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Petroleum Engineering Assignment 1

Due Date: 15th of April 2013

Lateef Akanji (Ph.D., D.I.C.) Petroleum and Gas Engineering University of Salford l.t.akanji@salford.ac.uk October 14, 2012

UoS

Well Test Equations

∆Pskin = (Pwf )measured − (Pwf )calculated ∆Pskin s = qµB
2πκh

Jmeasured P − Pwf + ∆Pskin = Jcalculated P − Pwf 70.6µB −948φµctr2 ∆P = − q1Ei kh κt ∆G = VuLco∆P ρo

+ (q2 − q1)Ei

−948φµctr2 κ(t − t1)

C = VuLco Np tp = q ∆P m = Cycle κtp tpDA = φµctA PDM BH = 2.3026(P ∗ −P )/m qµB κ = 0.183 mh qµB κ = 162.6 mh (P1hr − Pwf ) κ s = 1.1513 − log + 3.2255 2 m φµctrw (Pi − Pwf (t1)) κ s = −1.1513 + logt1 + log + 0.35173 2 m φµctrw

l.t.akanji@salford.ac.uk

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2 tL ∆tc tL ∆tc 2 2 F ig qµB (PD )M h ∆P M −4 2.64e κ tM φct = tD µr2 2 rD M l.2 h∆P κ = 141.ac.uk Page 2 of 25 .akanji@salford.t.UoS Well Test Equations qµB ∆PD κ= 2πh∆P κ= tL ∆tc tL ∆tc 2 F ig 2 qµB (PD )M 2πh ∆PM κ tM φct = 2 µr tD 2 rD M or in field unit qµB ∆PD κ = 141.

uk Page 3 of 25 .ac. B.akanji@salford. Describe the sequence of events that resulted in the formation of the geological features observed in Figure 1 l. C and D 3. Determine the relative ages in Figure 1 2.t. Name the features marked A.UoS Petroleum Geology :Geologic Features Figure 1: Geologic feature Question 1 1.

ac.akanji@salford. Name the geological structures that you are able to identify (in the case of folds.UoS Petroleum Geology :Geological Map Interpretation Question 1 Figure 2: Geological map Question 2 1.uk Page 4 of 25 . draw their axes) 4.t. Describe the geological history of the area l. Identify the rock types in the area shown Figure 2 2. Determine the relative ages of the rocks 3.

ac. What are the principal uses of seismic data l. Describe hydrocarbon indicators on a seismic section 4. What sources of energy are most often used in seismic exploration? 5.t.uk Page 5 of 25 .akanji@salford.UoS Exploration : Exploration techniques Question 2 Question 3 1. State and define the principle methods of exploration and reservoir prediction 2. What are the two methods commonly used in seismic prospecting? (a) Which is most often used? (b) Which gives the most information? 3.

Using a simplified map. Describe the major distributions of oil and gas fields in the Southern North Sea (SNS) basin and adjacent onshore UK areas 3.akanji@salford. Describe the diffferent kinds of sedimentary rock and fluid types found in the North Sea and relate them to the depositional processes that led to their formation 5. Discuss the historical oil and gas production profile from the UK North Sea and the future direction l.UoS Petroleum Geology (Case-studies GP1 ):UK North Sea Question 3 Question 4 1.ac.uk Page 6 of 25 .t. describe the major subdivisions and brief geological history of the North Sea 2. Using a simplified stratigraphic column describe the oil and gas fields found in the Northern North Sea (NNS) 4.

Describe the diffferent kinds of sedimentary rock and fluid types found in the Niger Delta and relate them to the depositional processes that led to their formation 5.ac.akanji@salford.uk Page 7 of 25 .UoS Petroleum Geology (Case-studies GP2 ):Nigerian Niger Delta Question 4 Question 5 1.t. Using a simplified map. Discuss the historical oil and gas production profile from the Niger Delta and the potentials for future exploitation l. Using a simplified stratigraphic column describe the oil and gas fields found in the Nigerian Niger Delta basin 4. Describe the major distributions of oil and gas fields in the Niger Delta basin 3. describe the major subdivisions and brief geological history of the Nigerian Niger Delta basin 2.

