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NETWORKING

INDEX 1.NETWORKING 2.PROTOCOLS 3.TOPOLOGY 4.CABLES 5.NETWORKING DEVICES 6.COLOUR CODING 7.OSI- LAYERS 8.TCP/ IP 9.VLSM 10.ROUTER INPUT OUTPUT DEVICES 11.ROUTER MODES 12.BASIC IOS COMMANDS 13.ROUTING PROTOCOL TREE 14.STATIC AND DEFAULT ROUTING 15.DYNAMIC ROUTING PROTOCOLS 15.1) DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCOLS [RIP,IGRP] 15.2)LINK STATE ROUTING PROTOCOLS [OSPF,ISIS] 15.3) HYBRID ROUTING PROTOCOLS [BGP,EIGRP] 16.REDISTRIBUTION ROUTING PROTOCOLS 16.1)DISTANCE VECTOR TO ADVANCED DISTANCE VECTOR 16.2)DISTANCE VECTOR TO LINK STATE RP 16.3)ADVANCED DISTANCE TO DISTANCE VECTOR 16.4)ADVANCED DISTANCE TO LINK STATE 16.5)LINK STATE TO DISTANCE VECTOR
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16.6)LINK STATE TO ADVANCED DISTANCE VECTOR 17.HOW TO CONFIG MULTIPLE AS NOS IN EIGRP 18.HOW TO CONFIG MULTIPLE AREAS IN OSPF 19.STATIC V-LANS 20.DYNAMIC HOST CONTROL PROTOCOL (DHCP) 21.V- LAN TRUNKING PROTOCOL (VTP) 22.NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATIONS (NAT) 23.SERVERS 24.ACCESS CONTROL LISTS (ACL) 25.FRAME-RELAY 26.POINT TO POINT PROTOCOL (PPP) 27.HOW TO BREAK A PASSWORD OF A ROUTER 28.HOW TO CONFIGURE THE TELNET PASSWORD

WEBSITES: for interview questions. Router reallay.com Fri3.com username/demouser Tcpiguru.com/ccna-interviewquestions-withanswers/

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1.NETWORKING: Def: Two or more systems are connected together for transfering the data and share the data and resources Examples: Hard disk , Scanner, Printer,USB, Server Advantages: Reduce the wastage of cost Reducing wastage of time Easy communication Network performance is very high

2.PROTOCOLS: Set of rules and instructions or regulations for a particular service is called as protocol Types of protocols: 1. 2. 3. 4. Tcp/ip :transfer control protocol and internet protocol Ipx and spx :internet private exchange Apple tac Port : physical and logical connection of a point is called port

3.TOPOLOGY: Perfect structure of a network Types: 1. 2. 3. 4. Bus Ring Star Mesh

Bustopology: all systems are connected in one way direction. Ringtopology: all pcs are arranged in circular way. Startopology: all systems are connected within centralized device is called hub. Meshtopology: all the systems are connected each other. GATEWAY: Entry and exit point of a network is called gateway. TCP/IP: It is an end to end point connectivity to send the information from source to destination through wan or lan.
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IP Address: It is Numerical Identification of a host. Subnet mask : It is used to identify the how many number of hosts portions, and how many network portions in LAN or WAN. 4.CABLES: There is a 3 types of cables for the communication . 1. STP and UTP: shielded twisted pair and unshielded twisted pair. 2. Coaxial cable 3. Fiber optics 1.STP : it is a thin net quantity , it supports 10 mbps speed of transferring the data 10/t STP cable supports max distance 10 to 50 mtrs 2.UTP : it is a thick net quantity , it supports 100 mbps speed of transferring the data in a lan It supports max distance 100 to 500 mtrs. In UTP cables there is a 3 types of categories 1,cat 5 10 mbps 2.cat 5+ -- 10 /100 mbps 3.cat 6 100/1000 mbps Coaxial cables: this type of cables is used for access the streaming of data, this co-axial cables max supports the distance based upon area. Fiber optic: flexibility. By using this cable provide dedicated (constant) Band width speed, this fiber optic cable used for distance of kilometers 5.NETWORKING DEVICES: 1. 2. 3. 4. HUB SWITCH ROUTER MODEM

1.Hub: hub is a broad cast device , its working on Layer 1(physical layer) Hub doesnt maintain any informations. Hub sending the informations without any request to all the systems in a network. Hub is also called as collision domain. Its maintain CSMA/CD. In hub each port called as collision domain because all ports having single root for sending and receiving.
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2.Switch: switch is uncast device It works on layer 2(data link layer) ,switch maintains MAC table (media access control ),in switch data transferring based upon source MAC ID ,DESTINATION MAC ID ,switch is also called as multicasting broadcast devices In switch,data transferring in the form of frames ,internal switch function as a unicast external is a broadcast 3.Router: router is multicasting the device working on layer 3(network layer ) It is using to communicate two or more different types of networks, router maintaingsourceipandport,destinationip and port. Router is also called as a inter networking device because,its maintaining operating system In router forwarding the packet form one network to another network.router is also providing the best path to reach the destination. in router data transferring in the form of packets. 4.Modem:- it is a modular device, its working on layer 1 modem converting signals analog to digital .digital to analog vice versa In modem data transferring in the form of bits 5.Repeatets:- amplification boxes is also called as repeaters In repeaters receiving weak signal converting into strong signals. Its working on layer 1(physical layer) 6.COLOUR CODING: Default colur codes in UTP cables are 4 pairs, 8 wires. 1.White orange 2.Orange 3.White green 4.green 5.white blue 6.blue 7.white brown 8..brown Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4

STRAIGHT CABLE COLOUR CODE: It is used for to communicate different type of networking devices . Ex; switch system, system hub, laptop switch, switch router.

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SWITCH White Orange Orange White Green Blue White Blue Green White Brown Brown PC White Orange Orange Whiten Green Blue White Blue Green White Brown Brown

Note: In straight cable both side should be the different devices with same colourcode . CROSS CABLE COLOUR CODE: It is used for to communicate same type of network devices, in cross cable both side should be the same devices with different colour code . Ex: switch switch, router router, lap lap. SWITCH White Orange Orange White Green Blue White Blue Green White Brown Brown 7.NETWORK LAYERS OSI LAYERS DOD:DEPARTMENT OF DEFFENCE (FIRST INTRODUCED) ISO IN 1984 APPLICATION LAYER PRESENTATION LAYER SESSION LAYER TRANSPORT LAYER NETWORK LAYER DATA LINK LAYER
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SWITCH White green Green White orange Blue White blue Orange White brown Brown

IT RECIEVES THE DATA FROM THE USER CODING,ENCRIPTION,COMPRESS ITS MAINTAINS SOME SESSIONS,TERMINATING,ESTABLISH THE SESSIONS. SEGMENTATION,MULTI/DEMULTIPLEXING, FLOW CONTROL,ERROR CHECKING IT RECIEVES THE SEGMENTS CONVERT INTO PACKETS IT RECIEVS THE PACKETS CONVERTING INTO FRAMES AND AND

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PHYSICAL LAYER IT RECEIVES THE CONVERTING INTO BITS FRAMES AND

ICMP-(port -1) Internet control message protocol,request ,reply,errors. Segment:-dividing into small units Route:- from source to destination between the path is called route NETWORK LAYERS OSI LAYERS :operating system interface ,open system interconnected there are around seven layers each layer having different working function because,fo the data moving in a network like, segment,packets,frames ,bits 1. APPLICATION LAYER :application in the sense gather or collection multiple information from the user or customer in the mean of application layer receive the data from the user what the user can access (.doc..exl,.pdf,.bat,smpt,http,telnet,pop3,)some services Application layer is also called user interface layer /destoplayer/upper layer/software layer. Application layer also identifies some services 1.total port no.(1-65,535) 2.reserved port no.( 1-1023) predefined 3.open port no(1024-65535) Some services:http-80 -hyper text transfer protocol smtp-25 simple mail transfer protocol pop3-110 post office protocol telnet-23 ssh-22 secure shell ftp-21 file transfer protocol https-443

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port-numbers.

