Petroleum Engineering Assignment 1

Due Date: 15th of April 2013

Lateef Akanji (Ph.D., D.I.C.) Petroleum and Gas Engineering University of Salford l.t.akanji@salford.ac.uk October 14, 2012

UoS

Well Test Equations

∆Pskin = (Pwf )measured − (Pwf )calculated ∆Pskin s = qµB
2πκh

Jmeasured P − Pwf + ∆Pskin = Jcalculated P − Pwf 70.6µB −948φµctr2 ∆P = − q1Ei kh κt ∆G = VuLco∆P ρo

+ (q2 − q1)Ei

−948φµctr2 κ(t − t1)

C = VuLco Np tp = q ∆P m = Cycle κtp tpDA = φµctA PDM BH = 2.3026(P ∗ −P )/m qµB κ = 0.183 mh qµB κ = 162.6 mh (P1hr − Pwf ) κ s = 1.1513 − log + 3.2255 2 m φµctrw (Pi − Pwf (t1)) κ s = −1.1513 + logt1 + log + 0.35173 2 m φµctrw

l.t.akanji@salford.ac.uk

Page 1 of 25

akanji@salford.t.64e κ tM φct = tD µr2 2 rD M l.2 tL ∆tc tL ∆tc 2 2 F ig qµB (PD )M h ∆P M −4 2.2 h∆P κ = 141.uk Page 2 of 25 .UoS Well Test Equations qµB ∆PD κ= 2πh∆P κ= tL ∆tc tL ∆tc 2 F ig 2 qµB (PD )M 2πh ∆PM κ tM φct = 2 µr tD 2 rD M or in field unit qµB ∆PD κ = 141.ac.

akanji@salford. Determine the relative ages in Figure 1 2. Name the features marked A. Describe the sequence of events that resulted in the formation of the geological features observed in Figure 1 l.ac.uk Page 3 of 25 . C and D 3.t.UoS Petroleum Geology :Geologic Features Figure 1: Geologic feature Question 1 1. B.

draw their axes) 4. Describe the geological history of the area l.t. Determine the relative ages of the rocks 3. Identify the rock types in the area shown Figure 2 2.uk Page 4 of 25 .ac.akanji@salford.UoS Petroleum Geology :Geological Map Interpretation Question 1 Figure 2: Geological map Question 2 1. Name the geological structures that you are able to identify (in the case of folds.

uk Page 5 of 25 .ac.UoS Exploration : Exploration techniques Question 2 Question 3 1.t. Describe hydrocarbon indicators on a seismic section 4.akanji@salford. What are the two methods commonly used in seismic prospecting? (a) Which is most often used? (b) Which gives the most information? 3. What sources of energy are most often used in seismic exploration? 5. State and define the principle methods of exploration and reservoir prediction 2. What are the principal uses of seismic data l.

Discuss the historical oil and gas production profile from the UK North Sea and the future direction l. describe the major subdivisions and brief geological history of the North Sea 2. Using a simplified map. Using a simplified stratigraphic column describe the oil and gas fields found in the Northern North Sea (NNS) 4. Describe the major distributions of oil and gas fields in the Southern North Sea (SNS) basin and adjacent onshore UK areas 3.ac. Describe the diffferent kinds of sedimentary rock and fluid types found in the North Sea and relate them to the depositional processes that led to their formation 5.akanji@salford.t.UoS Petroleum Geology (Case-studies GP1 ):UK North Sea Question 3 Question 4 1.uk Page 6 of 25 .

describe the major subdivisions and brief geological history of the Nigerian Niger Delta basin 2.UoS Petroleum Geology (Case-studies GP2 ):Nigerian Niger Delta Question 4 Question 5 1. Discuss the historical oil and gas production profile from the Niger Delta and the potentials for future exploitation l.t. Using a simplified map.akanji@salford.uk Page 7 of 25 . Describe the major distributions of oil and gas fields in the Niger Delta basin 3. Using a simplified stratigraphic column describe the oil and gas fields found in the Nigerian Niger Delta basin 4. Describe the diffferent kinds of sedimentary rock and fluid types found in the Niger Delta and relate them to the depositional processes that led to their formation 5.ac.