UoS Petroleum Geology (Case-studies GP3 ):Arabian Gulf Question 5 Question 6 1. Discuss the historical oil and gas production profile from the Arabian Gulf and the potentials for future exploitation l. Describe the major distributions of oil and gas fields the Arabian Gulf basin 3.ac.t. Describe the diffferent kinds of sedimentary rock and fluid types found in the Arabian Gulf and relate them to the depositional processes that led to their formation 5. Using a simplified stratigraphic column describe the oil and gas fields found in the Arabian Gulf basin 4. describe the major subdivisions and brief geological history of the Arabian Gulf basin 2.akanji@salford.uk Page 8 of 25 . Using a simplified map.

Using a simplified map. Using a simplified stratigraphic column describe the oil and gas fields found in the Gulf of Mexico 4. describe the major subdivisions and brief geological history of the Gulf of Mexico basin 2.ac. Describe the major distributions of oil and gas fields in the Gulf of Mexico 3.UoS Petroleum Geology (Case-studies GP4 ):Gulf of Mexico Basin Question 6 Question 7 1.t. Describe the diffferent kinds of sedimentary rock and fluid types found in the Gulf of Mexico and relate them to the depositional processes that led to their formation 5. Discuss the historical oil and gas production profile from the Gulf of Mexico and the potentials for future exploitation l.uk Page 9 of 25 .akanji@salford.

akanji@salford. 218.uk Page 10 of 25 .] 3. Determine the relative position of the rig and target (a) rectangular coordinates (b) polar coordinates Table 1: Coordinates of rig and target T arget N S (meters) EW (meters) 964 −144 Rig 1334 653 2.] 457. 333. The target and the rig coordinates of a well are given in Table 1.t.2 meters [1.] 2o per 30.] 1. From your design. determine the following: (a) radius of curvature of the build section (b) hold angle (c) measured depth (M D) at start of Hold section (M Dhold) (d) measured depth (M D) at total depth (M DT D ) l. 500 f t.UoS Drilling (Ass ): Drilling Engineering Question 7 Question 8 1. Using Figure 3 and the information provided in Table 2.5 meters [4. design a build and hold trajectory Table 2: Build and hold trajectory design Vertical depth Horizontal displacement Kick-off depth Build rate 3.48 meters [2o per 100f t. 560 f t.ac.688 meters [10. 375 f t.

ac.uk Page 11 of 25 .t.akanji@salford.UoS Drilling (Ass ): Drilling Engineering Question 8 Figure 3: A build and hold trajectory l.

UoS Production & Well-Test :Well-Test Objectives Question 8 Question 9 1.akanji@salford.ac. stating all related equations (a) Productivity index (b) Vertical lift performance (c) Inflow performance relationship (d) Gas reservoir deliverability 2.t. Explain the following production related terms.uk Page 12 of 25 . Describe the following well-test methods and state the main objectives of conducting each (a) Injectivity test (b) Fall-off test (c) Interference test (d) Drill-stem test (e) Pulse test l.

] φ = 0.328 f t.9f t.ac. κ (d) the skin effect. determine: (a) the gradient.26 ct = 1.uk Page 13 of 25 .2 × 10−3 P a − s[9. From your plot and using appropriate equations.akanji@salford.1m [0.3 psi] Boi = 1.17 Swi = 0.32 µo = 9.7 M P a[3002.t.2 × 10−9 P a−1[8.] q = −17.2 cp] h = 21 m[68. s (e) whether the system is damaged or stimulated l. Plot Pwf versus time on a semilog coordinate sheet (Sheet A) 2.UoS Production & Well-Test : Pressure Drawdown Question 9 Question 10 Table 3 is a pressure drawdown test data from a well in an undersaturated reservoir with the following properties: Pi = 20. m (b) the pressure at t = 10 hrs (c) the permeability.27 × 10−61/psi] rw = 0.2 m3/d[108.2 bbl/d] 1.