Port Number

Description

Applicable Protocol

0 1 5 7 20 21 22 23 25 53 67 68 69 80 101 107 109 110 115 118 123 135 143 161 162 166 179 213 220 389 401 500 513 513 515 520 546 547 647 666 989 990 992 1023

Reserved TCP and UDP TCP port service multiplexer TCP and UDP Remote job entry TCP and UDP Echo TCP and UDP FTP data TCP FTP control TCP SSH TCP and UDP Telnet TCP and UDP SMTP TCP and UDP DNS TCP and UDP BOOTP/DHCP server TCP and UDP BOOTP/DHCP - client TCP and UDP TFTP TCP and UDP HTTP TCP and UDP NIC host name server TCP and UDP Remote Telnet service TCP and UDP POP2 TCP and UDP POP3 TCP and UDP SFTP TCP and UDP SQL TCP and UDP NTP TCP and UDP DCE endpoint TCP and UDP IMAP TCP and UDP SNMP TCP and UDP SNMP trap TCP and UDP Sirius TCP and UDP BGP TCP and UDP IPX TCP and UDP IMAPv3 TCP and UDP LDAP TCP and UDP UPS TCP and UDP ISAKMP UDP Login TCP Who UDP Lpd TCP RIP UDP DHCPv6 client TCP and UDP DHCPv6 server TCP and UDP DHCP failover TCP Doom (video game) UDP FTP data over TLS/SSL TCP and UDP FTP control over TLS/SSL TCP and UDP Telnet over TLS/SSL TCP and UDP Reserved TCP and UDP
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2.PRESENTATION LAYER: It is responsible for receives the data from the application layer, then its converting into the system language,secure language/standard language In this layer maintains 3 modules. 1.CODING: In this module converting the data into system understanding purpose (binary code0,1) Ex: .doc-010101

2.ENCRIPTION: it is nothing but hiding mode or unreadable format. In this module data will be putting some secure language or standard language. Ex: .doc xxxxx ,gmail: user name and password .

3.COMPRESS: By using compress reduce the data size , because of the data moving very fast in a network. In this mode collecting the total information. Then its converting into compress mode .i.e. zip file. 3.SESSION LAYER: It is responsible for the receiving the data from presentation layer , and deviding into some sessions . it is also responsible for maintaing the sessionsm terminating the sessions and establish the sessions, then after deviding into sessions. Its assigning numerical identifications to some particular sessions . Ex: .doc-1/1, .exl -1/2 , .pdf-1/3 , .smtp-1/4 , .http-1/5, .pop3-1/6 4.TRANSPORT LAYER: It is responsible for receives the data from session layer and its deviding into some segments. It is end to end point connectivity to sending/receiving the data. It is maintaing some tasks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identifieng the services Segmentation Multiplexing/demultipelxing Folw control Error checking (segment missing)

1.IDENTIFIENG SOME SERVICES: TCP 1.Tranmission control protocol 2.It is collection oriented (physical /wired) 3.It is acknowledgement service
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UDP 1.User/Universal datagram protocol 2.It is collection less (logical /wireless) 3.No acknowledgement ,only request
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4.It is reliable 5.Its performance is slow , because it waits for acknowledgement from the source. 6.Entire TCP service should be carrying with port no 6 7.Ex: ftp, smtp,http,telnet,ssh 4. It is unreliable 5.Compare to TCP UDP is faster 6.Entire UDP services should be carrying with the port no 17 7.Ex\:DHCP ,DNS,TFTP

2.SEGMENTATION:Deviding into some units is called segmentation. Transport layer working based upon to identifying the port nos . By using port nos its differentiate which service having acknowledgment , which service having unacknowledgment. 3.MULTIPLEXING/DEMULTIPLEXING: Multiplexing is nothing but many to one , its gathering same type of services in a single way, demultiplexing is nothing but, deviding into same services from the single way. 4.FLOW CONTROL: By using this to reduce the wasted of bandwidth, reduce the wasted of data size. By using flow control we can utilize the data into some different task. 5.ERROR CHECKING: This task is responsible for maintaing the checking function(inspection). In between the data process, slash communications , its identifying any segment missing, or error checking between the process, and its is also responsible for sequence and reassembling .. again its recollect the data ans sends to the next layer. 5.NETWORK LAYER : Network layer is responsible for receive the segments from the transport layer and its converting into packets In this its mantaing the two protocols 1.Routing protocol 2.Routed protocol Route: From the source interface to destination interface between path is called route. 1.Routing protocols(wan) : Exchange the information between the two routers or two networks. With the support of some protocols. Ex: RIP,IGRP,EIGRP,OSPF,BGP 2.Routed protocols(lan): Exchange the information between the end devices Ex: TCP/IP, IPX, APPLE TALK

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Its also providing best path to reach the destination based upon source ip , port no. below devices are working in the layer. Ex: router L3 device, L3-switch. 6.DATALINK LAYER: It is responsible for receives the packets and its converting into the frames .Its maintaing two sublayers. 1.MAC- media access control 2.LLC- logical link control MAC (LAN): It is a physical ip address of a system. Its having 48 bits . in that 24 user id ,24- vender id. It is uniq id. LLC (WAN): It tells about informations of wan encapsulation protocol it means receiving the specific information from specific protocol. Types of wan encapsulations 1.HDLC-HIGH LEVEL DATA LINK CONNECTION 2.PPP POINT TO POINT PROTOCOL 3.FRAME-RELAY ITS PACKET SWITCHING TECHNOLOGY BASED UPON ISP Below devices are working in the layer Switch/bridge/nic (network interface card)/Additional lan card 7.PHYSICAL LAYER: It is receving the frames from the datalink layer and its converting into bits .nothing but system language/power language /binary language/mechanical language. Ex: HUBS, CABLES, REPEATERS,MODEMS

OSI LAYERS 1.APPLICATION LAYER 2.PRENTATION LAYER 3.SESSION LAYER 4.TRANSPORT LAYER 5.NETWORK LAYER
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TCP/IP LAYERS SOFTWARE LAYER LAYER IOS LAYER INTER NET LAYER

/APPLICATION

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6.DATALINK LAYER 7.PHYSICAL LAYER HARDWARE LAYER

8.TCP/IP: Transmission control protocol and internet protocol. In TCP/IP there is 3 ways of identifications. 1. Physical (mac) 2. Logical (ip) 3. Hostname (wipro) It is end to end point connectivity to send the data from the source to destination in a lan or wan through ip address (inter net protocols ). TCP/IP is also called as a logical ip address of a system. Its having 32 bit address. In TCP/IP there is two versions IP V4(32 bit) and IP V6(128 bit). In TCP/IP there is a 5 classes. Class A (1-126) Class B (128-191) Class C (192-223) Class D (224-239) multicasting Class E(240-254) research and development Total TCP/IP range 0-256 0-host (1-254) valid ips 255.255.255.255 broad cast ip it is for using sending the data to entire group or particular network at a time . 256- network id . SUBNETMASK: By using subnet mask it can identify that ip add belongs to which class . By using subnet mask we can identify how many host portions how many network protions in a lan. Class A 255.0.0.0 Class B 255.255.0.0 /8-netwrks, 24-hosts /16-networks, 16-hosts IP V4 using for LAN and WAN 32 bit IP V6 128 bit

