Endnotes

Contents 1. Army General and Brigade Orders, June 1778. a. Orders Regulating the Army on the March from Valley Forge. b. Orders Issued During the Movement from Valley Forge to Englishtown. 2. Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army to 22 June 1778 3. Washington’s army vehicle allotment for the march to Coryell’s Ferry, 4. Wheeled Transportation (a primer on the vehicles and artillery on the road to Monmouth, including twenty-one illustrations) 5. Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army after 22 June 1778

_______________________ 1. James McHenry, Journal of a March, a Battle, and a Waterfall, being the version elaborated by James McHenry from his Diary of the Year 1778, begun at Valley Forge, & containing accounts of the British, the Indians, and the Battle of Monmouth, Helen and Henry Hunt, eds. (Greenwich, Ct.: privately printed, 1945), 1–5. 2. There are a number of sources detailing the British march to Freehold. Here are two German accounts: Johann Ewald (captain), Diary of the American War: A Hessian Journal, Joseph P. Tustin, ed. and trans. (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1979), 132-135. Wilhelm von Knyphausen to His Serene Highness the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, 6 July 1778 (from New York), Morristown National Historic Park Collections, G.283-G.287. 3. General orders, 9 June 1778, John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources 1745-1799, vol. 12 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1934), 39-40. 4. "Diary of Joseph Clark, Attached to the Continental Army," May 1777 to November 1778, Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, vol. 7 (1854), 105-107. Ebenezer Wild, "Journal of Ebenezer Wild," Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 2nd series, vol. VI (Boston, Ma., 1891), 108. 5. Robert C. Bray and Paul E. Bushnell, eds., Diary of a Common Soldier in the American Revolution: An Annotated Edition of the Military Journal of Jeremiah Greenman (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1978), 120. “Chalkis, χαλκίς derived from the Greek word chalkos, χαλκός (copper (the substance, or some implement or coin made of it)).” http://www.myetymology.com/greek/chalkis.html. ”Lead-copper mines located on the North
bank of Mine Run (stream) near Perkiomen, 1/2 mile NW of Audubon. Series of mines East of Perkiomen Creek, on or about the Mill Grove Estate, near Shannonville (area now listed as Audubon or Audubon Gardens). Mines included The Wetherill Mine or Old Perkiomen Mine (United Mine), The Perkiomen Mine (New Perkiomen Mine), Whim Shaft, and the Ecton Mine. Workings on the original site may date to as early as the 1730's. The first notable effort was in 1810 when this site (Wetherill Mine) was reopened and operated primarily as a Lead mine by Jean Audubon, father of famed Illustrator John James Audubon. In 1847, a "new" or "second" round of mining efforts in the Audubon region were conducted, bringing the opening of The Perkiomen Mine (New Perkiomen Mine), Whim Shaft, and the Ecton Mine. These mines were operated primarily for the recovery of Copper and Lead. Although rich deposits of Sphalerite were also present, no efforts to recover Zinc from these ores were ever made. In March of 1851, evidence of a loss of profitability initiated the consolidation of the Perkiomen Mines with Ecton mine, under the new enterprise called The Perkiomen Consolidated Mining Company, but by 1853 the mining efforts began to fail and the mines finally closed by 1855. The Ecton mine, located in the center of this mining region, while included in this region, has been given a separate listing, primarily due to the greater efforts conducted at this specific mine on research/recovery of the mineralogy of the region. The Ecton mine provided a much extended period of availability for

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mineralogical specimens/materials for research. Some upper level shafts were still accessible and so too were materials from the mines dumps, into the latter half of the 20th century.” Perkiomen Mines,

Audubon, Lower Providence Township, Montgomery Co., http://www.mindat.org/loc18337.html 6. The route of Lee’s Division (and the rest of Gen. George Washington’s army) to the Delaware
can easily be traced today, following, more or less, modern thoroughfares. Beginning on the north side of the Schuylkill, at the site of Sullivan’s bridge (Fatland Ford), proceed to Pawlings Road, travelling northeast to Egypt Road. Take Egypt Road east to Ridge Pike, then south on that road to Whitehall Road. Travelling east on Whitehall will bring you to Germantown Pike; turning right (south) takes you past the entrance to Norristown Farm Park, where General Washington stayed at Dr. Robert Shannon’s mansion (still to be seen just inside the park’s main entrance) overnight on June 19 1778. Lee’s troops may have camped here on the night of 18 June, or travelled further before resting. Moving further south on Germantown Pike at the intersection with Swede Road turn left (east), and then turn left on Route 202/DeKalb Pike (known in the early 19th century as State Road). You will pass Gwynedd Friends Meeting (noted on an 18th century map as “North Wales Meeting”), and continue on to the intersection with Route 309/Bethlehem Pike. Turning left (northeast) Routes 202 and 309 merge for almost a mile, Route 202 then turns right (east) towards New Britain and Doylestown. In the center of Doylestown, at the intersection with Route 611/Main Street the old road goes straight, but now is one-way going west. To pick up the old Doylestown-Coryell’s Ferry Road/Route 202 turn right on Main St., then left on Oakland Avenue, go straight (east) on Oakland to the intersection with Route 202, and turn right. Follow Route 202 to the intersection with Route 413/Durham Road in Buckingham. The old road turned right (now a dead-end spur called Bogart’s Tavern Road), then made a left (east) by Bogart’s tavern (now called the General Greene Inn) on to the York Road. Heading east you will pass through Holicong (“Green Town”), and Lahaska (where Buckingham Friends Meeting is located), to the intersection with Aquetong Road; the Paxson house “Rolling Green” is on the left, on the west side of Aquetong Road. If you wish to go on to the Coryell’s Ferry landing, where the army crossed over to New Jersey, continue east on Route 202. The old road (Old York Road) occasionally veers off to the right from the modern highway. As you near the river into New Hope, Ferry Street angles off to the right and leads down to the original site of the ferry landing. (See narrative Addenda for details and directions of the Continental Army’s route from the Delaware River to Englishtown.

The Continental Army route from Valley Forge to Englishtown, New Jersey, has been gleaned from studying primary resources, as well as nd hard won experience travelling the area. The route taken by the army from Kingston to Englishtown was made clear only through the kindness of Dr. Garry W. Stone, Historian, Monmouth Battlefield State Park. Written resources include: June 1778 entries, "Samuel Adams's Private Miscellaneous Diary Ann: Dom: 1778. Kept partly in the Town of Dorchester and partly in his Excellency General Washington's Camp at Valley Forge, White Plains, Fredericksburgh, &c ...," Samuel Adams Diaries, Manuscript Division, New York Public Library. Joseph Lee Boyle, ed., “From Saratoga to Valley Forge: The Diary of Lt. Samuel Armstrong,” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vol. CXXI, no. 3 (July 1997), 269270. Ebenezer Wild, "Journal of Ebenezer Wild," Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 2nd series, vol. VI (Boston, Ma., 1891), 108-109. Other sources consulted include Gen. George Washington’s orders from June 18 to 29 to army orders (for which see, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, vol. 12 (1934), and George Washington Papers, Presidential Papers Microfilm (Washington: Library of Congress, 1961), series 4 (General Correspondence. 1697–1799), Sally Wister Diary, Howard M. Jenkins, Historical Collections Relating to Gwynedd: A Township of Montgomery County,

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Pennsylvania, Settled , 1698, by Immigrants from Wales, second edition (Philadelphia: published privately, 1897), 313-348, and James McHenry, Journal of a March, 1-5. Richard Hunter, Nadine Sergejeff, and Damon Tvaryanas, Longbridge Farm, South Brunswick Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey (Prepared fir the Township of South Brunswick by Hunter Research, Inc., Historical Research Consultants, 120 West State St., Trenton, N.J.: March 2002) www.hunterresearch.com Maps consulted:
Clinton Map 250 (Brun 538), circa 1777, unfinished, pen and ink map indicating the roads in eastern Pennsylvania between the valleys of the Delaware and the Susquehanna, showing part of the modern counties of Philadelphia, Bucks, Chester, Montgomery, Lehigh, Northampton, Lancaster, and Lebanon, mss. map on 2 sheets, 96.5 x 136 cm., scale ca. 1:126,720, Sir Henry Clinton Papers, William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Shows the road net used to march from Valley Forge to Coryell’s Ferry. Pennsylvania: Paoli, Chester Co. 1777. From near the White Horse Tavern on the Lancaster Road from Philadelphia thro' Tryduffrin Camp, Valley Forge, Charleston and cross Schuylkill on the road to Norrington. [Sept. 1777] Title from back of map. Size: 36" X 31" ms. pencil, ink and water color, 1 sheet, Archibald Robertson Maps (ca. 1790-ca. 1830), New York Public Library ( http://www.digital.nypl.org/archives/1830 ) Archibald Robertson (1745-1813) was a captain-lieutenant in the Royal Engineers serving in America, 1775-1782. Robert Erskine (1735-1780), map, “From near Doyles Tavern, Swedes Ford Road into the old York Road + along it towards Morristown,” by Robert Erskine F.R.S. Geogr. A. U.S. and Assistants, New-York Historical Society; (format, 31.0 cm. wide by 40.0 cm.high, 1 map), “Military topographic map. Covers Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Shows roads running through Doylestown, Buckingham and Lahaska. Also shows buildings and owners' names, landforms and streams. Shows relief by hachures. Title proper from recto is the work of a later editor--Simeon DeWitt or his assign--subsequent to 1820. Title from verso is in Erskine's hand and may be cited as such. Index title, statement of responsibility, date and series title also by Erskine, but on separate index sheet filed at head of series. Series numbering inferred by cataloger. Pen-and-ink, pencil on laid paper. Watermark: "T M W" accompanied by dove, similar to Gravell and Miller American watermarks nos. 658 amd 659. Creased, torn, frayed and abraded. Mounted on cloth, bound and cropped, disbound and silked by subsequent owners. Cleaned after removal of backings 1999; some fill remains. Sheathed in mylar.” Erskine’s maps are available online via New York University and NY-HS, “Witness to the Early American Experience,” World Wide Web, http://maass.nyu.edu/archives/ (search on keyword, “Erskine”). Robert Erskine (1735-1780), map, “No 73 [third] Crossing Correll’s ferry towards Morristown to Ringoe’s Tavern” by Robert Erskine F.R.S. Geogr. A. U.S. and Assistants, New-York Historical Society; (format,54.0 cm. wide by 35.0 cm.high, 1 map), “Military topographic map. Covers the townships of Solebury in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, and of Delaware and West Amwell in Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Shows roads running through Deer Park and New Hope in Pennsylvania; Lambertville, Mount Airy and Ringoes in New Jersey. Pen-and-ink, pencil on laid paper. Watermark: ‘G R’ under shield, similar to Gravell and Miller foreign watermark no. 301. Heavily soiled, creased and abraded. Mounted on cloth, bound and cropped, disbound and silked by subsequent owners. Cleaned after removal of backings 1999; some fill remains. Sheathed in mylar. In pencil on recto: ‘No 73 3rd’.” (See previous entry for further information.) “Map of Montgomery County Pennsylvania. From Original Surveys Under the Direction of Wm. E. Morris, C.E.” (1849). Metro Street Map of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, Franklin Maps, 333 S. Henderson Road, King of Prussia, Pa. 19406 (Copyright 2005).

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Metro Street Map of Bucks County, Pennsylvania, Franklin Maps, 333 S. Henderson Road, King of Prussia, Pa. 19406 (Copyright 2004). Mercer County, New Jersey Map (Western Half), Hagstrom Map Company, Inc., 46-35 54th Road, Maspeth, N.Y. 11378 (Copyright 2004). Kingston and Longbridge Farm are nicely pictured in this 1762 map. Howard Rice, Jr., New Jersey Road Maps of the 18th Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981) Map of Middlesex County, New Jersey, Hagstrom Map Company, Inc., 46-35 54th Road, Maspeth, N.Y. 11378 (Copyright 1998). Map of Middlesex County, reduced from the original survey by John Hills, asst.

engineer, 1781. Library of Congress. Marching orders for Maj. Gen. Charles Lee’s Division.
General Washington’s instructions to Charles Lee: “Head Quarters, May 30, 1778. Sir: Poors, Varnums, and Huntingtons Brigades are to March in one division under your Command to the North River. The Quarter Master General will give you the Rout, Incampments, and halting days to which you will conform as strictly as possible to prevent interfering with other Troops and that I may know precisely your situation on every day. Leave as few sick and lame on the road as possible such as are absolutely incapable of Marching with you are to be committed to the care of proper Officers with directions to follow as fast as their condition will allow. Be strict in your discipline, suffer no rambling, keep the Men in their Ranks and the Officers with their divisions, avoid pressing Horses &ca. as much as possible and punish severely every Officer or Soldier who shall presume to press without proper authority; prohibit the burning of Fences, in a word you are to protect the persons and property of the Inhabitants from every kind of Insult and abuse. Begin your Marches at four oclock in the Morning at latest that they may be over before the heat of the day, and that the Soldiers may have time to Cook, refresh, and prepare for the ensuing day.” [Note: The above instructions were drawn up and dated, but held for issue until such day as the British evacuated Philadelphia. (See Washington's letter to the President of Congress, "½ after 11 A. M.," June 18, 1778.)]
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Washington to Lee: “June 18, [1778]. The foregoing Instructions may serve you for Genl. directions, but circumstances having varied since they were written you are to halt on the first strong ground after passing the Delaware at Coryells ferry till further orders unless you should receive authentic intelligence that the enemy have proceeded by a direct rout to South Amboy (or still lower). In this case you will continue your March to the No. River agreeably to former orders and by the rout already given you. If my memory does not deceive me there is an advantageous spot of ground at the Ferry to the right of the road leading from the Water.”

