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Flow Assurance Technology Options & Pipe Sizing for Deep-Water & Long Distance Oil & Gas Transport.

Agenda
• • • • • Introduction Flow Assurance Challenges. Flow Assurance Solution Options. Technologies- GTLA. Design Process Through an Integrated System Approach. • Multiphase Pipe sizing Charts • Summary

Flow Assurance
“The ability to produce fluids economically from the reservoir to a production facility, over the life of field in any environment “ Deepstar.
“The term Garantia de Fluxo” Coined by Petrobras in the early 1990’s, and translates literally as Guarantee the Flow.

Flow Assurance ?
• To produce and transport fluids from the pore throat of reservoir to the host facility – Throughout life cycle of field – Under all operating conditions – In a cost-effective way “ A structural engineering analysis process that utilizes the in-depth knowledge of fluid properties and thermal hydraulic analysis of the system to develop strategies for control of solids such as hydrates, waxes, asphaltenes and scale” OTC #13123

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Forget flow assurance Industry needs performance assurance

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• • Keep the flow path open! Goals: – Reduce risk of lost or reduced production – Enhance production rate FA strategies must be integrated into overall systems design and field operations SL-Shell

Costly and conservative FA Engineers – Trouble makers Typical Subsea Engineer


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The broadest link throughout the production system Cross-Functional, Cross-Team Discipline From Project Conception to Operations

Flow Assurance Challenges Paraffin / Ashphaltenes Gas Hydrates Emulsion / Foam Scales Flow Assurance Corrosion Liquid Slugging Low Temperatures Sand / Erosion .

15% HC • Gas volume – 150-200 scf/ft3 hydrates . can form > 15 °C • Approximately 85% water.Gas Hydrates: Formation & Structure • Solid Ice-like crystal • Hydrocarbon molecules trapped inside water “cages” • Hydrate Formation occurs when – Water + light HC • Formation temperature (higher than freezing) depends on pressure.

What Problems Can Hydrates Cause? • Blockage of pipeline and flowline – Block line completely – Plugs up to 6 miles – Plugs in up to 40” pipe • Production downtime • Time and cost of remediation • Serious safety issues • During drilling or completion – Plug blow out preventers – Collapse tubing and casing • Worsens as water depth increases • Spans life cycle of field Courtesy of Petrobras .

Compositional Tracking • Normally Based on Hydrate Dissociation Curve • • • Reservoir Composition is usually used. However the composition varies with Shut Down Compositional Tracking of Benefit • Increased cool down time • Reduced Insulation Requirements • Precious additional time prior to hydrates .

Pipeline / Riser System during Shut Down Gas Oil/Wat .

(C) .Case Example Hydrate Curves for Pipeline Shut Down (GOR=3000scf/stb) 180 160 140 120 Pressure (Bara) 100 29 Barg Shutdown 95 Barg Shutdown 95 Barg Flowing 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Temp.

(C) 63289 40 Reservoir Composition 30 Shut in Composition 20 10 0 Time (Hrs) .Cool Down at Riser Mid Point Cool down at Riser Mid Point 60 (bopd) 24788 30709 50 36491 42131 47632 52991 58210 Temp.

4 12.6 24.9 8.3 31.8 20.7 25.9 18.7 39.8 30.7 15.7 5.3 33.2 3.1 40.5 16.4 22.4 2.8 38. (C ) Reservoir Com position Shut in Com position 30 20 10 0 10.2 23.6 34.4 13.9 28.2 36.Cool Down at Pipeline Inlet Cooldow n at Pipe Inlet 60 50 (bopd) 24788 30709 36491 42131 47632 52991 58210 63289 Hydrate Tem p 32.3 11.3 1.1 19.1 9.8 6.3 21.5 35.9 40 Te m p.6 0.2 Tim e (H rs) .1 29.5 4.6 14.5 26.