Class C 255.255.255.0 /24-networks, 8-host PRIVATE AND PUBLIC IPS: CLASSES Class A(1-126) Class B(128-191)
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PRIVATE IP 10.*.*.* 172.16.*.*

PUBLIC IP Remaining ips are public Remaining ips are public


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Class C(192-223) 172.31.*.* 192.168.*.* Remaining ips are public

9.VLSM: Variable length for sub net mask. Def: Deviding one logical ip to no of segments is called VLSM. Advantages: By using VLSM reduce the wastage of ip address And reduce the wastage of band width CIDR: Class less inter domain routing . It is nothing but class less ipranges . CIDR table see below Class A /8- 255.0.0.0 /9- 255.128.0.0 /10- 255.192.0.0 /11- 255.224.0.0 /12- 255.240.0.0 /13- 255.248.0.0 /14- 255.252.0.0 /15- 255.254.0.0 Class B /16- 255.255.0.0 /17- 255.255.128.0 /18- 255.255.192.0 /19- 255.255.224.0 /20- 255.255.240.0 /21- 255.255.248.0 /22- 255.255.252.0 /23- 255.255.254.0 Class C /24- 255.255.255.0 /25- 255.255.255.128 /26- 255.255.255.192 /27- 255.255.255.224 /28- 255.255.255.240 /29- 255.255.255.248 /30- 255.255.255.252 /31- 255.255.255.254

10.ROUTER INPUT OUT PUT DEVICES:

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WAN PORTS(INTERNET) LAN PORTS(NETWORK) Fast ehernet 1.Serial 0/0 1.fa 0/0 2.Serial 0/1 2.fa 0/1 3.Serial 0/2 3.fa 1/1 4.Serial 0/3 4.fa 1/0 Internal components of a Router : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Mother board RAM and NVRAM Processor- Motorola Bios- basic input out put system CMOS complimentary metal oxide semiconductor ROM/flash Boot sequence ADMINISTRATOR PORTS 1.console ports(configuring) 2.auxilary port(remote access)

Router classifications: 1. Access layer router 2. Distributed layer router 3. Core layer router 1)Access Layer: This type of routers is used for to communicate two or more networks in within organization. Ex of series: 800,900,1000,1100,1200,1400,1500,1600,1700,1800,1900,2100,2500 2)Distributed layer router : this type of router is used for communicate from head offices to branch offices. With the support of isp. Ex: 2600, 2800,2900, 3200, 3400,3600,3700,4800,4500,6400,6600. 3)Core layer routers: This type of router is used for between WAN . it is also called as back bone of a router . Ex: 7200, 7600, 8000,9000, 10000, 11000,12000. Types of a routers: 1)Modular routers : modifications can possible ( adding interfaces. Create inter face) Ex: distributed router core layers 2)Demodular routers: Modifications is not possible its a constant. Ex: access layer routers

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Some Router Venders : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. CISCO MULTICOM DAX NORTEL DILIC JUNIPER

Router path in a system: Start/program/accessories/communications/hyperterminal Or Go to run command and type hyperterm In LINUX type minicalm s

11.ROUTER MODES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Router > : previlised mode Router # : enable mode Router(config)# :configure mode Router(config-if)# : interface mode Router(config-subif)# : sub interface mode Router(config-router)# : router mode Router(config-line)# : line mode Router(config-console)# : console mode

12.BASIC IOS COMMANDS:Internetworking operating system. It is a operating system which maintains by the vender of cisco for using communicate between the two cisco devices .by using ios to configure interfaces informations in a router . DCE information and Routing protocols informations. 1.How to assign name to a router? Router>en Router#configure t Router(config)#hostname chary Chary(config)# 2.How to assign interface in lan to a router?

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Router(config)#interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown 3.How to remove fa0/0? Router(config)#interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)#no ip add 4.How to assign serial interface to in wan? Router(config)#interface s0/0 Router(config-if)#ip add 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc Router(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Router(config-if)#no shutdown 5.How to create sub interface fa0/0.1? Router(config)#interface fa0/0.1 Router(config-subif)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-subif)#no shutdown 6.How to assign password to a router? Router(config)#enable password cisco Router(config)#enable secret cisco 7.How to remove password? Router(config)#no enable password Router(config)#noenable secret 8.How to take the back of router ios image (internal)? Router#copy running-config startup-config 9.How to restore the ios image internal? Router#copy startup-config running-config 10.How to take back up of external ios image?
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Router#copy running-config TFTP: ip address 11.How to restore the external ios image? Router#copy TFTP: ip address running-config 12.How to assign telnet password to a router? Router(config)#line vty 0 6 Router(config-line)#password google 13.How to remove the telnet password to a router? Router(config)#line vty 0 6 Router(config-line)#no password 14.How to see the current configuration of a router ? Router# sh running-config 15.How to see the interface informations in a router? Router# ship interface brief Router(config)# do shipint brief

16.How to see the routing protocols info? Router# show ip protocols 17.How to see the individual interface informations? Router# show ip int fa0/0 Or Router# show int s0/0 18.How to see the total information in router? Router# show tech-support 19.How to see the version of ios? Router# show version 20.How to see the operating system of a router? Router# show flash
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13.ROUTING PROTOCOL TREE:

14.STATIC AND DEFAULT ROUTING Static: administrator manually sets the or configure the routes informations to a router . Rules of static routing : 1. Both side serial interface (wan) should be in same network. 2. Both side fast eathernet (lan) should be in different network . 3. Without DCE,DTE communication could not be established . Requirements of static routing: Source information should be know the destination information. And destination information should be know source information. Syntax of static route: Router(config)# ip route destination LAN subnetmask destination WAN Ex: router(config)#ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.1.2 AD: Administrative distance It is a value of router and ranking of routing protocol. It is a trust worthynius concept.

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DCE DTE 1.data communicating equipment 1.data terminal equipment 2.it is a ISP end of the point 2.it is the customer end of the point . 3.its generate the clock rate 3.its accept the clock rate 4.its treated as a primary master 4.its treated as a primary slave. 5.ex: leased lines in DCE v.35 cables , x.703 5.leased lines in DTE are ROUTER modem Ex: broad band in DCE modem Ex:broad band in DTE system ENCAPSULATION PROTOCOLS: HDLC PPP 1.High Level Data Link Connection 1.Point to Point Protocol 2.It is cisco proprietary protocol 2.PPP is open standard protocol 3.It supports only when both side are same 3.It supports both side should be in different vender vender 4.It does not support encryption 4.It supports encryption 5.It does not support authentication 5.It supports authentication About static: Static AD value is 1 In static routing both side only trusted networks or known routes can entering in a lan. It reduce the wastage of bandwidth . Its having security .static routing working based upon the exit points. It is realiability and dedicated. Its performance is fast. DEFAULT ROUTING: Def : administrator no need to configure the routes information to a router . default routing AD value is 255 its utilizing more band width its providing less security. In default routing both side trusted and untrusted networks are entering into my lan As well as by this reason default routing its utilizing more band width and is also not providing sufficient security. It is also working based upon the exit points.

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Steps for router 1 Router>enable Router#config t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up Router(config-if)#int s0/0 Router(config-if)#ip add 1.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc Router(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Router(config-if)#no shutdown
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For static route: Router(config)#ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.1.2 For default route: Router(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 1.1.1.2 Steps for router 2: Router>en Router#config Configuring from terminal, memory, or network [terminal]? Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip add 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown

Router(config-if)#int s0/0 Router(config-if)#ip add 1.1.1.2 255.0.0.0 Router(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc Router(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Router(config-if)#no shut For Static route: Router(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 1.1.1.1 For default route: Router(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 1.1.1.1

15.DYNAMIC ROUTING PROTOCOLS 15.1) Distance vector routing protocols ( RIP , IGRP): Dynamic means recognizing the routes information by it self. Distance vector routing protocol is working depends on distance / direction (metric values)
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RIP: Routing Information Protocol. It is a distance vector routing protocol RIP is class full range protocol AD value is 120 In RIP every 30 sec it will getting updates from the nighbour (broad cast). It supports 16 routes / 15 hop counts Entire RIP working based on Belmonfordalgorithm. In RIP there is two versions. Version 1 and Version 2.