Washington to Charles Lee, 30 May 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, vol. 11 (1934), 489. Washington to Charles Lee, 18 June 1778 (verso of 30 May 1778 instructions), ibid., 12 (1934), 85.
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Army General and Brigade Orders, June 1778.
Orders Regulating the Army on the March from Valley Forge. “Head Quarters, V. Forge, Monday, June 1, 1778 … Colo. Cortland is appointed to tarry in Camp to superintend the sick on the Ground when the Army moves and to send on the recovered men properly officered to join their respective Corps, and Major Grier will repair to the Yellow Springs and the Hospitals near Camp and superintend the sick there; They will apply tomorrow at the Orderly-Office for written Instructions. The following will be observed as a standing Model for the Order of March, whether of the whole Army, a Division, Brigade or Battalion; It may happen that some changes may be necessary in the Strength and number of the Advanced Rear and Flank Guards and in their relative distances to each other and to the Main Body &c. which are to be determined according to particular Circumstances and which the Officers commanding will judge of, but the general Principles and Rules here laid down are in all Cases to be practiced only with such Variations in applying them as different situations may require. When a Battalion receives orders to march each Company forms before its own quarters, the Captain having inspected into their Arms and Accoutrements, conducts it to the Regimental Parade where the Field Officers inspect the whole, form each Battalion into eight Platoons for charging agreeable to the Instructions given and march it by Platoons to the Rendezvous. When only one Battalion marches the Colo. orders out an advanced and rear guard, each consisting of one Lieutenant three non-commissioned Officers, a Drum and twenty Privates. A Brigade composed of several Battalions has an advanced and rear Guard each consisting of one Captain two Subalterns, six non-commissioned Officers and forty or fifty Privates. When several Brigades march together, each Brigade furnishes a proportionable number for the Advanced and Rear Guards. When the whole Army marches the new guards of the day form the advanced Guard and the old Guards form the Rear Guard. The new guards being assembled on the Grand Parade the Brigadier of the day forms them into a Battalion of 8 Platoons, the eldest Field Officer of the day takes command of it and marches at the head of the Column. The Brigadier of the preceding day having assembled the old Guard forms them in the same manner; the eldest Field Officer taking the Command and marching in the Rear of the Column. The advanced guard should be advanced from fifty to two hundred paces in front of the Column. Each advanced Guard should send forward a detachment to serve as an advanced guard to itself and that detachment should also send out a patrole in front each one hundred paces in front of the other; thus one Captain 2 Subalterns, 6 non-Commissioned Officers, one Drum and fifty men will send out a nonCommissioned Officer and twelve men, and that non-Commission'd Officer will also advance four men in his front. An advanced Guard of a Lieutt. and 20 men will advance one non-Commissioned Officer and eight men, and the nonCommissioned Officer will advance two men in his front. The Rear Guard will observe the same Rules sending it's detachment in the Rear as the advanced Guard does in front. When a Brigade, Division or the Army marches by the right tis supposed the Enemy is on the left and the contrary; Each Battalion will therefore send out on the Flank exposed to the Enemy, a subaltern, two noncommissioned Officers and sixteen men as a flank guard, who will march in a platoon by files from the right opposite the center of the Battalion at the distance of 80 or 100 Paces from the Column. When the Army marches in two Columns the Right Column has its flank Guard on it's right and the left Column on it's left. When in one Column and the Position of the Enemy uncertain, guard must be sent on both flanks. The advanc'd, Flank and Rear Guard must allways have their Bayonets fixed. Wherever the Ground will permit the Battalion must march by Platoons: During the march each Colonel must stay before his Battalion and each Captain and Subaltern before his Platoon; The Intervals between the Battalions and Platoons must be strictly observed during the march. When there is a Creek or Defile to pass the Brigadiers must stop 'till their Brigades have passed and the Colonels 'till their respective Battalions have passed. They will take care that the Men pass with as large a front and as quick as possible. The advanced Guard having passed the Defile should take such a situation as to be able to see all around and should send out Patroles 500 Paces round: The head of the Column halts before it enters the Defile to

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let the Platoons get at half distance and when half the Column has got thro' it halts 'till the whole has passed and then continues its march. When the road will not admit to march by Platoons, the march is to be made by sections of four in front in the following manner; Each Officer divides his Platoon into sections; For Example a Platoon of 16 files makes four sections, they will break off by the right or left and continue the march, each section two paces distant from the other: If a Platoon has fifteen files, the last section will have three files. If the Platoon has only fourteen the last will have four men in one rank. If a Platoon has thirteen files, the last will have five files. When marching in this Order by the right, the Officers commanding Platoons will be on the left of the first Section, the Serjeant on the right stays in his Place and the Officers and Non-Commissioned Officers Who were in the Rear will be on the right flanks; If they march in this order by the left the Commanding Officer of the Platoon remains on the right of the first section and the others on the left flank so that by wheeling the Sections the Platoon will be formed and each Officer and non-Commission'd Officer be in his Place. During the march each Officer must keep his Platoon in order; The Officers and non-Commissioned Officers in the Rear must prevent the soldiers leaving their ranks on any Account; If the soldiers have occasion for water, the Officer must send a nonCommissioned Officer with some men to fill their Canteens, and the Non-Commissioned Officer must bring them back to their Platoon immediately. The flank guard will never suffer any non-Commissioned Officer or soldier to pass them during the march and the Rear Guard will take care to bring up all Straglers.”

General orders, 1 June 1778, ibid., 12 (1934), 4-6.
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Woodford’s Virginia Brigade, “B[rigade].O[rders]. June 18th 1778 As the enemy has evacuated Philadelphia their is A Prospect of Immediate Orders for Marching. The different Regts. Are therefore to hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment’s warning.”

Order book, 10th Virginia Regiment, Brig. Gen. William Woodford’s brigade (p. 38), American Revolution Center (identification based on author’s analysis): 10th Virginia Regt. order book, 26 May to 14 September 1778; 6th (former 10th) Virginia Regt. order book, 14-26 September 1778; Covers period at Valley Forge, Paramus, White Plains, West Point and Robinson’s, 5/26/1778 to 9/26/1778.
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"Orders relative to the March from Valley Forge June 1778, after Gen. Lee's and Genl. Mifflin's Divisns. had Marched." [18 June 1778] The Army is to March to Morrow and till further Orders in the following Order. The Marquis De La Fayette is to lead Woodford’s Scott’s North Carolina Brigades The Baron de Kalb next with Glovers Pattersons Learneds Brigades The Artillery Park and spare Ammunition Lord Sterling with Weedons Muhlenbergs 1st Maryland 2d Maryland The disposition for the Baggage of the Army to be as follows: The Commander in Chief's Baggage is to march in the front of the column of Waggons. The Adjutant General's, Paymaster Generals Engineers Muster Master General Auditor of Accounts The Baggage of the Marquis de la Fayettes De Kalbs Division the Baggage of Lord Stiflings Division and then the Waggons of the Quarter Master General's department Flying Hospital and lastly the Corny. and Forage Master General's Waggons. The whole Baggage to fall in the Rear of the Column of Troops. The Genl. officers commanding the Grand Divisions to appoint such guards upon the baggage as shall be necessary for the Security thereof.

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They will also, appoint a party of Pioneers to move in front of the Columns, to assist the Artificers in repairing Bridges and bad places in the roads. There will be a party of Artificers to go in front and rear of the whole, to mend Bridges and repair the Broken Carriages; which will take their Orders from the Q. M. Genl. The sub Inspectors are to assist the Quarter Master General in regulating the order of March, encampment and planting of Guards and to accompany and follow his Directions accordingly. Note, the Light Horse is to March in front and upon the Right flank a days and encamp in the Rear of the Troops o Nights. The new guards will form the advanced guards of the army and the old guards the rear guard. Each regiment will send out a flank guard on the right flank in the proportion of a serjeant and 12 men to every 200 men.

[Note: The text is from The Lee Papers, vol. II, 1778-1782, Collections of the New-York Historical Society for the Year 1873 (New York, 1872), 410-411.
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“[Orders, June 18, 1778] … Note, the Light Horse is to March in front and upon the Right flank a days and encamp in the Rear of the Troops o Nights. The new guards will form the advanced guards of the army and the old guards the rear guard. Each regiment will send out a flank guard on the right flank in the proportion of a serjeant and 12 men to every 200 men.”

"Orders relative to the March from Valley Forge June 1778, after Gen. Lee's and Genl. Mifflin's Divisns. had Marched," 18 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 91-92.
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Orders Issued During the Movement from Valley Forge to Englishtown. “Head Quarters, Doctor Shennons, Friday, June 19, 1778. Parole -- . Countersigns -- . The Commanding Officers of Corps are to pay the greatest attention to keeping their men within their Encampment and prevent stragling, that they may be in constant readiness for moving at the shortest notice. They are likewise to forbid under the severest Penalties, marauding and the Destruction of the Inclosures, Fruit Trees or other Property of the Inhabitants. The General will beat tomorrow morning at 3 o'Clock, the troop in half an hour afterwards and the whole line is to march precisely at four. If through mistake any part of the baggage should not have marched in the order of the Brigades, the Waggon Master General is to have the matter rectified so that the whole may move tomorrow in proper order. If any of the Troops have marched without the proper quantity of cooked Provisions they are to cook enough this afternoon to serve them tomorrow and the next day provided their rations are of salt meat. The old and new Guards will parade in the road opposite Mr. Shennon's precisely at half past three o'Clock in the morning. After Orders In future the Camp Kettles are always to be carried by the Messes; each soldier of the Mess taking it in his turn, and no man is on any Account to presume to put the Camp Kettle belonging to the Mess in a Waggon. No soldier is to put his Musquet in a Waggon unless on Account of his Inability to carry it, in which Case he is to obtain leave from a Field Officer of the day, Commanding Officer of the Regiment or from the Officer of the Baggage guard who shall make themselves judges of the circumstances. The Officers of the day are authorized to punish on the spot such as transgress the foregoing Orders. The indulgence of suffering Women to ride in Waggons having degenerated into a great abuse, and complaint having been made by the Officers of the day that the Plea of leave from Officers is constantly urged when the Waggon Masters order such Women down. It is expressly ordered that no Officer grant such leave for the future but the Commanding Officers of a Brigade or the Field Officers of the day who are to grant it only on account of Inability to march, and in writing. The General is far from supposing that any Officer will act in opposition to a positive order, but he is determined in Case a Violation should happen that it shall not pass unnoticed.

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The Officers of the day are to report the names of those who are guilty of a breach thereof.” (Note: "June 20, 1778. To cash Gave Mr. Shannons Servants by Ord. Genl. £1:17:6" -- "Headquarters Expense Account," in the Washington Papers.)

General orders, 19 June 1778, ibid., 12 (1934), 93.
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“Head Quarters, Buckingham, Saturday, June 20, 1778 … Each Regiment is to furnish a Sub, each Brigade a Captain, and the line a Field Officer who are during the march to mount with the morning Guards and under the direction of the Brigadier of the day collect all Straglers and march them to the Army. They are more over to see that nothing which can or ought to be brought away is left on the ground, or properly secured there; That this business may be conducted with more ease, a Subaltern and twelve Dragoons are to assist. The Commanding Officer of the Cavalry will give orders for having them furnished in Rotation. If the morning should not be very wet, the General, Troop and March will be as this morning. If the Commissaries are provided, the men are to have each a Gill of spirits served to them this afternoon.”

General orders, 20 June 1778, ibid., 12 (1934), 98.
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“Head Quarters, Coryell's-Ferry, June 21, 1778 … A Gill of spirits pr. man to be issued to the Troops this day. Those Brigades which are out of provision will draw this afternoon at Mr. Simpson's on the Hill the West-Side of the Ferry. No men are to be permitted to bathe till sunset. The Troops are to begin to cross the Ferry at half past three o'Clock tomorrow morning precisely, at which time the new Guards are to parade on the East Side the Ferry and the old ones on the West where the officers who are to march in the Rear will also assemble. The General to beat at three quarters past two and the troop at a quarter past three in the morning.”

General orders, 21 June 1778, ibid., 12 (1934), 104.
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Woodford’s Virginia Brigade, “B[rigade]. Orders June 22d. 1778 Returns to be made out Immediately of Dammagd. Cartridges in the Brigade and the Number wanting in the Different Regts. to Compleat each Man to Forty Rounds. The Comanding Officers of Regts. to be Particular Carefull that the arms of the men belonging [to] their Respective Cores are in the Best Order possible by tomorrow Morning. Field Returns are to be Made out Immediatly Specifying the Number of Officers Serjts. & rank & File Now in the Different Regts. Fit for Immediate Action. they are to note such as are in want of Arms and Accoutrements.”

Order book, 10th Virginia Regiment, Brig. Gen. William Woodford’s brigade (pp. 4647), American Revolution Center.
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“Head Quarters, Coryell's Ferry, Monday, June 22, 1778 … A Field return is to be made this afternoon under the immediate Inspection of the Brigadiers and Officers commanding Brigades, who are to be responsible for their Exactness; These returns to comprehend those men only who are actually on the spot fit for duty in time of Action, among which the guards will be included; the unarmed men to be distinguished. The soldiers to have their Arms well cleaned and afterwards carefully inspected, together with their Ammunition, by their respective Officers. The tents and heavy baggage, if there is any, will be separated from the Army for some days; the Officers will content themselves with a few Necessaries during that time; The Quarter Master General will make his Arrangements accordingly. He will give orders respecting the movement of the separated baggage: None but Invalids and men unfit for the fatigues of a march are to go as guards to the baggage. Intrenching Tools are to be assigned to the Brigades in due proportion and delivered to the Care of the Brigade Quarter Masters. When circumstances will permit the Artificers and Pioneers are to advance before the Van Guard of the Army and repair the roads with Fascines and Earth instead of Rails which serve to cripple the horses. The Quarter Master General will fall upon some method to have straw equally and regularly distributed to the men, when they arrive at the ground of Encampment to prevent Confusion and Waste.

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On a march the Major General of the day will pay particular Attention that the Column advances in compleat order and not so fast in front as to fatigue and distress the Rear. The Brigadier of the day with the Officers ordered to remain in the Rear will see that every thing is properly conducted there; the Guards kept to their duty and all damage to the fruit trees prevented, of which the whole road hitherto exhibits such shameful proofs. Commanding Officers of Companies will see that their men fill their Canteens before they begin the march, that they may not be under a necessity of tuning to every spring and injuring themselves by drinking cold water when heated with marching. Each Brigade is to furnish an active, spirited Officer and twenty five of it's best marksmen immediately; These parties to join Colo. Morgan's Corps and continue under his command 'till the Enemy pass thro' the Jerseys after which they are to rejoin their Regiments without further orders. The General will beat at three oClock in the morning and the Army march at four o'Clock precisely. The Quarter Master General will communicate the order of March and the Route and will acquaint the Major Generals with their respective Commands. After Orders The following Brigades during the march are to compose the Right Wing of the Army and be commanded by Major General Lee: Woodford's, Scott's, No. Carolina, Poor's, Varnum's and Huntington's. First Pennsylvania, 2nd. Pennsylvania, Late Conway's, Glovers, Larneds, and Paterson's are to compose the Left Wing and be commanded by Major General Lord Stirling. The Second line is to consist of 1st. and 2nd. Maryland, Muhlenberg's, Weedon's and Maxwell's (when it joins) and be commanded by Major General the Marquis De la Fayette. The Army to march from the left. The Quarter Master Genl. will furnish Guides. A Field Officer is to take Charge of the baggage guard. If the weather should prove very rainy in the morning the Troops are not to march; in any case, if they march the tents are to be left standing and the baggage guards are, when dry to strike and load them in the Waggons. Lieutt. Colo. Coleman will take command of the baggage guard. The Officer and twenty five men from each Brigade who are to be annexed to Colo. Morgan's Corps are to be sent to his quarters early tomorrow morning about a mile in front of the Army. The two Light Infantry Companies in the North Carolina Brigade will be attached to Colo. Morgan's Corps instead of the twenty five therefrom, mention'd in the first order of this day. Lieutenant Colo. Basset is appointed Bringer-up vice Lieutt. Colo. Coleman.”

