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Document de travail du LEM 2009-02


Monali Hota, David Newlands
IÉSEG School of Management, CNRS-LEM (UMR 8179)

Digital forms of the data typically are available as either unrestricted or are on protected sites that require pre-payment or passwords. Each regional station was responsible for producing programming and regional communication services. Digital recorders enable asynchronous passive and edited viewing. there has been an explosion of the number of entertainment channels available. Purchase commitment variables and brand image issues are examined. series and documentaries. Data obsolescence risk is reduced due to live updates. Some of the most expensive advertising time slots are during America’s Super bowl. Most state owned broadcasters. Both public and commercial organisations also raise significant sums from selling productions such as films. such as the BBC. searched to generate a bespoke list that includes archive materials. shows and genera of entertainment may be supported by self selected advertisers. Many printed items are recycled even without being sold. books and glossy magazines typically have an equally high obsolescence risk. High end VCR and hard drive recorders may have advert skipping features that enable a programme to be recorded without and viewed without interruption. In Britain. journals. It is no longer necessary to own a television or radio in order to watch and listen to programming. To evaluate buzz marketing. Commercial television and radio channels principally raise revenue from advertising time. Use of buzz marketing in France seems to be relatively small scale as compared to the tele-marketing activities evident in the UK. Product Placement and Subtle Communication Monali Hota and David Newlands IESEG School of Management CNRS-LEM (UMR 8179) Personal or individualised marketing places emphasis on selection and discourse with higher purchase probability prospects. Introduction Independent or commercial started in the UK in 1955 [1] with a single license per region. data was gathered using semi-structured interviews with existing active respondents in France between 22 and 26 years of age. UK broadcasting law limits advertising to twelve minutes per hour. and as a result of creating or following established links. 1 . This article investigates the relationship between interaction behaviour while active with a buzz marketing environment and a prospect’s intention to purchase. Specific events. Individuals may access the internet to view or sample live and recorded material. Printed versions of these materials are at the customers’ cost and avoid distribution costs. It quickly became apparent that different times of the day and year suited relatively specific market segments. With the new media systems available. Data may be accessed from a ‘hot’ or ‘current’ pick list. Financially operating independently. industries. High volume print runs for news papers. the number of TV stations rose from two BBC choices transmitting just a few hours per day from 1922 [2] through to thousands available from the various satellites in stationary orbit and cable networks.Buzz Marketing. raise revenue via compulsory annual viewer licenses. Companies wishing to advertise have different products. their primary revenue was raised by selling advertising time.

The overall similarity of comparable products may require third party comparisons such as Which Magazine to be consulted. message interpretation. previous experiences with failed products. Mass Audience versus Individualised Messages Wide channel choice has fragmented the once mass audiences into niche viewers. delivery lead time. Product and service satisfaction can fix consumer’s preferences to an established brand and product family. an average of 3 per minute. and selective observation. advertising messages from the various mass media including television. demographic statistical monitoring. email and remote receiver diagnostics and servicing. and designed to be assembled using industry standardised optimum methods. even if they were directly addressed to them. Live events such as sport games and motor sports have to make decisions when to break from the action for a break. it may come as little surprise that consumers are less brand loyal. Current key advertising issues are mass versus individualised messages. Service subscribers from media empires such as Sky and Virgin must connect a telephone line to enable interactive services. unofficial advertising channels. mobile phone texts and the internet. pricing policies and warranty terms are a must for all competing brands. Annoyance with Interruptions Viewers may become engrossed in a programme. magazines and other printed documents. Product quality. Yankelovich Partners’ research [4] suggested around 65% of Americans felt bombarded with. Commercial broadcasters can break at regular intervals during the hour or have most of the advertising at the end of a programme. They also have a commercial break between the end of the show and the credits. using similar technology releases for components. emails. unintended targets. Perceptions showed quality of messages received had deteriorated. US stations seamlessly break from programme to commercial without a transmission clip. This can imply consumer churn. listeners and readers. educated targets. poor service experience or the superficial styling and choice of customer appreciated variants. radio. The final purchase choice may be down to the attitude of the sales representatives. Given many products are based on the same platforms. target’s annoyance due to interruptions. A growing group tended to ignore such messages. options. Shown back to back this structure is annoying because it is superfluous. This study relied on statistics that suggested Americans were exposed to approximately 3000 advertising messages per day. They have the power to interrupt prospects with a ringing phone and mobile email message alert.Mobile technologies enable data and sales pitches to be made synchronously rather than asynchronously. Advertising Effectiveness Thomas [3] aimed to prove that traditional advertising methods have become ineffective. Scripts may be designed to facilitate intermissions. 61 percent thought advertising is ‘out of control’. Many programmes shown on the BBC for example are constructed with end of section reviews and welcome back narrations. They may choose slow moments and then recapitulate what has been 2 . or saturated by. This is not limited to commercial station productions. Mean time to failure is typically used by fast moving consumer goods producers as a key performance metric.

