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The University of Salford School of Computing, Science and Engineering

Gas Engineering and Management (M.sc)

Module 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL GAS AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND DESIGN

Module Co-ordinator: Mr. N.E CONNOR & Dr. M.Burby

Assignment on: LIQIUFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) TECHNOLOGY

Written by:
FALUYI. EMMANUEL. A

Roll No.: @00284297

FALUYI. EMMANUEL. A @00284297

...........................0 Expansion of LPG...............................................3 Salt Dome cavern .............................10 Figure 4.................................. A.9 Figure 3........................................0 Typical properties of LPG....................4 Single column Overhead Recycle (SCORE)............................................................................ 3 2............................... 3 4..............3 Improved Overhead Recycle (IOR)....................................................................................................................... 5 Figure 2..........1 Overhead Recycle (OHR) Process........ 18 7.............5LPG as refrigerant.......................... 7 Figure 3.......................................................................................Flow Reflux (SFR) Process..................................................................................... 18 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.............................................................................1 Spherical LPG vessel.....2 Split...........................................10 Figure 3.....................................0 COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES...............................4 Table 1...............................................0 Cylinder filling Machine................0 Flow diagram of HD-5 LPG Recovery Plant......0 Structure of LPG components....................................................................................1 Above Ground Double-Cased Cylindrical Tanks:............ EMMANUEL...... 5 Table 1.......... 14 LIST OF TABLES FALUYI........................................................................... EMMANUEL.................................................................................................................................. 2 INTRODUCTION......................................2..............................................................................@00284297 LPG Contents Module Co-ordinator:.................. 1 Contents.........................0 A Bullet-shaped cylindrical vessel.......................................11 7.............2 Agriculture/ Horticulture...........................................9 Figure 3...9 Figure 3......................... 1 FALUYI.................................................................. 11 Figure 4......................11 Figure 4.................................................... 12 Figure 4.............. 18 7....................................................................................................................................4 LPG as cooking fuel............... A Page 2 of 19 ......... 1 Written by:.....................................................0 Typical properties of LPG.

1 EVOLUTION OF LPG The history of propane begins with the industrial revolution and the proliferation of the automobile. propane gas was cooking food in the home and in 1913 the first propane powered car was ran. 2. this leads to semantic oddities. As LPG is handled and utilised as liquid rather than as a gas.0 COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES 2. the term liquefied gas is vague. 1. LPG is a by-product of natural gas processing and oil refining. These qualities give it preference over other energy sources and wide utilisation in domestic. accessible anywhere in the world as it does not require a fixed network and do not deteriorate over time.0 shows a chemical structure of LPG. mainly in heavy trucks and forklift vehicles. around the world for more than 60 years. LPG has been used as a transportation fuel. Dr. chemist Dr. i. In 1910. and other hydrocarbons. because any petroleum gas can be liquefied given the right conditions.e.6 INTRODUCTION LPG is the ellipsis given to ‘liquefied petroleum gas’ and it’s a generic expression used to describe variety of organic hydrocarbons mixture that exist as vapour under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Snelling using coils from an old hot water heater and other miscellaneous pieces of laboratory equipment built a still that could separate the gasoline into its liquid and gaseous components and discovered that the evaporating gases were propane. Walter Snelling following a complain by American motorist on the rapid evaporation of the gasoline in their vehicle conducted an investigation. commercial and industrial purposes. LPG is considered as the cleanest non-renewable fossil fuel. The main compositions of LPG are hydrocarbons containing three or four carbon atoms. FALUYI. By 1912. by 1915 people were using propane in torches to cut through metal. Figure 1.1 COMPOSITION One common feature of LPG irrespective of its source is that both types of LPG are analogous in one respect and the immensity consists of liquefiable mixture of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons in the C3 and C4 boiling range. liquefaction. just as any of the lighter petroleum hydrocarbons can be vaporized. However. However.@00284297 LPG Table 1.0 Typical LPG Properties--------------------------------------------------------------------------------. A Page 3 of 19 . butane. EMMANUEL. the term is now well established and perhaps less misleading. and transformed to liquid by the application of reasonable pressure.

