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1. Sara began planning her summer vacation in December. 2.

Because I left the play early, I missed the surprise ending. 3. Tanya was invited to a party, so she wants to buy a new outfit. 4. After Alison finished playing the video game, she shut down the computer. 5. Because of rain, the baseball game was postponed. 6. For Halloween, each of the children had dressed up as a different Disney character; however, not one of them had dressed up as Mickey Mouse. 7. Some of the books in the library will be given to charity. 8. After the hurricane, many of the offices needed new carpeting. 9. The meaning of this poem is difficult to understand. 10. Tat Wei and his brother went fishing last weekend and caught lots of fish. 11. Sam doesn't think he passed the test, although he studied several hours last night. 12. The team had won the championship last year and was determined to win it again. 13. Since we bought our new wide-screen television, the prices have dropped dramatically. 14. My father and mother ate too much at our family reunion. 15. Fiona became interested in long-distance running several years ago; in fact, she ran in the Penang Bridge Marathon last year. Mark (S) for SIMPLE sentences, (C) for COMPOUND sentences and (CX) for COMPLEX sentences.

I will not have time to study for my exam.Question: Ottawa is the capital of Canada. Answer: Complex Sentence Explanation: This is a complex sentence because it contains the dependent clause "as soon as you arrive in Antigonish. since it contains the co-ordinating conjunction "and". Question: I do not own a Porsche. however." Question:Democracy is a noble goal. however.." If that information were in a phrase instead of a clause. Question: Call your father as soon as you arrive in Kuala Lumpur. Answer: Simple Sentence Explanation: This is a simple sentence."ate the sushi" and "left the restaurant" -. containing the independent clause "I will not have time to study for my exam" and the dependent clause "unless my girlfriend postpones her visit from Calgary. however." are joined by a semicolon instead of a co-ordinating conjunction. It is easy to see. Answer: Complex Sentence Explanation: This is a complex sentence. Answer: Compound Sentence Explanation: This is a special type of compound sentence." Question: Unless my girlfriend postpones her visit from Singapore.. to protect the minority from the tyranny of the majority. where the two independent clauses -"democracy is a noble goal" and "it is important. containing only one independent clause." Note the subordinating conjunction "unless" at the beginning of the dependent clause. why someone might think that this is a compound sentence. but Toronto is the capital of Ontario. to protect the minority . Answer: Compound Sentence Explanation: This is a compound sentence. The clue that you are dealing with a compound predicate rather than a compound subject is the fact that there is only one subject. the conjunction actually joins two predicates -. "I. it is important. however. Answer: Simple Sentence Explanation: This is a simple sentence. Question: I ate the sushi and left the restaurant. however. . because it contains two independent clauses joined by the co-ordinating conjunction "and.within a single clause. the sentence would be a simple sentence: Call you father upon your arrival in Kuala Lumpur.

Question: When the train arrives and if Ms. At first glance.Question: Susanne wanted to be here. however." Question: The football game was cancelled because of the rain. Question: The football game was cancelled because it was raining."Suzanne wanted to be here" and "she cannot come because her car is in the shop" -. it might look like a compound-complex sentence because of the conjunction "and" joining the two dependent clauses "when the train arrives" and "if Ms. she will be served with a subpoena. Langlois is on it. the second independent clause. so it cannot be compound. there is only one independent clause in the sentence. Answer: Compound-Complex Sentence Explanation: This is a compound-complex sentence. Answer: Complex Sentence Explanation: This is a complex sentence since it contains the dependent clause "because it was raining. however. Answer: Complex Sentence Explanation: This is a complex sentence. contains the dependent clause "because her car is in the shop. . First. "because of the rain" is a phrase rather than a clause. Langlois is on it". but she cannot come because her car is in the shop.joined by the co-ordinating conjunction "but". Answer: Simple Sentence Explanation: This is a simple sentence: since it does not have a predicate. it contains two independent clauses ." making the sentence complex as well as compound.