35 18.25 Figure 4: Sheet A l.32 18.29 18.30 18.uk Page 14 of 25 .akanji@salford.ac.t.38 18.41 18.UoS Production & Well-Test : Pressure Drawdown Question 10 Table 3: Pressure drawdown test data T ime(hours) 32 43 53 64 72 81 110 Pwf (M P a) 18.

t.42 × 106 m2 (103.akanji@salford.8 acre). l. estimate the Pws(1hour) and the corresponding Pwf (d) Why is the Pws(1hour) different from the corresponding Pwf ? Figure 5: Pressure build-up curve with a limited drainage area 2.ac. . Use Figure 6 and the following additional data. Question 11 continued on next page.uk Page 15 of 25 . . m (c) From the graph. Figure 5 is a pressure build-up curve from a reservoir with a limited drainage area. (a) Determine the production time tp (b) Estimate the slope. Using the Matthews-Brons-Hazenbroek (MBH) method.UoS Production & Well-Test : Build-up & reservoir pressure Question 10 Question 11 1. determine the mean pressure of the drainage area of a well in the above reservoir which is placed at the center of a square with a surface A = 0.

akanji@salford.7 M P a [3002.uk Page 16 of 25 .2 × 10−9P a−1 [8. production rate before shut-in Boi = 1.2 × 10−3 Pa-s [9. l. cumulative production q = 38.3 psi] µo = 9.9 ft] φ = 0.2 cp] h = 21 m [68.52 (rb/stb) Pi = 20.17 [ ] Swi = 0. .1 m [0.27 × 10−61/psi] rw = 0.328 f t] Question 11 continued on next page.25 [ ] ct = 1. .3 m3/d [241bbl/d].t.UoS Production & Well-Test : Build-up & reservoir pressure Question 11 (continued) Figure 6: MBH dimensionless pressure for different well locations in a square drainage area (after MatthewsBrons-Hazenbroek) Additional pressure build-up data Np = 21409 m3 [134648bbl].ac.

8 Additional data q = 300 m3/d [= 1887bbl/d] µ = 0.8f t].4f t] r = 112.ac.5psi] (d) PD M = 0. In the match point: (a) tM = 100hours 2 (b) (tD /rD )M = 50 (c) ∆PM = 105 Pa [= 14. and matched by parallel shifting in Figure 7 with the type curve.akanji@salford. The distance to the observation well is 112.4 m [368.82 × 10−3 Pa-s [0. water was injected in the active well for 22 days.UoS Production & Well-Test : Interference and Diagnostics Question 11 (continued) Question 12 1.0 h = 12 m [39.8f t] (a) Determine the permeability.82cp] Bw = 1.t. The measured pressure changes are drawn on a transparent sheet versus t (hour).4 m [368.uk Page 17 of 25 . During an interference test. κ and (b) φct l.

akanji@salford.UoS Production & Well-Test : Interference and Diagnostics Question 12 Figure 7: Illustration of type curve matching for an interference test l.t.ac.uk Page 18 of 25 .

akanji@salford. Analyze each of the plots.ac.uk Page 19 of 25 .UoS Production & Well-Test : Interference and Diagnostics Question 12 Question 13 Figure 8 is a well test interpretation models for wells near a single fault. The corresponding pressure change and derivative plots are also shown on a log-log plot. Figure 8: Well test interpretation models l. channel system and wedge systems.t.

