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ALADZA MOSQUE Foca BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

ALADZA MOSQUE Foca BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

FOREWORD

In the framework of the European Commission/Council of Europe Joint Programme on the Integrated Rehabilitation Project Plan/Survey on the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage (IRPP/SAAH), the present Preliminary Technical Assessment (PTA) of the Consolidated Project for the Ljubljana Process Funding Heritage Rehabilitation in SouthEast Europe, was prepared by local expert: Mr. Mirzah Foo, Ms. Amra arani, headed by Ms.Mirela Mulali Handan, IRPP/SAAH Project Co-ordinator. This assessment was finalised with the assistance of the PTA expert group: Leader Dr. John Bold (United Kingdom); Experts: Mr. Martin Cherry (United Kingdom), Mr.David Johnson (United Kingdom), Mr. Friedrich Lth (Germany), Mr. Alkis Prepis (Greece). The Preliminary Technical Assessment (PTA), adopted in 2005 by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, was revised in June 2008 in order to reflect the Ljubljana Criteria

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe

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1.

INTRODUCTORY PAGE

Site map

Aladza Mosque Foca

Country or territory Name of organisation compiling information Contact name E- mail address

Bosnia and Herzegovina Commission to Preserve National Monuments Mirela Mulalic Handan
mirela.m.handan@aneks8komisija.com.ba

Building/ site name and address Inventory reference number(s) Type of monument/building/site Main date(s) Current use(s)

The site and remains of the architectural ensemble of the Aladza(Hasan Nazir) mosque in Foca Decision for designation of national monument No.: 06.1-2-1062/2004-6 Architectural ensemble the mosque Date of construction 16th century Currently not in use.

2.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY THE SITE AND ITS MANAGEMENT The Aladza (meaning painted) Mosque in Foca was built in 1550/1551 in the town centre of Foca. Because of its architecture, structural proportions, and both engraved and painted geometric and floral decoration, Aladza Mosque was one of the most important monuments in Bosnia and Herzegovina and beyond. The Aladza Mosque belongs to the type of single-space domed mosque built in the classical Ottoman style, with an open exterior portico and a minaret abutting the right-hand side. It was built by Ramadan-agha, a chief representative (ba halife) of Koca Mimar Sinan, who was the leading architect of the Ottoman Empire (from 1548 to 1588). The finest and most interesting decorative stone fittings inside the mosques of Bosnia and Herzegovina are those of the Aladza Mosque in Foca. In 1992 the complex of the Aladza Mosque in Foca was blown up and totally destroyed along with its associated buildings: the turbe (mausoleum) of Ibrahim, son of the founder of the mosque; the burial grounds to the east, south and west of the mosque; the tombstone of the founder, Hasan Nazir; the shadrvan (fountain) in the wall of the courtyard; the stone wall to the

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south east; most of the stone wall to the south-west; and the south and west entrance gates. All the remains were taken away by lorry and scattered over a suspected mass grave. The whole area was then covered by soil. Part of the nisan (tombstone) to the north west survived, as did the foundations of the mosque and the shadrvan (fountain). The foundations of the mosque are still visible at the site. Aladza Mosque was declared a monument for the first time on 9 October 1950. Twelve years later, on 18 April 1962, the Aladza Mosque in Foca with its associated buildings of the turbe of Ibrahim, son of the founder of the mosque, the surrounding burial ground and the tombstone of the founder Hasana Nazira, the sadrvan (fountain) in the wall of the mosque courtyard were placed under state protection. The Regional Plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina 1980 listed the property as a Category I cultural and historic property. Until July 2004, the property was on the Provisional List of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Commission to Protect National Monuments designated the architectural ensemble of the Aladza Mosque in Foca as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina at its 15th session held on 7July 2004. The Commission assumes that the major part of the material of the mosque can be found in the suspected mass grave. The mosque was thoroughly recorded during the 1970s and the documentation still exists. The Commission expects that it will be possible to make a precise identification of fragments and re-use them in the reconstruction. It will add the value of authenticity to the reconstructed monument. The symbolic and ontologic value of the Aladza Mosque goes beyond the territory of the Municipality and even of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Andej Andrejevic, one of the most prominent historians of architecture from Belgrade, wrote a monograph about the Aladza Mosque stating that it can be considered the most important monument of its time in the Balkans. The start of its reconstruction will be a clear message to the war-torn community in Foca that justice and human rights prevail over destruction and crime. It will clearly show to the returnees that they can regain their basic human rights and especially the right to freely express their identity and religion in public. The architectural and artistic values of the mosque have a profound importance for the Bosnia-Herzegovinian identity which is in danger of falling into oblivion through both destruction and the imposition of new alien forms at the sites of destroyed monuments.

3.

ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION 3.1 Responsible Authorities The authorities responsible for issuing decisions on and implementing the preservation of national monuments, as well as for the execution of the rehabilitation works are as follows: The Commission to Preserve National Monuments has designated the site and remains of the architectural ensemble of the Aladza (Hasan Nazir) Mosque in u Foca as a National Monument of BiH. The following responsibilities are stipulated: - the Government of Republika Srpska is responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve, display and rehabilitate the National Monument. The Government of Republika Srpska shall be responsible for providing the resources for drawing up and implementing the necessary technical documentation for the conservation and restoration of the National Monument.

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- The Ministry of Republika Srpska responsible for urban planning, shall give the approval for the restoration and conservation works, under the expert supervision of the responsible heritage protection authority; - authorities and institutions at all levels of governance shall collaborate with the Commission on issues of significance for the work of the Commission; - everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the entities, cantons, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation, including its owners. The Commission to Preserve National Monuments is authorised to perform activities of international co-operation in the field of cultural-historical heritage protection.

3.2 Building/Site, Name and Address Name: The site and remains of the architectural ensemble of the Aladza (Hasan Nazir) Mosque in u Foca Administrative location: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska, Foca Municipality Description of location: The architectural ensemble of the Aladza Mosque is on the right bank of the river Cehotina, about 1.5 km from its confluence with the Drina, upstream from the Upper Bridge, close to the old Foca carsija and the town centre, in a natural triangular area formed by the rivers Drina and Cehotina. The architectural ensemble of the Aladza Mosque is bounded to the south west by A. Fetahagica street and the river Cehotina; to the north-west by a large park which formed part of the harem of the Aladza Mosque until the early 1960s, and to the south-east by the Aladza mahala. Cadastral reference/land unit: The architectural ensemble of the Aladza Mosque was erected on cadastral plot 1915, title no. 1426, cadastral municipality Foca, Municipality Foca/Srbinje, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

3.3 Map reference Map references: Foca, municipality Foca, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe. Latitude 44 50' 53N Longitude 17 59' 43E

3.4 Type of monument Historic building the mosque - 16 century


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3.5 Ownership Ownership: Islamic community Occupation: Destroyed in 1992 during the war. Current use(s): Currently not in a use

3.6 Statutory Protection/Constraints By Ruling of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Natural Rarities of NR Bosne i Hercegovine, no 1305/50, of 09.10.1950, the property was placed under state protection. Twelve years later, by Ruling of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of the People's Republic of BiH no. 02-727-3, of 18.04.1962, the Aladza Mosque in Foca with its associated buildings of the turbe of Ibrahim, son of the founder of the mosque,

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the surrounding burial ground and the tombstone of the founder Hasana Nazira, the sadrvan (fountain) in the wall of the mosque courtyard, was placed under state protection. The 1980 Regional Plan for Bosnia and Herzegovina listed the property as a Category I cultural and historic property. Until July 2004, the property was on the Provisional List of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In July 2004, listed - At the 15 Session of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments a decision to designate the site and remains of the architectural ensemble of the Aladza (Hasan Nazir) mosque in u Foca as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina was adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadzimuhamedovic, Dubravko Lovrenovic, Ljiljana Sevo and Tina Wik. The provisions relating to protection and rehabilitation measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina shall apply to the National Monument. For the purpose of preserving the National Monument, the statutory protection measures defined by the Decision for the designation of the architectural ensemble of the site and remains of the architectural ensemble of the Aladza (Hasan Nazir) mosque in u Foca as a National Monument are: the National Monument shall be rehabilitated on its original site, in its original form, with identical proportions, size and decorative features, with identical horizontal and vertical dimensions, using original or the same type of materials and original building methods, on the basis of original technical documentation or details of its previous appearance and condition in situ as the case may be, the original parts of the foundations and walls shall be made good and consolidated, all original fragments of the demolished building found on the site or on other sites to which they were removed after the demolition of the building must be collected, registered, recorded and reintegrated into the reconstructed building by the method of anastylosis, with the use of traditional building materials and binders (mortar) and building techniques. Until such time as they are so reintegrated, they shall be properly preserved, fragments that are too badly damaged to be reintegrated shall be conserved and displayed appropriately within the building, all usable material shall be built into the National Monument, all missing elements for which there is documentation on their original condition shall be made on the basis of existing documentation from materials that are the same as or similar to the originals using the method of repristination, all building on the plot of the town park north of the site of the National Monument is prohibited; the only tree surgery permitted in the park is that required to maintain the trees in good health. Current maintenance of the park fittings and paths, and the landscaping of the park plants and decorative bushes is also permitted, together with the necessary conservation of the nisan tombstones in the park; on the plot between A. Fetahagica streeet and the river Cehotina, to 50 metres north-west of the site of the National Monument and 50 metres south-south west of the site of the National Monument, the only works permitted are the rehabilitation of war-damaged buildings with the required approval of the heritage protection authority of Republika Srpska and the municipal authorities responsible for town planning and cadastral records, south and east of the site of the National Monument, in the area of Aladza mahala, the rehabilitation of war-damaged buildings and the interpolation of new ones consisting of a ground floor and one upper floor shall be permitted, with hipped roofs and the use of traditional materials: baked brick, tiles, unfired bricks, timber, plastered facades, and with the approval of the heritage protection authority of Republika Srpska and the municipal authority responsible for town planning and cadastral records; the plot shall be surrounded by a solid metal or wood-panel protective fence with a height of approx. 2 metres;
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the rubbish dump in O. DJikica street shall be cleared and the dumping of rubbish, bulky waste and the creation of a rubbish dump in the contact zone of the National Monument prohibited