General orders, 22 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 105-106.
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“Head Quarters, Hunt's House, Tuesday, June 23, 1778. Parole Philadelphia. Countersigns Brunswick, Boston. The Troops will cook their Provisions and in every respect be in the greatest readiness possible for a march or Action very early in the morning. When the General beats, the Army is to be put in immediate readiness to march; on beating the troop the march begins. The Wings and the second line are each to furnish 2 Captains, 3 Subs, 3 Serjeants, 3 Corporals and 117 Privates for guards daily 'till further Orders. The Guards parade tomorrow before Doctr. De Camps quarters on the Road to Head Quarters when the General beats. The Commissary of Military Stores will deliver out Arms tomorrow to the returns signed by Commanding Officers of Regiments or Corps, who will send very early to the Artillery Park for such numbers as are wanting to complete their men now on the ground fit for duty. ”

General orders, 23 June 1778, ibid., 12 (1934), 110.
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23 June 1778, passage added from 10th Virginia order book:
Following “now on the Ground fit for Duty. the Detachment to be on the Grand Parade Percisely at 4 oClock Fifty Black Men to Compose a Corps of Poineers, Genl. Weedins a Subn. and five Privates to parade with the Guards tomorrow morning.”

Order book, 10th Virginia Regiment, Brig. Gen. William Woodford’s brigade (p. 53), American Revolution Center
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“Head Quarters, Hunt's House, Wednesday, June 24, 1778 … Officers are on no Account to be absent from their Encampment and are to be particularly vigilant to prevent their men from stragling. The Troops in point of provision and every other respect are to be held in constant readiness for moving when the General beats which will be the signal for marching. The Commanding Officers of Corps are to make accurate returns of the Axes, Tomahawks and other such tools in possession of their Corps.”

General orders, 24 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 111.
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The published Writings of George Washington contains a 23 June 1778 letter to Gen. Philemon Dickinson with the following note: “There were no general orders issued June 25 or 26. Headquarters were at Kingston June 25 and the parole was "Monmouth" and the countersigns "Minden" and "Mexico." [Headquarters for 25 June were actually at Longbridge Farm, four miles east of Kingston.] June 26 headquarters were at Cranberry, the parole "Lookout," and the countersigns "Sharp" and "Keen." While no orders are extant for 25 June, the 10th Virginia order book does contain the following for the 26th:
Woodford’s Virginia Brigade, “Cramberry June 26th. 1778 [Officers of the day] Majr. Genl. Lord Stearling Brigadier Woodford Coll. Vorce Lt. Coll. Cropper Bringer up [in the rear of the army] Coll Swift B. Majr. McOrmick B[rigade].O[rders]. A Very Exact Affective Return to be made tomorrow Morning to the Brigade Major Commanding Officers of Cores are Requested to Examine into the State of Arms and Ammunition & Accoutrements and have their Arms put in the best order & if any Ammunition is Damagd. they will Draw a Sufficiency to Compleate their Men to 40 Rounds and return the Damagd.”

Order book, 10th Virginia Regiment, Brig. Gen. William Woodford’s brigade (p. 55), American Revolution Center
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(The following order is not found in the George Washington Papers.)
Woodford’s Virginia Brigade, “G.O. July [sic, actually June] 27th 1778 No Drum to be Beat on the March except for signals (Viz) to halt in front for the Rear to Come up three long Rolls – to march when the Rear is come up a Common March. to Quickin the March the Granadiers March. These Signals to begin in the Rear under the Directions of the B. Genl. of the Day and are to be respected by the Orderly Drum of every Battalion from to front. An Orderly Drum is to be kept ready Braced with each Battalion for that Purpose. When the whole line is to halt for refreshment the first part of the Genl. will be Beat in front and is to be Respected by every orderly Drum down the Rear --- The Troops are to be Compleated with Provision (salt Meat if Possible) up to the 29 th. Inclusively & have it Cookd. The Commanding Officers of Regts. will see this order Executed as soon as possable.”

Order book, 10th Virginia Regiment, Brig. Gen. William Woodford’s brigade (pp. 5657), American Revolution Center.
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Weedon’s Virginia Brigade. “Monolopy June 27th 1778 [Officers of the day] Majr. Genl. Lord Stearling - Brigadier Patterson Coll. Patton Lt. Coll.Millon and Lt. Coll. Ford Bringer up [in the rear of the army] Lt. Coll Wigglesworth Brid. Majr. Stag As we are now nigh the enemy and of Consequence Vigilence & precaution more Assentially necessary the Commanr. in Chief desires and injoins it upon all Officers to keep their Posts & their Soldiers Compact so as to be ready for a March at a Moments Warning as Circumstances May require.”

Order book, 10th Virginia Regiment, Brig. Gen. William Woodford’s brigade (p. 57), American Revolution Center.
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“Head Quarters, Penolopen, Saturday, June 27, 1778 … As we are now nigh the Enemy and of consequence Vigilance and Precaution more essentially necessary, the Commander in Chief desires and enjoins it upon all Officers to keep their Posts and their soldiers compact so as to be ready to form and march at a moments warning as circumstances may require.”

General orders, 27 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 124. 7. General Washington’s forces marched from Valley Forge to the Delaware River in five divisions, formed as follows:
Maj. Gen. Charles Lee’s Division Brig. Gen. James Varnum's Brigade 4th Connecticut, (Capt. Paul Brigham) 8th Connecticut (Pvt. Joseph Martin) 2d Rhode Island (including Arnold’s detachment of the 1st Rhode Island) (Sgt. Jeremiah Greenman) Brig. Gen. Enoch Poor’s Brigade 1st New Hampshire 2d New Hampshire 3d New Hampshire 2d New York 4th New York Brig. Gen. Jedediah Huntington's Brigade 1st /7th Connecticut (composite) 2d/5th Connecticut (composite) Brig. Gen. Anthony Wayne’s Division 1st Pennsylvania Brigade 1st Pennsylvania 2d Pennsylvania 7th Pennsylvania 10th Pennsylvania 2d Pennsylvania Brigade 4th Pennsylvania 5th Pennsylvania 11th Pennsylvania 1st New York 3d (late Conway’s) Brigade 3d Pennsylvania 6th Pennsylvania 12th Pennsylvania Malcolm’s Additional Spencer’s Additional

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Maj. Gen. Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette’s Division North Carolina Brigade 1st North Carolina 2d North Carolina Brig. Gen. Charles Scott’s Brigade 4th/8th/12th Virginia (composite) Grayson’s Additional Patton’s Additional Brig. Gen. William Woodford’s Brigade 3d Virginia 7th Virginia 11th Virginia 15th Virginia Maj. Gen. Johann DeKalb’s Division Brig. Gen. John Glover’s Brigade 1st Massachusetts (Sgt. Ebenezer Wild) 4th Massachusetts 13th Massachusetts 15th Massachusetts Brig. Gen. John Paterson’s Brigade 10th Massachusetts 11th Massachusetts 12th Massachusetts 14th Massachusetts Late Learned’s Brigade 2d Massachusetts 8th Massachusetts (Lt. Samuel Armstrong) 9th Massachusetts Maj. Gen. William Alexander, Lord Stirling’s Division 1st Maryland Brigade 1st Maryland 3d Maryland 5th Maryland 7th Maryland Delaware Regiment 2d Maryland Brigade 2d Maryland 4th Maryland 6th Maryland Late Weedon’s Brigade 2d Virginia 6th Virginia 10th Virginia 14th Virginia Brig. Gen. Peter Muhlenberg’s Brigade 1st/5th/ 9th Virginia (composite) 1st Virginia State 2d Virginia State German Battalion

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General orders, 18 June 1778; "Orders relative to the March from Valley Forge June 1778, after Gen. Lee's and Genl. Mifflin's Divisns. had Marched" (order of march from Valley Forge), 18 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 90, 91. Brigade troop strength based on the 22 June 1778 army return published in William S. Stryker, Battle of Monmouth (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1927), 279. Artillery troop strength is from the 30 May 1778 army return, for which see, Charles H. Lesser, Sinews of Independence: Monthly Strength Reports of the Continental Army (Chicago, Il. and London, 1976), 68–69. Numbers and apportionment of vehicles and horses based on 30 May 1778 Valley Forge wagon return, including an allotment of two field pieces to each brigade, for which see, “General Return of Waggons &ca. with the Army,” Valley Forge, 30 May 1778, Chaloner and White Mss., box 6, folder 3, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Two horses have been allocated for each army baggage wagon, and four horses to every artillery ammunition wagon. Wagon allotment for the two Maryland brigades is conjectural, based on the known allotment for other brigades. The artillery wagon allotment is conjectural based on the number of divisions and the artillery wagons listed on the 30 May return. Twenty–nine field pieces are listed in the 30 May Valley Forge return. Four cannon were absent with Brig. Gen. William Smallwood’s two Maryland brigades at Wilmington, Delaware, plus artillery wagon support. Two pieces were also absent with Brig. Gen. William Maxwell’s New Jersey brigade in their home state. That gives a total of thirty-five cannon with the main army’s brigades, both present with General Washington and absent in New Jersey. Washington’s army vehicle allotment for the march to Coryell’s Ferry, based on the 30 May 1778 return and other documents:
(NOTE: Of the vehicles and horses listed on the 30 May 1778 return, 265 wagons and 1,183 horses were property of the United States; 43 wagons and 189 horses were private property.)

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1. Lee’s Division: Varnum’s R.I., and Poor’s and Huntingdon’ s Ct. brigades. McDougal’s Division: Varnum’s and Huntingdon’s Brigades: 8 baggage wagons, 2 ammunition wagons, 6 commissary wagons, 0 foraging wagons 63 wagon horses, 3 riding horses, 3 wagons at artificers, 1 wagon and 3 horses on command (i.e., detached duty) Poor’s Brigade: 6 baggage wagons, 1 ammunition wagon, 3 commissary wagons, 0 foraging wagons 40 wagon horses, 2 riding horses

TOTAL:
14 baggage wagons 3 ammunition wagons 9 commissary wagons 103 wagon horses 5 riding horses plus “on command” 1 wagon and 3 horses 3 wagons being repaired

Total Lee’s Division: 26 wagons, 103 wagon horses, 5 riding horses
2. Wayne’s Division: three Pennsylvania brigades. Wayne’s two Pennsylvania Brigades: 11 baggage wagons, 2 ammunition wagons, 4 commissary wagons, 2 foraging wagons 76 wagon horses, 2 riding horses (plus 2 wagons and 8 wagon horses for Van Schaick’s 1 st New York) late Conway’s Brigade: 6 baggage wagons, 1 ammunition wagon, 2 commissary wagons, 0 foraging wagons 36 wagon horses, 1 riding horse TOTAL: 17 baggage wagons 3 ammunition wagons 6 commissary wagons 2 foraging wagons 112 wagon horses 3 riding horses

Total Wayne’ Division: 30 wagons, 120 wagon horses, 3 riding horses Total Lee’s Two Divisions: 56 wagons, 223 wagon horses, 8 riding horses.
3. Lafayette’s Division: the North Carolina, and Scott’s and Woodford’s Va. brigades. McIntosh’s Brigade: 5 baggage wagons, 1 ammunition wagon, 4 commissary wagons, 1 traveling forge 41 wagon horses, 3 riding horses Woodford’s and Scott’s Brigades: 13 baggage wagons, 1 ammunition wagon, 5 commissary wagons, 0 foraging wagons 75 wagon horses, 2 riding horses

TOTAL:
18 baggage wagons 2 ammunition wagons 9 commissary wagons 1 traveling forge 116 wagon horses 5 riding horses

Total Lafayette’s Division: 30 wagons, 116 wagon horses, 5 riding horses

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4. DeKalb’s Division: Glover’s, Patterson’s, and Learned’s Mass. brigades. Patterson’s and Learned’s Brigades: 9 baggage wagons, 2 ammunition wagons, 4 commissary wagons, 0 foraging wagons 60 wagon horses, 2 riding horses Glover’s Brigade: 5 baggage wagons, 1 ammunition wagon, 2 commissary wagons, 0 foraging wagons 32 wagon horses, 0 riding horses

TOTAL:
14 baggage wagons 3 ammunition wagons 6 commissary wagons 92 wagon horses 2 riding horses

Total DeKalb’s Division: 23 wagons, 92 wagon horses, 2 riding horses
5. Stirling’s Division: two Maryland, and Weedon’s and Muhlenberg’s Va. brigades . Muhlenberg’s and Weedon’s Brigades: 14 baggage wagons, 2 ammunition wagons, 4 commissary wagons, 2 foraging wagons 80 wagon horses, 4 riding horses (plus 2 wagons and 8 wagon horses for Smith’s 2d Virginia State Regt.) Two Maryland Brigades: (Given the lack of a wagon return for the Maryland regiments under Brig. Gen. William Smallwood absent from Valley Forge at their station at Wilmington, Delaware, the numbers for Muhlenberg’s and Weedon’s brigades are used as an estimate) 14 baggage wagons, 2 ammunition wagons, 4 commissary wagons, 2 foraging wagons 80 wagon horses, 4 riding horses

TOTAL:
28 baggage wagons 4 ammunition wagons 8 commissary wagons 4 foraging wagons 160 wagon horses 8 riding horses

Total Stirling’s Division: 46 wagons, 168 wagon horses, 8 riding horses Total Lafayette’s, DeKalb’s, Stirling’s Divisions: 99 wagons, 376 wagon horses, 15 riding horses.
6. Artillery, field pieces and wagons. 1,069 troops (34 men per field piece) 29 (or 33) field pieces (2 field pieces detached to each brigade = 32 field pieces; 3 short; 4 field pieces were absent with the two Maryland brigades garrisoned at Wilmington, Delaware during the Valley Forge winter and spring. Also note, 2 field pieces were also detached and serving with Brig. Gen. William Maxwell’s New Jersey Brigade at or near Mount Holly, New Jersey.)