viewers may use the time to click over to another channel during commercials. Unintended Targets Unintended targets are individuals and market segments that have obtained or viewed advertising content that are outside the defined ideal prospect group. They focused on overt explicit messages oriented toward the hard sell. they may put the set on mute. Recorded events may be split and shown in a more refined manner. change service provider or search tool. 3 . They offer information. They may have deliberately selected a few key individuals or sent it widely. alienation or opportunism may result. internet service users may block pop-ups. In order to access or cancel their proposals. They may pose as the official party. for example. These may be the result of preexisting associations. blogs. The pass-on and recommendation rate ideally should be far higher than one. ads were scripted to mention the brand as many times as possible in the time slot. web links. specific local cultural and linguistic cues. Examples include: underage. 60s and 70s seem laughable today. Unofficial and Unauthorised Advertising Channels Unauthorised channels represent themselves as being associated with the brand owner. In the 1950s. Message Interpretation Unintended interpretations may be perceived by the audience. Rather than suffer intermissions. during the half time break and after the final whistle. distrust. Unofficial channels in this context are not directly aiming to sell goods and services of a specific brand. Educated Targets Adverts from the 1950s. previous negative experiences. or deliberately to delete the message. and go make a drink or get snacks. Some countries prohibited products and brands from advertising. evaluation and discussion forums. Digital copies may be edited to remove them prior to long term storage on disk. wrong gender or social group. The data requested then may be used against the prospect in an illegal. immoral or unethical manner. pessimistic or humoristic slants. they will. all be it. graphite. As transmissions and media may leak across boundaries and be widely distributed using web technologies. Other high potential information transfer individuals will pass the message on to others in their social circle. have a comfort break. have several advert sessions scheduled prior to kick off. Such channels include: spontaneous endorsements from celebrities and ordinary people.missed with replays. talk show discussions. is to have the message reach a wider audience. however. Explicit and frequently tacit cigarette advertising today are forbidden in many countries. Even if the recipient turns down the offer. Soccer matches. news articles mentioning the product. requests may plausibly be made to verify the recipient is the correct individual. temporarily have consciously have recognised the nature of the message and decided not to opt-tin. Content may be copied or closely replicated by fraudulent and unscrupulous organisations. Already recorded events may further be recorded by viewers in order to fast forward over the intermissions. Equally. product review journals. The aim of viral marketing. the religiously sensitive.