4.

SUMMARY OF CONDITION 4.1 Summary of Physical Condition The condition is extremely poor - the complex has been completely demolished (totally destroyed during the war). Part of the nisans (tombstones) to the north west of the complex survived as did the foundations of the mosque and the shadrvan (fountain). The foundations of the mosque are still visible at the site. In August 2004, the Commission to Preserve National Monuments examined the site of a suspected mass grave close to the iron bridge over the Drina river in Foca. Fragments were found on two sites within the area of approx. 1800 m2. Both sites are entirely covered by thick layers of soil, rubble and waste. These fragments are at a depth of about 7 metres. Fragments of stone and wood were found. The discovered fragments are parts of a portico a moulded cornice - and fragments of columns, parts of the mihrab, entrance portal, the minaret. The Commission assumes that the major part of the material of the mosque can be found in the suspected mass grave. Amount of war or associated damage: Destroyed during the war. In 1992 the complex of the Aladza Mosque was blown up and totally destroyed along with its associate buildings, the turbe (mausoleum) of Ibrahim, the burial grounds to the east, south and west of the mosque and the tombstone of the founder, the shadrvan (fountain) in the wall of the courtyard, the stone wall to the south-east, most of the stone wall to the south-west; and the south and west entrance gates. All the remains were taken away by lorry and scattered over the suspected mass grave. The whole area was then covered by soil.

4.2 Condition Risk Assessment Unless the fragments of the Aladza Mosque are excavated from the suspected mass grave in Foca, their deterioration will continue. Their preservation, however, will enable the reconstruction of the mosque.

4.3 Priority for intervention High. The excavation of the fragments of the Aladza Mosque from the mass grave in Foca is the priority. The fragments are exposed to further deterioration due to weather conditions; some of the fragments are in the river bad. The Commission to Preserve National Monuments has prepared a project to preserve the fragments in order to build them into the reconstructed monument. The project of the comprehensive rehabilitation of the mosque consists of three phases; and each of them consists of several steps . The phases are: 1. Preservation of the fragments; 2. Preparation of the feasibility study for the rehabilitation of the mosque and obtaining a permit for the rehabilitation; 3. Rehabilitation works.

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5.

EXISTING INFORMATION

5.1 Documentary sources: The main documentary sources for the Aladza Mosque are libraries, the register of the Institute for the Protection of Monuments FB&H, and the register of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments. The register of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments is placed in the Office of the Commission and it is available to all interested parties. It contains the following: The Decision on the designation of the Aladza Mosque as a National Monument, with a description of the location, historical information of the site as well as of the building, detailed description of the building, information on legal status to date, research, conservation and restoration works and information on current state of the property; Photo documentation: Documentation of Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of BiH, Sarajevo,contains:. Condition from the beginning of the 20th century Technical documentation of the complex: mosque, turbe (mausoleum), shadrvan (fountain), the harem, the stone surrounding wall and gates; with details, Scale 1:200, 1960s Painted decoration, documentation recorded 1955-1958 Situation plan of larger zone, Scale 1:200, documentation recorded 1955-1958 The Conservation Project from 1955-1958, Prof. Architect Husref Redzic Architectural blueprints of the mosque (ground plan and section), Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of BiH, Sarajevo, Architectural studio, June 1974 Photogrametric record of entrance portico, Scale 1:25, from 1988 5.2 Bibliography: 1925 1956-57 Jeremic, Risto: Has Hoca, Jnl of the Geographical Society, Vol 11, Belgrade, 1925, Bejtic, Alija: Bosanski namjesnik Mehmed pasa Kukavica i njegove zaduzbine u Bosni (1752-1756 i 1757-1760), (Bosnian governor Mehmed pasha Kukavica and his endowments in Bosnia 1752-1756 and 1757-1760) Contributions to oriental philology, Sarajevo, 1956-1957, no VI-VII Bejtic, Alija: Povijest i umjetnost Foce na Drini, (History and art of Foca on the Drina) Nase starine, Annual of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Natural Rarities of N.R. Bosne i Hercegovine, IV, Sarajevo, 1957 Mujezinovic, Mehmed, Autogram Evlije Celebije u trijemu dzamije Aladze u Foci,(Autogram of Evliya elebi on the portico of the Aladza Mosque in Foca) Nase starine, Annual of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Natural Rarities of N.R. Bosne i Hercegovine, IV, Sarajevo, 1957 Kajmakovic, Zdravko: Konzervatorsko-restauratorski radovi na ornamentima Aladza dzamije u Foci, (Conservation and restoration works on the ornaments of the Aladza Mosque in Foca) Nase starine, Annual of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Natural Rarities of N.R. Bosne i Hercegovine, VII, Sarajevo, 1960 Andjelic, Pavao: Trgoviste, varos i grad u srednjevkekovnoj Bosni, (Market, town and fort in mediaeval Bosnia) Jnl of the National Museum, archaeology, Sarajevo, 1963, Andrejevic, Andrej: Aladza dzamija u Foci, Belgrade, 1972 Kovacevic Kojic, Desanka: Gradska naselja srednjovjekovne bosanske drzave, (Urban settlements of the mediaeval Bosnian state) Sarajevo, 1978 Vego, Marko: Postanak srednjovjekovne bosanske drzave, (Origins of the mediaeval Bosnian state) Sarajevo, 1982 Redzic, Husref: Studije o islamskoj arhitektonskoj bastini (Studies on the Islamic
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1957

