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Two Day Lesson Plan (Macbeth

DATE 11/20/2012 Lesson topic(s) and/or Essential Question(s)/Essential Understandings: Thespian PreTheory


What standards will be addressed by this lesson? CCSSI Literature #4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.) 2. CCSSI Literature #7: Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.) 3. CCSSI Reading #3: Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text. 4. CCSSI Writing #2c: Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts. What will your students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson? 1.


1. SWBAT demonstrate their understanding of scenes from Macbeth through tableaus. 2. SWBAT perform tableaus from scenes of Macbeth.

Instructional Materials and Resources

What materials, texts, manipulatives, visuals, etc. will you need for this lesson? What technological resources (if any) will you need?

1. No Prior Readings 2. List of definitions of Shakespearean words (Appendix A), a sheet of instructions over the "Tableau Assignment" (Appendix B), and note cards with various scenes of Macbeth (Appendix C).
Our unit plan will be delivered closer to the end of the school year. The students will have already been given Shakespearean sonnets, so they will use their prior knowledge with the language to make Macbeth easier to access. Since our course goals challenge students to approach Macbeth with a specific lense of judgment (who is loyal/blameless, who is not and who is committing crimes yet able to avoid complicity), students will have to use their prior knowledge when they analyzed the Shakespearean sonnets to identify ideas, motifs, and themes. Students have already written response papers to these sonnets. A response paper has students express their ideas and beliefs about a written piece of work. Now, students will

Adapted from Brown University Teacher Education Lesson Plan Template (2008)

have to build off from what the response paper achieves to write a persuasive essay, which has students not only communicate their ideas and beliefs but, also, prove why their beliefs and ideas are more correct than others. They will have to do this by meeting one of our course goals, which is effectively using textual evidence to prove and empower their argument. The course goal is to have students be able to write through various forms of essays, such as response, analytical, and persuasive essay. After the students write their persuasive essay, they will get commentary from their peers and teachers (Brady and Rob) that will help each student better comprehend how to write such form of essay, which the students will be required to make the changes/enhance their papers’ persuasive content and be turned in for a final grade. Learner Factors How does this lesson accommodate different development levels of students? How does this lesson accommodate individual differences in approaches to learning, create connections between the subject matter and student experiences, and/or include provisions for students with particular learning differences or needs?

Students face these two concepts: ethics of blame and loyalty, in their own lives. This unit will help the students think more deeply about these concepts, so they will be informed about how to evaluate issues and events within their lives-such as friends, family, and society-and become better citizens. As Peter Smagorinsky states in his book, Teaching English By Design, “The themes, *such as ethics of blame and loyalty], that students study can . . . help them consider pivotal experiences in their lives, such as their relationships with their friends or families [or society] . . . [and] introduce them to issues that they may not yet have considered, such as what it means to be a responsible citizen’’ (p. 119). Loyalty and the ethics of blame must be taught together. If someone or something is not considered loyal, the ethics of blame then examines and clarifies how and why such is disloyal. Thus, a better comprehension of both ideas-loyalty and ethics of blame-will, in effect, produce more responsible citizens. Loyalty has various definitions, and there are many different viewpoints on what determines someone or something as loyal. The unit presents students with all these different ideas and beliefs of what delineates loyalty. This way students are able to form a better and self-definition of loyalty. The characters in Macbeth provide a means to examine the different concepts of loyalty by investing their loyalty into different places, such as loyalty to the king. The students will analyze the actions, beliefs, and ideas of the characters to form their opinion of what loyalty means. The ethics of blame then comes into play, because students must realize what causes one to be loyal and/or disloyal. In this case, blame must be examined and understood. Students need to be able to respond to questions such as, “Could you blame someone for making such an action or thinking in a certain way?”. In the play, Macbeth, the characters are constantly changing their loyalties. For example, Macbeth was once loyal to King Duncan but then kills him. The students will examine if different characters in the play can be ethically blamed for being loyal or disloyal to certain people and/or ideas. For instance, Can one ethically blame MacDuff of being disloyal for killing Macbeth? Or is he being loyal to DuncanMacbeth is king of Scotland, but McDuff’s loyalty lies in the idea of Scotland. Should one ethically blame McDuff as being treasonous against Scotland? Or, should one ethically place the blame on Macbeth for his own death because he placed Scotland under his tyranny? Students need to comprehend how to answer

