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Zhoushan Xihoumen Bridge – The world’s longest box-girder suspension bridge

SONG Hui
Pro. Senior Engineer CCCC Highway Consultants Co., Ltd. 85,Deshengmenwai Street, Xicheng District, (100088) Beijing, CHINA
sh1968@263.net

Wang Xiao Dong
Civil Engineer CCCC Highway Consultants Co., Ltd. 85,Deshengmenwai Street, Xicheng District, (100088) Beijing, CHINA
Email:wangxd_hpdi@126.com

SONG Hui, born 1968, received his bridge engineering degree from the Univ. of Tong Ji. Shanghai, P R Chi N

Wang Xiao Dong, born in 1981, received his bridge engineering degree from the Chongqing Jiao Tong University, P.R.China.stNow, he is the engineer of 1 Major Bridge Department of HPDI.

Abstract :The Zhoushan Xihoumen Bridge is a two-span continuous steel box girder suspension bridge with a main span of 1650 m. The design criteria, construction conditions, general design, and detailed structure design of the main bridge are introduced and presented in this paper. Key words :Xihoumen Bridge; General Design; Design of Main Bridge

1.

General Description

The Zhoushan Xihoumen Bridge Project, which is located in the city of Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province of China, is the fourth major bridge project in the 50 km long Zhoushan Islands-to-Mainland Linking Project. It will connect Cezi Island and Jintang Island across the Xihoumen waterway. The Main Structure of Zhoushan Xihoumen Bridge is a two span continuous steel box girder suspension bridge with a main span of 1,650 m. This span currently ranks second worldwide and first in China. The bridge is also the longest steel box girder suspension bridge in the world. The total length of the bridge is 2,588 m and the total investment amounts to RMB 2.2 billion.

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General Route Design of Zhoushan Islands-to-Mainland Linking Project

Taoyaomen Bridge
Fuchi

Xiangjiaomen Bridge Cengang Bridge

Cezi

Jintang Bridge

Dapeng Hill Daochu Hill

Lidiao

Xihoumen Bridge

Zhoushan
Starting

Jintang
Ending

Ningbo
Fig 1 General Design of Route

2.

Design Criteria
¾ Highway Grade: Four- lane expressway ¾ Design Vehicle Speed: 80km/h ¾ Design Load: Highway GradeⅠ ¾ Route Width: 2×11.5m ¾ Navigation Criteria: Navigation clearance height is 49.5m Navigation clearance width is 630m ¾ Design Basic Wind Speed: Return period of operational stage is 100 years, U10=41.12 m/s Return period of construction stage is 20 years,U10=36.19 m/s ¾ Basic Seismic Intensity: Degree 7

3.

Construction Conditions

3.1 Engineering Geology
The bridge site is in low hilly terrain on a marine island with relatively large changes in landform and topography. The land area is mainly exposed and bare bedrock and half exposed hilly areas with developed plantation. The overburden stratum of 1.5 to 2.5 m in maximum depth is of quaternary slope deposits. In Cezi and Tiger hills there are mainly broken stones and clay. In Jingtang there is mainly loam mixed with broken stones.

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The bedrock is all igneous rock. Cezi and Tiger hills there mainly flow marked rock and Jingtang has felsophyre. The underwater landform is mainly scoured channel of tidal current with characteristics of deep cut channel ditch consistent with flow route of tidal rise and fall. Exposed isolated hills and hidden reefs are present in the channel. At the bridge site there is no fault distribution due to Late Pleistocene epoch activity, namely non seismological fault. The basic seismic intensity for the Xihoumen Bridge is degree VII.

3.2 Hydrology
The Xihoumen waterway is a northwest-southeast waterway with approximate length of 7.7 km, average width of 2.5 km and the narrowest width is about 0.9 km. The width of waterway at bridge site is nearly 2000 m which is divided into south and north branches by Tiger Hill. The width of the south branch is about 1600 m with maximum water depth up to 95 m. The north branch width is around 370 m with maximum water depth up to 70 m. Tidal currents of the waterway are generally irregular half day currents. The movement is mostly reciprocating. The flow speed is high with intense eddies. The characteristic water level at the bridge site was obtained from statistical data of tide observations at Zhenghai and ocean stations. Highest tide level is 3.28 m, average tide level is 1.14 m, and average low tide level is -0.75 m.

