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Let us now investigate some variants of the SAT problem and see how various parameters may affect the complexity of a problem.

In particular, we study the 2SAT problem and its optimization version.

2SAT Page 1

We have already seen that with 3 literals the problem is NP-complete. which is good (accepted) if it can be satisfied by some assignment to its variables. What about 2? A 2SAT instance is a 2-CNF formula. 2SAT Page 2 . This is clearly still the case when the number of literals is even larger. We’ll now show it is in P by reducing it to a graph problem in P.We can limit the number of literals in each clause of the SAT problem.

Edges in the graph correspond to such restrictions. if one of its literals is FALSE. i. enforce the adjacent literals to be TRUE as well. 2 for each variable. To satisfy all clauses. For a clause to be satisfied.e.A problematic cycle is a cycle that contains both x and x for some variable x. 2SAT Page 3 .. Here is an example of the implication graph of a simple formula. Namely. all the outgoing edges from its corresponding vertex. An implication graph for a given formula has a vertex for every literal of the formula. We'll now prove that the formula can be satisfied if and only if its implication graph has no problematic cycle. 2 for each clause. the other one must be TRUE. if a literal is assigned TRUE.

2SAT Page 4 . pick another variable and proceed in the same manner. it is in P. The property we have reduced our problem to. Therefore. constitutes of a set of connectivity problems. If not done. Hence a formula that can be satisfied results in a graph with no problematic cycles. with no problematic cycles. one can construct a satisfying assignment: Assign an arbitrary x with a value that is not contradicted by a path from x to x or vice versa. then x can be assigned neither TRUE nor FALSE. With no problematic cycles there can be no contradictions in this process.The completeness proof is straightforward: if a problematic cycle contains x and x. As to soundness. Now assign all values that are implied by this.

and simply ask whether there exists an assignment that satisfies at least K of the clauses. given a 2-CNF formula. We add to the input a threshold K. We call this problem Max-2-SAT. 2SAT Page 5 .Here is an example of the assignment being constructed. Now consider the problem of. To better analyze this problem we translate it into a decision problem. maximize the number of clauses satisfied.

in case the original clause is satisfied. And so that. Now consider cases according to the number of literals TRUE in the original clause. exactly 7 of the 10 can be satisfied.This problem is shown to be NP-hard by a simple reduction from 3SAT. we have introduced the notion of an optimization problem. exactly 6 clauses can be satisfied. We'll come back to this notion later and study it extensively. To be convinced this is indeed the case. so that at the most 7 of the 10 can be satisfied. in case the original clause is not satisfied. While. note that setting the auxiliary variable to TRUE only if all 3 literals are TRUE maximized the number of satisfied clauses. and have investigated the complexity of the optimization version of 2SAT. More importantly. We have discussed some SAT problems. Let us replace every clause by 10 clauses (plus an extra variable). 2SAT Page 6 .

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • SAT Max-2-SAT NPC 2SAT NL Complete Complexity Classes P NP co-NP EXPTIME L NL PSPACE NPC NP-Hard Max-2-SAT 2SAT Page 7 .

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