Adapted from Brown University Teacher Education Lesson Plan Template (2008)

these types of question in order to efficiently mentally process events and situations that will face throughout their life. Such events and situations arise in contemporary national and international politics and decisions. By informing students on the ethics of blame, the students will be able to effectively make decisions when it comes time to vote on people or proposals that deal with such events and situations, thus generating students into good, astute, and active citizens. Again in Smagorinsky’s book, he states, “... throughout American history, citizens have taken action to achieve what they feel is just, and that these actions have been driven by different social goals, different types of conscience, and different understandings of law” (p.143). By focusing on the word, “feel”, in his statement, this unit seeks to develop this sense that is within each student. In other words, it is an American belief that everyone should express and act upon what they believe is right, so exploring the ethics of blame will enhance the students’ sense, or “feel”, in analyzing events and situations throughout their lives.

Instructional Activities and Tasks

What activities will you and your students do and how are they connected to the objectives? The unit goals are for students to first be able to form a strong and solid opinion over the concepts of loyalty and ethics of blame and then later be able to effectively articulate these ideas through a written piece of work. In accomplishing the first unit goal, students must reach to a cognitive level where they can answer questions like: “What is loyalty? What are the different kinds of loyalty? What causes someone to feel loyal? What forces can compete with one's loyalty? How does one choose between being loyal or disloyal? How does one judge someone who has acted disloyally?” ( These questions encompass both inherently intertwined unit concepts. The students will analyze the characters’ actions, beliefs, and ideas in the play to reach these conclusions. We –the students and teacher-will use large and small group discussions, do writing assignments, and kinesthetic activities to better understand how to answer these questions and achieve the unit goal.

Assessment Activities

How will you determine what the students know and are able to do during and as a result of the lesson? Later on, they will have to do a unit assessment task to demonstrate if they have successfully and effectively comprehended these unit concepts. They will do so through a written persuasive essay. They will have the ability to pick from different writing prompts that will illustrate their understanding of the concepts of loyalty and ethics of blame. To clarify with an example, these writing prompts will be: • Pick any character and distinguish who or what she or he is loyal to, such as a person (the king of Scotland) or an idea (the nation of Scotland) and use ethics of blame to distinguish why or why not your chosen character’s actions or ideas can be considered disloyal. • Describe how Macbeth’s sense of loyalty changes throughout the play and how he can be ethically blamed as being disloyal. • Compare and contrast the two characters, MacDuff and Lady Macbeth, in where their loyalties reside and chose why or why not one or both can be ethically blamed as being disloyal.

Adapted from Brown University Teacher Education Lesson Plan Template (2008)

Instructional tasks and activities

What activities will you and your students do and how are they connected to the objectives? (Make sure to include timeframes) What will you be doing? What will the students be doing?

1. 2. 3.

Take attendance. Listen to students recite the words. Write the definition of Tableau and discuss the assignment. Also, answer questions that students may have. 4. Tell students which group they are in. Hand out the different set of tableau cards(Appendix C). 5. Go around to each group and help answer questions/concerns/advice/appraise. Day 2 6. Will help the group prepare and/or rearrange the classroom. 7. Will observe group 1. 8. Will help the group prepare. 9. Will observe group 2. 10. Will help the group prepare. 11. Will observe group 3. 12. Will help the group prepare. 13. Will observe group 4. 14. Remind students while writing of the different scenes that were performed. 15. Help direct the discussion. 16. Tell students to read the first half of Act 1 in Macbeth.

1. 5 min. - Form a circle and look over and become familiar with Shakespearean word and definition list (Appendix A). 2. 10 min. - Each student will recite his or her word with a British accent. 3. 10 min. - Look at the "Tableau Assignment" sheet (Appendix B), while listening and asking questions to instructions. 4. 5 min. - Students will form into groups of four and assign who will read and direct each tableau. 5. 20 min. - Students will perform each tableau in chronological order. Afterwards, they will discuss who brings what set pieces, what music will be played in the background, who will bring costumes, and who will bring props. Day 2 6. 5 min. - The first group will setup their settings, props, music, and get into costume. The other students will move desks to form a stage area and an audience area. 7. 3 min. - Group 1 performs their tableaus while everyone else watches. 8. 4 min. - Repeat preparation for group 2 9. 3 min. - Repeat performance for group 2 10. 4 min. - Repeat preparation for group 3 11. 3 min. - Repeat performance for group 3 12. 4 min. - Repeat preparation for group 4 13. 3 min. - Repeat performance for group 4 14. 5 min. - Write down what they think the play is going to be about. 15. 15 min. - Discuss their thoughts in a large group discussion. 16. 1 min. - Listen to teacher.