(4 field pieces with Smallwood; 4 plus 29 makes 33 field pieces in all) (Note: Modified, replacing Harrison’s Regt. for Proctor’s.)
8 baggage wagons (plus 1 for Maryland artillery) 21 ammunition wagons (plus 1 for Maryland artillery) 107 wagon horses 108 artillery horses 6 riding horses 5 bat horses

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Crane’s Artillery: 10 field pieces, 3 baggage wagons, 8 ammunition wagons, 39 wagon horses, 38 artillery horses, 2 riding horses Lamb’s Artillery: 9 field pieces, 2 baggage wagons, 5 ammunition wagons, 29 wagon horses, 32 artillery horses, 2 riding horses, 5 bat horses Harrison’s Artillery (estimated, but had the same number of men as Crane’s): 10 field pieces, 3 baggage wagons, 8 ammunition wagons, 39 wagon horses, 38 artillery horses, 2 riding horses (Note: Proctor’s Artillery Regt., or a portion of it, was sent to Philadelphia to garrison the city. Sometime before 30 May 1778 Col. Charles Harrison’s Artillery Regt. joined the army at Valley Forge. Harrison’s Regiment then participated in the Monmouth Campaign and battle. The number of cannon with Harrison’s Regiment is unknown, but unit strength was recorded on the May 1778 army return as 35 officers, 102 non-commissioned officers, 4 staff, 148 rank & file (total strength 289). By way of comparison Crane’s Artillery had 29 officers, 118 non -commissioned officers, 2 staff, 140 rank & file (total strength 289. 30 May 1778 army return, Lesser, Sinews of Independence, 6870.) Proctor’s Artillery was allotted to garrison Philadelphia following the British evacuation, and did not, as a whole, march into New Jersey. Some elements evidently fight in the Monmouth battle, as related byDr. William Read who observed a portion of Proctor’s artillery on Perrine Hill during the action of 28 June. Proctor’s Artillery had 10 field pieces, 6 baggage wagons, 7 ammunition wagons, 37 wagon horses, 42 artillery horses, 2 riding horses _________________________ Artillery vehicle allotment calculated by division: 9 baggage wagons, 22 ammunition wagons, 5 bat [pack] horses (Note: 1 baggage wagon and 1 ammunition wagon have been added for the Maryland Brigade artillery.) Stirling’s and Lee’s Divisions - 2 artillery baggage wagons, 5 ammunition wagons Other three divisions – One division with 1 artillery baggage wagon, two divisions each 2 artillery baggage wagons. These three division each had 4 ammunition wagons.

Total Artillery with Marching Divisions: 33 field pieces, 5 bat horses, 31 wagons, 197 *** wagon and artillery horses, 6 riding horses. (*** 215 wagon and artillery horses were listed in 30 May 1778 return)
__________________________ 7. Artillery Support Spare Ammunition: 7 ammunition wagons, 28 wagon horses, 1 riding horse, 14 wagons and 56 horses on command Commissary to the Artillery Park: 2 commissary wagons, 8 wagon horses, Foraging for the Artillery Park: 18 foraging wagons, 72 wagon horses, 4 riding horses

Total Artillery Support: 41 wagons, 166 wagon horses, 5 riding horses, 1 spare field piece.
8. Army Baggage **** “The whole Baggage to fall in the Rear of the Column of Troops.” The disposition for the Baggage of the Army to be as follows: The Commander in Chief's Baggage is to march in the front The Adjutant General's Paymaster Generals Engineers Muster Master General Auditor of Accounts (Baggage detailed below)

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Commander-in-Chief’s baggage 7 baggage wagons, 28 wagon horses Staff baggage 13 baggage wagons, 52 wagon horses Commissary to the Staff 3 commissary wagons, 12 wagon horses, 1 riding horse Estimated baggage for: Adjutant Gen., Paymaster Gen., Muster Master Gen., Auditor, 2 wagons, 8 horses Engineers, 2 wagons, 8 horses (Sub-total: 27 wagons, 109 horses.) and then the Waggons of the Quarter Master General's department Quartermaster General 10 wagons, 40 horses Artificers 1 baggage wagon, 5 artificer’s wagons, 2 traveling forges, 29 wagon horses Flying Hospital 1 baggage wagon, 1 store wagon, 1 extra purpose wagon, 12 wagon horses, 1 riding horse Comy. and Forage Master General's Waggons. Estimated for Commissary General 20 wagons, 80 horses Foraging for the Continental Yard 7 foraging wagons, 28 wagon horses, 1 riding horse (Sub-total: 48 wagons, 191 horses.) **** The divisions that left Valley Forge with General Washington on 19 June marched without their baggage wagons. All the army baggage followed Stirling’s division. Repairing (not included with army marching to Monmouth) 60 wagons at artificers 10 wagons sent to Reading to be repaired Reserve Teams (not included with army marching to Monmouth) 78 baggage wagons 326 wagon horses, 4 riding horses 7 wagons on command 28 horses on command

Total C-in-C’s and Staff Baggage, Commissary, Hospital, Quartermaster, etc.: 75 wagons, 297 wagon horses, 3 riding horses

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Miscellaneous Col. Goose Van Schaick’s (1st New York Regt.) and Col. [Gregory] Smith’s (2d Virginia State Reg t.) Detachments 5 baggage wagons (possibly 3 with Van Schaick’s Regt., 2 with Smith’s Regt.) 20 wagon horses NOTE: 2 wagons and 8 horses added to Wayne’s Pennsylvania Division for the 1 st New York joining to replace the 8th Pennsylvania Regiment sent to western Pennsylvania on 31 May 1778). 2 wagons and 8 horses added to Muhlenberg’s Brigade for 2d Virginia State Regiment.

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Maxwell’s New Jersey Brigade (Estimated) 3 baggage wagons, 3 commissary wagons, 2 foraging wagons, 3 wagons without horses, 2 wagons on command (possibly with Col. Israel Shreve’s 2d New Jersey Regt. in New Jersey) , 18 wagon horses, 3 riding horses. Total: 11 wagons (if sufficient wagon horses could be found). Lt. John Shreve recalled 6 baggage wagons for the brigade in June 1778.) 30 May 1778: Conway’s Brigade strength, 1,187; Maxwell’s Brigade strength, 1,059 4 July 1778: Conway’s Brigade strength, 1,152; Maxwell’s Brigade strength, 1,691 Late Conway’s Brigade (Stirling’s Division) returned 6 baggage wagons, 1 ammunition wagon, 2 commissary wagons, 36 wagon horses, and 1 riding horse. The 7 April 1778 return listed Stirling’s Division with Conway’s and Maxwell’s Brigades having together 9 baggage wagons, 5 commissary wagons, 2 foraging wagons, 3 wagons in camp but no horses, 54 wagon horses, 4 riding horses, 1 wagon at the artificers, and 2 wagons on command. Col. Henry Jackson’s Regiment Jackson’s Additional Regiment was stationed at the Gulph (modern-day Gulph Mills, Pennsylvania) in spring 1778, and marched separately to Englishtown, taking possession of Philadelphia first. “Head Quarters, V. Forge, Thursday, May 28, 1778 … Commanding Officers of Brigades in pursuance of former orders to hold themselves in readiness to march, are to apply immediately to the Quarter Master General for a sufficient number of Waggons to transport their Baggage and are to have their respective Brigades supplied as completely as possible with Camp Utensils and Necessaries of every kind requisite towards taking the Field. The Commissary will have a quantity of hard bread and salt meat prepared to issue to the Army when call'd for. As we may expect every moment to march, the Army is to be prepared in all respects for that purpose. … The Detachment under Colo. Jackson to March into Philadelphia and receive orders from General Arnold who will comd. there. Vanscoicks Regiment to replace the 8th. Pensyla. in the 2d. Pensa. Brigade. The Seed. State Regimt. of Virginia to replace the 13th. Virga. Regt. in Muhlenbergs Brig. The Parke of Artillery to be divided among the several divisions above, equally and March with them.

(General orders, 28 May 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 11 (1934), 463-465.) Total Lee’s Two Divisions 56 wagons, 223 wagon horses, 8 riding horses. Total Artillery with Marching Divisions 33 field pieces, 5 bat horses, 31 wagons, 197 wagon and artillery horses, 6 riding horses. Total Lafayette’s, DeKalb’s, Stirling’s Divisions 99 wagons, 376 wagon horses, 15 riding horses. Total Artillery Support 41 wagons, 166 wagon horses, 1 spare field piece, 5 riding horses Total C-in-C’s and Staff Baggage, Commissary, Hospital, Quartermaster, etc 75 wagons, 297 wagon horses, 3 riding horses Total for Washington’s Army, June 1778 ***** 33 field pieces, 302 wagons, 1,259 wagon and artillery horses, 5 bat horses, 38 riding horses ***** These numbers do not take into account riding horses for commanders, staff officers, and regimental field officers. (Note: Number of vehicles and wagon horses are based on returns; some estimates have been formulated where concrete information is unavailable.)

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Wheeled Transportation. The types of baggage wagons used by Washington’s army cannot be certainly known, but must have been a bit of a hodge-podge. Some vehicles, most notably the large English wagons brought by over from Britain in 1776 to serve General Sir William Howe’s troops, as well as the larger Conestoga wagons, were considered too heavy and cumbersome to follow a campaigning army; others like the “Dutch” wagons of Long and Staten Islands, and northern New Jersey, were too fragile for hard service. Francis Clark, "Inspector and Superintendent of His Majesty's Provision Train of Wagons and Horses," reconfigured the large English wagons, lessening their weight by about five hundred pounds, and also devised an even lighter “new Waggon” with rope sides. Continental commanders depended on the Quartermaster Department to build, purchase, or hire wagons for the army. It is known that large numbers of vehicles were hired or purchased in Pennsylvania, and very likely during the Monmouth campaign some portion of Continental Army baggage was carried in smaller Conestoga-style wagons. Other vehicle types were also undoubtedly used for baggage. Below are images of several wagons available in New Jersey and Pennsylvania during the War for American Independence. (See endnote 33 for further discussion of army wagons.)

“A relatively small but graceful nine-bow Conestoga owned by [the late] D.H. Berkebile.” George Shumway, Edward Durell, and Howard C. Frey, Conestoga Wagon 1750-1850 (York, Pa., 1964), 51.

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Three mid-18th century Conestoga wagons of differing design, reconstructed for Fort Ligonier, Ligonier, Pennsylvania. (http://fortligonier.org/ )

20

(Above and below.) Side and rear view of the large Burgner Conestoga wagon, said to have ben built in 1762 at Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, for Cumberland Valley miller Jonathan Keefer. The wagon bed is four feet deep, fourteen feet long at the bottom and nineteen at the top. It held a ten ton load. John Omwake, The Conestoga Six-Horse Bell Teams of Eastern Pennsylvania (Cincinnati, OH, 1930), 32, 33.

21

"A Philadelphia Waggon" used by the British army in Pennsylvania. "Narrative of Occurences, relative to His Majesty's Provision Train in North America," (circa 1778), Francis Rush Clark Papers (no. 2338), Sol Feinstone Collection, David Library of the American Revolution. Drawing courtesy of the David Library, Washington Crossing, Pa.)

22

"A Country Waggon from Long Island & New York" (drawn circa 1778), also known as a "Dutch" wagon. Francis Rush Clark, "Inspector and Superintendent of His Majesty's Provision Train of Wagons and Horses," wrote: "These were taken promiscuously from the Farmers on Long & Island Staten Island, & some from the Jerseys. Many of them in a wretch'd Condition, & none having any Cover, to protect their Loading." "Narrative of Occurences, relative to His Majesty's Provision Train in North America," (circa 1778), Francis Rush Clark Papers (no. 2338), Sol Feinstone Collection, David Library of the American Revolution. Drawing courtesy of the David Library, Washington Crossing, Pa.)

23

Early 18th century New York Dutch two-horse farm wagon. Detail from Van Bergen Overmantel, circa 1733. NO366.54, New York State Historical Association (Cooperstown). Francis Rush Clark, "Inspector and Superintendent of His Majesty's Provision Train of Wagons and Horses," sketched the same vehicle in the 1770's. (My thanks to Garry W. Stone for bringing the Van Bergen Overmantel to my attention.)

English "Tumbrel," circa 1757. The body measures approximately 3 feet 8 inches wide, 4 feet 10 inches long, by 2 feet high. Muller, Treatise of Artillery, plate XVIII.

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There were several specialized vehicles supporting the army in 1778. Purpose-built ammunition wagons and traveling forges were produced for the Quartermaster General, at first under contract, then beginning in the winter of 1778 by the Artillery Artificers at manufactories at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and Springfield, Massachusetts. In January 1777 General Washington recommended using "Chaises marine [two-wheeled carts] made for the Artillery and Regimental amunition, light, strong and covered ..." Whether or not these carts were adopted by the Continental Army,in his Treatise of Artillery (first published 1757) John Muller shows a similar vehicle, the two-wheeled English "Powder Cart," whose features included a "roof ... covered with oil cloth to prevent dampness from coming to the powder, and ... shot locker[s] ... divided into four parts by boards an inch thick." Muller noted several "defects" in these carts: "our powder carts hold no more than four barrels, and [as] a great quantity is required in all expeditions, they are not sufficient ... there should be powder waggons to hold twelve barrels each. It is true, that the powder carts carry leaden bullets and flints at the same time; and are therefore more convenient to follow the battalions; but the rest should be carried in much larger quantities." He then gave his objections to two-wheeled transport in general, which "though they may be useful upon some particular occasions, yet they should not be used in carrying great quantities of any kind; for the whole weight lying upon one axle-tree, must require more horses to draw a weight, than when the same weight lies upon two. This every carrier must know; and therefore no more carts should be used than are necessary." By adopting four-wheel ammunition wagons both the British and American armies remedied some of these shortcomings. Several of these vehicles were assigned to each brigade for carrying "spare ammunition and arms." Muller noted that the British ammunition wagon "serves likewise to carry bread, it being lined around in the inside with basket work." In response to the commander-in-chief’s query about wagons needed for the artillery, Brig. Gen. Henry Knox replied that the “Artillery Artificers will make the cover’d ammunition Waggons and travelling forges. I expect they will be able at Carlisle and Springfield to make 200 ammunition Waggons by the Spring which in addition to those we already have will be nearly sufficient. I have given to the QuarterMaster Genl. Colo. [Henry Emanuel] Lutterloh’s [deputy quartermaster general for main Continental Army] return for the Horses and Harness to complete them.” Knox estimated that the artillery alone would require 1,049 horses, to pull 106 field pieces (at an average of four draft animals each), 50 ammunition wagons with teams of 5 horses, and 60 wagons for spare ammunition needing 6 horses each. The cannon traveling with Washington’s army and used at Monmouth ranged from three to six pound guns, with the majority fours and sixes. This is based on a letter by Commissary of Military Stores Samuel Hodgdon, written from "Croton Bridge 19 July 1778" to John Ruddock, Deputy Quartermaster of Stores at Fishkill:
Sir the great Consumption of Cannon Ammunition in the late Battle at Monmouth Renders it Necessary that a Supply be sent With all posable dispatch to Camp 200 six pound strap shott 200 four pound Ditto 100 three pound Ditto is Much Wanted also 100 Good Arms & Accutrements I have sent by Mr. Giles QrM Stores five Load of Damaged Arms & Ammunition Who Will Conduct the Above stores to Camp

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When the army was on the move each piece needed a two-wheel limber plus two to four draft horses. Drivers for the artillery limbers and horse teams were often provided by taking common soldiers from infantry regiment for temporary detached duty, though in some cases hired civilian wagoners may also have served.
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An English "Powder Cart," circa 1757. Overall length is approximately 13 1/2 feet. In January 1777 General Washington recommended for the Continental army "Chaises marine [twowheeled carts] made for the Artillery and Regimental amunition, light, strong and covered ..." It is not known if such vehicles were adopted. John Muller, A Treatise of Artillery, 3rd edition (London, John Millan, 1780; 1st edition, 1757; reprinted by Museum Restoration Service, Bloomfield, Ontario, 1977), plate XIX. Washington to Thomas Mifflin, 31 January 1777, John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington, 7 (Washington, GPO, 1932), 83 (see also pagenote).