Combustion reactions are associated with an increase in volume of products with an expansion due to the generation of heat. water. dehydrogenation. EMMANUEL. The vital factor to the application of these mechanisms is order of stability. The basic chemical reaction mechanisms of LPG includes. In addition.0 Structure of LPG components However. Inadequate appliance flueing and ventilation may lead to the production of toxic compounds.1 REACTIONS The combustion of LPG produces CO2 and H2O vapour. non-hydrocarbon compounds (impurities) in trace amount are perhaps present in the parent natural gas or crude oil and resist the most efficient processes of purification or they might be introduced to the processed LPG by contamination during transport and handling. but might cause corrosiveness and toxicity. steam reforming and nitration. ammonia. However. It is reflected in the response to attack by chemical reagents. LPG is aggressive to certain nonmetallic substances like natural rubber and many plastics and causes them to be brittle and spongy. 2. mixes that are essentially butane ‘commercial butane’ and the commonest one with variable amount in 60% by 40% mixes of propane and butane depending on the need.2CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 2. hence they should be reduced to the barest minimum. LPG is chemically non reactive with metals.@00284297 LPG Figure 1. though the use of aluminium is normally restricted to vapour system components. which indicates that stability of hydrocarbons decreases with increase in molecular weight. halogenation. but includes involatile oils and polymeric residues. rather LPG is sold in the world energy market in variety of grades which include. FALUYI. this is due to its reactance with caustic soda. mixes that are essentially propane ‘commercial propane’. Thus. however. sulphur compounds and elemental sulphur. sufficient air must be available for appliances to burn efficiently. A Page 4 of 19 . therefore.2. LPG as typically marketed consist rarely of pure propane or butane. cracking (both catalytic and thermal). these compounds though in traces would not affect the combustion ability of LPG. including oxygen (2). These compounds include not only lighter hydrocarbons like propylene. oxidation. only equipment and fittings specifically designed for LPG should ce used. halogens and sedum.

75 8.0 2. EMMANUEL. LPG vapour acts as an anaesthetic and subsequently an asphyxiate by diluting or decreasing the available oxygen.1 86. The International Standard EN589 provides the details code of practice on the use of odorant.5 13.0 1. Pure LPG has no distinctive smell as such a powerful odorant. ethanethiol or ethyl mercaptan is added so as to detect leaks easily.1 480-605 175 Ignition temperature in air Latent Heat of Vaporization at 15 oC o kJ/kg oC Upper Lower MJ/m3 MJ/m3 Limits of flammability % vol GHV NHV Table 1.1 Toxicity LPG is non-toxic but at very high concentrations in air.582 LPG Mixture 50% each 0.504 Commercial Butane 0.8 121. FALUYI.3 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES The physical properties of a product are largely a function of its chemical compound. some of its properties depend on the state in which it exists.543 Kg/cm2 Table 1. 2. liquid and gaseous.9 480-535 358. A typical feature of LPG is its existence in two phases.8 2.45 9 + 9 to – 45 C C 495-605 372.0 Boiling point at atmospheric pressure .2 9.8 112.@00284297 Property Units Commercial Propane Specific gravity of Liquid at 15 oC (Water=1) Specific gravity of Vapour at 15 oC (Air=1) Vapour pressure at 38 oC 0.3.6 1.0 Typical properties of LPG o 1. A Page 5 of 19 . The following are some of those properties: 2.2 93.0 Typical properties of LPG 2.1 Colour and Smell LPG as a liquid is colourless and as a vapour. Thus. cannot be seen.2 10.01 2.3.