uk Page 8 of 25 .UoS Petroleum Geology (Case-studies GP3 ):Arabian Gulf Question 5 Question 6 1. Discuss the historical oil and gas production profile from the Arabian Gulf and the potentials for future exploitation l. Using a simplified map.t. Using a simplified stratigraphic column describe the oil and gas fields found in the Arabian Gulf basin 4. describe the major subdivisions and brief geological history of the Arabian Gulf basin 2. Describe the major distributions of oil and gas fields the Arabian Gulf basin 3.akanji@salford.ac. Describe the diffferent kinds of sedimentary rock and fluid types found in the Arabian Gulf and relate them to the depositional processes that led to their formation 5.

akanji@salford.ac.t. Discuss the historical oil and gas production profile from the Gulf of Mexico and the potentials for future exploitation l. describe the major subdivisions and brief geological history of the Gulf of Mexico basin 2. Describe the diffferent kinds of sedimentary rock and fluid types found in the Gulf of Mexico and relate them to the depositional processes that led to their formation 5. Describe the major distributions of oil and gas fields in the Gulf of Mexico 3.UoS Petroleum Geology (Case-studies GP4 ):Gulf of Mexico Basin Question 6 Question 7 1. Using a simplified map. Using a simplified stratigraphic column describe the oil and gas fields found in the Gulf of Mexico 4.uk Page 9 of 25 .

From your design.] 2o per 30.t. Determine the relative position of the rig and target (a) rectangular coordinates (b) polar coordinates Table 1: Coordinates of rig and target T arget N S (meters) EW (meters) 964 −144 Rig 1334 653 2. 218.688 meters [10.] 1. 333.ac. The target and the rig coordinates of a well are given in Table 1. 500 f t.5 meters [4.48 meters [2o per 100f t.2 meters [1.] 3. determine the following: (a) radius of curvature of the build section (b) hold angle (c) measured depth (M D) at start of Hold section (M Dhold) (d) measured depth (M D) at total depth (M DT D ) l. 375 f t. design a build and hold trajectory Table 2: Build and hold trajectory design Vertical depth Horizontal displacement Kick-off depth Build rate 3. Using Figure 3 and the information provided in Table 2.uk Page 10 of 25 .] 457. 560 f t.akanji@salford.UoS Drilling (Ass ): Drilling Engineering Question 7 Question 8 1.

akanji@salford.uk Page 11 of 25 .ac.t.UoS Drilling (Ass ): Drilling Engineering Question 8 Figure 3: A build and hold trajectory l.

uk Page 12 of 25 .t. stating all related equations (a) Productivity index (b) Vertical lift performance (c) Inflow performance relationship (d) Gas reservoir deliverability 2. Describe the following well-test methods and state the main objectives of conducting each (a) Injectivity test (b) Fall-off test (c) Interference test (d) Drill-stem test (e) Pulse test l. Explain the following production related terms.akanji@salford.ac.UoS Production & Well-Test :Well-Test Objectives Question 8 Question 9 1.

] q = −17.2 × 10−3 P a − s[9. Plot Pwf versus time on a semilog coordinate sheet (Sheet A) 2.26 ct = 1. m (b) the pressure at t = 10 hrs (c) the permeability.9f t.t.3 psi] Boi = 1.2 bbl/d] 1. s (e) whether the system is damaged or stimulated l. κ (d) the skin effect.] φ = 0.7 M P a[3002.2 × 10−9 P a−1[8.17 Swi = 0.akanji@salford. determine: (a) the gradient.uk Page 13 of 25 .27 × 10−61/psi] rw = 0.UoS Production & Well-Test : Pressure Drawdown Question 9 Question 10 Table 3 is a pressure drawdown test data from a well in an undersaturated reservoir with the following properties: Pi = 20.1m [0. From your plot and using appropriate equations.ac.2 cp] h = 21 m[68.32 µo = 9.328 f t.2 m3/d[108.