3.3 Meteorology
¾ Temperature:

Table 1 Temperature Parameters Annual Average Temperature Extreme High Temperature Extreme Low Temperature 16.5℃ Average Temperature in January Average Temperature in July 5.8℃

39.1℃ -6.1℃

26.9℃

¾ ¾

Rainfall: annual average rainfall is 1442 mm. Monthly maximum rainfall is 532 mm. Wind Velocity: annual maximum wind velocity 34.3 m/s. Extreme wind velocity exceeds 40 m/s. Typhoon-prone months are from May to November and most typhoons happen between July and September.

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4.

Structure Design

4.1 General Design
Based on the geological and hydrological conditions at the bridge site, one pylon is set on Tiger Hill. Two long spans (namely the main span and the north side span) repectively cross the south and north branches of the Xihoumen waterway. The pylons and anchorages are all founded on land. The bridge is a two-span continuous steel box girder suspension bridge with a main span of 1650 m. The main cable arrangement is 578+1650+485 m with a sag to span ratio of 1/10. The approach bridge for south side span is on Jingtang Island. The south side spans are 60 m continuous prestressed concrete box girders.
57800 165000 48500

250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150

236.486(IP)
16500

236.486(IP) 45.500(IP) 3.280最高设计通航水位

41.500(IP) 通航净空630×49.5米

Fig. 2

Arrangement of Bridge Type

The pylons and anchorages for the main bridge are located in a straight line. Generally the bridge axis is arranged in straight line. If the approach spans on south side were also arranged in a straight line, the large bridge across the reservoir behind would require a structure with spans of 120m to 130m and a tunnel of 300 m would be needed to cross the Xiaodonghou hills. (Refer to fig.3). The construction cost for this would be in excess of 60 million RMB. To reduce construction difficulties and cost, therefore, the south side approach spans are aligned on a plane curve with radius 1250 m. The main span is aligned on a vertical curve. Maximum longitudinal grade is 2.5%.
16.3 桃 20.1 1.6 3 塘 养殖场 2.1 1.6 1.6 6 1.6 Ⅰ13 2.957 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.4 20.9 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.9 1.4 34.2 37.8 39.8 1.5 1.4 .4 1.40 1.40 1.4 3.9 36.4 21.7 28.3 113.1 32.2 19.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 22.9 31.8 80.3 松 49.4 80.2 19.3 91.5 水库 18.7 1.4 1.5 1.5 3.6 1.5 31.8 69.6 33.7 21.1 22.0 松 1.4 1.5 1.7 33.7 64.9 20.1 1.5 1.9 塘 1.6 1.5 1.5 Ⅰ17 3.4 3.908 1.6 1.4 58.8 31.8 55.0 1.8 10.2 30.4 34.4 10.2 松 87.4 松 2.1 1.5 4.2 1.8 养殖场 10.1 10.3 24.3 36.5 20.2 10.8 6.6 5.7 25.0 65.3 110 松 100 松 塘 1.4 1.3 24.0 1.9 10.5 26.8 30.9 1.4 10.8 5.8 1.2 松 70 80 58.8 90 山潭乡 柳行乡 59.3 101.2 1.8 1.2 60 1.4 1.7 1.5 40 50 松 42.7 48.6 56.3 30 52.0 89.3

Anchorag

锚碇IP点 e

50.9 91.0 58.5 69.6 松 73.1 50.2 30.5

21.4

19.7 20.1

62.6 141.0 80.3 50.6 36.6 90.2 71.2

Bridge Across The 跨水库特大桥 Tunnel 隧道

21.7 40.8 33.6 72.3 45.2 131.5 110.5 52.8 坑 47.1 110.5

137.0

48.6

Starting Point of Jintang 金塘互通区起点 Intercommunication di t i t
Fig. 3 Plane Arrangement of Line Joint (South Side Span Range is a Straingth) ?????