2.0 FALUYI. LPG vapour is heavier than air. During vaporization. While. Any escape will find its way to the low lying areas where it can remain and form a flammable mixture. 2. because it can be affected by cold weather resulting in poor pressure.5 Vapour Pressure This is a measure of volatility. In order to allow for expansion LPG cylinders and tanks are only filled by volume to 87%.3 Flammability A flammable mixture is produced when LPG is mixed with air. The higher the temperature of the liquid the higher the vapour pressure. LPG is highly flammable and must be stored in a well ventilated area and away from sources of ignition. has a vapour pressure of approximately 7bar (100psi) (akin to the pressure found in a lorry tyre).2 Boiling Point LPG The boiling point is the temperature below which LPG will not vaporise to form gas vapour. Commercial Butane is not suitable for outdoor usage in winter months. 2.@00284297 2. The pressure LPG exerts on a vessel varies with temperature.3.3.3. A Page 6 of 19 . and therefore floats on top of it before it evaporates. Boiling point of Commercial Propane and Commercial Butane are approximately 42°C and .3.4 Liquid and Vapour Density LPG liquid is twice lighter than water. while Commercial Propane must only be used outdoors. one volume of liquid will produce approximately 250 volume of gas vapour as illustrated in Figure 2. cooking and industrial applications. Thus. LPG vessels must be protected from heat sources and protective safety distances imposed on the siting and storage of LPG.3. Therefore LPG vessels must be sited away from drains and appliances must not be sited in basements or cellars. 2. conversely the lower the temperature the lower the pressure. Commercial Propane at 15°C. Commercial Butane has a vapour pressure of approximately 2bar (30psi) at 15°C (akin to the pressure found in a car tyre) Whereas. EMMANUEL. Any mixture outside these ranges is either too weak or rich to spread a flame.5 Expansion and Vaporization When LPG is heated it expands very rapidly. Because of these characteristics Commercial Butane can be used indoors. Commercial Propane is not adversely affected by cold weather and is an ideal fuel source for heating.2°C respectively. The flammability range is between lower limit of 1:50 and upper limit of 1:10 by volume of gas to air.

0 PRODUCTION 3. This means they will flow with ease and penetrate any break or weakness in the installation. A Page 7 of 19 . Consequently.3.1 SOURCES OF LPG LP gases are principally obtained either as: FALUYI. EMMANUEL. 2. Viscosity is an important parameter for specifying pumps for liquid transfer and for pressure drop prediction along flow lines.0 Expansion of LPG 2. petrol etc. it is imperative that appliances fuelled by LPG are provided with sufficient ventilation and serviced regularly to ensure that they burn efficiently. special jointing compounds must be used for LPG installations. 2. 3. each volume of commercial propane and commercial butane requires 24 and 30 times its own volume of air respectively. and yields up to 4 times its volume of CO 2. For complete combustion.3.8 Air requirement (Air / Gas Ratio) LPG vapour requires a higher ratio of air / gas to burn correctly.7 Calorific Value The gross CV for Commercial Propane and Commercial Butane are 95MJ/m 3 and 121MJ/m3.3.6 Viscosity LPG in both its liquefied and gaseous state has a very low viscosity of about 15 cp at 15 OC and will flow very easily like water. Therefore.@00284297 LPG Figure 2.

while 60% of it comes from natural gas processing. A Page 8 of 19 . hence this produces LP gases.2 LPG PROCESSING In the refinery. Figure 3.3 and Single Column Overhead Recycle Process (SCORE) Figure 3. ii. a by-product from refining light crude oil and processing of petroleum distillates or extracted from oil and gas streams as they emerged under the ground. Efficiency in total recovery. iii. though the schemes of operations differ from refinery to refinery. Investment and Operating cost. Splitflow Reflux process (SFR) Figure 3. 3. There are many state-of-the-art processes of LPG recovery currently used by the oil and gas industry.2. it needs to be ‘stabilised’ by further processing of associated gases. Performance of the systems to maximize product revenues as market conditions change. refrigeration and adsorption. The major factors in the processing of LPG are removal of contaminants and liquid recovery. LPG from refining crude oil accounts for 40%. but basically the process involves heating in a primary furnace and separation of fuel oil and bitumen from volatiles which are fractionated further. LPG LPG is synthesized in two ways and the process of manufacturing begins in the refining of crude-oil or from ‘wet’ natural gas fields. HD-5 Propane unit. ii. LPG are trapped in crude-oil. so to render the crude oil suitable for distribution by pipeline or tanker.@00284297 i.4 The major factors of consideration for the choice of the process are: i. these include: i.0 Ortloff next generation systems which include: Overhead Recycle Process (OHR) Figure 3. LPG is recovered by fractional distillation of the crude oil. The available processes of LPG recovery from natural gas liquids include absorption.1. Also LPG is extracted from natural gas either to enable the compressed gas to be transported without undue condensation or to provide useful fuel by-products. Improved Overhead Recycle process (IOR) Figure 3. FALUYI. compression. EMMANUEL. ii.