authentic products [7]. The value of the screening can be calculated by summing the time the brand or logo is on screen.5 million vehicles produced in 2007. Air miles. Redesigning Communication Modes Marketing management now has to communicate directly with prospects and existing clients. The levels of attention range from idly dozing through critical appraisal and reflection. The level of thinking inspired by the message can include recognition and immediate skipping over to the next page or fast forwarding. One factor that seems to be common amongst new consumers is a preference for original. Certain products such as tobacco internationally are prohibited from explicitly advertising in this way. particularly on F1 cars. This requires the target to stop their activity and engage with the marketer. despite high exchange rates and reduced production capacity after PSA closed Ryton near Coventry and the failure of Rover [5]. the percentage of British owned vehicle brands sold in Britain collapsed to less than 1% after Rover was sold. Other goods are bought because the brand represents good quality and the product has unique selling points that create a mass niche. Respondents have self selected to receive offers and information. Consequently marketers may have a higher overall sales rate than decliners. Permission Marketing Marketing organisations invite prospects to opt in to receive details of specific offers. This aggression is expressed in the communication method called ‘interruption marketing’. Adapting to suit these rules. Certain populations are more prone to purchase domestic brands or brands that seem local. Hence they may have available funds and needs to fulfil. On-line pop-ups that relate to specific on-line search requests automatically target potential clients. The products may have superior performance and usually are available only via credit or debit card purchase and direct mail delivery. minimised packaging and recyclable goods increasingly are important factors. Almost 60% of vehicles sold in France are French brands. Respondent’s time may be valuable. By contrast. This approach enables the advertiser to select profiles of recipients and reduce ignored prints. Billboard advertising at televised sporting events can be an attractive option. An unsupported assumption is that they must have some intention to purchase because they are using their time in a dialogue. Satisfaction with a good and brand may limit observation of other brands [6]. Consumers may decide not to buy a product because it is a local brand but manufactured elsewhere using cheap labour. Other motivations to engage in such dialogues must be identified and the extent 4 . than goods clearly identifiable as foreign brands or imports. Malborough has translated its name into a bar code that still is evident on Ferrari drivers’ clothing and cars. These commercial programmes have more time than the typical 30 second time slot in scheduled intermissions to get their messages across. The aim is to capture the target’s attention. Britain exported 77% of the 1. Journals and magazines may be individually printed and assembled with specific advertising sized to pre-determined windows. synthesis.Selective Observation Viewers may choose tacitly or explicitly to listen and understand to commercials. identification of financial and cost benefits. value comparisons to comparable offers. Godin [8] asserts marketers become aggressive in their means to outreach to individuals because mass advertising no longer is effective. Dedicated telemarketing channels are available on free-view for those individuals that want to see a product displayed. understanding. the company has been identified as having poor ethical standards or polluting. carbon foot prints. discussed and used.

Quality problems and warranty replaced repaired handset availability enabled Apple later to launch a plain boxed ‘re-made’ version of the Iphone at a lower price. during and marketing campaign. or which to buy at the expense of not buying comparable products from other brands. Taking the maxim ‘perception is reality’. All other phones and entertainment solutions may then be evaluated in comparison. These may be used to evaluate viral and buzz marketing. Considerable interest was paid to the product prior to formal launching. however they do not evaluate the change in efficiency of the prospect’s behaviour modification mechanisms. This is based on the buyer behaviour orientation that their perceptions and associations impact on their buying decisions and habits. or decline the interaction. 5 . where opt-out tick boxes where clients would automatically receive information unless they explicitly decline the service. Traditional key performance indicators tend to focus on change in sales volume prior. Viral Marketing Viral marketing senses and filters prospect’s activities in order identify opportunities to engage them in an ongoing dialogue that ultimately is aimed to generate sales. influencing and customer relationship creating approach. Once released. Buzz Marketing Buzz marketing raises the product or service as an issue. The three big mobile operators each bid for exclusive rights to market the Iphone with a service rental deal. Seeking permission differs from decline options. The effectiveness of such buzz marketing is the central concern of this research. further information may be released or sent directly to the respondent. This tangible effect may be the delayed result of a settling-in process of re-establishing confidence in the brand and the company. This method typically was employed by credit card providers and other financial services. Viral marketing tends to have a short reproduction cycle duration. This calls into question the concept as a significantly effective advertising. sales figures rapidly rose to best seller levels. Competitor products and services may be used by consumers explicitly or tacitly to evaluate and compare value propositions. purchase selection may require consumers to choose from different products in essentially non-competing market segments. Such KPIs focus on results and make the assumption that the company’s activities are directly related to the changes observed. The Iphone has an uncluttered design and easy to use tactile screen interfaces. other consumer or prospect perspective oriented KPIs must be used to evaluate how perceptions of the company vary. KPIs must take into account background influences and variables. A specific product or company is not necessarily perceived in isolation. the Iphone rapidly became the centre of many blogs. The Iphone was launched in France November 2007. technology reviews and discussion groups. By responding to the initial lure. The Iphone was sold at a premium because demand outstripped supply. Buzz marketing is a subset activity and definition of viral marketing. Launching the product in January 2007 at a conference. Given the limited free cash most citizens have. The key research question is whether buzz marketing has a significant influence on consumer behaviour.assessed. Since 1993 the EC Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications legislation [9] prohibited opt-out techniques and has required email marketing campaigns to offer opt-in. For instance. Orange won the contract. The choice may be sequence based – which to buy this month and which to delay. the Iphone is perceived as the latest must have gizmo. The respondent may voluntarily continue to receive information and enter into a dialogue or join an open forum.