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4.2 Design of The Main Bridge 4.2.1 Pylon (1) Pylon Foundation
The pylons are supported by multiple pile foundations. Pile diameter is 2.8 m. Four rows of piles are arranged along the bridge under each pylon leg with 3 piles in each row, for a total of 12 piles. Piles are embedded into slightly weathered rock. In order to ensure the stability of the foundation, the piles for the north pylon are extended to 40 m in length. Only the uppermost 14.5 m of pile are considered in calculation of capacity against friction failure. The piles for the south pylon are embedded three pile diameters into slightly weathered rock. Under each pylon leg lies a pilecap which has plan dimensions of 22.8 m×16.8 m and is 7 m deep. The two pilecaps of the north pylon are connected by a 6 m deep link beam, 10 m by 6 m in cross-section.

(2) Pylon
The pylons are reinforced concrete portal frames. The upper ends of the pylon legs are inclined inward and the external side lines of pylon legs incline twice, which makes a larger conicity of the pylon leg below deck and gives a favourable aesthetic effect. The cross-section of the pylon legs is a reinforced concrete box. In order to prevent vortex-induced vibration and beautify the appearance of the pylon, based on the results of a series of wind tunnel tests, the four angles of the pylon leg section were cut with 70 cm×70 cm chamfers. The wall thickness of pylon leg from top to bottom varies from 1.2 m to 1.6 m (longitudinally) and from 1.2 m to 1.5 m (transversely). Joints with cross beam are locally thickened. Bracing members are prestressed concrete hollow box beams. The north pylon is has two bracing members at the top and middle. The south pylon is designed with vertical bearing and has three bracing members on the side. The section size of bracing members is 6.1 m wide by 9 m deep. Thickness of cross-section components is 0.9 m. Two internal diaphragms are provided.

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1/2A-A
D
I.P.点236.486 565 3140

1/2B-B
C

1/2C-C 1/2D-D
A B
565

1/2A-A 1/2B-B
900 115 3140

1/2C-C 1/2D-D
850 565 6996.1 1200 2638.1( 倾 斜 度 1/30) 10929.4 21128.6

850

E

E

1/2E-E 1/2F-F
70

6996.1

850

162.175

70

70

70

21128.6

21128.6

10150

13567.5

21128.6

57.675

3417.5

22.000 700 15.000

1200 700

D

C

A B

Fig. 4

General Design of North Pylon

Fig. 5

General Design of South Pylon

4.2.2

Stiffening Girder

The design wind velocity for checking flutter (Ucr) is 78.7 m/s. This set a high demand for aerodynamic stability of the stiffening girder. After a comprehensive study of several girder types, a flat streamlined twin box section was selected.

6

2163.1

950

10004.4

900

6096.1

6996.1

F

F

650

Table 2
Project

Stiffening Girder Comparison and Selection
Single Box Section Open Lattice Girder

Twin Box Section

Cross Section
2160 1000 2000 1000 2500 1300 700 紧 急 停 车 带 36000/2 2× 3750 行 车 道 500500 6000/2 路 缘 带 6000/2 500500 路 缘 带 36000/2 2× 3750 行 车 道 2500 1000 2000 1000 700 1300 紧 急 停 车 带

33100/2 2500 2000500 2500 2×3750
紧急停车带 行车道

50010501050500
路缘带 路缘带

2×3750
行车道

33100/2 2500 5002000 2500
紧急停车带

1000 2000 500 2500
紧 急 停 车 带

30100/2 2× 3750
行 车 道

50010501050500
路 缘 带 路 缘 带

30100/2 2× 3750
行 车 道

2500 500 2000 1000
紧 急 停 车 带

00 φ6

3209 1550 100

100 3209 1550

900

3510

Shape

2265 1100 150

1100

5000

3260

5815 6500

11185 6600 900 3000 3000 900

11185 6600

5815 6500

9630 10550

6920 6000

6920 6000

9630 10550

6750 4750

3500

4000

7300 5300

3602

7300 5300

4000

6750 4750

Slotting the section to remove Theory pressure differences between top and bottom of girder

Increase the girder depth and the frequency of torsional vibration

The same as twin box section option.