VERSION 1 1.Distance vector routing protocol

VERSION 2 1.distance and advanced distance routing protocol 2.Every 30 sec will getting updates (broad 2.updates are getting (multicasting)224.0.0.9 cast) 255.255.255.255 3.classfull routing protocol 3.it is class less 4.it does not support for VLSM 4. it supports for VLSM 5.it supports max. small organizations 5.it supports max. small and big organizations. 6.eg:- RIP,IGRP 6. eg:- EIGRP,OSPF RIP TIMERS:1. Updated timer(30 sec.) 2. Invalid timer (180 sec.) 3. Hold timer (180 sec.) 4. Flush timer (temporarily removing )(240 sec.) Disadvantages of RIP:1. More bandwidth utilizing because every 30 sec. will getting updates (broad cast). 2. It supports only small organizations. 3. Formatting the routing loops. Temporarily removing the updates. IGRP: Interior gate way routing protocol It is a distance vector routing protocol Ad value -100 Every 60 sec it will get updated from neighbor It is also class full routing protocol IGRP supports 100 routers Doesnt support for VLSM

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First we enter the interface informations like as above. Steps For Routing information protocol RIP: for Router 1 Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#network 192.168.1.1 Router(config-router)#network 1.1.1.1 Router(config-router)#ex Router(config)# To show the route in router 1 : Router(config-router)#do ship route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route
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Gateway of last resort is not set C R C 1.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 192.168.2.0/24 [120/1] via 1.1.1.2, 00:00:59, Serial0/0 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

Steps For Routing information protocol RIP: for Router 2 Router(config)# router rip Router(config-router)#network 192.168.2.1 Router(config-router)#network 1.1.1.2 Router(config-router)#ex Router(config)# To show the route in router 2 : Router(config-router)#do ship route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set C R C 1.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 192.168.1.0/24 [120/1] via 1.1.1.1, 00:00:59, Serial0/0 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

For see the routing protocol info : router 1 and router 2 Router(config-router)#DO SH IP PRO
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Routing Protocol is "rip" Sending updates every 30 seconds, next due in 13 seconds Invalid after 180 seconds, hold down 180, flushed after 240 Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set Redistributing: rip Default version control: send version 1, receive any version Interface FastEthernet0/0 Serial0/0 1 Send Recv Triggered RIP Key-chain 1 21 21

Automatic network summarization is in effect Maximum path: 4 Routing for Networks: 1.0.0.0 192.168.2.0/ 192.168.1.0 Passive Interface(s): Routing Information Sources: Gateway Distance Last Update

Distance: (default is 120)

15.2)ADVANCED DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCOL (EIGRP,BGP): EIGRP: Enhanced interior gate way routing protocol It is advanced version of distance vector routing protocol It is cisco proprietary routing protocol It works only on cisco devices It is class less routing protocol (supports two) In EIGRP every 90sec will getting multicast (224.0.0.9) It support max default 100 routers upto 255 routers
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Entire EIGRP working based upon dual algorithm diffusion updated algorithm Ad value Internal AD value -90 External AD value -170 Eigrp topology working based upon ASno AS:-autonomous system

AS:Definition:-collection of multiple network information from the single administration Total as number:-1 t0 65,535 EIGRP working function maintain the metric values metric:-bandwidth+load+reliablity+delay+maximum transmission unit

Eigrp maintains 4 maximum equallpaths .it supports some protocols. TCP/IP , IPX. APPLE TAC. It is very fast convergence (exchange). How to configure the single AS no s in EIGRP:

First we have to configure the interface information to two routers

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Configure in router 1: Router(config)#router eigrp 10 Router(config-router)#network 192.168.1.1 Router(config-router)#network 9.1.1.1 Router(config)#do ship pro Routing Protocol is "eigrp 10 " Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set Default networks flagged in outgoing updates Default networks accepted from incoming updates EIGRP metric weight K1=1, K2=0, K3=1, K4=0, K5=0 EIGRP maximum hopcount 100 EIGRP maximum metric variance 1 Redistributing: eigrp 10 Automatic network summarization is in effect Automatic address summarization: Maximum path: 4 Routing for Networks: 192.168.1.0 9.0.0.0 Routing Information Sources: Gateway Distance Last Update Distance: internal 90 external 170 To show the path: Router(config)#do ship route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set C 9.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 D 192.168.2.0/24 [90/2172416] via 9.1.1.2, 00:02:51, Serial0/0 Configure in router 2:
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Router(config)#router eigrp 10 Router(config-router)#network 192.168.2.1 Router(config-router)#network 9.1.1.2 Router(config-router)# Router(config)#do ship pro Routing Protocol is "eigrp 10 " Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set Default networks flagged in outgoing updates Default networks accepted from incoming updates EIGRP metric weight K1=1, K2=0, K3=1, K4=0, K5=0 EIGRP maximum hopcount 100 EIGRP maximum metric variance 1 Redistributing: eigrp 10 Automatic network summarization is in effect Automatic address summarization: Maximum path: 4 Routing for Networks: 192.168.2.0 9.0.0.0 Routing Information Sources: Gateway Distance Last Update 9.1.1.1 90 1105138 Distance: internal 90 external 170 To show the path in router 2: Router(config)#do ship route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set C 9.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/2172416] via 9.1.1.1, 00:04:27, Serial0/0 C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

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15.3) LINK STATE ROUTING PROTOCOL:OSPF,ISIS OSPF-Open Shortest Path First It is link state routing protocol and open standard routing protocol. (no venders) OSPF is a class less routing protocol . It supports VLSM In OSPF hello packets are sent every 10 sec. In OSPF its getting updates sent by the way of multicasting ip add (224.0.0.5) OSPF working depends upon DIKJSTRA or SPF(shortest path first)algorithm. It supports protocols TCP/IP ,APPLE TALK, IPX. In OSPF AD value is 110. It supports unlimited hop counts .or routers In OSPF its working based on area and PID value . PID range (1-65535) Process ID. It maintains network ID information of individual routers in a topology. It is a fast convergence. In ospfhirachical design with multiple area. In ospf area 0 is called back bone area. In OSPF supports for communication by using wild card mask . Wild card mask is a inverse sub net mask. Campare to EIGRP it s work in any router/any vender. Its working depends on cast value.

OSPF maintains 3 types of tables 1. OSPF nighbour table 2. OSPF database table 3. OSPF interface table 1)OSPF nighbour table: this table is maintains nighbour information. 2)OSPF database table: Its maintaining total network informations . 3)OSPF interface table: It maintains individual routers interface informations.