Ignoring the expansion of the oil that would occur when it is produced from the reservoir. 2. and with a 5 km radius in the horizontal plane.1589 m3).UoS Reservoir Performance : Reservoir Engineering Question 13 Question 14 Consider a reservoir that is shaped like a circular disk. how many barrels of oil are in this reservoir? (One barrel = 0.akanji@salford. light. The mean porosity of the reservoir is 15%.7. intermediate and heavy crude systems Question 16 Given the gas production data shown in Table 4. and the oil saturation is 0.ac. retrograde condensation.3.t.uk Page 20 of 25 . Determine: 1. . dry-gas and wet gas 3. If the density of the oil is 900 kg/m3. 1. the total volume (at standard conditions) of gas initially in place (GIIP) Question 16 continued on next page. how much oil (in kg) is contained in the reservoir? Question 15 With the aid of annotated phase envelope diagrams. describe the following 1. cricondenbar and cricondentherm 2. 10 m thick. l. . the water saturation is 0.

95 3.ac.86 0.1 M P a (1 atm) l.1 2. Explain why the abandonment pressure is not 0.akanji@salford.t.85 0.UoS Reservoir Performance : Reservoir Engineering Question 16 (continued) Table 4: Data from a gas reservoir P ressure(M P a) 25 24 23 22 21 Z 0.89 Gp (108 m3 ) 0 6.8 17.88 0.87 0.09 11.uk Page 21 of 25 .1 23. the volume of gas (Gp) that will be produced at the abandonment pressure of 3 M P a when Z = 0.

a pressure drop of 100 kP a is imposed along a core that has length of 10 cm. in m/s? Question 18 Consider a layered reservoir consisting of alternating layers. rock 2 and rock 3. in m3/s? 2. 1. where k1 = 1000 mD.uk Page 22 of 25 .ac.UoS Reservoir Rock : Rock properties Question 16 Question 17 In a laboratory experiment. its porosity is 15%. in equal volumetric proportions. Imagine that the reservoir consists of these three rock types. and k3 = 10 mD. of rock 1. The permeability of the core is 200 mD. and the viscosity of water is 0.001 P a − s. k2 = 100 mD. l. 1 m thick. if fluid is flowing parallel to the layering? 2. What is the numerical value of q = Q/A.t. What will be the volumetric flowrate Q of the water. What is the effective permeability of this rock. and a radius of 2 cm. What is the effective permeability of this rock. if fluid is flowing perpendicular to the layering? 3. 1. but occurring in a ’random’ spatial distribution. Estimate the effective permeability in this case.akanji@salford.

05 mm 1. What is the value of the capillary pressure? 2. The surface tension between the oil and water is 0.ac.akanji@salford. If the radius of the blob is 0.02 N m.UoS Reservoir Rock : Rock properties Question 18 Question 19 Consider a small blob of oil surrounded by water. Is the pressure higher in the oil or the water? l.t.uk Page 23 of 25 .

40 0.t. What is the API gravity of the oil? Use ideal-solution principles Table 6: Data from a gas reservoir Component n-butane n-pentane n-hexane Mole fraction 0. the composition in volume fraction Table 5: Data from a gas reservoir Component Methane Ethane Propane Isobutane n-butane Composition.31 1.uk Page 24 of 25 .00 l. Compute 1.000 Question 21 An oil reservoir has the compositional data given in Table 6 1. the composition in weight fraction 4. the specific gravity γ 3. mole fraction 0.ac.030 1.059 0.UoS Reservoir Fluid : Fluid properties Question 19 Question 20 Table 5 is the fluid compositional data of a gas reservoir.035 0. the apparent molecular weight (AMW) 2.046 0.akanji@salford.29 0.820 0.

162 705 0 l.akanji@salford. Convert the concentrations of solids for the brine to (a) milligrams per liter (b) percent solids (c) milliequivalents per liter 2.UoS Reservoir Fluid : Fluid properties Question 21 Question 22 1. 582 305 521 14. 365 1.t. The analysis of a formation water is given in Table 7.ac. Draw a pattern of the brine Table 7: Data from a gas reservoir Component Na Ca Mg S 04 Cl C 03 HC 03 Mole fraction 7.uk Page 25 of 25 .