1957

1960

1963 1972 1978

1982 1983

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architectural heritage), Cultural Heritage Series, Sarajevo, 1983 1983 Academician Prof. Husref Redzic, Docent Mr Nedzad Kurto, Ferid Isanovic: Program revitalizacije i regeneracije istorijskog podrucja grada Foce. Urbanistickoarhitektonsko rjesenje zone Prijeke carsije, (Programme for the revitalization and regeneration of the historic area of the town of Foca), Assembly of Foca Municipality, Foca, 1983. godine Muftic, Faruk: Foca: 1470-1996, Sarajevo, 1997 Mujezinovic, Mehmed: Islamska epigrafika Bosne i Hercegovine, Knjiga 2, Istocna i centralna Bosna, (Islamic epigraphics of BiH, Bk 2, Eastern and Central Bosnia) 3rd ed., Sarajevo, 1998 Tucakovic, Semso: Aladza dzamija-ubijeni monument (Aladza Mosque, a murdered monument), Sarajevo, 1998 Domovic, Zelimir: Rjecnik stranih rijeci (Dictionary of Foreign Words), Belgrade, 2001 Simic, Alma, Aladza dzamija u Foci, Zastita i obnova u kontekstu urbane jezgre, (Aladza Mosque in Foca, protection and renovation in the context of the urban centre) masters dissertation, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Architecture, postgraduate study of the Architectural Heritage, Zagreb, 2003 Zlatar, Behija, Utjecaj primorskih majstora na izgradnju nekih objekata u BiH u osmansko doba, (Influence of coastal master craftsmen on the construction of certain buildings in BiH in the Ottoman period) Znakovi vremena - no 20, summer 2003.

1997 1998

1998 2001 2003

2003

5.3 Fieldwork already conducted: Following the request by the Federation Commission for Missing Persons filed on 25 August 2004, the Commission to Preserve National Monuments examined the site of a suspected mass grave. On the basis of the fragments discovered (fragments found are parts of a portico a moulded cornice - and fragments of columns, parts of the mihrab, entrance portal, the minaret), and having analysed the type of decoration, quality of workmanship, and type and quality of the coats of paint, it has been established that the fragments are the remains of the Aladza Mosque. They were preliminarily recorded (by taking photographs), marked with numbers and registered; an architectural survey was made and the fragments identified according to the place where they fitted which is kept at the National Museum. During the procedure for the designation of the property as a National Monument in 2005, experts from the Commission to Preserve National Monuments have inspected the monument, determined its condition, and made a technical assessment on the restoration/rehabilitation of the structure.

5.4 Projects in progress : The Commission to Preserve National Monuments has prepared a project to preserve the fragments in order to incorporate them in the reconstructed monument.

5.5 Projects already planned: - The Government of the Federation BiH planned the allocation of 100.000 EUR for the exhumation of the persons killed and the fragments of the mosque from the mass grave. Excavation should start in October 2005.

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The American Ambassadors fund would provide funding for the preparation of technical, photographic and video documentation of the mosque s fragments, which is a pre-condition for preparing a project for the rehabilitation of the mosque. The process of preparing the documentation includes: 1. Reconnoitering and taking preliminary photographs of the fragments removed from of the mass grave site (sub-phases: b, c, d) 2. Preliminary architectural survey, identification of the fragments, establishing their condition and their precise position (i, j, k, l). The Commission will implement the project by November 2006.