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How to configure a router 1 in OSPF:

First we have to configure the interface informations. Then next step Router(config)#router ospf 10 Router(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 Router(config-router)#network 192.168.1.1 0.0.0.255 area 1 Router(config-router)#network 9.1.1.1 0.255.255.255 area 1 Router(config-router)#do ship pro Routing Protocol is "ospf 10" Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set Router ID 192.168.1.1 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa Maximum path: 4
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Routing for Networks: 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 1 9.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 1 Routing Information Sources: Gateway 192.168.1.1 Distance 110 Last Update 00:00:07

Distance: (default is 110) Router(config-router)#do ship route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set C C O 9.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 192.168.2.0/24 [110/65] via 9.1.1.2, 00:01:32, Serial0/0

Configure in router 2: Router(config)#router ospf 20(PID ) Router(config-router)#network 192.168.2.1 0.0.0.255 area 1 Router(config-router)#network 9.1.1.2 0.255.255.255 area 1 Router(config-router)#do ship pro Routing Protocol is "ospf 20" Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set
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Router ID 192.168.2.1 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa Maximum path: 4 Routing for Networks: 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 1 9.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 1 Routing Information Sources: Gateway 192.168.2.1 Distance 110 Last Update 00:00:07

Distance: (default is 110) Router(config-router)#do ship route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set C 9.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 O 192.168.1.0/24 [110/65] via 9.1.1.1, 00:03:20, Serial0/0 C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

16.REDISTRIBUTING (RD) ROUTING PROTOCOLS: Two communicate two different types of routing protocol is called Redistribution .other wise receiving network information or routing information from particulars protocol to send to different protocol is called redistribution. By using redistribution we can communi9cate two or more different protocols. Ex: 1. Distance to advanced distance vector routing protocol 2. Distance to link state routing protocol 3. Advanced distance to link state routing protocol
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4. Link state to advanced distance routing protocol 5. Link state to distance vector routing protocol 6. Advanced to distance vector routing protocol 16.1) distance to advanced distance: RIPEIGRP:

First we configure the interfaces in router 1 and router 2.and RD Then next step STEP 1: R1(config)#router rip R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.1 R1(config-router)#network 9.1.1.1 R2(config)#router eigrp 10 R2(config-router)#network 192.168.2.1 R2(config-router)#network 11.1.1.2

STEP 2: configuration in Redistributing router RD


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RD(config)#int s0/0 RD(config-if)#ip add 9.1.1.2 255.0.0.0 RD(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc RD(config-if)#clock rate 64000 RD(config-if)#no shutdown RD(config)#int s0/1 RD(config-if)#ip add 11.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 RD(config-if)#en RD(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc RD(config-if)#clock rate 64000 RD(config-if)#no shutdown STEP 3: RD(config)#router rip RD(config-router)#network 9.1.1.2 RD(config-router)#ex RD(config)#router eigrp 10 RD(config-router)#network 11.1.1.1 %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP 10: Neighbor 11.1.1.2 (Serial0/1) is up: new adjacency STEP 4: RD(config)#router rip RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 10 metric 10 RD(config-router)#ex RD(config)#router eigrp 10 RD(config-router)#redistribute rip metric 10 10 10 10 10 -(metric values )

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16.2)distance vector to link state routing protocol: RIP OSPF :

First we have to give the interface information to all routers. Then go to step 1. STEP 1: R1(config)#router rip R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.1 R1(config-router)#network 9.1.1.1 R2(config)#router ospf 111 R2(config-router)#network 192.168.2.1 0.0.0.255 area 1 R2(config-router)#network 11.1.1.2 0.255.255.255 area 1 STEP 2: configuration in Redistributing router RD RD(config)#int s0/0 RD(config-if)#ip add 9.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
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RD(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc RD(config-if)#clock rate 64000 RD(config-if)#no shutdown RD(config)#int s0/1 RD(config-if)#ip add 11.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 RD(config-if)#en RD(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc RD(config-if)#clock rate 64000 RD(config-if)#no shutdown STEP 3: RD(config)#router rip RD(config-router)#network 9.1.1.2 RD(config-router)#ex RD(config)#router ospf 111 RD(config-router)#network 11.1.1.1 0.255.255.255 area 1 STEP 4: RD(config)#router rip RD(config-router)#redistribute ospf 111 metric 10 RD(config-router)#ex RD(config)#router ospf 111 RD(config-router)#redistribute rip subnets

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16.3)Link State to distance vector routing protocol: OSPF RIP:

First we have to give the interface information to all routers. Then go to step 1. STEP 1: R1(config)#router ospf 122 R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.1 0.0.0.255 area 1 R1(config-router)#network 9.1.1.1 0.255.255.255 area 1 R2(config)#router rip R2(config-router)#network 192.168.2.1 R2(config-router)#network 11.1.1.2

STEP 2: configuration in Redistributing router RD RD(config)#int s0/0 RD(config-if)#ip add 9.1.1.2 255.0.0.0
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RD(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc RD(config-if)#clock rate 64000 RD(config-if)#no shutdown RD(config)#int s0/1 RD(config-if)#ip add 11.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 RD(config-if)#en RD(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc RD(config-if)#clock rate 64000 RD(config-if)#no shutdown STEP 3: RD(config)#router ospf 122 RD(config-router)#network 9.1.1.2 0.255.255.255 area 1 RD(config)#router rip RD(config-router)#network 11.1.1.1 RD(config-router)#ex STEP 4: RD(config)#router ospf 122 RD(config-router)#redistribute rip subnets RD(config)#router rip RD(config-router)#redistribute ospf 122 metric 10

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16.4)Link state to advance distance vector routing protocol: OSPF-EIGRP: First we have to give the interface information to all routers. Then go to step 1.

STEP 1: R1(config)#router ospf 133 R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.1 0.0.0.255 area 1 R1(config-router)#network 9.1.1.1 0.255.255.255 area 1 R2(config)#router eigrp 100 R2(config-router)#network 192.168.2.1 R2(config-router)#network 11.1.1.2 STEP 2: configuration in Redistributing router RD RD(config)#int s0/0 RD(config-if)#ip add 9.1.1.2 255.0.0.0 RD(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc
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RD(config-if)#clock rate 64000 RD(config-if)#no shutdown RD(config)#int s0/1 RD(config-if)#ip add 11.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 RD(config-if)#en RD(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc RD(config-if)#clock rate 64000 RD(config-if)#no shutdown STEP 3: RD(config)#router ospf 133 RD(config-router)#network 9.1.1.2 0.255.255.255 area 1 RD(config-router)#ex RD(config)#router eigrp 100 RD(config-router)#network 11.1.1.1 STEP 4: RD(config)#router ospf 133 RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 100subnets RD(config)#router eigrp 100 RD(config-router)#redistribute ospf 133 metric 10 10 10 10 10

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16.5)Advanced distance to link state routing protocol: EIGRP OSPF: First we have to give the interface information to all routers. Then go to step 1.

STEP 1: R1(config)#router eigrp 100 R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.1 R1(config-router)#network 9.1.1.1 R2(config)#router ospf 133 R2(config-router)#network 192.168.2.1 0.0.0.255 area 1 R2(config-router)#network 11.1.1.2 0.255.255.255 area 1 STEP 2: configuration in Redistributing router RD RD(config)#int s0/0 RD(config-if)#ip add 9.1.1.2 255.0.0.0 RD(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc
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RD(config-if)#clock rate 64000 RD(config-if)#no shutdown RD(config)#int s0/1 RD(config-if)#ip add 11.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 RD(config-if)#en RD(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc RD(config-if)#clock rate 64000 RD(config-if)#no shutdown STEP 3: RD(config)#router eigrp 100 RD(config-router)#network 9.1.1.2 RD(config-router)#ex RD(config)#router ospf 133 RD(config-router)#network 11.1.1.1 0.255.255.255 area 1 STEP 4: RD(config)#router eigrp 100 RD(config-router)#redistribute ospf 133 metric 10 10 10 10 10 RD(config)#router ospf 133 RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 100subnets

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16.6)Advanced distance to distance vector routing protocol: EIGRP RIP:

First we have to give the interface information to all routers. STEP 1: R1(config)#router eigrp 100 R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.1 R1(config-router)#network 9.1.1.1 R2(config)#router rip R2(config-router)#network 192.168.2.1 R2(config-router)#network 11.1.1.2 STEP 2: It is same as above. STEP 3: RD(config)#router eigrp 100 RD(config-router)#network 9.1.1.2
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RD(config-router)#ex RD(config)#router rip RD(config-router)#network 11.1.1.1 STEP 4: RD(config)#router eigrp 100 RD(config-router)#redistribute rip metric 10 10 10 10 10 RD(config)#router rip RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 100metric 10 17.HOW TO CONFIGURE THE MULTIPLE ASNO IN EIGRP:

First we have to Give the interface informations to all routers STEP 1:

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R1(config)#router eigrp 100 R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.1 R1(config-router)#network 1.1.1.1 R2(config)#router eigrp 111 R2(config-router)#network 192.168.2.1 R2(config-router)#network 2.1.1.1 R3(config)#router eigrp 122 R3(config-router)#network 192.168.3.1 R3(config-router)#network 3.1.1.1 R4(config)#router eigrp 133 R4(config-router)#network 192.168.3.1 R4(config-router)#network 3.1.1.1 STEP 2: RD(config)#router eigrp 100 RD(config-router)#network 1.1.1.2 RD(config-router)#ex RD(config)#router eigrp 111 RD(config-router)#network 2.1.1.2 RD(config-router)#ex RD(config)#router eigrp 122 RD(config-router)#network 3.1.1.2 RD(config-router)#ex RD(config)#router eigrp 133 RD(config-router)#network 4.1.1.2 RD(config-router)#ex STEP 3: RD(config)#router eigrp 100
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RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 111 metric 10 10 10 10 10 RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 122 metric 10 10 10 10 10 RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 133 metric 10 10 10 10 10 RD(config)#router eigrp 111 RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 100 metric 10 10 10 10 10 RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 122 metric 10 10 10 10 10 RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 133 metric 10 10 10 10 10 RD(config)#router eigrp122 RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 100 metric 10 10 10 10 10 RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 111 metric 10 10 10 10 10 RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 133 metric 10 10 10 10 10 RD(config)#router eigrp133 RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 100 metric 10 10 10 10 10 RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 111 metric 10 10 10 10 10 RD(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 122 metric 10 10 10 10 10

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18.HOW TO CONFIG MULTIPLE AREAS IN OSPF :

First we have to give the inter face information in all routers .then go to step 1 STEP 1: R1(config)#router ospf 111 R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.1 0.0.0.255 area 1 R2(config-router)#network 1.1.1.1 0.255.255.255 area 1 R2(config)#router ospf 122 R2(config-router)#network 192.168.2.1 0.0.0.255 area 1 R2(config-router)#network 2.1.1.1 0.255.255.255 area 1 R3(config)#router ospf 133 R3(config-router)#network 192.168.3.1 0.0.0.255 area 1
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R3(config-router)#network 3.1.1.1 0.255.255.255 area 1 R4(config)#router ospf 144 R4(config-router)#network 192.168.4.1 0.0.0.255 area 1 R4(config-router)#network 4.1.1.1 0.255.255.255 area 1 STEP 2: here A0 is 5th router in area 0 it is back bone of a router . A0(config)#router ospf 155 A0(config-router)#network 1.1.1.2 0.255.255.255 area 1 A0(config-router)#network 2.1.1.2 0.255.255.255 area 2 A0(config-router)#network 3.1.1.2 0.255.255.255 area 3 A0(config-router)#network 4.1.1.2 0.255.255.255 area 4 A0(config-router)#network 192.168.100.1 0.0.0.255 area 5 19.STATIC V-LANS: ( port based v-lan/sticky-configure v-lan/inter v-lans):

In switch there are 24 ports .in that 23 &24 (G/0 , G/1) are trunk ports. It is IEE802.1Q concept. In switch we can create ( 1- 1005) v-lans. Every cisco switch can act like as server because of revision value.

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How to create vlans in a switch: Switch(config)#vlan 10 Switch(config-vlan)#name accounts Switch(config-vlan)#ex Switch(config)#vlan 20 Switch(config-vlan)#name productions Switch(config-vlan)#vlan 30 Switch(config-vlan)#name java How to assign range in vlans in switch: Switch(config)#int range fa0/1-2 Switch(config-if-range)#switchport mode access Switch(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 10 Switch(config-if-range)#ex Switch(config)#int range fa0/3-4 Switch(config-if-range)#switchport mode access Switch(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 20 Switch(config-if-range)#ex Switch(config)#int range fa0/5-6 Switch(config-if-range)#switchport mode access Switch(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 30 Switch(config-if-range)#ex Switch(config)#ex How to configure the trunk ports : Switch(config)#interface fa0/23 Switch(config-if)#switchport mode trunk Switch(config-if)#no shut Switch(config)#interface fa0/24
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Switch(config-if)#switchport mode trunk Switch(config-if)#no shut How to see the trunk ports in v-lans : Switch#show int trunk How to see the vlans info in switch: Switch#show vlan brief VLAN Name Status Ports

---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------------1 default active Fa0/7, Fa0/8, Fa0/9, Fa0/10 Fa0/11, Fa0/12, Fa0/13, Fa0/14 Fa0/15, Fa0/16, Fa0/17, Fa0/18 Fa0/19, Fa0/20, Fa0/21, Fa0/22 Fa0/23, Fa0/24, Gig1/1, Gig1/2 10 accounts 20 productions 30 java 1002 fddi-default 1003 token-ring-default 1004 fddinet-default 1005 trnet-default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2 active Fa0/3, Fa0/4 active Fa0/5, Fa0/6 active active active active

How to configure the router in v-lans: Router(config)# int fa 0/0 Router(config-if)# no ip address Router(config-if)# no shut down Router(config)# int fa 0/0.1 Router(config-subif)# encapsulation dot1Q 10 Router(config-subif)# ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
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Router(config-subif)# no shutdown

Note: dot1Q is LAN encatsulation protocol it is using for identify the v-lan tag or ID

Router(config)# int fa 0/0.2 Router(config-subif)# encapsulation dot1Q 20 Router(config-subif)# ip add 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-subif)# no shutdown Router(config)# int fa 0/0.3 Router(config-subif)# encapsulation dot1Q 30 Router(config-subif)# ip add 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-subif)# no shutdown 20. DYNAMIC HOST CONTROL PROTOCOL: To providing ip address to all the systems in automatically is called DHCP. Its having port no 67, client 68. It is working based on BOOT P protocol The relation between server and client is called DORA DORA- Discovery Offer Request Acknowledgement. By using DHCP reduce the wastage of time.

In DHCP two types of ranges are there 1)Excluded range (192.168.1.0 to 1.9) This range is predefined for important machines (management level PCs),routers , switches, firewall, servers,printers. 2)Reserved range (192.168.1.10 to 1.255) This range is mention future expenture of networks (only users). Syntax: Router(config)# ip dhcp excluded-address 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.9
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How to configure the DHCP in a router: Router(config)# ip dhcp pool <name> Router (dhcp-config)# network 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 Router (dhcp-config)#default-router 192.168.1.1 Router (dhcp-config)# option 150 ip 192.168.1.1 (150 is numerical identification of dhcp) Router (dhcp-config)#dns-server 9.1.1.1 How to remove pool l name; Router(config)# no ip dhcp pool <name> How to see the pool names and dhcp configuration: Router# show running-config And Router# show ipdhcp binding

21. VTP ( V-LAN TRUNKING PROTOCOL): Trunk : to share the v-lans information from switch to router or switch to switch. VTP is v-lantrunking protocol To control the all switches from one switch is called VTP vtp has 3 modes . server mode , transparent mode , client mode . all switches should be in server mode it s a purly IEEE 802.1Q trunk concept ( to carry the v-lans information from switch to router /switch to switch) by using VTP to control revision value because of in cisco switches by default all switches should be in sever mode (revision value =0) In VTP its working based upon trunking between devices In VTP there are 3 types of modes 1)VTP SERVER ,2)VTP TRANSPARENT, 3)VTP CLIENT.