Composed by twin box section Cross Section Features Composed of twin box section and crossbeam. Slot width is 6 m. Single box and crossbeam; the slot width is two lane (10.6 m). The lattice covered on crossbeam as deck system. Girder Height Total Width Aerodynamic Measure Tested Ucr 3.5 m 36 m non 88.4 m/s 5m 33.1 m 2.16 m stabilized plate >89.3 m/s The required girder height is Mature technology and the Assessment project cost is moderate. The overall index is the best. relatively high and the configuration is heavy, it consumes more steel material and the cost is high. The most economic one, but the technology is not mature. 3.5 m 30.1 m non >91.1 m/s

1000

1000 2500 2000 1300 700 紧急停车带

36000/2 2×3750 行车道

500 500 路缘带

6000/2

6000/2

500500 路缘带

36000/2 2×3750 行车道

2500 1000 2000 1000 700 1300 紧急停车带

1100

2600

3365

2600

2160

5815 6500

11185 6600 900 3000 3000 900

900

3510

11185 6600

5815 6500

Fig. 6

Standard Section of Twin Box Stiffening Girder 7

3260

The stiffening girder is 36 m wide, 3.5 m deep, and the ratio of girder width to span and the ratio of girder height to span are respectively 1/47.1 and 1/471.4. The transverse beam between two enclosed steel boxes is 6 m long and the two boxes are connected at each suspension point along the bridge with one enclosed box shaped beam and one open flanged beam. The height of the box shape is 3.51 m and its width is 3.6 m. The flanged beam is 3.51 m deep and its width is 0.34 m. The width of each enclosed steel box is 14 m. Internal diaphragms are provided at 3.6 m spacing. The standard segment length of the stiffening girder is 18 m. Each segment contains a box shaped transverse beam and a flanged transverse beam. Total handling weight of each segment is 2500 kN. The following three measures were taken to assure a smooth flow of forces and ease of construction. ⑴ The web of transverse connection construction is extended by 3.7 m into the enclosed single box on both sides and the transverse diaphragms within the box are overlapped vertically. The middle large plate of transverse diaphragm plate is butt jointed. The inner inclined web and straight web and the stiffening plates above as well stiffening of bottom plate are cut off there and welded on both sides. ⑵ The stiffening of flat steel of upper and lower flange of cross linking boxes extends into two side boxes and cross respectively the U type stiffening rib of deck and bottom plate. ⑶ The web which extends into a single enclosed box and of cross linking construction adopts a piece of whole plate. The web is directly welded respectively with deck and bottom plate of box girder on both sides. Meanwhile in order to assure welding quality to prevent overhead position welding the corresponding unit block of given girder segment shall be operated by “turning over” position.
2000 953 1117 7×950
8 N5 7 N20 7 N1 N21 N22 N28 N23 N3

12300 1050 71
N6 8 N11a 8 N11b 8 N24 N25 N26 8 N1' N12

850

950

430 300

N3

N4

N3

N5 N11

N3

1100

8 8 8 N2 t=20 8 8 7 N16 N17 N18 N19

80 10
7 N15
N10

拼接缝

3054

N28 7 N29,N30 t=12 N31

2160

50

80
N14 7 N27 N14a 8 7 N7 8 N14b

N13 7

7

N8

3745

N8

N9

N8

N8

N8

3800 6500

2800

500

700 1200

6600

Fig. 7

Diaphragm of Structure

4.2.3

Anchorage

The north anchorage is located on the point of southwest angle of Cezi Island and the width of the point is around 85 m and the ground elevation within anchorage range is between 7.5 to 45.0 m. The south anchorage is located behind one point of hill back of Damantou Hill on Jingtang Island and the ground elevation is 12.5 to 82.5 m.

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Fig. 8

Landform of North Anchorage Site

Fig.9

South Anchorage Site

According to the engineering geological conditions of the site, weathered bedrock is selected as a bearing course for the anchorages. For the north anchroage, a gravity type anchorage with enlarged foundation is used. Within the foundation base area, the rock is mainly weak weathered flow marked rock. For the south anchorage a gravity type rock embedded anchorage is used. Within the foundation base area, the rock is mainly slightly weathered felsophyre. For the south anchroage a different site and the option of a tunnel anchroage was also discussed. Due to the large cable force of the bridge and the poor integrity of the rock, the option of the tunnel anchorage was abandoned.