5.6 Financial estimates already made: The Commissions project has been approved by the US Ambassadors Fund for the preparation of technical, photographic and video documentation of the mosque s fragments ( 24.000 $). The Commission has made an estimated calculation (for excavation of fragments, transport of fragments to the location of Aladza Mosque, cleaning and preliminary architectural surveying of the fragments) of 100.000 EUR. For the rehabilitation of the Aladza Mosque no financial estimates have been made.

6.

SCOPE OF THE PTA

6.1 Extent/Nature of the assessment: Architectexpert, Emir Softic, on behalf of the Commission, required twenty days to collect all the necessary data and to prepare the draft decision on the designation of the property as a National Monument (a report). Members of the Commission, Zeynep Ahunbay, architect, Amra Hadzimuhamedovic, architect, Dubravko Lovrenovic, historian, Ljiljana Sevo, art historian and Tina Wik, architect, adopted a decision on the designation of the National Monument. It took ten days for the associates of the cultural heritage, Mirzah Foco of the Commission, Dzenana Saran, architect conservator, and Mustafa Humo, civil engineer, to fill in the PTA form. All associates who collected the data, drew up the decision and filled in the form are local experts. Members of the Commission, Amra Hadzimuhamedovic, Dubravko Lovrenovic and Ljiljana Sevo are local experts, while Zeynep Ahunbay and Tina Wik are international experts.

6.2 Limitations of the study: Without a programme and major undertaking it is impossible to determine the quantity and quality of the remains found on a dump, or the condition of the surviving foundation structure.

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7.

PTA

7.1 Background 7.1.1 Summary description of the building/site

The complex included the mosque, turbe, sadrvan fountain, sarcophagi and nisan tombstones. The Aladza Mosque complex stood on a plot with an area of 1649 sq.m, was surrounded by a stone wall, and had two entrance gates and a drinking fountain. The Aladza Mosque belongs to the typological group of single-space domed mosques of classical stylistic expression with an open exterior portico with domed roof and a minaret abutting the right hand side. The walls of the ground floor, 1.18 m (= 2 Dubrovnik cubits), were made of regularly cut tufa blocks. Compared with other Bosnian mosques, the Aladza Mosque had the finest and most regular masonry. The skill of the stonemasons is seen in the way the tufa was cut for the masonry of the walls and the limestone for the minaret walls, the pillars, portal mihrab, mimber and mahfil, and in particular in the carving of the capitals of the pillars, the stalactite decoration of the trompes and mihrab and the carving of the mimber and mahfil. The basic area of the mosque was almost cubic with ground plan dimensions of 13.70 x 13.82 and a height of 11.90 m (from floor level of the mosque 0.00 to the cornice of the cube). The transition of the square base of the mosque to the drum was by means of four corner trompes and eight wide spherical triangles. Outside, the highest point in the crown of the dome below the base of the alem is at a level of + 19.50m. The mahfil, set to the right of the entrance door, was reached by the minaret steps. To the south, close to the portico, the minaret stands out from the wall in the form of a twelve-sided prism from which, in the lower section, to a level of + 11.9 m, it forms a nine-sided mantle by means of which the minaret abutted the body of the mosque. At a height of 16 m, the minaret terminated in a conical transition, and at a height of 33 m was the serefe - a balcony with marble slab sides. The total height of the minaret is 27.8 m. The finest and most interesting decorative stone fittings inside the mosques of Bosnia and Herzegovina are those of the Aladza Mosque. The Aladza Mosque was famous for more than its architecture and decorative sculptural features. It was renowned above all for its wall paintings. Apart from part of the moulded decorations, the painting covered the spherical surface of the dome, all four trompes, part of the interior walls and the exterior walls beneath the portico. The entire wall painting was carried out on soft, porous plaster with a high proportion of lime using the secco technique and very diluted tempera pigments. The wall paintings of the Aladza Mosque were probably made immediately after the building was completed, but certainly prior to 1553 when its founder died. 7.1.2 Summary historic development and evolution of the building or site. The fact that Foca was the capital of the Herzegovina sandzak had as a consequence the development of the town in the urban, economic and cultural sense, along with the introduction of the infrastructure required to develop a system of civil authority, religious, cultural, educational and commercial institutions and, there can be no doubt, explains the building of a representative religious edifice such as the Aladza Mosque.