1 Overhead Recycle (OHR) Process Figure 3. Figure 3. In the design.2 Next Generation recovery processes: These processes are patented by Ortloff and include OHR. the cold absorber bottoms liquid is supplied directly to de-ethanizer at its FALUYI. The OHR employed twocolumn configuration. The application of this technology significantly saves transportation and fractionation cost. SFR.2.@00284297 3. In essence. it uses the flashed split-vapour streams in a heat exchanger to cool the tower overhead and generate reflux. Figure 3. SFR is an improved version of OHR.2. the process withdraws a vapour streams from composite distillation tower at an intermediate point and then condenses and used it as a reflux for the upper portion of the tower. thereby enhancing overall profitability. With minor enhancements to the solvent generator.1 HD-5 Propane Unit: LPG This is a patented Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) unit which utilizes non-cryogenic absorption to recover propane plus from natural gas streams. the process can produce the majority of the recovered propane as “Heavy duty” HD-5 containing a maximum of 5% propylene and maximum of 2-5% butanes and heavier hydrocarbons and lean solvent is produced at the bottom.Flow Reflux (SFR) Process Further improvement to the OHR was achieved in IOR by maximizing the use of the refrigeration available in its feed streams. EMMANUEL. A Page 9 of 19 .2 Split. then absorbs the propane-plus components for recovery in the bottom product from the second column.0 Flow diagram of HD-5 LPG Recovery Plant 3. The cold liquid produced contact and rectifies the vapour leaving the expander. IOR and SCORE.

EMMANUEL. So whenever a container is filled. Refrigerated insulated tanks at near atmospheric pressure and reduced temperature.1 CYLINDRICAL STORAGE VESSELS. highly efficient and adaptable to other recovery operations like ethane recovery. PRESSURE VESSELS: Pressure vessels are used as appropriate medium for LPG storage at ambient temperature due to its low boiling point. The vessels could either be spherical or cylindrical in shape. These tanks called Bullet-shaped vessels are used when the operating pressure is relatively low and the required storage capacity is of the range of 0. A Page 10 of 19 . The fabrication of pressure vessels. LPG expands rapidly when its temperature rises. Figure 3. The vessel has hemispherical or dished ends can be mounted horizontally or vertically depending on the space availability. 4.0 STORAGE The relationship between the vapour pressure and temperature is the most significant physical property that governs the design of LPG storage. The methods of storage most widely used are: i.4 Single column Overhead Recycle (SCORE) 4. whether mobile or fixed type is covered by Codes of Practice.1. FALUYI. Underground caverns.@00284297 LPG top feed.5 – 100 tonnes. 4. sufficient space is left to allow for such expansion.3 Improved Overhead Recycle (IOR) Figure 3. iii. which provides feed gas cooling for maximum heat recovery.1 Pressure vessels at ambient temperature. larger column and small reflux drum with one set of cryogenic pump. SCORE uses a single. A cold reflux produced by the overhead condenser rectifies the vapour flowing up the de-ethanizer. It’s considered as most economical. ii. such as LPGA ‘ Health and Safety’ (HS-G/34).

or double-skinned cylindrical or spherical tanks with high storage pressure and moderately low temperature.2. In accordance with safety regulations.0 A Bullet-shaped cylindrical vessel. They are mounted either above or below ground. A Page 11 of 19 . The tanks could either be single-skinned dome roof tanks for moderately low storage temperature and near atmospheric pressure. EMMANUEL. double skinned cylindrical tank with dome roof is the most suitable option. They are widely used in refineries and large inland depot and considered to be most economical LPG storage vessel. these tanks must be equipped with the necessary appurtenances such as pressure relief valves.000 m3 up to 105.c.1 Spherical LPG vessel 4. Typical construction of the double skinned cylindrical tanks is as shown below: FALUYI. The LPG is pressurized at almost ambient temperature.000 m3. Figure 4. 4.@00284297 LPG Figure 4. e. cooling and fire fighting systems. These are normally used when the required storage capacity is between 100-200 tons.t.2 SPHERICAL STORAGE VESSELS.1. This tank is available in various capacities from 80. Figure shows a spherical tank.1 Above Ground Double-Cased Cylindrical Tanks: When storing a large volume of LPG at atmospheric or slightly above atmospheric pressure.2 REFRIGERATED STORAGE: These tanks are used when the required storage capacity is in excess of 2000 tons. 4.