Fig. 10

General Design of North Anchorage

Fig.11

General Design of South Anchorage

(1)

Anchorage

The anchorages have inclined top. Each side is inclined inward by 3.5° . The backfaces are vertical. The front face of the south anchroage is inclined at an angle of 26° . The front face of north anchorage is inclined at 15°. The bases of the anchorages are stepped. Primary anchorage design parameters are given in Table 3.

9

5. 8

1. 9

1. 8

10 .5

1. 2

1. 2

2 6 .8 CZ 30. K2 9 1

1. 7

8

60

1. 5

50

40

CZ K1 5

30

1. 5

20

1. 3

22 .4

养 殖 场

3. 9

CZ K1 4

1. 3

2. 1

20 .5

1. 4

6. 7 11 .5

1. 8

1. 4

1. 9

CZ K1 3

.3

4. 6

2. 5

2. 1 6

1 1

5. 9 采

0. 6

0. 6

0

-0

-0

.5

.2

-0

CZ

.4

K2

21

.6

Ⅰ 25 21 .4 10 C Z

0. 6

K5

10

25 .0

70

CZ K1 6

46 .2

10 .

6

7. 4

.2

-0 .

1

1. 2

CZ K

4

20

58 .8

80

48 .6

42 .7

56 .3

30
.5

65 .3

59 .3 52 .0

40

90

2. 8 21 .4

G 26 Ⅲ 0 .5 3 78 32 .5 41 -0 .6 CZ K3 CZ K1

4. 5

42

.5 38 .1

Table 3 Parameter North Anchorage South Anchorage Incidence Angle (°) 11.377

Anchorage Design Parameters Length (m) Width (m) Height of Back End of Anchorage (m) 34.5

Concrete(m3)

79302

81.7

60

19.635

69094

71.7

59

31.9

Anchor blocks are solid diamond shaped platform structures. Thickness of the side walls for the north and south anchorages are respectively 120 cm and 100 cm. The supporting piers, front anchorage cells, and bracing of the north anchorages all use C40 concrete. The remainder of the anchorages use C30 concrete.

(2) Anchoring System
Cables are anchored by means of a prestressed anchoring system using unbonded tendons composed of galvanized steel strands and anticorrosion grease. Components of the anchoring system are replaceable, which ensures durability of the system. The prestressing strands used in the anchoring system follow a straight line to prevent loss due to friction.

Fig. 12

Assembling of Prestressed Anchorage System

4.2.4

Cable System (1) Main Cable

The bridge has 2 main cables. Each main cable is made of plant prefabricated high strength galvanized parallel steel wire with tensile strength no less than 1770 MPa. Each cable is composed of 127 steel wires. The main spacing ratio, based on practical experience from multiple national and international long span suspensions bridges, is 17% at cable clamps and 19% elsewhere. Other design parameters of the main cables are given in Table 4.

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Table 4 Spacing of Main Cable (m)

Design Parameters for the Main Cable Diameter of Main Cable (m) North Side Span:0.870 Nos. of Wire North Side Span:175 Middle Span: 169 South Side Span:171 5.25 Wire Diameter (mm)

Parameters

31.4

Middle Span: 0.855 South Side Span:0.860

The anchorage at both ends of the main cable wires are hot cast anchorages made of a zinc - copper alloy. Main cables are protected by 4 mm diameter galvanized winding wire plus a corrosion resistant coating.

Fig. 13

Cross Section of the Main Cable

(2)

Suspender Cables and Cable Grips

Suspender cables are fabricated from steel wires. The suspender cables and cable grips are connected in a saddle form and the connection with steel box girder is by pin hinge. The joint of the pin hinge is self-lubricating to reduce bending of the suspender cables. Suspension points are provided at 119×2 locations in total on the stiffening girder. Two kinds of suspender cables are used. One type of suspension cable takes larger force and has special requirements on deformation. These cables are the long suspenders near the north pylon (88 mm diameter, tensile strength 1960 MPa) and the short suspenders in the north side span (80 mm diameter, tensile strength 1860 MPa). The other type of suspender cable is a general-purpose cable (60 mm diameter, tensile strength 1770 MPa). The anchor heads at both ends of the suspender cables are fork shaped hot cast anchors. The anchor cups are cast with zinc –copper alloy and the fork shaped ear plate is screwed to the anchor cup. The opening of the anchor cup is provided with a damper cast with neoprene to improve the property of fatigue resistance due to bending of the suspender cables. Suspender cable grippers are provided at 1.8 m below the center of main cable. For suspensder cables longer than 20 m,an absorbing frame is provided at mid-height to reduce wind -induced vibration. The cable grips consist of left and right mating pairs. The two halves are connected with bolts and sealed with waterproof rubber strips. Cable grips are grade ZG20SiMn cast steel. Wall thickness varies from 35 mm to 45 mm.