comparison and extrapolative model building. Three key issues are examined: 1. Further focus groups were not scheduled since data repetition was observed and the law of diminishing returns was identified. using one to one interviews. Quantitative questionnaires based on the positivist paradigm assume complete understanding of the situation. As such. How is buzz marketing perceived by new consumers? Are consumers familiar with and do they understand and actively engage in marketing oriented dialogues? Do consumers understand the techniques and mechanisms inherent in Buzz? Do they differentiate between buzz and traditional mass marketing? 2. specifically the I-phone. This approach aimed to reduce large group effects of single leader and many passive passengers. by entering into a dialogue to obtain a data on the extent of their knowledge and perceptions of a particular product and the marketing activities they had been exposed to. multimedia telephones and Apple computers. this approach is most efficient when responses to closed questions are required. Five focus groups of 5 participants were scheduled. a common framework and techniques were used to create an interaction between ‘prospect’ and vendor. Validatory evaluations of findings are compared to data found widely in various literature sources. A completely new product launch using buzz is required. reflection. Purchase commitment variables and brand image issues are examined. How does buzz marketing influence consumer perceptions of the product or service? Does this affect their intention to test and or buy the product? Has buzz modified consumer’s perceptions of the company or brand that make the offer? 3. the participants were articulate and were asked to provide honest answers and contribute to academic debate as a result of directed. There is a distinct lack of data relating to customer’ and prospects’ perceptions of the approach. Sufficient data and relevance to contemporary marketing paradigms excludes older product launches such as Windows ’95 and already segment dedicated product consumers such as video gaming centres. Typically. to identify similarities and differences. they were at ease to speak freely about their expectations. Specific consumer good technologies are now used widely by this age group. The smaller group size proved to break the ice easier. The participants have or soon expect to start work as a post graduate salaried employee. The Iphone was selected as this best fitted with the data availability collection and analysis criteria. perceptions and identify factors that otherwise would likely remain tacit. to assess active buzz marketing usage and a prospect’s intention to purchase. This age group is not too young to earn or expect to earn a salary. Having a post graduate level of education. It was deemed necessary to interview each participant in detail. The orientation of the texts focuses on the company and anticipated benefits of using the approach. 6 . Data was gathered using semi-structured interviews with existing active respondents between 22 and 26 years of age. Each subject was encouraged to reflect on and describe their current attitudes and behaviour when active in a buzz marketing environment. enabling participants to contribute and encouraged debate on the research issue. rather than leading. In order to create a common base line for all participants. and familiarity with the product concepts.Empirical Research Methodology Little literature exists on buzz marketing. the participants were already clustered by academic achievement and provided a homogeneous data source. Given their awareness of other participants. Results from the focus groups were deemed suitable for further analysis. Obtaining and codifying interpretations of their experiences were the key objectives in order to provide comparability. An investigation into the relationship between interaction behaviour was conducted.

and the newest issue worn by Bond) and in Casino Royal (verbally naming the brand). Focus groups were asked which brands they considered undertook buzz marketing. the name Mini and Austin were still synonymous due to the discussions within the pier group age range and older individuals that kept using the original company brand with the product name. ears and babbling-on on the phone”. A simple method that isn’t really appreciated by which a company can talk to her”. and the name the brand Austin had been dropped much earlier. It is interesting to note that although BMW bought Rover in the early 1990s from British Aerospace. “An approach similar in nature to word in the ear. Cross analysis thus enabled more generic elements to be validated. Subsequently their brand became less visible. James Bond’s use of OMEGA watches for example are plugged explicitly in Golden Eye (close up of two technology releases – the older version by the double agent. The aim of product placement is to stimulate tacit and explicit awareness of products and brands. concepts. common understandings and examine identified differences. Four principal brands were repeatedly identified: Converse (shoe manufacturer). Converse was popular in the early 1990s. “A word in the ear by the brand owner or some really loyal product users”. The rock music group The Strokes habitually are seen in Converse footwear during live performances.A subsequent round of one to one interviews was conducted with each participant in order to verify specific attributes. Sony and Austin (the Mini car). The three participants that provided responses most closely to the academic concept had taken advanced courses in marketing and had worked during training periods in the function. Feedback from the majority of focus group participants at the beginning of the sessions was that they didn’t understand the concept of buzz marketing. typically using the internet or other technology”. These responses indicate that buzz marketing isn’t universally recognised or the processes understood or appreciated by consumers. The focus groups easily identified numerous original language and French films and television programmes where these brands had appeared. These three participants had experienced direct contact by various companies and had engaged in dialogue relating to their needs and the products on offer. The effect has been to reinvigorate the brand. 7 . rather than pre-recorded and transmitted mass communication. and it doesn’t stimulate my thoughts’. The literal route stems from the humming noise made by bees and other flying insects as they fly. Further cross cultural and diverse background research is required to define the emic and etic-ness of each attribute identified. nor had they been contacted in this manner. “A word in the ear typically broadcast using the internet. Participant M2 understood buzz marketing within the confines of the active linking of voice and ear. “It’s the whine you get using MSN”. All the focus group participants had heard of and talked about Mario Brothers by Nintendo with their own pier groups. Results Perception of Buzz Marketing The key question was ‘how is buzz marketing perceived by consumers?’ Responses ranged from ‘interesting that they seemed to know what I was interested in’ through to ‘I don’t have any previous experience of that. “It makes me think of the voice. The common attribute with Apple was identified as ‘authenticity’. M1 stated Apple and Austin are “two brands that marketing have placed and we see many times in films”. A literal usage of the word buzz was recorded. Product placement was identified as a stimulus for buzz marketing. Buzz marketing started in 2001 for this brand. Nintendo.