1)VTP SERVER: in VTP server advertise the vlans information from sever to clients by using trunks . VTP server switch treated as a primary master in a LAN. In VTP server possible for create v-lans, delete v-lans, modified v-lans.
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In VTP server switch having some v-lans information its a permanent data base (permanent /start up /NV ram) Its receives the request from the transparent /client and sends to v-lans information by using trunks . 2)VTP TRANSPARENT: It does not participating in VTP modes . because it doesnt maintain any information from server . In vtp transparent we can not create up to 4096 v-lans(extended v-lans) VTP transparent is a mediator between the server and client . It receiving the request from client and sends to server and again receiving reply from server to client . 3)VTP CLIENT: It is same like as a server It is also maintaining v-lans information (temporary/running config) In this is not possible create v-lans ,deletevlans, modify v-lans. VTP client switch is also maintaining v-lan information while switch is in ON.

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How to assign vtp in switch: First we configure vlans in server switch. Then configure the router for v-lans. (same like as above v-lans concept) next First select switch 1(server switch): Switch1(config)#vtp mode server Switch1(config)#vtp domain wipro Switch1(config)#vtp password cisco

Switch 2(transparent switch): Switch2(config)#vtp mode transparent Switch2(config)#vtp domain wipro Switch2(config)#vtp password cisco Switch 3 & 4(client switches): Switch3(config)#vtp mode client Switch3(config)#vtp domain wipro Switch3(config)#vtp password cisco How to see the VTP status:

Switch# show vtp status


22)NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSALATIONS (NAT): There is 3 types of NAT . 1)Static NAT 2)Dynamic NAT 3)PAT (port address transalations) Note : without dynamic NAT we cant configure the PAT.

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1)STATIC NAT: Its converting the one private IP into one public IP. Syntax for static NAT: Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#int s0/0 Router(config)#ip nat outside

Router(config)# ip nat inside source static (insidelocal IP) ( inside global IP)
Router(config)# ip nat inside source static 192.168.1.1 1.1.1.100 2)DYNAMIC NAT: One private IP is converting into no.of public IPs within the pool range. Syntax for dynamic NAT: Router(config)#int fa0/0

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Router(config-if)#ip nat inside Router(config-if)#int s0/0 Router(config)#ip nat outside

Router(config)# ip nat pool <name><pool range>netmask<sub net mask> Router(config)# ip nat inside source list 10 pool <name> Router(config)# access-list 10 permit <inside LAN><wild card mask> Router(config)# ipnat

Router(config)# ip nat pool chary 1.1.1.1 1.1.1.9 netmask 255.0.0.0 Router(config)# ip nat inside source list 10 pool chary Router(config)#access-list 10 permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 3)PAT: port address translations No of private IPs converting into one public IP is called PAT. Ex: internet Syntax for PAT: Router(config)# ip nat inside source list 10 interface s0/0 over load

23.SERVERS: DHCP SERVER: Dynamic host control protocol. Assigning IP address to all systems in a network automatically or dynamically. Working based on port no 67, client 68. Relation between server and client is DORA. DHCP working based on BOOT P protocol. DHCP server sending IP address to client. DNS SERVER: Domain name server. It resolving IP address to host name and host name to IP address.
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DNS server working based on port no 53. In this servers two types of zones 1)forward look up zone (name ip) 2)reverse look-up zone (ip name) It is also providing multiple domain names . MAIL SERVER: It is exchanging the servers . send mail . It has 5 protocols . 1)smtp- 25: simple mail transfer protocol( its out going mail) 2)pop3-110: post office protocol version 3 ( it is a incoming mail from outside ) 3)imap4- incoming mail access protocol version 4. By using this imap 4 we get multiple mails from out side. 4)nntp-169: network new transfer protocol . It is a sending online news . 5)www/http- 80: hyper text transfer protocol Before we create a mail server first we create FQDN fully qualified domain name. Ex: http:\\www.wipro.com FTP-21: file transfer protocol. It is using to send or transfer the file between intranet and internet 20- for download 21- for upload. ACTIVE DIRECTORY: Centralized srorage data base which is create user name information, groups information , pass word information , tcp/ip information , system information. By using active directory assigh the users .

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24.ACCESS CONTROL LIST: To control the flow f traffic or keep on process from inside to out side or from outside to inside . In ACL two types of ACL 1)STANDARD ACL i)named ACL ii)numbered ACL 2)EXTENDED ACL ACL rules: If we want to config in router first we should give deny statement. In acl must and should one permit statement Once we assigned ACL in a router is not possible to rename or modify only delete . It is also called as packet filtering fire wall By default all services enabled from out side Then we assign deny state ment Total ACL range lies between 1 to 199.

STANDARD ACL: Standard ACL lies between 1 to 99. In standard ACL all services blocked from both side. Allow - accept the traffic Deny block the traffic In standard ACL is not possible to block specific services . EXTENDED ACL: It lies between 100 to 199. In extended ACL we can stop specific services from both side. Smtp, ftp, telnet, http, pop3, etc By using extended ACL can also block networks /hosts. Example of some network to hosts. 1. Host to host blocking 2. Host to network blocking
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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Network to host blocking Network to network blocking ftp blocking http blocking smtp blocking pop 3 blocking how to restrict telnet.

STANDARD ACL:(1-99) How to assign basic security for L2 &L3 devices in standard ACL: Syntax for standar ACL: Router(config)# access-list 10 deny host 192.168.2.11 Router(config)#access-list 10 deny host192.168.3.12 Router(config)#access-list 10 permit any
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Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 10 out Router(config-if)#ip access-group 10 out EXTENDED ACL: 1)Host to host blocking:
Note : in extended ACL if we want to block particular host or system with the support of wild card mask. To block the particular system we use 0.0.0.0 To block the entire network we use 0.0.0.255

Syntax for host to host blocking:

host

host

Router(config)#access-list 101 deny ip 192.168.1.11 0.0.0.0 192.168.3.10 0.0.0.0 Router(config)#access-list 101 permit ip any any Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 101 in

2)Host to network blocking: Syntax:


host network

Router(config)#access-list 101deny ip 192.168.1.11 0.0.0.0192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255 Router(config)#access-list 101 permit ip any any Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 101 in 3)Network to host:
network host

Router(config)#access-list 111 deny ip 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 192.168.2.10 0.0.0.0 Router(config)#access-list 111 permit ip any any Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 111 in 4)network to network:
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Router(config)#access-list 111 deny ip 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255 Router(config)#access-list 111 permit ip any any Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 111 in 5)ftpblocking:
ftp server

Router(config)#access-list 111 deny tcp 192.168.1.6 0.0.0.0 eq ftp 192.168.2.10 0.0.0.0 Router(config)#access-list 111 permit ip any any Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 111 in 6)http blocking:
Web server

Router(config)#access-list 111 deny tcp 192.168.1.5 0.0.0.0 eq http 192.168.2.10 0.0.0.0 Router(config)#access-list 111 permit ip any any Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 111 in 7)smtpblocking;
Mail server

Router(config)#access-list 111 deny tcp 192.168.1.7 0.0.0.0 eq smtp 192.168.2.10 0.0.0.0 Router(config)#access-list 111 permit ip any any Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 111 in 8)pop3blocking: Router(config)#access-list 111 deny tcp 192.168.1.7 0.0.0.0 eq pop3 192.168.2.10 0.0.0.0 Router(config)#access-list 111 permit ip any any Router(config)#int fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group 111 in