(3) Cable Saddle
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The main cable saddle is cast and welded. The saddle duct is steel cast and saddle body part is welded plate connected to the saddle duct by welding. Under the main cable saddle, PTFE stainless steel sliding plate is provided to enable jacking and placement of the cable saddle during erection of the main cable and the stiffening girder. The top of pylon leg is embedded with a steel grid to evenly transfer the vertical component of force from the main cable to the pylon leg. Because the main cable of side span is provided with back stays, the main cable is provided with an anchor girder to anchor the backstays. To facilitate handling of the main cable saddle, it is divided into two parts according to main and side span. After they have been erected onto the top of the pylon, the two parts are bolted together using high strength bolts. A dehumidifying system is provided as well as other corrosion protection measures. The design parameters of main cable saddle are listed in Table 5.
Table 5 Angle of Contingence of Middle Span (°) North:22.0733 Parameter South:21.7934 South:23.2799 Design Parameters of Main Cable Saddle Angle of Contingence of Side Span (°) North:25.9597 233.286 8.2 South:2.078 Elevation of Grid Top of Pylon Top (m) Bending Radius of Main Cable (m) Displacement of Jacking (m) North:1.096

Fig. 14

General Design of Main Cable Saddle

The saddle body is welded plate member and connected with saddle duct. On top of saddle duct is provided with three beams to press tight the main cable into saddle duct. The lower part of the saddle is provided with a swing axle, base seat, and base plate to transfer the vertical component force of the main cable. The base plate is embedded into the pier of anchored cable saddle and the measures for structure protection is the same as the main cable saddle. The design parameters of cable saddle are given in Table 6.

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Fig. 15

General Design of Cable Saddle

Table 6 Angle of Contingence of Main Cable (°) North:11.314 Parameter South:19.664

Design Parameter of Cable Saddle Angle of Contingence of Anchor Span (°) North:30 8、6.4、4.2、2.1 South:38 11 Radius of Vertical Bending (m) Radius of Plane Bending (m)

4.2.5

Bearing System of Stiffening Girder and Expansion joint

Vertical bearings are provided at the north anchorage and bracing of the south pylon with two pieces for each location and respectively support the two enclosed single boxes of the stiffening girder. The bearings are free to displace in all directions. A transverse wind resistance bearing is arranged at the north anchorage, the north pylon, and the south pylon with one pair of bearings provided at each point. The wind resistance bearings at the north anchorage and the south pylon are evenly arranged on bracing members and are located at centre line of bridge. The wind resistance bearings at the north pylon are respectively arranged on the pylon leg at both sides of the stiffening girder. Vertical viscous dampers are arranged on a reinforced concrete retaining wall of the north anchorage and at the bracing of the south pylon with two pieces for each location to limit the vertical movement of the stiffening girder due to dynamic loading and to reduce the reaction force of the structure due to dynamic loading. Each end of the stiffening girder is provided with one large expansion joint to accommodate larger movement and displacement due to rotation. Due to the fact that the
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given bridge is not symmetrical and the temperature of both ends of stiffening girder and deformation due to dynamic loading are different, the capacity of the expansion joint at the north anchor is 2160 mm and the capacity of the expansion joint at south pylon is 2240 mm.

5.

Conclusion

The most prominent features of the site of Xihoumen Bridge are the adverse wind environment and the complexity of the hydraulic conditions. Therefore, the bridge designers carried out in-deep studies on the bridge type scheme and every component, and took effective measures to create favourable conditions for building the bridge on site. During the construction process, the builders drew on the wisdom of the masses, properly solved the difficulties and outlives the adverse wind environment together with the bridge. At present the Xihoumen Bridge has been completed and its formal opening to traffic is expected on October 1, 2009.

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