except when there is really something that catches their attention. Another stated mass “advertising only focuses on making ‘sheep’ buy stuff”. the research subjects had to have been exposed to buzz marketing. that doesn’t do anything different or better than those of (their) competitors. particularly if they are humorous. Apple has entered the phone market to counteract the erosion of (their core market) by Nokia and Samsung. As such. “Advice from my friends counts much more than ads”.E-bay was further identified due to their advertising space and funny clips they show alongside the products for auction. etc. One stated: “mass marketing is deceitful. It isn’t yet available here but should be for Christmas at about €400. This was followed with “advertising isn’t effective on us. In the absence of corporate publicity. summer holidays advertised in the spring. Seasonality may be a key factor – the run up to Christmas. “I prefer original (unique) ads or funny gags”. and make sure we will get all the benefits”. one participant observed “Buzz focuses more on what is happening now than traditional adverts”. Several participants indicated they only watch adverts if they resemble a mini series or show. the Iphone was not yet available in France. low cost insurance and easy payment schemes to get out of debt – were noted. Rather than focusing exclusively on the product. Once mentioned. Sitting in the cinema prior to the start of the feature. the majority of participants agreed they don’t really take notice of the advertisements because they go with friends and talk through them. whose products also now play MP3s and are now competing with Apple in their market”. It has a tactile screen interface. new or risqué. For the last few seconds a ring tone goes off. Very few are different. So we don’t notice or bother”. “The new Apple product is a phone that reads MP3s and is a PDA and its particularity is (navigation interface using) the touch screen. that is a mobile office platform and plays MP3s. poor imitations and place. three focus groups became enthused by providing examples they related from E-bay. and we have to make sure the product really does what the ads show. I believe”. functionality. Perceived Differences between Buzz and Mass Marketing Focus group participants were asked to identify key differences between mass marketing and buzz activities. it think”. Responses included: “A product launched by Apple. Another stated: “I have much more confidence in my friends’ opinions”. The desired aim is to surprise the viewer that the product also has mobile phone functionality. 8 . The Iphone as an Applied Example At the time of interviewing. We have gotten so used to it we just get the clicker and zap over to find something else to watch for a few minutes”. there were no adverts by Apple promoting the product. retail price. It’s sold in the US at about $500. This statement met enthusiastic agreement amongst the focus groups. “All the ads seem to be out of the same mould. where it was available from. This may be related to trust: “I have much more confidence in recommendations given to me by people I know than offers made in canned advertising”. When television and cinema adverts were released. “A product from Apple. Each participant was asked to detail as many facts and attributes as possible relating to brand owner. three key themes were established: amazement. Certain product functionalities are shown during the clip that lead the audience to believe the product fits into one market segment.