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Travelling forge, circa 1757. Overall length, 15 1/2 feet. Explanation for plate: a. The bellows. b. Place boarded up to put the tools in. c. Iron plate for the fire place. d. Wooden trough for water. f. Iron plate to receive the cinders, and to lay the hammers and tongs upon. g. Iron plate to prevent the flame setting fire to the carriage. "This forge is very ill contrived: it should have four wheels, that it might stand firm, and be easier carried; the French use such as this last described. Since the first impression of this work these forges have been made with four wheels …” John Muller, A Treatise of Artillery, 3rd edition (London, John Millan, 1780; 1st edition, 1757; reprinted by Museum Restoration Service, Bloomfield, Ontario, 1977), plate XXV, 140.

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English ammunition wagon, circa 1757. Overall length is 26 feet; the cargo-carrying body is 14 feet long by 4 feet wide. Most Continental army ammunition wagons were likely made with four wheels. John Muller, A Treatise of Artillery, 3rd edition (London, John Millan, 1780; 1st edition, 1757; reprinted by Museum Restoration Service, Bloomfield, Ontario, 1977), plate XX.

Artillery piece on the move, attached to limber and horse team. Detail from Phillippe Jacques de Loutherbourg (1740-1812), “Warley Camp: The Review” (1780), Oil on canvas 121.3 x 183.5 cm, Painted for George III, RCIN 406349, The Royal Collection.

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Artillery piece and limber can be seen in the background of this detail from the painting “Royal Artillery in the Low Countries, 1748.” Attributed to David Morier (1705?-70), Oil on canvas, 136.1 x 170.8 cm, Commissioned by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland RCIN 407454, The Royal Collection.

Image of artillery field piece and two-horse limber, from a powder horn engraving. This drawing is from Harold L. Peterson, Round Shot and Rammers: An Introduction to Muzzleloading Land Artillery in the United States (South Bend, In.: South Bend Replicas, 1969), 59. Also see photograph of powder horn in Harold L. Peterson, The Book of the Continental Soldier (Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1968), 132.

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Side and overhead views of British 6-pounder field gun. Harold L. Peterson, The Book of the Continental Soldier (Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1968), 116, 121.

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Continental Army field artillery in action. Detail from William Mercer, “Battle of Princeton on 3rd January 1777” (Historical Society of Pennsylvania)

Wheeled Vehicle Sources: Erna Risch, Supplying Washington's Army (Washington, D.C., 1981), 64-90. J Henry Knox to Washington, 8 January 1778, George Washington Papers (LOC), series 4, reel 45. John U. Rees, "`Employed in carrying cloathing & provisions': Wagons and Watercraft During the War for Independence," Part I. "`Country Waggons,' `Tumbrils,' and `Philadelphia
Carts': Wheeled Transport in The Armies of the Revolution," ALHFAM Bulletin, vol. XXIX, no. 3 (Fall 1999), 4-9, and The Continental Soldier, vol. XII, no. 2 (Winter 1999), 18-25. http://www.continentalline.org/articles/article.php?date=9902&article=990202

“`Little chariots painted red …’: Continental Army Vehicle Paint Colors,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 60, no. 2 (Summer 2008), 154-156. http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/paint.pdf “`The road appeared to be full of red Coats …’: The Battle of Millstone, 20 January 1777: An Episode in the Forage War,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 62, no. 1 (Spring 2010), 24-35. http://revwar75.com/library/rees/pdfs/millstone.pdf “’The great Consumption of Cannon Ammunition …’: Continental Artillery at Monmouth, 28 June 1778,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 60, no. 1 (Spring 2008), 38-39.)

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“One of the largest of the Conestoga freighters, this is known as the Burgner wagon. The cloth cover is supported by thirteen bows. George Shumway, Edward Durell, and Howard C. Frey, Conestoga Wagon 1750-1850 (York, Pa., 1964), 4.

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Wagoner with team of oxen. Horses were the preferred draft animal in the Continental Army for most of the War for Independence. (Image from the 2012 Fair at New Boston, September 1-2, 2012, George Rogers Clark Park, Springfield, Ohio.

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The Maryland brigades at Wilmington, Delaware, 1777-78. General Washington to Brig. Gen. William Smallwood commanding the Maryland brigades:
“Gulph Mill, December 19, 1777. Dr. Sir: With the Division lately commanded by Genl. Sullivan, you are to March immediately for Wilmington, and take Post there. You are not to delay a moment in putting the place in the best posture of defence, to do which, and for the security of it afterwards, I have written in urgent terms to the President of the Delaware State to give every aid he possibly can of Militia. I have also directed an Engineer to attend you for the purpose of constructing, and superintending the Works, and you will fix with the Quarter Master on the number of Tools necessary for the business; but do not let any neglect, or deficiency on his part, impede your operations, as you are hereby vested with full power to sieze and take (passing receipts) such articles as are wanted. The Commissary and Forage Master will receive directions respecting your Supplies, in their way; but I earnestly request that you will see that these Supplies are drawn from the Country between you and Philadelphia, as it will be depriving the Enemy of all chance of getting them; and in this point of view, becomes an object to us of importance. I earnestly exhort you to keep both Officers and Men to their duty, and to avoid furloughs but in cases of absolute necessity. You will also use your utmost endeavours to collect all the straglers &ca. from both Brigades, and you are also to use your best endeavours to get the Men Cloathed in the most comfortable manner you can. You will be particular in your observation of every thing passing on the River and will communicate every matter of Importance to, Dear Sir, etc.”

General Washington to Brigadier General Smallwood:
“Head Quarters, Valley Forge, May 25, 1778. Dear Sir: I am to request that you will immediately detach the first Brigade of the Troops under your command, with all their Baggage, Artillery &ca. to join this Army. With the second and their Baggage &ca. you will move to some strong grounds in the Neighbourhood of Chad's ford and take a position from whence you will have it in your power either to cover the Stores at the Head of Elk, in case an attempt should be formed against them, or to proceed to this Camp on further orders. Tho' you leave Wilmington, it will be necessary to send parties of observation thither and to employ persons in whom you can confide to give you the earliest notice of any movements the Enemy may make, and to inform of the departure or arrival of any Ships, and as correctly as circumstances will admit whether Troops, or what other contents they may have on board. It will also be equally and I think more necessary, that trusty persons should be kept at New Castle for the same purpose, as from the small distance between that place and the Head of Elk, it is most probable the Enemy will land there, if they should undertake an expedition to destroy the Stores.”

Washington to William Smallwood, 19 December 1777, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 10 (1933), 171-172. Washington to William Smallwood, 25 May 1778, ibid., 11 (1934), 449. 8. "Samuel Adams's Private Miscellaneous Diary Ann: Dom: 1778 …,” Samuel Adams Diaries, New York Public Library. 9. General orders, 18 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, vol. 12 (1934), 91-92. 10. Ebenezer Wild, "Journal of Ebenezer Wild," Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 2nd series, vol. VI (Boston, Ma., 1891), 108; Robert C. Bray and Paul E. Bushnell, eds., Diary of a Common Soldier in the American Revolution: An Annotated Edition of the Military Journal of Jeremiah Greenman (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1978), 120. 11. "Samuel Adams's Private Miscellaneous Diary Ann: Dom: 1778 …,” Samuel Adams Diaries, New York Public Library. 12. Joseph Lee Boyle, ed., “From Saratoga to Valley Forge: The Diary of Lt. Samuel Armstrong,” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vol. CXXI, no. 3

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(July 1997), 269-270. Ebenezer Wild, "Journal of Ebenezer Wild," Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 2nd series, vol. VI (Boston, Ma., 1891), 108. 13. Norristown Farm Park, Montgomery County Parks (including link to map of park), http://www.parks.montcopa.org/parks/cwp/view,A,1441,Q,37325,parksNav,%7C.asp 14. Bray and Bushnell, Diary of a Common Soldier in the American Revolution, 120. 15. “Washington put the Continental army in march from Valley Forge … the 18 th of June …General Lee,
with six brigades, led the advance, via Doylestown to New Hope, where he crossed the night of the 20th, and Washington encamped at Doylestown the same evening with the main body. The weather was very stormy, and the army remained [t]here until the next afternoon, occupying three encampments; [1] on the south side of State street, west of Main, [2] on the ridge east of the Presbyterian church, and [3] along the New Hope pike east of the borough mill. Washington pitched his tent near the dwelling of Jonathan Fell, late Frank G. Mann’s farm house, and General Lafayette quartered at the house of Thomas Jones, New Britain …,” W.W.H. Davis, History of Bucks County Pennsylvania (3 volumes) 2d edition,

vol. 2 (Pipersville, Pa.: A.E. Lear, Inc., Publishers, 1975), 130. 16. James McHenry, Journal of a March, 1-2. 17. "Journal of Ebenezer Wild,” 108. 18. Robert C. Bray and Paul E. Bushnell, eds., Diary of a Common Soldier in the American Revolution: An Annotated Edition of the Military Journal of Jeremiah Greenman (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1978), 120. 19. George MacReynolds, Place Names in Bucks County, Pennsylvania (Cornwall, N.Y.: The Cornwall Press, Inc., 1955), New Britain Borough, 260–261; New Britain Township, 261–266. Holicong/Grintown, 195. 20. Nathanael Greene's orders, Verplanks Point, 3 August 1780, Richard K. Showman, ed., The Papers of General Nathanael Greene, vol. VI (Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1991), 177. 21. New Hope bridge: “The original structure at this site, a covered wooden bridge consisting of six
arch spans was completed September 12, 1814. The bridge was 32 feet wide and was divided into two wagon-ways and two footways. After being carried away by the flood of January 9, 1841, it was replaced with another wooden structure, which in turn was claimed by the flood of October 10, 1903. The current bridge superstructure, constructed in 1904, is a six-span, pin-connected Pratt truss with a total length of 1,046 feet. All substructure units are from the original construction in 1814,”

http://www.drjtbc.org/default.aspx?pageid=175. Distance of King’s Ferry crossing (“3/4 mile (3,960 feet)”), courtesy of Alan A. Morrison, Jr.
22. Benjamin Eyre (builder of watercraft for the Continental Army since 1776, and in 1778 appointed “superintendent of naval business” under Q.M.G. Nathanael Greene) to Maj. Gen. Thomas Mifflin, 17 June 1777. Notes and letter:

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“Afording Place two Miles above trentown Not Rapped 4 feet & half Wauter Yar[d]leys ferrey Not Rapped 4 feet Wauter 300 yds Wide 4 miles from trentown a Road Leading from Maidenhead to it Scudders falls 2 miles higher up 4 or 5 feet Wauter Rapped at the head of the Island 150 Yds mane Channel Browns ferrey 2 miles above Scudders falls 250 Yds across Nolesy Cove 2 miles above Browns 125 Yds Rapped & Deep Pettets ferrey 1 mile above Noleses Cove Good fording Plaice 4 ½ [feet] Wauter300 Yds wide Good Road & Good Road from Penney town Wellses falls One mile & ¼ from Coreyels a Good Plaice for abridg 250 Yds across Good Road & Good Ground Coreyels ferrey Rapped Deep & wide 400 Yds across Deare Genl I have mad[e] InQuirerey about All the fording Plaices Betwen this & trentown Where it is Likely the Enemy Will Cross / Welses falls will Be the Best Plaice for them on Accompt of the Hights / Half of the Boats I have Got movd 10 miles higher up from this [place] By Genl [Benedict] Annalds orders / Genl arnald thinks He can Stop the Enemy should they move on until Genl Washington Comes up With them with 4000 Men / the troops Comes in Very fast the Enemy is Entrenching at Somerset / the Jersey malatia took one serjeant of the Brittish Light horse Yesterday … Genl [John] Solovan is at Flemingtown With His Division Princetown Road is all Left open for the Enemy Would it Not Be Prudent to send Afew Brass Cannon to Welses falls / I am Now Going up ten miles higher up to Vew the Ground I[n] Case Genl Washing[ton] should Want to Cross above this I am Deare Sir Your Assurd Benjn Eyre Corells ferrey June 17th 1777 Half Past 6 ocloock”

Benjamin Eyre to Thomas Mifflin, 17 June 1777, Roland M. Baumann, ed., Records of Pennsylvania’s Revolutionary Governments, 1775–1790, in the Pennsylvania State Archives (microfilm edition, 54 reels) Record Group 27, reel 12 (Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1978).

