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Let us now investigate some variants of the SAT problem and see how various parameters may affect the complexity of a problem.

In particular, we study the 2SAT problem and its optimization version.

2SAT Page 1

This is clearly still the case when the number of literals is even larger. 2SAT Page 2 . What about 2? A 2SAT instance is a 2-CNF formula. We’ll now show it is in P by reducing it to a graph problem in P. which is good (accepted) if it can be satisfied by some assignment to its variables. We have already seen that with 3 literals the problem is NP-complete.We can limit the number of literals in each clause of the SAT problem.

the other one must be TRUE. Here is an example of the implication graph of a simple formula. We'll now prove that the formula can be satisfied if and only if its implication graph has no problematic cycle.e. Namely. 2SAT Page 3 . i. if a literal is assigned TRUE. 2 for each variable. For a clause to be satisfied.. An implication graph for a given formula has a vertex for every literal of the formula.A problematic cycle is a cycle that contains both x and x for some variable x. Edges in the graph correspond to such restrictions. if one of its literals is FALSE. 2 for each clause. enforce the adjacent literals to be TRUE as well. To satisfy all clauses. all the outgoing edges from its corresponding vertex.

As to soundness. constitutes of a set of connectivity problems. one can construct a satisfying assignment: Assign an arbitrary x with a value that is not contradicted by a path from x to x or vice versa. Hence a formula that can be satisfied results in a graph with no problematic cycles. If not done. The property we have reduced our problem to. it is in P. then x can be assigned neither TRUE nor FALSE. 2SAT Page 4 .The completeness proof is straightforward: if a problematic cycle contains x and x. pick another variable and proceed in the same manner. With no problematic cycles there can be no contradictions in this process. Now assign all values that are implied by this. Therefore. with no problematic cycles.

We add to the input a threshold K. maximize the number of clauses satisfied. given a 2-CNF formula. We call this problem Max-2-SAT.Here is an example of the assignment being constructed. 2SAT Page 5 . To better analyze this problem we translate it into a decision problem. and simply ask whether there exists an assignment that satisfies at least K of the clauses. Now consider the problem of.

More importantly. in case the original clause is not satisfied. 2SAT Page 6 . so that at the most 7 of the 10 can be satisfied.This problem is shown to be NP-hard by a simple reduction from 3SAT. in case the original clause is satisfied. We have discussed some SAT problems. And so that. While. we have introduced the notion of an optimization problem. exactly 6 clauses can be satisfied. note that setting the auxiliary variable to TRUE only if all 3 literals are TRUE maximized the number of satisfied clauses. Now consider cases according to the number of literals TRUE in the original clause. Let us replace every clause by 10 clauses (plus an extra variable). We'll come back to this notion later and study it extensively. exactly 7 of the 10 can be satisfied. To be convinced this is indeed the case. and have investigated the complexity of the optimization version of 2SAT.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • SAT Max-2-SAT NPC 2SAT NL Complete Complexity Classes P NP co-NP EXPTIME L NL PSPACE NPC NP-Hard Max-2-SAT 2SAT Page 7 .

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