38 18.41 18.akanji@salford.UoS Production & Well-Test : Pressure Drawdown Question 10 Table 3: Pressure drawdown test data T ime(hours) 32 43 53 64 72 81 110 Pwf (M P a) 18.30 18.29 18.t.25 Figure 4: Sheet A l.35 18.32 18.uk Page 14 of 25 .ac.

m (c) From the graph.ac.UoS Production & Well-Test : Build-up & reservoir pressure Question 10 Question 11 1. l.8 acre).akanji@salford. Question 11 continued on next page. . determine the mean pressure of the drainage area of a well in the above reservoir which is placed at the center of a square with a surface A = 0. Figure 5 is a pressure build-up curve from a reservoir with a limited drainage area. Use Figure 6 and the following additional data. (a) Determine the production time tp (b) Estimate the slope.uk Page 15 of 25 .42 × 106 m2 (103. Using the Matthews-Brons-Hazenbroek (MBH) method. estimate the Pws(1hour) and the corresponding Pwf (d) Why is the Pws(1hour) different from the corresponding Pwf ? Figure 5: Pressure build-up curve with a limited drainage area 2. .t.

328 f t] Question 11 continued on next page.1 m [0.52 (rb/stb) Pi = 20. .2 cp] h = 21 m [68.t. production rate before shut-in Boi = 1.UoS Production & Well-Test : Build-up & reservoir pressure Question 11 (continued) Figure 6: MBH dimensionless pressure for different well locations in a square drainage area (after MatthewsBrons-Hazenbroek) Additional pressure build-up data Np = 21409 m3 [134648bbl].25 [ ] ct = 1.2 × 10−3 Pa-s [9.2 × 10−9P a−1 [8.17 [ ] Swi = 0.3 m3/d [241bbl/d]. l.27 × 10−61/psi] rw = 0.ac.3 psi] µo = 9. . cumulative production q = 38.9 ft] φ = 0.akanji@salford.7 M P a [3002.uk Page 16 of 25 .

akanji@salford. water was injected in the active well for 22 days.8f t] (a) Determine the permeability.UoS Production & Well-Test : Interference and Diagnostics Question 11 (continued) Question 12 1.uk Page 17 of 25 .4 m [368.4 m [368. The measured pressure changes are drawn on a transparent sheet versus t (hour).0 h = 12 m [39. and matched by parallel shifting in Figure 7 with the type curve.82cp] Bw = 1.t. The distance to the observation well is 112. In the match point: (a) tM = 100hours 2 (b) (tD /rD )M = 50 (c) ∆PM = 105 Pa [= 14.4f t] r = 112. During an interference test.8 Additional data q = 300 m3/d [= 1887bbl/d] µ = 0.5psi] (d) PD M = 0.82 × 10−3 Pa-s [0. κ and (b) φct l.8f t].ac.

UoS Production & Well-Test : Interference and Diagnostics Question 12 Figure 7: Illustration of type curve matching for an interference test l.uk Page 18 of 25 .akanji@salford.t.ac.

ac. Analyze each of the plots.akanji@salford. Figure 8: Well test interpretation models l. channel system and wedge systems.UoS Production & Well-Test : Interference and Diagnostics Question 12 Question 13 Figure 8 is a well test interpretation models for wells near a single fault. The corresponding pressure change and derivative plots are also shown on a log-log plot.t.uk Page 19 of 25 .

