. As monoplanes became popular. As the accuracy of the final product is determined largely by the costly fixture.e. wings. Early examples of this type include the Douglas Aircraft DC-2 and DC-3 civil aircraft and the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress. but use several large sections constructed in this fashion which are then joined with fasteners to form the complete fuselage. metal frames improved the strength.large aircraft are built using this technique. Most metal light aircraft are constructed using this process. In addition. strength.
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