3. a suitable quality rock formation is blasted.2 Double skinned-Cylindrical Tanks. EMMANUEL.4.3. The gas storage design relies on the principles that hydrostatic pressure in surrounding rock being more than the 'escape' pressure of the stored gas.2 SALT DOME CAVERNS: A well is drilled into high purity salt formation and water is then injected into it to dissolve the surrounding salt to a specified volume as shown in Figure 4. the dike or bund wall sufficient to contain spillage of the largest tank must be constructed around the tank. 4. and the likes. Figure 4. In addition.3.000 m 3 Similar to spherical tanks. 105.3 CAVERNS. Also oil is lighter than water and is immiscible with it.3 Salt Dome cavern FALUYI. 4.1 MINED CAVERNS: In this type of cavern. 4. which is waterproofed by grouting. LPG is pumped after purging the cavern. The rock must be impermeable to the ingress of water or leak out of gas. and a huge excavated overhead water curtain gallery maintains gas storage pressure. It’s considered as safe and most economical way of oil and gas preservation.@00284297 LPG Fig. the double-skinned cylindrical tanks are also equipped with necessary safety appurtenances such as pressure relief valves. foam system. Underground LPG storage offers a very good alternative to aboveground in many instances. Access into the cavern is by a shaft. A Page 12 of 19 .

Figure 5.@00284297 5. Also open trucks are used to convey portable LPG cylinders from filling plant to distribution depots.3 Sea Transport: Sea transport serve as a convenient means of transportation of LPG between coastal refineries ansd customers with jetty offloading facilities.0 Typical Schematics of LPG distribution routing (Source: EIA) FALUYI. The vessels are fitted with necessary uploading facilities based on safety specification. and truck or tanker ship. Bulk shipment is done in a special pressure vessel with 40-50 tonnes capacities. 5. In refrigerated condition. LPG LPG is transported from its production point to bulk distribution terminals via pipeline. While Road trucks are used for distribution of relatively small quantities of LPG from the refinery or secondary supply to the locally placed customers or to the retail fuelling station. EMMANUEL. barge. railroad. 5.2 Rail and Road Trucks: Rail cars are the preferred means of transportation of LPG quantities which are too small to be moved by pipelines.0 shows a schematic presentation of LPG transportation. A Page 13 of 19 . ocean going cargo can transport a total cargo of up to 40000 m3 of LPG. Figure 5.1 Pipelines: Pipelines are convenient means of transfer of massive quantities of LPG from the refineries either to the secondary bulk supply plants located in highly industrialized location or to a very large customer organization like power plant.0 TRANSPORTATION OF LPG. Pressure valve used on coastal tankers are that of unit capacity up to 1000 m3 (500 tonnes). 5.

water injection pumps.c.@00284297 6 CYLINDER FILLING PLANT: LPG Propane and Butane are normally stored in either steel cylinders or small bulk fixed storage tanks ready for domestics and small-scale industrial purpose.0 Cylinder filling Machine 4. Remote Supervision System for reading of levels of Temperature. The filling hall consist of: manifold for manual scales filling and filling carousel with electronic scale for an automated filling. Compressor. 13. EMMANUEL. A Typical LPG filling plant is composed of: 1. In LPG cylinder filling plant it’s required to have equipment recommended by the standard and employ best operating techniques. FALUYI. e. To ensure safety. Dryer with tank. pressure and capacitive continuous level reading in the tanks. the plant must be fully equipped with fire protective and fighting equipment. iii. but their principle of operation is the same. Air compression System. It composed of: i. hydrant.1994 specification. Transfer points complete off-loading arms for liquid and vapour phase. 3.t. A Page 14 of 19 . Installation accessories. Figure 4. iv. The design of the plants varies according to levels of automation and complexity. CONTROL BOARD • • Pump room composed of compressors and pumps for product transfer.M.10. Pneumatic actuators connection pipe. 2. The equipments required include: Asbestos wrappings. ii. STORAGE TANK: Storage tanks with capacity range according to customer request complete with accessories as per D.