23. Thomas Mifflin to Washington, 8 June 1777, George Washington Papers, Presidential Papers Microfilm (Washington: Library of Congress, 1961), series 4 (General Correspondence. 1697–1799), reel 42. 24. Edmund Dalrymple deposition (S988); Index of Revolutionary War Pension Applications in the National Archives (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1976), copies of depositions and related materials in National Archives Microfilm Publication M804 (2,670 reels), reel 732; John U. Rees, “’I … am Determined to serve you … If Possible.’- John Coryell (1778): General Washington’s Request for Assistance during the Valley Forge Winter” (New Hope Historical Society newsletter, vol. 4, no. 1 (May 2006), 4–5. “Coryell’s Ferry, the town name at the time of the Revolution, was a river
trade hub before the war, and the scene of much activity prior to and during the December 1776 Trenton campaign. In 1777, the town’s contribution centered on its role as a major Delaware River ferry crossing, and during that year the river was traversed innumerable times by wagon trains and bodies of Continental troops, large and small. Following the capture of the capital,

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Philadelphia, by British forces on 22 September 1777, Coryell’s Ferry’s importance grew as one of the few safe crossing points near the city free from enemy interference. The ferry crossing was known from about 1722 to 1748 as Well’s Ferry, then from 1748 to the end of the 1760s as Canby’s Ferry, after the first ferry owners and proprietors of the tavern on the Pennsylvania side of the river. John Coryell acquired the New Jersey side of the ferry sometime in the late 1750s or early 60s, and in 1765 purchased part of the Pennsylvania ferry tract, plus the associated tavern, from Canby’s daughter and son-in-law. (John’s father Emanual had purchased the Jersey side of the crossing in 1728, but evidently never acquired the ferry rights, which remained with the Pennsylvania proprietors.) By 1770, the crossing was known as Coryell’s Ferry, and John Coryell remained in charge of ferry and tavern almost to the end of the conflict, having to sell the property in May 1782 due to large debts. With the British occupation of Philadelphia, the Delaware River was closed to the Delaware Bay and Atlantic Ocean, but traffic above the city was still necessary, and, at times, crucial. Some merchant vessels and several ships of the Continental and Pennsylvania State navies were caught upriver; perhaps more importantly, a number of flat boats, used for crossing troops, animals, vehicles, and equipment over waterways, were located nearer the city than was thought safe. It was this type of craft that served at Coryell’s Ferry in 1777, and would do so again in June 1778 ferrying Washington’s army across the Delaware on the march from Valley Forge to battle at Monmouth Courthouse, New Jersey. On 1 March 1778, General George Washington wrote the Continental Congress Navy Board his concerns:
Head Quarters, Valley Forge, March 1, 1778. Gentlemen: I am informed that a Number of the continental flat Boats still remain at Bordentown. I wrote to Commodore Hazelwood to have them removed higher up the River, but why he has not done it I do not know. I am very apprehensive that the Enemy will one day or other make an excursion and destroy our Vessels, Boats and Stores at that place. To prevent as much of this as possible, I shall esteem it as a favour if you will, upon your return, have all the flat Boats sent up as far as Trenton, and if Commodore Hazelwood has not hands enough with him to carry them up the Falls [above Trenton] I will write to Coryell and desire him to employ people to do it. These Boats may probably be of the greatest importance to us in the course of the Campaign; and I therefore beg that your first attention may be paid to them.

The commander-in-chief then added:
P.S. If the Commodore carries the Boats no further than Trenton he should give Coryell notice that he may come down for them. It will be worth considering whether the Cannon cannot be carried up the River in the Boats.

The same day he wrote John Coryell,
Sir: I am very anxious to have all the continental Flat Boats below Trenton carried up the River, as far as Easton or near it that they may be intirely out of the enemy's reach. I have desired the Gentlemen of the Navy Board to order Commodore Hazlewood to collect all those and carry them up, as far as Trenton and when he has got them there to let you know it. I shall therefore be exceedingly obliged to you, if you will collect a proper number of hands, who are used to carry Boats thro' the Falls and go down for them when you have notice. Or if you do not receive such notice in a few days, the Men may as well go down to Bordentown where the boats are and bring them up from thence. There are a number of Cannon and some Stores there which I want carried to a place of safety. If you think the Boats can be taken thro' the falls with the Cannon in them, it will save much expence and secure them perfectly. You are to apply to Messrs. Hopkinson and Wharton of the Continental Navy Board at Bordentown, for the Cannon, if they can be carried up in the Boats.

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I see, by a Letter of yours to Colo. Lutterloh, that you want Money for these purposes. You may hire the Men for doing this Service upon an assurance of their being paid the moment it is performed. And you will therefore make out the account when you have finished, and apply directly to me for the Money, when it shall be paid with thanks. I am &c.

Coryell replied to Washington’s query on March 6th.
I Red. yours of the 1st instant the third at night & am Determined to serve you according to your Directions If Possible / the Badness of the weather has hindered me to proceed on with any more Boats since my Last but Expect to Start the Remainder in two or three days that I now have at my Ferry & when they are gone I Will go after the Rest / I am afraid I Cant Bring up any Cannon in the Flat Boats / If ther should be any Durm [Durham] boats below as I Expect there is I Kno I Can Bring up Cannon in Them and Will / I have ingaged a number of Brave Watermen for the Purpose & I am your Humble sevt. Jno. Coryell

It is interesting that Coryell mentioned Durham boats in his letter. For a river crossing, especially where numbers of cannon, wagons, or animals were involved, flat boats served best, but when moving upriver against fast, shallow water, Durham boats were in their element.”

John Coryell to George Washington, 6 March 1778, George Washington Papers, (LOC), series 4, reel 47; George MacReynolds, Place Names in Bucks County, Pennsylvania (Cornwall, N.Y.: The Cornwall Press, Inc., 1955), 270-27; Willis M. Rivinus, Early Taverns of Bucks County (New Hope, Pa.: 1965), 53; George Washington to Francis Hopkinson and John Wharton (Continental Congress Navy Board), 1 March 1778; Washington to John Coryell, 1 March 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 11 (1934), 5, 7.
After 1778 the focus of the War for Independence moved to the southern states, and Coryell’s Ferry never saw another large-scale troop crossing, being mostly relegated to ferrying civilian traffic and supply trains destined for Washington’s army in northern New Jersey and New York. The ferries on the lower Delaware accommodated larger military forces moving north and south, and the crossings in and around Trenton were particularly busy during the 1781 Yorktown Campaign when both French and American troops passed through on their way to Virginia.

25. Supposing 45 minutes per crossing, back and forth, six trips carrying troops, artillery, wagons and horses (5 hours) would cover all the soldiers and cannon, plus 30 wagons. The remaining trips could carry 7 wagons supposing the artillery flats could carry wagons, five trips would cross 35 wagons. Total time for eleven trips, 9 hours. At 35 minutes per back and forth crossing, total time would be 7 hours. For weather during the Monmouth Campaign, see John U. Rees, “’Exceeding Hot & water is scarce …’: Monmouth Campaign Weather, 15 June to 7 July, 1778,”Appendix Q of, "’What is this you have been about to day?’: The New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of Monmouth,” http://revwar75.com/library/rees/monmouth/MonmouthToc.htm 26. Washington to Lee, 18 June 1778 (added directive on verso of 30 May 1778 march instructions), Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 85. 27. Washington to the President of Congress, 4:00 P.M., 20 June 1778, ibid., 12 (1934), 97. 28. Washington to Philemon Dickinson, 6:00 A.M., 21 June 1778; to Benedict Arnold, 21 June 1778; to Philemon Dickinson, 21 June 1778, ibid., 100, 101, 103. 29. "Journal of Ebenezer Wild,” 108-109.

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30. Washington to William Livingston, 21 June 1778; to Philemon Dickinson, 21 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 100, 103. 31. "Orders relative to the March from Valley Forge June 1778, after Gen. Lee's and Genl. Mifflin's Divisns. had Marched" (order of march from Valley Forge), 18 June 1778, ibid., 90, 32. Nathanael Greene to Moore Furman, deputy quartermaster for New Jersey, 21 June 1778, Richard K. Showman, ed., The Papers of General Nathanael Greene, vol. II (Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1980), 442. 33. The army and artillery baggage train has been calculated from the 30 May 1778 Valley Forge wagon return, after artillery ammunition wagons and some baggage wagons were allotted each marching brigade. (See, “General Return of Waggons &ca. with the Army,” Valley Forge, 30 May 1778, Chaloner and White Mss., box 6, folder 3, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.) On 17 May 1778 General Washington wrote Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene, his quartermaster general, about army transportation:
it is absolutely necessary, we should be ready for an instant movement of the army. I have therefore to request, you will strain every nerve to prepare without delay the necessary provisions in your department for that purpose. The most pressing and immediate object of your attention will be the procuring a large number of Waggons for transporting baggage, provisions &ca. and some good horses for the Artillery. You will call upon this State and use every other means in your power for a supply. The scarcity of forage will not allow any number of horses being brought into Camp; but it is essential the horses and Waggons should be collected at different places in the vicinity of Camp, where they can be furnished with forage, and drawn expeditiously to the Army. … P.S. As we may have to go to the North River, Magazines of forage should immediately be provided on the different routes, particularly those by way of Coryell's, Morris Town &ca. and Trenton, Boundbrook, Westfield &ca. smaller ones should be formed on the road by Howel's ferry, Goshen &ca. You will also immediately have the boats on the Delaware inspected and got ready in all respects to transport the army across. Those which want it must be repaired .

On 14 January 1777 regimental transport had been set at “one waggon with four horses, or four oxen, will be allowed to 80 Men, and in proportion for a greater, or less number; and forage for four Saddle Horses to a Regiment, arranged as follows: Colonel, one; Major, one; Quarter Master and Adjutant, one to both; Surgeon, one." While no baggage train reduction prior to the Monmouth Campaign is known, in March 1778 the commander-in-chief complained of “The numerous Inconveniences of a large train of baggage [that] must be apparent to every officer ...” He went on to inform his officer corps,
an Army by means of it is rendered unwieldy and incapable of acting with that ease and Celerity which are essential either to it's own Security and defence or to Vigor and Enterprize in its offensive Operations ... The Public is burdened with a Fruitless Expence, in an additional number of Horses and Waggons and the strength of the Army is diminished by the extraordinary number of Guards required for their protection; These disadvantages and many more ... have been heretofore severely felt by this Army; many instances will be recollected in the course of last Campaign, and among others the great loss which attended the sending the superfluous baggage, during the more active part of it, to a distance from the Army. The Commander in Chief hopes these considerations will influence officers in the ensuing Campaign to provide themselves with those necessaries only which cannot be dispensed with, and with the means of carrying them in the most easy and convenient manner; In order to which he strongly recommends the dis–use of Chests and Boxes and that Portmanteaus or Valises made of Duck may be substituted instead of them, this will be the more requisite as it is in Contemplation to employ as few Waggons as possible and to make use of Pack–Horses as far as may be practicable ...

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By 28 May 1778, wagons were still be sought to support the troops when they marched from Valley Forge:
Commanding Officers of Brigades in pursuance of former orders to hold themselves in readiness to march, are to apply immediately to the Quarter Master General for a sufficient number of Waggons to transport their Baggage and are to have their respective Brigades supplied as completely as possible with Camp Utensils and Necessaries of every kind requisite towards taking the Field. The Commissary will have a quantity of hard bread and salt meat prepared to issue to the Army when call'd for.

Washington to Nathanael Greene, 17 May 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 11 (1934), 403-404. General orders, 14 January 1777, ibid., 7 (1932), 9. General orders, 27 March 1778, 28 May 1778, ibid., 11, (1934), 161–162, 463-464. 34. General orders, 21 June 1778, ibid., 12 (1934), 104. 35. James McHenry, Journal of a March, 1-5. 36. "Samuel Adams's Private Miscellaneous Diary Ann: Dom: 1778 …,” Samuel Adams Diaries, New York Public Library. Bray and Bushnell, Diary of a Common Soldier, 120. General orders, 21 June 1778, ibid., 12 (1934), 104. 37. "Journal of Ebenezer Wild,” 109. 38. Washington to the President of Congress, 22 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 108-109. 39. Washington to Philemon Dickinson, 22 June 1778, ibid., 107. 40. James McHenry, Journal of a March, 3. 41. Richard Holcombe to Washington, 22 June 1778, Revolutionary War Accounts, Vouchers and Receipted Accounts, George Washington Papers, Library of Congress microfilm, series 5 (Financial Papers), reel 116, vol. 24. 42. General orders, 22 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 105-106. 43. Ibid., 106-107.
Right Wing Maj. Gen. Charles Lee Brig. Gen. William Woodford’s Brigade 3d Virginia 7th Virginia 11th Virginia 15th Virginia Brig. Gen. Charles Scott’s Brigade 4th/8th/12th Virginia (composite) Grayson’s Additional Patton’s Additional North Carolina Brigade 1st North Carolina 2d North Carolina Brig. Gen. Enoch Poor’s Brigade 1st New Hampshire 2d New Hampshire 3d New Hampshire 2d New York 4th New York

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Brig. Gen. James Varnum's Brigade 4th Connecticut, (Capt. Paul Brigham) 8th Connecticut (Pvt. Joseph Martin) 2d Rhode Island (including Arnold’s detachment of the 1st Rhode Island) (Sgt. Jeremiah Greenman) Brig. Gen. Jedediah Huntington's Brigade 1st /7th Connecticut (composite) 2d/5th Connecticut (composite) Left Wing Maj. Gen. William Alexander, Lord Stirling 1st Pennsylvania Brigade 1st Pennsylvania 2d Pennsylvania 7th Pennsylvania 10th Pennsylvania 2d Pennsylvania Brigade 4th Pennsylvania 5th Pennsylvania 11th Pennsylvania 1st New York 3d (late Conway’s) Brigade 3d Pennsylvania 6th Pennsylvania 12th Pennsylvania Malcolm’s Additional Spencer’s Additional Brig. Gen. John Glover’s Brigade 1st Massachusetts 4th Massachusetts 13th Massachusetts 15th Massachusetts Late Learned’s Brigade 2d Massachusetts 8th Massachusetts 9th Massachusetts Brig. Gen. John Paterson’s Brigade 10th Massachusetts 11th Massachusetts 12th Massachusetts 14th Massachusetts Second line Maj. Gen. Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette 1st Maryland Brigade 1st Maryland 3d Maryland 5th Maryland 7th Maryland Delaware Regiment

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2d Maryland Brigade 2d Maryland 4th Maryland 6th Maryland Brig. Gen. Peter Muhlenberg’s Brigade Brig. Gen. Peter Muhlenberg’s Brigade 1st/5th/ 9th Virginia (composite) 1st Virginia State 2d Virginia State German Battalion Late Weedon’s Brigade 2d Virginia 6th Virginia 10th Virginia 14th Virginia Brig. Gen. William Maxwell’s Brigade 1st New Jersey 2d New Jersey 3d New Jersey 4th New Jersey

44. Continental Army, Disposition Order for Baggage, 22 June 1778, George Washington Papers (LOC), series 4, reel 50. 45. General orders, 22 June 1778; Washington to Philemon Dickinson, 22 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 105-106, 107. 46. General orders, 22 June 1778, ibid., 105-106. 47. "Journal of Ebenezer Wild,” 109. 48. Washington to Philemon Dickinson, 23 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 110. 38. For more on the June 1778 Hopewell encampment, see: T.J. Luce, New Jersey’s Sourland Mountain (Hamilton, N.J.: Sourland Planning Council, 2001), 29; The army camped on the Golden, Blackwell, and Hart farms. “The army bivouacked on the hill above Hopewell between Van Dyke and Rileyville Roads at the invitation of John Hart, signer of the Declaration of Independence, who owned some of the land.”; Cleon E. Hammond, John Hart: The Biography of a Signer of the Declaration of Independence (Newfane, Vt.: The Pioneer Press, 1977), 69 (map of march route and encampment), 6973, 167; Ralph Ege, Pioneers of Old Hopewell: With Sketches of Her Revolutionary Heroes (reprint, Hopewell, N.J.: Hopewell Museum, 1963; originally published in 1908), 44 (pagenote); “It is said that Jesse and Nathaniel Hart, the two oldest sons of Hon. John Hart, served as
guides to Washington on the march from Coryell’s Ferry … to Hopewell … and knowing full well the damage an army would do during an encampment, they guided them to their father’s farm, and the farms of their next neighbors, the Goldens. It rained incessantly during the march and while they were in camp, and under the circumstances no better location could have been selected. ‘Lake Tommy,’ located on the top of the hill on Mr. Hart’s farm, was quite a body of water at that time and furnished an ample supply for the army during their stay. The army ruined growing crops, and burned and destroyed fences, but it can be said to the credit of both families that they never brought in any bill for damages, although many others did whose damages were very trivial compared with theirs.” ; 154, 155-156, 255; Alice Blackwell

Lewis, Hopewell Valley Heritage (Hopewell, N.J.: The Hopewell Museum, 1973), 57-58.