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The erection of the Hasan Nazir (Aladza) mosque in the early years of the second half of the 16th century marked the beginning of the most productive period of building development in Foca. According to the tarih (chronogram) incised on a stone plaque which was set above the entrance, the Aladza Mosque was built in 957 AH (1550/1551). The vakufnama of the founder of the mosque, the Herzegovinian Hasan Balije Nazira, son of Jusuf, has not survived. Many documents shedding light on the role of Dubrovnik builders in BiH who worked in the mediaeval period and right through the Turkish period, particularly in the 16th and first half of the 17th century, the most active period of building, support this thesis. The masonryof the Aladza Mosque consisted of precisely dressed stone blocks laid in regular courses, similar to the masonry work of other Islamic buildings in Herzegovina made by Dubrovnik craftsmen. The history of the complex of the Aladza Mosque from its beginnings is to be found in the travelogue of Paulo Contarini, who recounts that in 1574 he crossed the bridge and came upon the mosque, which had a fine portico and a well, and which had been built by Nisir Aschocha (Hasan Nazir). This, the earliest documentary evidence of the Aladza Mosque, written only about 20 years after it was built, highlights in particular the mosque portico and the sadrvan fountain, probably because of the painted embellishments of the portico and the carving on its wooden elements, and corroborates the assumption that the sadrvan and probably the portico as well were built at the same time as the mosque. The fact that the mosque is already referred to in 1588 as the Aladza, when one Ali Celebija is referred to as the hatib of the Aladza dzamije u Foca, suggests that the mosque bore this name from its very origins in 1550/51, given that a time interval of 37 years is too short for one name of the mosque to be forgotten and another adopted. In the 17th century, the Aladza Mosque was the object of admiration of many visitors, some of whom wrote brief accounts of their reflections on the mosque, on the walls of the building itself and particularly in the portico to the right and left of the entrance door, as well as on the marble pillars. Following the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Austro-Hungarian authorities attempted, by means of the National Government, to persuade the administration of the Aladza Mosque's (vakuf) to undertake restoration works. In 1917, as part of a campaign by the AustroHungarian authorities to collect lead needed for the war, the original lead cladding of the dome of the mosque was stripped off. During World War II, the Italian occupying forces used the mosque as a warehouse, and the mosque was badly damaged. In 1959 the National Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Nature of NR BiH of Sarajevo undertook conservation and restoration works on the painted decoration in the portico of the mosque. The conservation works were carried out by Z. Kajmakovic and N. Bahtijarevic. Following the 1962 earthquake, the dome and south east wall of the mosque cracked, and in 1963 lightning struck the top of the minaret, causing further damage, so that conservation and repair works were undertaken on the building itself. Between 1960 and 1963 works were carried out on the architectural conservation of the mosque. The restoration and conservation works on the mosque consisted of repairs to the dome, drum and south-east wall of the building, cladding the main dome and the three domes of the portico, drainage around the mosque, and stripping the plaster from all the walls. The cesma (drinking fountain) and sadrvan (decorative fountain), about 20 tombs, the tomb of Hasan Nazir and the tomb of the son of Ibrahim-beg were conserved. Restoration of the painted decoration of the portico and of the dome, drum and upper band of the walls was carried out by Nihad Bahtijarevic, a picture conservator. From 1965-1969 the painter and conservator of the Republic Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments, Nihad Bahtijarevic, reconstructed the painted decoration of the interior of the mosque. In late 1988, under the auspices of the Republic Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of Sarajevo, a detailed
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photogrammetric, geodetic and manual survey of the mosque was carried out and an exact and detailed blueprint of the building was drawn up. In 1992 the complex was dynamited and totally destroyed. The Aladza Mosque in Foca with its associated buildings of the turbe of Ibrahim, son of the founder of the mosque, the surrounding burial ground and the tombstone of the founder Hasan Nazir, the sadrvan and cesma in the courtyard wall, the stone wall to the south-east, the south and west entrance gates, were destroyed and all the remains were removed by lorry and dumped in and close to the bed of the river Drina .

7.2 Significance The building has great value as a cultural monument. Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a National Monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above. Aladza Mosque was one of the most important monuments in Bosnia and Hercegovina and beyond, by its architecture, structural proportions, and both engraved and painted geometric and floral decoration. The symbolic and ontologic value of the Aladza Mosque goes beyond the territory of the Municipality and even of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Andej Andrejevic, one of the most prominent historians of architecture from Belgrade, wrote a monograph about the Aladza Mosque stating that it can be considered the most important monument of the Balkans from the period of its construction. The architectural and artistic value of the Mosque have a profound importance for the Bosnia-Herzegovinian identity. 7.2.1 Summary statement of significance/historical and heritage importance. The building is of value for scientific and research purposes in the field of structural analysis. 7.2.2. Historical 3 (high) 7.2.3. Artistic/Aesthetic 3 (high) 7.2.4. Technological 3 (high) 7.2.5. Religious/Spiritual 3 (high) 7.2.6. Symbolic/Identity 3 (high) 7.2.7. Scientific/Research 3 (high) 7.2.8. Social/Civic 3 (high) 7.2.9. Natural 1 (low) 7.2.10. Economic 1 (low) 7.2.11. Category of significance: Of outstanding national importance

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7.3 Vulnerability/Risk assessment. For information Risk of possible destruction or further damage to the remains on the dump

7.4 Technical condition In 1992 the building was dynamited and razed to the foundations along with its outbuildings, and the material was removed to a number of different sites.

