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This article is about the star. For other uses, see Sun (disambiguation).

The Sun

Observation data

Mean distance from Earth

1.496×108 km 8 min 19 s at light speed

0122[2] .74[1] Absolute magnitude 4.Visual brightness (V) −26.83[1] Spectral classification G2V Metallicity Z = 0.

7′*3+ Adjectives Solar Orbital characteristics Mean distance from Milky Way core ~2.6′ – 32.Angular size 31.5×1017 km 26.000 light-years Galactic period .

(2.25–2.392684×106 km[5] Equatorial radius .50)×108 a Velocity ~220 km/s (orbit around the center of the Galaxy) ~20 km/s (relative to average velocity of other stars in stellar neighborhood) ~370 km/s[4] (relative to the cosmic microwave background) Physical characteristics Mean diameter 1.

379×106 km[6] 109 × Earth[6] Flattening 9×10−6 Surface area 6.990 × Earth[6] .0877×1012 km2[6] 11.6.96342×105 km[5] 109 × Earth[6] Equatorial circumference 4.

300.Volume 1.000 × Earth Mass 1.622×105 kg/m3[1] Lower photosphere: 2×10−4 kg/m3 Lower chromosphere: 5×10−6 kg/m3 .408×103 kg/m3[1][6][7] Density Center (model): 1.9891×1030 kg[1] 333.000 × Earth[1] Average density 1.412×1018 km3[6] 1.

7 km/s[6] 55 × Earth[6] Temperature Center (modeled): ~1.778 K[1] .542.57×107 K[1] Photosphere (effective): 5.0 m/s2[1] 27.29 cgs 28 × Earth[6] Escape velocity (from the surface) 617.94 g 27.Corona (avg): 1×10−12 kg/m3*8+ Equatorial surface gravity 274.

846×1026 W[1] ~3.75×1028 lm ~98 lm/W efficacy Mean intensity (Isol) 2.Corona: ~5×106 K Luminosity (Lsol) 3.009×107 W·m−2·sr−1 Age 4.57 billion years[9] Rotation characteristics .

23° (to the galactic plane) Right ascension of North pole[10] 286.Obliquity 7.13° 19 h 4 min 30 s Declination of North pole +63.25°[1] (to the ecliptic) 67.87° 63° 52' North .

4 days[1] Rotation velocity (at equator) .38 days[1] 25 d 9 h 7 min 12 s[10] (at poles) 34.05 days[1] (at 16° latitude) 25.Sidereal rotation period (at equator) 25.

77% .7.46%[11] Helium 24.85% Oxygen 0.189×103 km/h[6] Photospheric composition (by mass) Hydrogen 73.

Carbon 0.09% .29% Iron 0.16% Neon 0.12% Nitrogen 0.

05% Sulfur 0.Silicon 0.07% Magnesium 0.04% This box: view · talk · edit .

Most of the matter gathered in the center. a stream of charged particles that extends to the heliopause at roughly 100 astronomical units. The Sun's stellar classification. which nonetheless equals 5. while the rest is mostly helium.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a region within a large molecular cloud.[23][24] Of the 50 nearest stellar systems within 17 light-years from Earth (the closest being a red dwarf named Proxima Centauri at approximately 4.69%.2 light-years away). is a main-sequence star. most of which are red dwarfs. The bubble in the interstellar medium formed by the solar wind.74. The remainder (1. the Sun is the brightest object in the sky with an apparent magnitude of −26. 330. the Sun ranks fourth in mass.[25] The Sun orbits the center . neon and iron. within the inner rim of the Orion Arm of the Milky Way galaxy. eventually initiating thermonuclear fusion in its core.000 times that of Earth) accounts for about 99. It is almost perfectly spherical and consists of hot plasma interwoven with magnetic fields. the heliosphere.628 times the mass of Earth) consists of heavier elements. is a G-type main-sequence star (G2V). In its core.The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. based on spectral class.[17][18] The absolute magnitude of the Sun is +4. G2 indicates its surface temperature of approximately 5778 K (5505 °C).83.[14] Chemically.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. and V indicates that the Sun. carbon. the Sun is now thought to be brighter than about 85% of the stars in the Milky Way galaxy. and its mass (about 2×1030 kilograms. from the surface of the Earth it may appear yellow because of atmospheric scattering of blue light. among others. about three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen.[16] In the spectral class label. It is thought that almost all other stars form by this process.[15] The Sun formed about 4.684 km.[12][13] It has a diameter of about 1.392. like most stars. is the largest continuous structure in the Solar System. and is informally designated as a yellow dwarf.*19+*20+ The Sun's hot corona continuously expands in space creating the solar wind.[5] about 109 times that of Earth. as the star closest to Earth. The central mass became increasingly hot and dense. including oxygen. and thus generates its energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium. the Sun fuses 620 million metric tons of hydrogen each second.[21][22] The Sun is currently traveling through the Local Interstellar Cloud (near to the G-cloud) in the Local Bubble zone. however. while the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that would become the Solar System. Once regarded by astronomers as a small and relatively insignificant star. because its visible radiation is most intense in the yellow-green portion of the spectrum and although its color is white.