• • Except in specific circumstances (re acetylene and oxygen) the store should only be used for LPG. • The total quantity of LPG cylinders shall not exceed 100 kg.1. t ear marking and sealing 6. • Access to LPG storage areas should be limited to competent. • Smoking and other ignition sources must not be allowed within an LPG store or within the minimum separation distance allowed for the stored LPG. required is an effective and sensitive Gas and temperature alarm system with field sensors connected to main alarm board.1.1 INTERNAL STORAGE • LPG cylinders and other containers can be stored within either a specially designed single storey building. Cylinder requalification for Cylinders maintenance.1.1 • STORAGE OF LPG CYLINDERS: LPG cylinders must be moved. there are specific requirements for the storage of more than 15 kg of LPG in cylinders on commercial premises. unless it is within a suitable cage which prevents unauthorised tampering with the cylinders. or a specially designed storage place within a building or a cabinet/ cupboard.2 External Storage FALUYI.1. 6.1. authorised personnel. A Page 15 of 19 . EMMANUEL. • The area around the cylinders should be kept clear of other flammable material and clear of litter. However.@00284297 LPG Also. shot blasting. subject to specific requirements regarding the store's construction and maximum quantities of LPG that may be stored. 5. complete with devices for palletising.1 GENERAL SAFETY ON HANDLING LPG: 6. Storage should not be in an area that the general public have access to. The plant can be provided with LPG evacuation unit from cylinders. 6. No part of the building should be below ground level and there should be no drains or other opening in the floor. trained. • Where LPG is stored inside a building no more than 5000 kg of LPG in either cylinders or a combination of cylinders and cartridges should be kept in any compartment of a building. hydraulic testing and LPG cylinders water/powder painting. transported and used in an upright position with valves uppermost so that the vapour will be withdrawn in use.

1. • External store areas must be at least 2 metres from an opening into a building. it should be stored at the appropriate separation distance relevant to its quantity (which may be reduced if a suitable fire wall is provided). No more than 50% of the perimeter of the storage area should be obstructed and not on adjacent sides. in an area where there is no adjacent combustible material. • • Special welding and brazing kits using LPG and Oxygen may be stored providing only a maximum 50g oxygen cylinder is used (or a maximum 500g oxygen producing pellet container). • There are specific requirements for the storage of up to 50 kg of LPG near liquid oxygen installations. creating a fire/explosion hazard. to avoid potential risk of fire. security and that there are no other materials stored on it. 6. Consideration must also be given to distance required from LPG delivery vehicles to overhead power lines. to allow good ventilation. • Chemicals such as sodium chlorate and other oxidising agents should not be used as weed killer in the LPG storage area. bulk LPG or other flammable liquid vessels. so that any uncontrolled release of gas is sufficiently diluted to reduce risk of fire and explosion. corrosive or toxic materials and compressed gas cylinders. or a cellar.4 Roof top storage • Roof top storage of up to 400 kg LPG is allowed. ideally in the open air.5 Storage next to other materials • LPG cylinders should be kept separate from flammable liquids and combustible. because of the risk of a spark igniting leaked gas causing fire or explosion.1. EMMANUEL. oxidising. A Page 16 of 19 . • LPG may be stored with acetylene cylinders in special designed buildings. FALUYI. • LPG cylinders should not be located directly beneath electrical power cables.1. provided the storage area meets specific requirements regarding its structural suitability.@00284297 • LPG LPG cylinders should be stored in an area which is well ventilated. Similarly there should not be any open drains within the exclusion zone. Where there is in excess of 50 kg of LPG. Because LPG is heavier than air any escaped gas will potentially travel along the ground into such areas. proximity to chimneys and air intakes.1. 6. or a pit. fire resistance. • LPG storage areas should be of a suitable hard standing so that there are no indents where pockets of gas can collect.