7.5. Outline summary of required repairs A total reconstruction, using as much of the recovered authentic material as possible.

7.6 Conservation policy and proposals Since this is a building that was razed to its foundations, detailed research works are required. 1. Research works entail: - Identifying the current condition of the remains of the foundations and taking test soundings of the foundations to determine if they can be used when reconstructing the building. - Geomechanic testing of the soil, - Determining and identifying the sites of the dumps to which the remains of the Aladza were taken, - Excavation, marking and sorting the fragments found on a previously prepared depot, - Analysis of the material used to build the mosque. 2. On completion of the research work and its results, work will begin on drafting the project documentation. Following the research works, the conservation of existing foundation should begin. Since the structural components, wall surfaces, dome and stone surfaces of the mihrab, minber, mahfil, portal, minber balustrade and mahfil balustrade were treated decoratively with geometric designs and bas-relief decoration, every fragment found, however small, must be cleaned and conserved so as to be reintegrated during reconstruction. 7.6.1 Broad summary of the vision for the site at this preliminary stage Reasons for conservation and restoration of the mosque and the main aim of this project are: To enable development of the Foca by increasing knowledge and understanding of the values of the past that are also values of today living with nature in perfect harmony. To promote and enhance the tourist attractions of town and environs, an area with a rich cultural, historical and natural heritage. The integration of the cultural, historical and natural heritage into the development programme of Foca, primarily tourism. Conservation of the Aladza Mosque would start the process and contribute to the systematic, long-term protection, presentation and revitalization of the cultural, historical and natural heritage a contribution to protecting the built heritage from further deterioration. 7.6.2 Conservation philosophy The Commission assumes that the major part of the material of the mosque can be found in the mass grave. The mosque was thoroughly recorded during the 1970s and the documentation still exists. The Commission expects that it will be possible to make a precise identification of the fragments and to re-use them in the reconstruction. It will add the value of authenticity to the reconstructed monument.
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Considering the immense spiritual and historic value of the Aladza Mosque, recently being totally demolished by war, a complete reconstruction is fully justifiable. 7.6.3 Level of interventions Since the building was razed to its foundations, we suggest a facsimilar reconstruction, restoring the authentic appearance on the basis of existing technical and photographic documentation. Total reconstruction required. 7.6.5. Preliminary proposals for appropriate uses A mosque. 7.6.6. Opportunities for social uses and sustainable development The mosque could be used to show the townspeople (particularly the young generation) and possible returnees that the destruction of enemy heritage does not last and that reconciliation is possible. 7.6.7. Broad assessment of priorities Priorities can be set out to be undertaken in the following order: - Drafting Project Task for Renovation Programme - Precise identification and temporary protection of the site where the remains have been found - Drafting Renovation Programme - Carrying out research works and drafting appropriate studies in line with the Renovation Programme. Research works include, but are not restricted to the removal, study, identification and storing of remains, ascertaining the geomechanical characteristics of the soil, ascertaining the condition of the existing foundations, and a study of materials. - Drawing up outline bill of quantities and bill of costs - Reconstructing the building

7.7 Finance 7.7.1 Broad assessment of budgetary needs and phasing In order to complete the project documentation, a rough budget estimate needs to be given for each stage. The expected investment for all reconstruction works is roughly estimated at between 813.000 and 850.000 EUR. The quantity, quality and possibility to reuse fragments of the mosque found on the neighboring sites are not known. The interventions required at this moment are related to security and protection of the site of the mosque and the site where the fragments were found.

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Table 1 Rough estimation of the rehabilitation costs

Description 1. Technical assessment and estimate of costs of temporary protection of the site where the remains are located

Amount from to

1.000 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Effecting temporary protection of the site where the remains are located Drafting Project Task for Renovation Programme Drafting and revising Renovation Programme Inviting tenders and selection of consultants for drafting project documentation Inviting tenders and carrying out research works and drafting appropriate studies in line with the Renovation Programme. Research works include but are not restricted to the removal, study, identification and storing of remains, ascertaining the geomechanical characteristics of the soil, ascertaining the condition of the existing foundations, and a study of materials. Drafting and revising project documentation for reconstruction Drafting and inviting tenders for works contractor and selection of most suitable contractor Carry out renovation works (see Appendix 1) Supervision of works Total: 4.000 1.500 8.000 1.500

1.500 6.500 2.000 10.000 2.500

EUR EUR EUR EUR EUR

7. 8. 9. 10.