dry-gas and wet gas 3. how much oil (in kg) is contained in the reservoir? Question 15 With the aid of annotated phase envelope diagrams.UoS Reservoir Performance : Reservoir Engineering Question 13 Question 14 Consider a reservoir that is shaped like a circular disk.3. Determine: 1. 10 m thick. Ignoring the expansion of the oil that would occur when it is produced from the reservoir. the total volume (at standard conditions) of gas initially in place (GIIP) Question 16 continued on next page.1589 m3). The mean porosity of the reservoir is 15%. intermediate and heavy crude systems Question 16 Given the gas production data shown in Table 4. 1.uk Page 20 of 25 .t. and the oil saturation is 0.7.akanji@salford. and with a 5 km radius in the horizontal plane. . . light.ac. describe the following 1. l. cricondenbar and cricondentherm 2. how many barrels of oil are in this reservoir? (One barrel = 0. 2. retrograde condensation. If the density of the oil is 900 kg/m3. the water saturation is 0.

uk Page 21 of 25 .87 0.88 0.85 0.09 11.95 3.ac.89 Gp (108 m3 ) 0 6.1 M P a (1 atm) l.86 0. Explain why the abandonment pressure is not 0.1 2. the volume of gas (Gp) that will be produced at the abandonment pressure of 3 M P a when Z = 0.UoS Reservoir Performance : Reservoir Engineering Question 16 (continued) Table 4: Data from a gas reservoir P ressure(M P a) 25 24 23 22 21 Z 0.1 23.akanji@salford.8 17.t.

001 P a − s. rock 2 and rock 3. in equal volumetric proportions. What will be the volumetric flowrate Q of the water. What is the effective permeability of this rock. Estimate the effective permeability in this case. k2 = 100 mD. and the viscosity of water is 0.ac. if fluid is flowing perpendicular to the layering? 3. where k1 = 1000 mD. and k3 = 10 mD.UoS Reservoir Rock : Rock properties Question 16 Question 17 In a laboratory experiment. in m3/s? 2. What is the effective permeability of this rock. l. if fluid is flowing parallel to the layering? 2.t. 1 m thick. What is the numerical value of q = Q/A. but occurring in a ’random’ spatial distribution. its porosity is 15%. in m/s? Question 18 Consider a layered reservoir consisting of alternating layers.akanji@salford. The permeability of the core is 200 mD. a pressure drop of 100 kP a is imposed along a core that has length of 10 cm. 1. 1. and a radius of 2 cm. Imagine that the reservoir consists of these three rock types.uk Page 22 of 25 . of rock 1.

What is the value of the capillary pressure? 2.UoS Reservoir Rock : Rock properties Question 18 Question 19 Consider a small blob of oil surrounded by water. If the radius of the blob is 0. Is the pressure higher in the oil or the water? l. The surface tension between the oil and water is 0.02 N m.uk Page 23 of 25 .akanji@salford.t.ac.05 mm 1.

the apparent molecular weight (AMW) 2.000 Question 21 An oil reservoir has the compositional data given in Table 6 1.uk Page 24 of 25 .035 0.akanji@salford.046 0.t.820 0. the composition in weight fraction 4.00 l. mole fraction 0.UoS Reservoir Fluid : Fluid properties Question 19 Question 20 Table 5 is the fluid compositional data of a gas reservoir. the composition in volume fraction Table 5: Data from a gas reservoir Component Methane Ethane Propane Isobutane n-butane Composition.059 0.29 0.40 0. the specific gravity γ 3.31 1.030 1. Compute 1.ac. What is the API gravity of the oil? Use ideal-solution principles Table 6: Data from a gas reservoir Component n-butane n-pentane n-hexane Mole fraction 0.

365 1. Draw a pattern of the brine Table 7: Data from a gas reservoir Component Na Ca Mg S 04 Cl C 03 HC 03 Mole fraction 7. Convert the concentrations of solids for the brine to (a) milligrams per liter (b) percent solids (c) milliequivalents per liter 2. The analysis of a formation water is given in Table 7.akanji@salford. 582 305 521 14.t.UoS Reservoir Fluid : Fluid properties Question 21 Question 22 1. 162 705 0 l.ac.uk Page 25 of 25 .

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