Adapted from Brown University Teacher Education Lesson Plan Template (2008)

Appendices for Lesson Plan Appendix A Definitions for the beginning of the hour on slips of paper which are handed out: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Stout - A gadfly, horse-fly; also applied to a gnat. Thane - A military attendant, follower, or retainer; a soldier. Rapt - A trance, ecstasy, rapture. Interim - In the meantime, meanwhile. Trifle - A false or idle tale, to deceive, cheat, or befool, to divert or amuse, a lying story, a fable, a fiction, a jest or joke; a foolish, trivial, or nonsensical saying. 6. Recompense - Reparation made for a wrong done; atonement or satisfaction for a misdeed or offence; an instance of this. 7. Hither - With verbs of motion (or cognate nouns): To or towards this place. 8. Murther - A murderer, an assassin. 9. Martlet - the fur or dressed skin of the marten. 10. Couriers - A running messenger; a messenger sent in haste. 11. Surfeited - Excessive consumption of food or drink; overindulgence in eating or drinking; gluttony. Also in figurative contexts. 12. Gild - To cover entirely or partially with a thin layer of gold, either laid on in the form of gold-leaf or applied by other processes. 13. Beelzebub - The devil 14. Gorgon - One of three mythical female personages, with snakes for hair, whose look turned the beholder into stone. The one of most note, and the only one mortal, Medusa, was slain by Perseus, and her head fixed on Athene's shield. 15. Parley - Speech; conversation; a debate or argument. 16. Cistern - An artificial reservoir for the storage of water; esp. a watertight tank in a high part of a building, whence the taps in various parts of it are supplied. 17. Coveted - Greatly desired or wished for.

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18. Perturbation - The action of perturbing a person's mind, heart, etc.; the fact or condition of being mentally perturbed; mental or spiritual agitation or disturbance. Also: an instance of this. 19. Fife - A council area and former county of Scotland. It is well known for one of the most ancient universities in the World and is renowned as the home of golf. 20. Skirr - To run hastily away; to flee, make off Appendix B November 2012

Group Tableau Performance As the definition on the board reads a tableau is: “A representation of the action at some stage in a play (especially a critical one), created by the actors suddenly holding their positions. Also as a stage direction; drawing attention to a dramatic scene or situation.” Instead of simply holding positions, students will have to a ct out the points leading up to the tableau/friezes and then hold these positions at the end of both scenes. Friezes were popularized around 400 B.C. in Rome. Similar to friezes of ancient Rome I want creativity, artistry and methods of expression that are thought provoking. I do not necessarily want you to become the next Joseph Gordon-Levitt or Keira Knightley but try and get lost in the scenes and characters that each person in the group is portraying.

Confused? I’ll explain again: each group will be assigned two scenes from Macbeth. The four group members are expected to act out each scene. At the end of each scene the four group members must frieze into some dramatic state. Each scene description given has a definitive ending to the scene and I want each group to capture the essence of their assigned scenes through friezes at the end of the acting. How long should each scene be? Each group is given three minutes to act out the scenes. Everyone has two scene therefore one scene should be 1:30 while the other scene should be 1:30. How many friezes should there be at the end of the scene? There should be two friezes. Groups can decide on their own how long the friezes should be held. You can’t have a one minute scene with a thirty second frieze though! Again, each group will be assigned two scenes that they must act out in three minutes. You must have several lines in your rendition during the performance. The lines recited by the group can be assigned all to one character as a soliloquy or to all four group members - it does not matter. The lines may be straight from Macbeth or rewritten by groups into a more

Adapted from Brown University Teacher Education Lesson Plan Template (2008)

modern style if the group so prefers. Groups should use a small collection of props. Swords can be Christmas wrapping paper shells, crowns may be from Burger King, royal goblets can be sippy cups, be creative with your use of props.