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See also, Richard W. Hunter and Richard L. Porter, Hopewell: A Historical Geography (Titusville, N.J.: Township of Hopewell Historic Site Commission, 1990) 49. General orders, 23 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 110; Order Book, 10th Virginia, 23 June 1778 (p. 53), American Revolution Center. 50. "Journal of Ebenezer Wild,” 108-109. 51. Continental Army War Council, 24 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 115-116. 52. Ibid. 53. Lloyd A. Brown and Howard H. Peckham, eds., Revolutionary War Journals of Henry Dearborn, 1775-1783 (Chicago: The Caxton Club, 1939; reprinted Bowie, Md.: Heritage Books, Inc., 1994), 123-129. 54. General orders, 24 June 1778, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 111. 55. James McHenry, Journal of a March, 4. Richard Hunter, Nadine Sergejeff, and Damon Tvaryanas, Longbridge Farm, South Brunswick Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey (Prepared fir the Township of South Brunswick by Hunter Research, Inc., Historical Research Consultants, 120 West State St., Trenton, N.J.: March 2002) www.hunterresearch.com 56. "Journal of Ebenezer Wild,” 109. 57. Washington to Henry Laurens, 1 July 1778, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 139-141. 58. Ibid. 59. "Journal of Ebenezer Wild,” 109-110. 60. James McHenry, Journal of a March, 5; Washington to Henry Laurens, 1 July 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 139-141. 61. Washington to Lafayette, 26 June 1778, ibid., 121-122. 62. Samuel Adams's Private Miscellaneous Diary Ann: Dom: 1778 …,” Samuel Adams Diaries, New York Public Library. 63. Charles Lee to Washington, 25 June 1778, George Washington Papers, Presidential Papers (LOC), series 4, reel 50. 64. Washington to Henry Laurens, 1 July 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 139-141. 65. Robert C. Bray and Paul E. Bushnell, eds., Diary of a Common Soldier in the American Revolution: An Annotated Edition of the Military Journal of Jeremiah Greenman (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1978), 121. 66. Brigade orders, 26 June Order book, 10th Virginia Regiment, Brig. Gen. William Woodford’s brigade (p. 55), American Revolution Center 67. Samuel Adams's Private Miscellaneous Diary Ann: Dom: 1778 …,” Samuel Adams Diaries, New York Public Library. 68. "Journal of Ebenezer Wild,” 110. 69. Johann Ewald, Diary of the American War: A Hessian Journal, Joseph P. Tustin, ed. (New Haven and London,: Yale University Press, 1979), 132-139; Edward A. Hoyt, ed., "A Revolutionary Diary of Captain Paul Brigham November 19, 1777-September 4, 1778," Vermont History, vol. 34 (1966), 25-30; Sylvanus Seely Diary, original in Morristown National Historic Park Collection, transcription (World Wide Web), http://www.popenoe.com/Diary/Seely%20Diary%203.htm; James P. Parke, Diary 17511850 (three volumes), vol. I, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, #1564; Henry Clinton,

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The American Rebellion: Sir Henry Clinton's Narrative of His Campaigns, 1775-1782, with an Appendix of Original Documents, William B. Willcox, ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1954), 94; Henry Clinton to the Duke of Newcastle, 11 July 1778, Nottingham University Library (UK), Newcastle Collection, NeC 2645. Courtesy of Joseph Lee Boyle and Garry Wheeler Stone. (For more on weather, see narrative Addenda.) 70. Washiington to William Alexander, 27 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 124. 71. Washiington to Horatio Gates, 27 June 1778, ibid., 125. 72. General orders, 27 June 1778, Order book, 10th Virginia Regiment, Brig. en. William Woodford’s brigade (p. 57), American Revolution Center. See also, General orders, 27 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 124. 73. General orders, 27 June 1778, Order book, 10th Virginia Regiment, Brig. Gen. William Woodford’s brigade (pp. 56-57), American Revolution Center. 74. "Journal of Ebenezer Wild,” 110. 75. Washiington to Horatio Gates, 28 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 127. 76. Washington to Henry Laurens, 1 July 1778, ibid., 139-141. 77. James McHenry, Journal of a March, 5. 78. For detachment of the New Jersey regiments to their home state in Spring 1778 see, John U. Rees, ’I Expect to be stationed in Jersey sometime...’: An Account of the Services of the Second New Jersey Regiment”: Part I, December 1777 to June 1778 (1994, unpublished, copy held in the collections of the David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, Pa.). 79. Philemon Dickinson, “Disposition of the Militia belonging to the State of New Jersey …,” 25 June 1778, The Lee Papers, vol. II, 1776-1778, Collections of the New-York Historical Society for the Year 1872 (New York, 1873), 413. 80. General orders, 23 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 110. Washington to Danuel Morgan, 23 June 1778, George Washington Papers (LOC), series 4, reel 50. 81. Washington to Henry Laurens, 1 July 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 139-141. 82. James McHenry, Journal of a March, 4, 5. 83. 23 June 1778 entry, New Jersey Officer’s Diary, 26 June 1777 to 31 August 1778; courtesy of Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Rush Rhees Library, University of Rochester. My thanks to Mr. Bob McDonald for bringing it to my attention. (If the writer was a captain, probable identity is Jonathan Forman, 4th New Jersey; it is also possible that the author was a subaltern in the same regiment. Contact John U. Rees, ju_rees@msn.com for reasoning regarding the Forman attribution.) 84. 24 June 1778 entry, ibid. 85. Lloyd A. Brown and Howard H. Peckham, eds., Revolutionary War Journals of Henry Dearborn, 1775-1783 (Chicago: The Caxton Club, 1939; reprinted Bowie, Md.: Heritage Books, Inc., 1994), 124. 86. 24 June entry, Diary of Bernardus Swartwout, 2nd New York Regiment, 10 November 1777-9 June 1783, Bernardus Swartwout Papers, New-York Historical Society, 4-6.

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87. 25 June 1778 entry, New Jersey Officer’s Diary, 26 June 1777 to 31 August 1778, Rush Rhees Library, University of Rochester. 88. Alexander Hamilton to the Marquis de Lafayette, 25 June 1778, George Washington Papers (LOC), series 4, reel 50. 89. Brown and Peckham, Revolutionary War Journals of Henry Dearborn, 125. 90. 25 June entry, Diary of Bernardus Swartwout, Swartwout Papers, N-YHS, 4-6. 91. 26 June 1778 entry, New Jersey Officer’s Diary, 26 June 1777 to 31 August 1778, Rush Rhees Library, University of Rochester. 92. Alexander Hamilton to Washington, 26 June 1778, George Washington Papers (LOC), series 4, reel 50. 93. Brown and Peckham, Revolutionary War Journals of Henry Dearborn, 125. 94. 26 June entry, Diary of Bernardus Swartwout, Swartwout Papers, N-YHS, 4-6. 95. Bray and Bushnell, Diary of a Common Soldier in the American Revolution, 121. 96. Hoyt, "A Revolutionary Diary of Captain Paul Brigham," 25-30. 97. 27 June 1778 entry, New Jersey Officer’s Diary, 26 June 1777 to 31 August 1778, Rush Rhees Library, University of Rochester. 98. Alexander Hamilton to Charles Scott, 27 June 1778, original in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum, New York City. Text from the footnote to Washington to William Alexander, 27 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934) 124. 99. 27 June entry, Diary of Bernardus Swartwout, Swartwout Papers, N-YHS, 4-6. 100. Brown and Peckham, Revolutionary War Journals of Henry Dearborn, 125-126. 101. Bray and Bushnell, Diary of a Common Soldier in the American Revolution, 121. 102. Hoyt, "A Revolutionary Diary of Captain Paul Brigham," 25-30. 103. Brown and Peckham, Revolutionary War Journals of Henry Dearborn, 126. 104. Washington to Henry Laurens, 1 July 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 139-141. 105. Enos Reeves, “Extracts from the Letter-Books of Lieutenant Enos Reeves, of the Pennsylvania Line,” John B. Reeves, ed., Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 21 (1897), 235-236. 106. York Road: “The chief Indian Trail was the Nanticong, which by 1765 had become the Old York Road, beginning in New Jersey at Coryell’s Ferry … and passing through Mt. Airy, Ringoes, Larison’s Corner and Reaville (Routes 179 and 514) … It was probably over the part between Coryell’s Ferry and Ringoes that Washington and the main body of his troops marched in June of 1778, continuing on to Hopewell via Snydertown and Van Dyke Roads …,” T.J. Luce, New Jersey’s Sourland Mountain (Hamilton, N.J.: Sourland Planning Council, 2001), 29-30, 49. Correspondence Regarding Intended Continental Army March Route and British Movements, June 1778. General Washington to Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene:
“Head Quarters, May 17, 1778. Sir: Every piece of intelligence from Philadelphia makes me think it more and more probable, that the Enemy are preparing to evacuate it. Whether they intend to leave the Continent, or only go to some other part of it must be uncertain. There are some reasons that induce a suspicion they may intend for New York. In any case it is absolutely necessary, we should be ready for an instant movement of the army. I have therefore to request, you will strain every nerve to prepare without delay the necessary provisions in your department for that purpose. The most pressing and immediate object of your attention will be the procuring a large number of Waggons for transporting baggage, provisions &ca. and some good horses for the Artillery. You will call upon this State and use every other means in your power for a supply. The

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scarcity of forage will not allow any number of horses being brought into Camp; but it is essential the horses and Waggons should be collected at different places in the vicinity of Camp, where they can be furnished with forage, and drawn expeditiously to the Army. Tents should also be provided and hastened forward with all possible speed; not only with a view to a general movement; but also an account of the advancing hot season, from which we already begin to experience very unhappy effects, and have reason to apprehend worse, if we keep the men much longer in huts. We probably have no time to lose, and I shall rely upon your exertions, that every thing will be done, on your part, to enable us to be prepared for events. Let me know what prospects you have, and when you think you will have it in your power to answer the present exigency. I am &ca. P.S. As we may have to go to the North River, Magazines of forage should immediately be provided on the different routes, particularly those by way of Coryell's, Morris Town &ca. and Trenton, Boundbrook, Westfield &ca. smaller ones should be formed on the road by Howel's ferry [present-day Center Bridge, Pa./Stockton, N.J.], Goshen &ca. You will also immediately have the boats on the Delaware inspected and got ready in all respects to transport the army across. Those which want it must be repaired.”

Washington to Nathanael Greene, 17 May 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 11 (1934), 403-404. General Washington to Maj. Gen. Charles Lee:
“June 18, [1778]. The foregoing Instructions may serve you for Genl. directions, but circumstances having varied since they were written you are to halt on the first strong ground after passing the Delaware at Coryells ferry till further orders unless you should receive authentic intelligence that the enemy have proceeded by a direct rout to South Amboy (or still lower). In this case you will continue your March to the No. River agreeably to former orders and by the rout already given you. If my memory does not deceive me there is an advantageous spot of ground at the Ferry to the right of the road leading from the Water.”

Washington to Charles Lee, 18 June 1778 (verso of 30 May 1778 instructions), ibid., 12 (1934), 85. Washington to Brig. Gen. Anthony Wayne:
“Head Quarters, June 18, 1778. Sir: You are to proceed with the first and second Pennsilvania and the brigade late Conways, by the direct route to Coryells Ferry, leaving a proper interval between your division and General Lee's, so as to prevent their interfering with each other. The instructions given to General Lee, are to halt on the first strong ground after passing the Delaware at the said ferry, until further orders. Unless he should receive authentic intelligence that the enemy have proceeded by the direct road to South Amboy (or still lower) in this case, he is to continue his march to the North River.” On June 18 Washington wrote also to an unidentified Pennsylvania officer that: "General Wayne having very pressing business at Philadelphia, I have consented to his going there tomorrow and returning the next day. You are to join the division commanded by him and take charge of it during his absence. When he returns you will rejoin your brigade. N.B. The division is about a mile and half on the other side the Bridge. It will march to-morrow morning 4 o'clock toward Coryels ferry." (This letter was sold at auction in the Cohen sale, Philadelphia, 1907.)

Washington to Brig. Gen. Anthony Wayne, 18 June 1778, ibid., 86-87. Washington to Maj. Gen. Horatio Gates:
“Head Quarters, in Jersey, Coryels ferry, June 21, 1778. Sir: I arrived here this day at noon. Two divisions of the army have crossed the Delaware; the remainder will cross tomorrow. The enemy, by the last intelligence, was moving on slowly; the head of their column had only reached Mount Holly. Their shipping had gone down the River below Reedy Island, except two, which lay opposite to it. These appearances seem to decide, that they intend to traverse the Jerseys, though they do not appear to be in any hurry. While they continue in their present, or a similar posture, no detachments can with propriety be made from this army to reinforce you; but, if they proceed on, towards New York, we shall endeavour, according to circumstances, to keep pace with them, and be in time to give succour to the Highland passes, and counteract any attempt, they may meditate that way. In the mean time, you will no doubt exert yourself to be in the best state of defence, your situation will admit. I am, etc.”