6. It is therefore essential that they are not subject to a heat source. Part 1 Design.@00284297 6. EMMANUEL. A Page 17 of 19 . smoking and other ignition sources are prohibited and action to be taken in the event of a fire. • • This Local Authority currently provides a service at the civic waste amenity for the public to dispose of gas cylinders.1. • The guidance has been prepared for those involved in the safe practice of storing and handling of LPG in bulk at fixed installations • The guidance deals solely with above ground installations where LPG is stored under pressure at ambient temperatures. • Safety signs should conform to the Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996.1.1. the contents are highly flammable. or Buried or mounded/ semi-mounded vessels.1. FALUYI. Installation and Operation of Vessels Located above ground). Company's which fill LPG cylinders will not normally accept another company's cylinders and therefore retailers will normally only accept LPG cylinders for the LPG company they are associated with. • This Code of Practice does NOT cover refrigerated or partially refrigerated storage.7 Signage • Prominent notices should be displayed indicating: LPG is stored in the area.6 Disposal of LPG Cylinders • LPG Cylinders are considered to be a hazard even when they appear empty they will contain a residual amount of LPG. 6.1. which supply that type of cylinder. Cylinders should be taken back to a company.2 Bulk Storage of LPG • Guidance for bulk storage of LPG is contained in the LP Gas Association Code of Practice 1 (Bulk LPG Storage at Fixed Installations.

4 LPG as cooking fuel LPG has a high heating value (94 MJ/m³) than natural gas (methane) (38 MJ/m³ equivalents).1 Industrial Application LPG is a pure. FALUYI. Figure 5. There are refuelling systems for car fleet users or forklift users either on outright purchase or on rental.3 LPG as an automobile fuel LPG (also known as auto gas) is widely used as a "green" fuel for internal combustion as it has lower emission levels than any other fuel. 7. LPG is invaluable in rural areas .6 Terrace heaters: The ‘umbrella-style’ terrace heater is growing in popularity with restaurants and inns as it provides a greater opportunity for outside dining. It has an octane rating (RON) that is between 90 and 110 and an higher energy content. thus its utilization as a cooking fuel and for central heating is greatly used.5 LPG as refrigerant Highly refined LPG — nearly pure propane with an odorant added can be effectively used as a replacement refrigerant in systems designed for CFC-12.0 shows a schematic view of of car fuelling stations 7. 7.2 Agriculture/ Horticulture Clean burning LPG is particularly useful where livestock or food crops are involved and because it can be supplied in bulk for tank storage. This makes it the ideal heat and power source for a wide range of industrial uses. R-22 and R-134a refrigerants. 7. clean energy source. A Page 18 of 19 .often far from the source of traditional fuels and meets the needs of Agriculturists and Horticulturists who are always looking for dependable energy solutions to increase output and improve the quality of their produce. 7. which provides even and controllable heat. LPG vehicles are quicker to fill and LPG tanks are both lighter and give more miles between refuelling than Natural Gas. EMMANUEL.@00284297 LPG 7 APPLICATIONS OF LPG: 7.

http://shelbygas. where the LPG supply is housed in the base of the light.. 2011) FALUYI. Rapid development in Ocean Transport of LNG & LPG to Europe. 4.L...@00284297 LPG ‘Flaming Torch’ lights: This appliance replaces conventional street lights with an elevated flaming torch.html (accessed on 15th November 2011) 6.Revised and Extended. Chichester. 1994.8 Air conditioning: LPG can be used as a very efficient alternative to electricity for new air conditioning units. A Page 19 of 19 . 7. http://propanecarbs. and Lom W. LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES. Connor.. UK. 2011 3. EMMANUEL. series 29. Benn Technical Books. University of Salford. International Petroleum Times.. Glennon E.. Greater Manchester. 1978 2. . Application and Uses: 2nd Ed.com/propane.F. 1982 5..E.. Science & Engineering. Boudet R.com/shelbygas/history. Ellis Horwood. Gas service technology 1. Accessed on November 15th.htm. Basic science and practice of gas service.. Croydon. REFERENCE: 1. Williams A. N... School of Computing. Guide to Properties. LPG: Module 1 Lecture note. 15 June.