The Simple Sentence The most basic type of sentence is the simple sentence.it is a mistake to think that you can tell a simple sentence from a compound sentence or a complex sentence simply by its length. Compound Canada is a rich country. in a sense. but still it has many poor people. A simple sentences contains only a single clause. The ice melts quickly. When you do use simple sentences. The ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun.The Structure of a Sentence Remember that every clause is. or a compound-complex sentence contains at least two clauses. The Compound Sentence A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses (or simple sentences) joined by co-ordinating conjunctions like "and. Lying exposed without its blanket of snow. the ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun. the sentence has a subject as well as a predicate and both the subject and the predicate may have modifiers. a simple sentence can be quite long -. All of the following are simple sentences. but you have to use them with care: too many simple sentences can make your writing seem childish. a miniature sentence.small children learn to use them early on to connect their ideas and to avoid pausing (and allowing an adult to interrupt): . Simple Still. however." and "or": Simple Canada is a rich country. it has many poor people. and it remains by far the most common sentence in the spoken language of people of all ages. Compound sentences are very natural for English speakers -. A simple sentence can be as short as one word: Run! Usually." "but. In written work. As you can see. which contains only one clause. a complex sentence. simple sentences can be very effective for grabbing a reader's attention or for summing up an argument. you should add transitional phrases to connect them to the surrounding sentences. The most natural sentence structure is the simple sentence: it is the first kind which children learn to speak. while a compound sentence. because each contains only one clause: a) b) c) d) e) Melt! Ice melts.

a co-ordinating conjunction sometimes joins two complex sentences. however. I do not want to go. Compound My friend invited me to a party. a complex sentence contains clauses which are not equal. Of course.. A compound sentence is most effective when you use it to create a sense of balance or contrast between two (or more) equally-important pieces of information: Kuala Lumpur has better clubs. Macdonald had a serious drinking problem. your writing might seem immature. Unlike a compound sentence. a conjunctive adverb like "however" or "consequently" will appear near the beginning of the second part." The second example joins them together into a single sentence with the co-ordinating conjunction "but. but Penang has better cinemas. Usually. and I got to pet it. The second special case involves punctuation. the sentence is called a compound-complex sentence: compound-complex The package arrived in the morning." but both parts could still stand as independent sentences -they are entirely equal. but I do not want to go. First. and Shan Shan held it. In this case. and he showed it to the class. this is an extreme example. Complex Although my friend invited me to a party. It is possible to join two originally separate sentences into a compound sentence using a semicolon instead of a co-ordinating conjunction: Sir John A. there are two separate simple sentences: "My friend invited me to a party" and "I do not want to go. but the courier left before I could check the contents. In the first example. it sets in the west. or one simple sentence and one complex sentence. but it is not required: The sun rises in the east. The Complex Sentence A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. I do not want to go. and the reader cannot tell which is most important. Consider the following examples: Simple My friend invited me to a party. Special Cases of Compound Sentences There are two special types of compound sentences which you might want to note.Today at school Mr. when sober. Eng brought in his pet rabbit. however. and it ate part of my carrot at lunch. but if you over-use compound sentences in written work. and . In the third .. rather than joining two simple sentences together. and we coloured pictures of it. he could be a formidable foe in the House of Commons.

B. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finishedstudying. D. however. When you write the subordinating conjunction"although" at the beginning of the first clause. The reader will have trouble knowing which piece of information is most important to you. Alejandro played football. or subordinate. COMPLEX SENTENCES: A. I tried to speak Spanish. you make it clear that the fact that your friend invited you is less important than. but I do not want to go. E. he forgot to give the teacher the last page. After they finished studying. Some students like to study in the mornings. When he handed in his homework. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. B. or even My friend invited me to a party. COMPOUND SENTENCES: A. C. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. When you write My friend invited me to a party. C. Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon.example. A complex sentence is very different from a simple sentence or a compound sentence because it makes clear which ideas are most important. I do not want to go. "Although my friend invited me to a party. C. for Maria went shopping. however." has become incomplete. B. so Maria went shopping. Written by David Megginson SIMPLE SENTENCES: A. Alejandro played football. . Juan and Maria went to the movies. the sentence has changed quite a bit: the first clause. and my friend tried to speak English. or a dependent clause. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day. to the fact that you do not want to go.