Washington to Maj. Gen. Horatio Gates, 21 June 1778, ibid., 104.

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Washington to Henry Laurens, President of Congress:
“Head Quarters, near Coryel's, June 22, 1778. Sir: I have the Honor to inform you, that I am now in Jersey and that the Troops are passing the River at Coryel's and are mostly over. The latest intelligence I have had respecting the Enemy, was yesterday from General Dickinson. He says that they were in the morning at Mores Town and Mount Holly, but that he had not been able to learn what rout they would pursue from thence; nor was it easy to determine, as from their then situation, they might either proceed to South Amboy or by way of Brunswick. We have been a good deal impeded in our march by rainy weather. As soon as we have cleaned the Arms and can get matters in train, we propose moving towards Princetown, in order to avail ourselves of any favourable occasions that may present themselves of attacking or annoying the Enmey. I have the Honor etc.”

Washington to Henry Laurens, 22 June 1778, ibid., 108-109. Driftway \Drift"way`\, n. 1. A common way, road, or path, for driving cattle. --Cowell. Burrill. Source: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) 107. "Diary of Joseph Clark, Attached to the Continental Army," May 1777 to November 1778, Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, vol. 7 (1854), 105-107. Cleon E. Hammond, John Hart: The Biography of a Signer of the Declaration of Independence (Newfane, Vt.: The Pioneer Press, 1977), 69. Dr. James McHenry’s narrative, 22 to 25 June 1778:
“ 22d. Gen. Dickinson writes that the enemy advance – That he is at the draw bridge 4 miles below Trenton, and preparing for a vigorous defense of that post. – The enemy’s superiority in horse making it impossible for our handful of calvary to stand their ground. Genl. du Portail, Engineer, ordered forward to reconnoiter a position near Princetown. Sourland hills and Rocky hill reported by the Engineer. The nearest part of the former chain of hills 5 miles distant from Princetown – running in the direction of North by East. Rocky hill has the advantage in point of water. – The roads of retreat from Sourland must be opened towards Aimwel road – The country rocky and difficult. 23d. The army takes the road from the Stone Schoolhouse to Rocky hill. Hault near Sourland hights – Hopewell. 4 miles from Princetown. Rocky hill reconnoitered. A good position relative to Kingston in case that should be the enemy’s route. The Millstone river unfordable ... The order of march – 3 o’clock. 600 men detached under Col. Morgan to hang upon the enemy in conjunction with the militia. 24. In consequence of intelligence from Gen. Dickinson we remain on the ground we took yesterday – The day spent in digesting intelligence and in decyphering the enemy’s intentions. 1400 picked men ordered to march towards the enemy under Brigadier General Scott. General Arnold orders Jackson’s detachment to cross the Delaware. Gen. Cadwalader endeavours to induce the Philadelphia Volunteers to march with him to the enemy’s rear. The seventh day since the evacuation of Philadelphia and the enemy tent near Allen’s Town. This gives rise to a conjecture that their slow movement is not the consequence of obstructions – broken bridges &c., but that it proceeds from a desire to give us battle. I don’t think so. Gen. Dickinson writes that the enemy failed in an attempt to rebuild a bridge 4 miles from Trenton, owing to the fire of his militia. A Council of War – The majority against putting the enemy in a situation which might bring on a general engagement. – The General however determines to attack. 25th. March to Rocky hill. Cross the Millstone by a bridge, and hault at Kingston.”

James McHenry, Journal of a March, 1-5. 108. Robert C. Bray and Paul E. Bushnell, eds., Diary of a Common Soldier in the American Revolution: An Annotated Edition of the Military Journal of Jeremiah Greenman (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1978), 120-121. 109. Lloyd A. Brown and Howard H. Peckham, eds., Revolutionary War Journals of Henry Dearborn, 1775-1783 (Chicago: The Caxton Club, 1939; reprinted Bowie, Md.: Heritage

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Books, Inc., 1994), 124; "Journal of Ebenezer Wild," 109; "Diary of Joseph Clark, Attached to the Continental Army," 105-107.
West Amwell Township: A Brief Early History West Amwell was right in the middle of the early history of the United States. A nice description was produced by Henrietta Van Syckle and Emily Nordfeldt: Circa 1975. Its forward stated the following:

By and for the people of West Amwell Township, from material gathered and prepared in celebration of Hunterdon County's three hundredth year by Henrietta Van Syckle and Emily Abbott Nordfeldt. It was in 1754 that the Second Amwell Church was established by early Presbyterians who wanted to lessen the distance members had to travel to the "First Church." The oldest decipherable stone we could find is dated September 25, 1760 and marks an infant's grave. There are also stones bearing the Ringo name dated 1776 and 1777. On some stones which may be even older the inscriptions are no longer there. The loss of early church records makes them impossible to trace unless there are family records available to descendants. The old stone building in Mount Airy familiar to us all was built around 1743 by Samuel Holcombe son of John. The house next to it was a tavern which served as a Stage Coach stop in the early days of the SwiftSure Line. It was bought by Solomon Holcombe in 1814 and turned into a dwelling, as such it is now, occupied by the Runkles. More About Mount Airy In the search for the origin of the name Mount Airy we find its location marked on a map dated 1777 as Amwell Meeting. The church is the only site marked. In 1795 it is marked Amwell Mg H with the small symbol used to designate a church. This map appears in an early Geography. By 1828 a map shows a small group of buildings but no name at all which makes us wonder if there was some doubt as to the proper name of the settlement. Six years later in 1834 the same location is marked Amwell. But among the road records in Flemington the laying out of the Rocktown Road in 1829 states that after crossing certain lands the road was to go "To the road leading from MOUNT AIRY to HARBERTOWN" and finally to the Trenton and Sussex Road at Rocktown. [Among the notable buildings and sites presently in Mount Airy are (numbers coincide with a walking tour map):] … 4. Mount Airy Cemetery. Directly to the south of the church, the cemetery is bordered by a low stone wall with wrought iron gate. It has been in use since the mid-eighteenth century and includes headstones marked as early as 1760. 5. Second English Presbyterian Church of Amwell. A Gothic Revival structure with a tall, slate octagonal spire and point arched and triangular gable windows. The congregation dates to 1754, however the present church, the second to be built, was erected in 1874. A parchment dated 1786 is still in existence which recorded the swearing of church trustees renouncing ties to the King of Britain. … 9. Storehouse. (Presently a dwelling). A sandstone, two and a half story, gable roofed, three bay structure built in the late eighteenth century. It still retains the overhanging gable hoist complete with pulley and rope which surmounts the west gable-end principal facade. Probably the only storehouse of this kind remaining in the county. Farmers used such community storehouses to store their farm products until spring when they could be carted to the Delaware River and floated during the high water season down to Philadelphia and other coastal markets. This structure also served as a general store for many years, as it was noted in "Rural Hunterdon" by Hubert G. Schmit that the "Holcombe store was charging only fifty cents per bushel of plaster in 1824" and in January 1869, ''Solomon Holcombe paid three cents each for eggs." 10. Mount Airy Tavern. (Presently a dwelling). A frame, four bay building with west gable-end chimney with overhanging eaves and gable dormers. Built prior to the Revolutionary War, this house was enlarged and remodeled in the Craftsman style in this

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century and renovated again more recently. It is one of the oldest and one of the few remaining taverns or stage houses of Revolutionary War days. At one time it was connected with the adjacent stone storehouse. In 1814 the tavern was converted into a private dwelling. … Acknowledgements Mrs. Van Syckle co-authored with Mrs. Emily Abbott Nordfeldt a brief history of our Township which was included in a Report to the Taxpayers in 1963. Henrietta Van Syckle was one of the original members of the West Amwell Environmental Commission when it was first established. She devoted much time and enthusiasm to the Commission over the years, but perhaps her greatest contribution was her special knowledge and interest in the sites and structures that are historically important in the Township. The Environmental Commission produced and dedicated this revised edition of an earlier Report in memory of Henrietta Van Syckle and Emily Nordfeldt. The brochure was transformed to this computer file in 1997, by Fred H. Bowers, Ph.D., the grandson of Marion Mulholland (spelling corrected) (nee Harbourt), mentioned in the section "West Amwell in the Scientific World."

“About West Amwell” (World Wide Web) http://www.westamwelltwp.org/WAT%20About%20webpage.htm
The History of Second English Presbyterian Church of Amwell “In 1754 … Presbytery was petitioned ‘by the people bordering on the Delaware’ to give them the privilege of building a meeting house for their own convenience. This was granted, and a separate congregation was formed and a church built at Mount Airy, which was called the Second Amwell Church.” Thus was our church founded, an offshoot of Amwell First Church, known also as the First English Presbyterian Church in Amwell (Reaville), under the aegis of their first minister, Reverend Elias Byram. Continuing as a united charge, the two Amwell churches were served by the same pastors until 1813. The first of these was the Reverend Benjamin Hait, a graduate of the College of New Jersey who was pastor of both churches from 1755 to 1765. The last to serve both churches was the Reverend Jacob Kirkpatrick. He preached 3 years in the three Amwell churches (1810 to 1813) which were known locally as the Old House, the New House and the Stone House. The Old House was Amwell First, the New House, Amwell Second and the Stone House, the church at Larison’s Corner. The earliest official document of the Mount Airy church still in existence is the declaration, on March 16, 1786, preserved on sheepskin, and signed by the trustees, renouncing allegiance to the King of England and pledging allegiance to the new government of the colonies. Also in our possession, on sheepskin, is a deed to the church property dated 1810. The land on which the church, schoolhouse and part of the cemetery are located had been given by Benjamin Skillman, who possessed 133 acres of land. On July 20, 1854, the old manse at the foot of the Mount Airy hill, with land consisting of 4 acres and 45 perches, was purchased from Ambrose Holcombe and his wife Anna. The old manse was sold on March 3, 1955 for $8,150.00 and the money used for the new manse which was built in 1956. Most of the work was done by volunteers from the congregation. The church was rebuilt in 1867 and in 1874 the present edifice was erected. The certificate for incorporation presented to the State of New Jersey was accepted and recorded in 1873. On July 2, 1876, Edward B. Holcombe presented to the church a chapel “free of debt for religious purposes. To be under the care and charge of said session and trustees with the consultation of myself while I remain here with you. May it be dedicated holy to the Lord for the fields are already ripe for harvest and may this be a place to win souls for the harvest of our Lord.” This chapel was used for Sunday School classes, session meetings and numerous church suppers. It was torn down in 1956 to make way for the new manse. The present school building was erected in 1832. It was leased to the township under a 99-year lease. In the lease was a clause stating that when West Amwell no longer needed the building, it would revert back to the church. This occurred on January 1, 1954, soon after the elementary school was built on what is now State Highway 179.

“Mt. Airy Church: The Second English Presbyterian Church of Amwell” (World Wide Web) http://www.mtairychurch.com/history.htm 110. General Washington informed New Jersey Brig. Gen. Philemon Dickinson on 22 June: “The whole army is now across the River incamped about three miles from it. Tomorrow morning
very early, we march towards Princeton.” He then told him “All the effective [light] horse under Colo.

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[Stephen] Moylan will instantly march to join you. I am augmenting Colo. Morgans [rifle] Corps which will also speedily march to your assistance. I need not observe to you that every thing ought to be done to keep up the spirits of your Militia.”

Washington to Philemon Dickinson, 22 June 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, 12 (1934), 107. Although one late source (Sarah Gallagher’s Early History Of Lambertville) claims the army marched via Bungtown Road, and a primary account (Dr. McHenry’s) mentions marching from the Stone Schoolhouse, taken by some to mean the one at Furman’s/Marshall’s Corner, the other accounts without doubt show the army camping at present-day Mount Airy on the York Road, and marching to Hopewell from there. Books/Articles Mentioning Old Bungtown Road Cleon E. Hammond, John Hart: The Biography of a Signer of the Declaration of Independence (Newfane, Vt.: The Pioneer Press, 1977), 274-275 (discussion of march route and road net), Ralph Ege, Pioneers of Old Hopewell: With Sketches of Her Revolutionary Heroes (reprint, Hopewell, N.J.: Hopewell Museum, 1963; originally published in 1908), 43-44, 258. Alice Blackwell Lewis, Hopewell Valley Heritage (Hopewell, N.J.: The Hopewell Museum, 1973), 57-58. Sarah A. Gallagher, Early History Of Lambertville, N.J. (Lambertville: Lambertville Historical Society, 1995. Originally published 1903), 18. http://www.newhopepa.com/Lambertville/lam_hist_Gallagher.htm Following the June 1778 Delaware River crossing, “When the soldiers again took up their line of
march, it was through a valley, between two heavily timbered hills. That valley is now known to us as "The Hook." The road was at the foot of the north hill, crossed "Swan’s Creek," then ascended the "Old Saw -mill Road" to the high ground, or "Farmers’ Highway," which was a steep ascent. Following this route the army reached "Hopewell," where they again rested. The onward march from there was to "Rocky Hill," "Kingston," Cranbury, and then to Monmouth, where they overtook the enemy and fought that memorable battle, June 28th. The statement regarding the army while here is unquestionably correct, as the writer heard it from the lips of an aged man -- the son of Captain George Coryell, and grandson of Emanuel, at whose house some of the officers were entertained, he being at the time a lad presumably twelve or fourteen years of age.”

111. Regarding the old Bungtown/Stymiest/Rock Road leading west from Coryell’s Ferry, New
Jersey (Lambertville), the author has walked the course of the road to its junction with Rock Road West. Regarding the now-defunct portion of the Bungtown Road, beginning on the Lambertville side dead-end and adjacent 19th century farmhouse, the old road actually ran straight through the woods, now marked by a water-eroded bramble-filled depression, lined with stone walls along much of its length. The road continues across a power line cut and into the woods on the opposite side, bearing left along and inside the wood line, then bearing right again where the wood line bears right. (About 75 yards inside this wooded corner you will find the remains of an old stone house.) Walking in the field you can still see and occasionally travel along the old weed-filled road. Following the edge of the woods you will come to a small pond encircled by reeds in the field on the left. The road continues into the woods, becoming an easily traveled path, lined with intermittent sections of stonewall. After walking a downgrade portion the road bears to the right. A short distance further, you will see on the left the single remaining abutment of an old stone bridge. From a vantage point along the small watercourse alongside the abutment, the bridge’s well made stone arch can be better appreciated. From this point the road continues through marshy ground, wending its way uphill, and eventually forms a junction with Rock Crest Road, a small dead-end gravel thoroughfare that leads in from Rock Road West.

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