All respondents had learned of the touch screen. 9 . in the case of being stolen or lost. methodology. phone and MP3 functionality. specific web sites including www. Price versus increased benefits is the critical issue. These results must be perceived in light of the fact that none of the participants had seen any mass advertising slots and the product wasn’t available in the country at that time. Other than that I don’t have a clue”. we conclude buzz marketing can be an extremely effective. who had shown the product to her on a web page and had stated he wanted to buy one. In effect. product reliability risks and. Estimates of initial launch prices varied. One participant had discussed the product with her manager. Conclusions Feedback from the majority of focus group participants at the beginning of the sessions was that they didn’t understand the concept. If I only have one product and it breaks down. Technophobes may not with to invest in products early in their lifecycle. low The data suggests buzz marketing does not stimulate dramatic. on-line newspapers and radio channels. All bar two had a good idea of the overall geometric shape of the product. Statistical correlation analysis in this case has not been validated via a reliable method of triangulation. Prior to the interviews. Buzz marketing seems to have only partially penetrated the potential expected market. Orange hadn’t at that time specified the initial launch retail price. It seems. Data suggests an effect buzz outreach does have positive influence over intentions to purchase. Feedback about the product itself is summarised in the following: “the product doesn’t match my needs so I wont buy one” “too expensive and not really what I need” “the Iphone is too expensive and doesn’t correspond to what I want” “Too expensive and only of limited benefit (to me). and potentially value based prices on the basis of the price in the US. Fashion conscious individuals by contrast may elect to migrate to a single unit that is the in product. I prefer to have my MP3 and a phone. everyone’s got an MP3 and a mobile phone” “I’m not a fan of digital convergence. identify theft are key issues for consumers. From this. Today.generationmp3. only one participant in the focus groups had never spoken or communicated with anyone else about the product. I think Orange will sell it at about €500 I believe”. universal positive purchase behaviour. “It’s a telephone with a tactile touch screen made by Apple. Current usage seems limited to a small minority of active respondents. Data sources cited included: television programmes. especially for individuals that have accrued long-term loyalty benefits. daily television news. Changing service provider is problematic. It may be strategically important for Apple in the future to enable other service providers to sell versions. nor had they been contacted in this manner. This individual had gleaned some information on the product from a new technology review magazine. I loose everything” “I use SFR (Vodaphone group) and absolutely don’t want to change service provider”. However since respondents are self selecting this result may be a false positive or biased.“It’s a development of an Ipod with phone and internet functions. the prices offered reflected anticipated. Slightly less than half know the product was to be retailed exclusively at Orange brand outlets. This feedback suggests many younger people already have equipment with similar functionality. All respondents used the prefix I or ‘i’ for Apple products. In France.

References 1 2 3 Copens. Statutory Instrument 2003 No. http://www. ISBN 0110475941 http://www. Ian (2004) Defending Auntie.. Direct Marketing: An International Journal.htm Site accessed 160908 4 5 10 . Maxima HMSO (2003) The Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations. Ben. why all successful marketing is now direct marketing”. Car Magazine Online. Initial data suggests buzz marketing examples most cited to stem from the pioneering brands in a given sector rather than ‘me too’ product ranges and companies.aspx?cp-documentid=475385 6 7 8 9 Godin S. modify and re-transmit messages to other prospects within their circles. 2426 © Crown Copyright 2003. Thomas. Permission marketing. This effect is also noted when respondents explicitly interpret.carmagazine. (2007) Burgess.Buzz marketing has been correlated to the perception that the promoting company is dynamic. Why Do Marketers Keep Bombarding Him? http://www. January 29 http://www. The E-bay example suggests traditional mass marketing methods can create a buzz effect. The soul of the new consumer. “The end of mass marketing: or. John.msn. site accessed 160908 Oliver. Tomas and Downey.transdiffusion. (2000). model on p 5.. Posted April 26th.php Site accessed 160908 Andrew R. There is need to clarify and accurately quantify the contribution to sales from campaigns created and run under the budgetary heading of buzz marketing. Nicholas Brealey Publishing Godin S.opsi. (2001). and those that more strictly conform to the definition.commercialalert. Peter (2005) Top 5 Unlikely British Car brands. January 25. in Haenens. Page: 6-16 Ruskin Gary (2004) A 'Death Spiral of Disrespect'.co. Permission marketing. If the Consumer is Really Leen and Frieda Saeys (2001) Western Broadcasting at the Dawn of the 21st Century page 332 Maxima Lewis It seems that buzz marketing increasingly is becoming an active part of French company promotional activities. (2000). (2008) Record British car exports.