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25.FRAME-RELAY: Def: to share the between the peers (nighbours). Frame relay is purely packet switching technology .its working depends on Layer2. And its working based on the DLCI value . DLCI : Data Link Connection Identifier. It has unique value This DLCI value provided by the ISP . By using frame-relay reduce the wasted of bandwidth. (mis use, disconnections) To share the bandwidth equally between the peers or between the same domain routers. In frame-relay ther are two types of connection. 1)PVC: Permanent virtual circuit. 2)SVC: Static virtual circuit. 1)PVC : PVC is a permanent virtual connection between the peers,(365 days established, ) We need to pay the total amount of 364 days to ISP person ( utilize or not utilized). 2)SVC: Temporary connection between peers in svc connection no need to pay the money ISP person (365 days) When we are utilizing svc then only we can pay money to ISP. In frame relay two types protocols. i).IETF Internet Engineering Task Force ii).Frame-relay lmi local management interface type cisco. There is 4 types of connection in frame-relay 1. 2. 3. 4. Frame-relay mapping Frame-relay point to point method Frame-relay point to multipoint Non broad cast multi access

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How to configure the frame-relay mapping:

Virtual single connection between the peers is called frame relay mapping. Basic configure in routers: Router1(config)#int fa0/0 Router1(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 Router1(config-if)#no shutdown Router1(config-if)#int s0/0 Router1(config-if)#ip add 9.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 Router1(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay Router1(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 9.1.1.2 101 broadcast Router1(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 9.1.1.3 102 broadcast Router1(config-if)#bandwidth 64
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Router1(config-if)#no shutdown

Router2(config)#int fa0/0 Router2(config-if)#ip add 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 Router2(config-if)#no shutdown Router2(config-if)#int s0/0 Router2(config-if)#ip add 9.1.1.2 255.0.0.0 Router2(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay Router2(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 9.1.1.1 201 broadcast Router2(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 9.1.1.3 202 broadcast Router2(config-if)#bandwidth 64 Router2(config-if)#no shutdown

Router3(config)#int fa0/0 Router3(config-if)#ip add 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0 Router3(config-if)#no shutdown Router3(config-if)#int s0/0 Router3(config-if)#ip add 9.1.1.3 255.0.0.0 Router3(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay Router3(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 9.1.1.1 301 broadcast Router3(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 9.1.1.2 302 broadcast Router3(config-if)#bandwidth 64 Router3(config-if)#no shutdown

Verification commands: Router# show frame-relay map Router# show frame-relay pvc
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How to configure point to point to method in frame-relay:

Configure steps in routers: Router1(config)#int fa0/0 Router1(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 Router1(config-if)#no shutdown

Router1(config)# int s0/0 Router1(config-if)# no ip address Router1(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay ietf Router1(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type cisco Router1(config-if)#exit Router1(config)# int s0/0.1 point-to-point Router1(config-subif)# ip add 9.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 Router1(config-subif)#no shutdown Router1(config)# int s0/0.2 point-to-point
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Router1(config-subif)# ip add 11.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 Router1(config-subif)#no shutdown

Router1(config)#int s0/0.1 Router1(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci 101 Router1(config-subif)#bandwidth 64 Router1(config-subif)#no shutdown Router1(config)#int s0/0.2 Router1(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci 102 Router1(config-subif)#bandwidth 64 Router1(config-subif)#no shutdown Router2: Router2(config)#int fa0/0 Router2(config-if)#ip add 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 Router2(config-if)#no shutdown Router2(config)# int s0/0 Router2(config-if)# no ip address Router2(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay ietf Router2(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type cisco Router2(config-if)#exit Router2(config)# int s0/0.1 point-to-point Router2(config-subif)# ip add 9.1.1.2 255.0.0.0 Router2(config-subif)#no shutdown Router2(config)# int s0/0.2 point-to-point Router2(config-subif)# ip add 12.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 Router2(config-subif)#no shutdown

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Router2(config)#int s0/0.1 Router2(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci 201 Router2(config-subif)#bandwidth 64 Router2(config-subif)#no shutdown Router2(config)#int s0/0.2 Router2(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci 202 Router2(config-subif)#bandwidth 64 Router2(config-subif)#no shutdown Router3: Router3(config)#int fa0/0 Router3(config-if)#ip add 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0 Router3(config-if)#no shutdown Router3(config)# int s0/0 Router3(config-if)# no ip address Router3(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay ietf Router3(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type cisco Router3(config-if)#exit Router3(config)# int s0/0.1 point-to-point Router3(config-subif)# ip add 12.1.1.2 255.0.0.0 Router3(config-subif)#no shutdown Router3(config)# int s0/0.2 point-to-point Router3(config-subif)# ip add 11.1.1.2 255.0.0.0 Router3(config-subif)#no shutdown

Router3(config)#int s0/0.1 Router3(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci 301 Router3(config-subif)#bandwidth 64


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Router3(config-subif)#no shutdown Router3(config)#int s0/0.2 Router3(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci 302 Router3(config-subif)#bandwidth 64 Router3(config-subif)#no shutdown

26.PPP: POINT TO POINT PROTOCOL: PPP is WAN encapsulation protocol between two peers. PPP is a Link Control Protocol/ Network Control Protocol (LCP/NCP). PPP supports two protocols 1).Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) 2).Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP).

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How to configure the ppp in routers: Syntax for PPP: Router1(config)#username wipro password ? 0 7 Specifies an UNENCRYPTED password will follow Specifies a HIDDEN password will follow

LINE The UNENCRYPTED (cleartext) user password Router1(config)# username wipro password 0 wipro@9 Router1(config)#int fa0/0 Router1(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 Router1(config-if)#no shutdown Router1(config-if)#int s0/0 Router1(config-if)#ip add 9.1.1.1 255.0.0.0 Router1(config-if)# encapsulation ppp Router1(config-if)# ppp authentication pap chap Router1(config-if)# ppp pap sent-username ibm password 0 ibm@9 Router1(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Router1(config-if)#no shutdown

Router2(config)# username ibm password 0 ibm@9 Router2(config)#int fa0/0 Router2(config-if)#ip add 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 Router2(config-if)#no shutdown Router2(config-if)#int s0/0 Router2(config-if)#ip add 9.1.1.2 255.0.0.0 Router2(config-if)# encapsulation ppp Router2(config-if)# ppp authentication pap chap Router2(config-if)# ppp pap sent-username wipro password 0 wipro@9
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Router2(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Router2(config-if)#no shutdown

27.HOW TO BREAK A PASSWORD OF A ROUTER:

RESTART BUTTON

STEP1: Router# copy running-config startup-config Then click the restart button. Then press cntrl+break quickly. Next we see rommon mode in a router CLI (command line interface). rommon 1 > confreg 0x2142 rommon 2 > reset Self decompressing the image : ########################################################################## [OK] STEP2: Router# copy startup-config running-config

HOW TO RECOVERY THE PASSWORD: Router# copy startup-config running-config Router# reload Then press cntrl+break.
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rommon 1 > confreg 0x2102 rommon 2 > reset Self decompressing the image : ########################################################################## [OK] Router> Router>en Password: Password:

28. HOW TO CONFIGURE THE TELNET PASSWORD Telnet is remote password of the router. For remote accessing. Router(config)#enable password ccsp Router(config)#enable secret ccsp Router(config)#line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)#password ccie Router(config)#aaa new-model Router(config)#aaa authentication login SECURE-TELNET local Router(config)#aaa authentication login default local Router(config)#username wipro password 0 ccsp

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