The point of this project is to become accustomed with the general outline of Shakespearean plays. Since all of you have probably deduced by now that we will be working with Macbeth this semester each group will be assigned two scenes and will present them chronologically. This is to clear up any confusions students might have when we begin to read Macbeth – therefore the quality of acting and presentation by each group will heavily determine how easy the next few weeks will be for everyone when it comes to reading comprehension of Macbeth. At the end of the Unit students will be tested on reading comprehension of Macbeth so the less you slack off now the less you will have to cram the night before the test. I am warning students now and I do not like to repeat myself. Students will be graded on: 1. Material comprehensibility in the eyes of the audience. Do we know what is going on? Are the choreographies well done? 2. The inclusion of every event in the scene assigned. 3. The quality of lines delivered. 4. The props used by the group. 5. Filling the entire 3 minute slot (I would rather you run over your time instead of under). Some things to prepare as a group in order to succeed: 1. 2. 3. 4. Who is bringing what? Who is making what? Who should recite lines? Who wants to be what character?

Adapted from Brown University Teacher Education Lesson Plan Template (2008)

5. Should we make it funny, tragic, serious, romantic, lethargic, all in slow-mo, apocalyptic, aquatic, safari, prelapsarian, pirate, star wars? 6. Should we meet after class? Can we work on all this during the lunch periods? 7. Should we choreograph the scenes in the classroom or at someone’s house? At the end of the presentations each student will be given a slip for personal evaluations. By conjunctive efforts of both students and the teacher, we will be grading everyone in the class and their enthusiasm and willingness to participate (See Appendix J). If anyone is still confused come to me and I will explain it again.
Appendix C Of the six scenes each group will receive two scenes. Each scene will be explained and passed out on pieces of paper to the students. Students will be given slips and assigned a presentation so that the six scenes are preformed in chronological order: 1. The scene with the drunken gatekeeper is an interesting scene. Have the students form a hallway with their bodies, have a student act as the door to the castle. Have a student be the porter in mid-walk down the hall with his mouth open for the frieze. a. “In the haze of drunken slumber a man stumbles through the echoing rooms, corridors, ambulatories and apses to re ach the front gate to the castle. The corridors are narrow and obvious, yet his drunken stupor disables him from adequate attention to the impatient and eerie men garnished with chain mail and shields waiting outside on the moat. Waiting outside banging slowly on the metal draw door.” The scene with Macbeth holding the daggers in his hands absent-mindedly with Lady Macbeth imploring him to take action would be another good scene. . “At the front of the stage stands a man holding two raised daggers in his hands with small bloody intestines hanging from the tips. His wife squeezes his large bicep endeavoring pleading with him to hide the weapons for someone will see. She goes so far to yell at him for she – unlike him – can feel the eyes of the knights staring down upon them in the darkness. Judging them, looking at them knowing what they have colluded and conquered; what they have done. The eyes stare yet they are alone in the entry chamber.” The scene with the murtherers killing Banquo and attempting to kill Fleance escaping would be another good scene to frieze. . “Along the black sandy trails of Scotland Banquo and Fleance walk up another set of endless rolling hills. Large boulders chi pped

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and mossy scatter about making the trail of turns and blind spots. The large boulders stand alone in the vast terrain of Scottish travel. As Banquo and Fleance take a sharp turn left three murtherers jump from out of their hiding places and point their daggers at the unprepared men menacingly.” The scene with Macbeth at his wits end during the banquet with his other knights would be a good one. Make sure the scene description utilizes the definitions recited at the beginning of the class. Acquire a white sheet to throw over the student who is acting as Banquo the ghost. . “A man stands in between a large wooden table and a luxuriously cushion attached to a jeweled and bronzed chair. His eyes are wide open and his body is unable to sit and eat the food which has been provided for him by the workers of Scotland. A handful of armored men stare at him surprised as they are seated to the sides of Macbeth, they are hungry and ready to eat. With one wriggling finger the perplexed Macbeth points across the table and is about to scream ‘The table's full!’” The scene with the witches’ prophesizing would be a good scene and have Macbeth and his partner in mid-walk to speak with the witches. . “Three suspicious old women in black robes under a stone hut huddle over a large pot mumbling and cackling. The fire is weak and dim yet somehow their faces have a red visible glow. As the witches conjure more and more spirits Macbeth and his partner slowly funnel through the rocky tundra with the faint glow of the fire din as their guide.” The scene with Lady Macbeth sleep walking with a candle in her hand or rubbing her hands together would be a good scene as the doctor and maid watch after her in terror. . “Lady Macbeth holds a candle in front of her. Eyes wide open she sees a different reality. Abruptly setting the candle on the ground she stands up quickly and rubs her hands together. Endlessly she tries to rub something of her hands that no one else can see.”

Adapted from Brown University Teacher Education Lesson Plan Template (2008)