21.000 40.000 3.000 693.000 40.000 813.000

24.000 50.000 3.500 700.000 50.000 850.000

EUR EUR EUR EUR EUR EUR

(from eight hundred thirteen thousand EUR to eight hundred fifty thousand EUR) 7.7.2 Assessment of possibilities for attracting investments Possible Investors in the works on the building are the Government of the Republika Srpska, the owner of the building and investment organizations. The US Ambassador's Fund contribution might be the first seed contribution, attracting other donations to support the reconstruction process. 7.7.3 Assessment of possibilities for recovering investments Unknown. 7.7.4 Have you already tried to raise funds for this site or monument Funding has already been requested and is expected from the following institutions: - Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina - BH Federation Government, - The Government of Republika Srpska. - US Ambassador's Fund 7.7.5 Have you already received funds for this site or monument 1. Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina provided 25.730 EUR 2. BH Federation Government provided 77.200 EUR 3. The Government of Republika Srpska 10.300 EUR 4. US. Ambassador's Fund funding of 19.760 EUR for the preparation of technical, photographic and video documentation of the mosques fragments.

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7.8 Recommendations 7.8.1. The Building or Site Aladza Mosque is a monument that should be reconstructed and then preserved as a monument of a place and history. The current proposals are to convert the building into a mixed use cultural and commercial centre. 7.8.2 Requirement for further assessment/further documentation/survey works/feasibility studies/detailed castings Further work required: Detailed survey to complete existing documentation and to make a further one, Detailed survey and analyses of structure and current condition to make evaluation of the foundations and the individual recovered stones of the mosque Researched works and evaluation of the building needed to make constructive repair project, conservation and restoration project and provide cost more certainty. Experts required for the above-mentioned works are: - architect conservator - landscape architect - civil engineer - structural engineer - structural analyst - archaeologist - geodesist A time limit for the execution of the preparation of the documentation and research works is approximately 12 months. 7.8.3. Management The provisions relating to protection and rehabilitation measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of B&H nos. 2/02 and 27/02), shall apply to the National Monument Aladza Mosque in Foca The Government of the Republika Srpska shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve, display and rehabilitate the National Monument. Every one, and in particular the competent authorities of the Republika Srpska, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation thereof. The owner of the building has the obligation of managing the building in accordance with the provisions relating to protection and rehabilitation measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments. Pursuant to the Decision of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Commission to Preserve National Monuments is authorized to perform activities of international cooperation in the field of heritage. The Commission is responsible for the implementation of the rehabilitation project in accordance with the Rules for the implementation of donor funds earmarked for the renovation or protection of the endangered cultural and historical heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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When implementing the Project, the Commission shall through tendering engage other institutions, organizations or experts and contractors and shall enter into a contract with them, as stipulated by the Rules.

8.

DOCUMENTATION -

9.

FEASIBILITY STUDIES -

PTA prepared by Commission to Preserve National Monuments Local experts: Mirzah Foco, Architect, Associate for Ensembles, Historical, Urban and Cultural Landscapes Emir Softic, Architect, Associate for Historic buildings Dzenana Saran, Architect Conservator Mustafa Humo, Civil Engineer, Headed by Mirela Mulalic Handan, Project Co-ordinator,

Signed and Dated: 2008

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PTA APPENDIX I TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION

BILL OF QUANTITIES AND BILL OF COSTS OF THE WORKS

Item no.

Description of item BUILDING WORKS

Final cost

1.

Restoration of mosque building (walls, sofas, floor of mosque and floor outside mosque entrance) Restoration of main dome Restoration of three smaller domes above entrance portico with complete construction Cladding main dome and three smaller domes with sheet lead Restoration of fourteen-sided minaret ht 36m Restoration of stone mihrab (2.60 x 6.00 m) on seven-sided niche, rectangular surround and crown Restoration of stone minber(1.10 x 4.20 x 7,90) with portal, terminal crown, arched side openings and arches between the small pillars supporting the pyramidal canopy Restoration of stone mahvil (4.45 x 2.60 x 0.20) on four pillars topped by arches and restoration of stone mahvil balustrade Restoration of stone portal (3.60 x 6.20) with doorjambs, arched opening and pointed arch in rectangular surround and carved hood moulding Making wooden windows to match former windows based on existing documentation Making wooden entrance door Plastering interior walls of mosque with high quality plaster Decorative painting: painting following surfaces based on existing documentation: wall surfaces, dome, mihrab, mihrab niche, mahvil balustrade, capitals of pillars of mahvil, minber, minber balustrade

280,000EUR 40,000EUR

2. 3.

20,000EUR

4.

15,000EUR 100,000EUR

5. 6.

17,500EUR

7.

40,000EUR

8.

15,000EUR

9.

20,000EUR

10.

9,000EUR 1,500EUR

11. 12.

15,000 EUR

13.

50.000EUR

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14.

Draw up project for electro-installation to cover: lighting in the mosque, lightning conductor, flood lighting, underfloor heating Draw up design project to landscape the complex, build surrounding wall around mosque harem, plant ornamental shrubs and tall-growing trees, pave access path from gateway to mosque with stone slabs, make timber entrance gate.

15.000EUR

15.

35,000EUR

16.

Works supervision

20,000EUR

TOTAL:

693,000EUR

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