Pipeline & Riser Slugging Insufficient gas velocity in riser Liquids accumulate at bottom of riser Upstream pressure builds sufficiently to overcome hydrostatic head in riser Slug of liquid is expelled. followed by gas which has packed behind blockage Liquid accumulation at riser base seals off gas flow Flow out of riser stops Slugging Types: •Hydro-dynamic •Terrain •Riser induced Liquid continues to accumulate at the riser base Riser begins to fill with liquid Pressure builds upstream of the blockage .

100mbpd field shutdown: loss of $5m /day @ $50/bbl & $10m @ $100/bbl Slug Characteristics 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 6067 12498 18819 25029 31129 37119 42998 48767 54425 59973 65411 Frequency (1/Hr) Length (m) Volume (m3) Flow Rate (bbl/d) .g.FA – Consequences of Slugging • Safety to personnel and equipment • Unstable production • Equipment trips • Total field shutdown • Loss of revenue • e.

acids.E-2000 • . CO2. Resins and Asphaltene fluid property analysis. Aromatics.L&B.Asphaltenes • • • • • • • Polar components in crude oil Stable in presence of resins Resins diluted by gas release and injection Flocculate in wells and topside equipment Prediction via SARA analysis Saturates. etc) Minimum solubility at bubble point S. Asphaltene content: amount of material insoluble in n-heptane (or n-pentane) but soluble in toluene • Precipitation is induced by pressure decrease and/or changes in the solvency of crude oil (by low MW n-paraffins.

000 • High pressure drop in pipelines • Separation efficiency impaired • Shut-in conditions can cause rheology change to Non-Newtonian behaviour • High yield stress at low shear rates 100 require very high pressure to start up pipeline.Emulsions Consequences • Tight emulsion between water and oil Viscosity at Low Shear Rate (cPoise) causes inversion viscosity 10. Shear Stress 5 Non-Newtonian 0 Newtonian 10 20 S-1 Shear Rate .

1 12498 18819 25029 31129 37119 42998 48767 54425 59973 • Requirement for CRA materials Flow Rate (bbl/d) 65411 6067 • Erosion Velocity Limits 0.45 •Pipeline leaks • Separator Efficiency 0.5 0.15 0.2 0.35 0.4 0.25 0.05 0 .FA – Sand Erosion Consequences: Sand Erosion (Pipeline Outlet) Sand Rate kg/month 1 5 10 15 20 50 100 200 300 400 500 1000 • Material Loss Errosion (mm/yr) 0.3 0.

eff) Commulative Corrosion 11 13 15 17 Time (Yrs) 19 1 3 5 7 9 • De-Ward Milliums .0 3.0 4.0 1.0 5.0 Corrosion (mm) Corrosion Rate (mm/year) Corrosion (including fugacity) Corosion (fug+pH) Corrosion (Wcut >5%) Corrosion (90%inhib.FA – Corrosion Pipeline Corrosion Issues: • Development of Anti-Corrosion Strategies • Integrating MultiPhase Flow 6.0 2.0 0.

(C) -15 Outlet-Insulated Middle-Insulated Uninsulated Inlet-Insulated Mitigation: • Flowline Insulation • Operational -20 -25 . Hydrates S/U Material Integrity Prod.Low Temperatures – Well Start-Up Issues: • • • • • Prod. Loss System S/D Safety 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Time (s) -5 -10 Temp.

.FA Consequences • Incorrect System designs • Un-necessary Operating Problems • Potential Flow Path Blockage • Resulting Production Shut down • Consequential Revenue Loss • In the extreme: Loss of Asset.

THI. AA Heat Retention – Insulation (Passive) Provide Heating : Fluids / Circulation. Other Active Methods Remove Heat – Change Rheology (Cold Pipe Slurry) Separate Fluids Re-Combine Fluids – Subsea GTLA Others .Flow Assurance – Solution Options • • • • • • • • Fluids Handling Mix Chemicals – Thermodynamic. Electrical. Kinetic.

Enabling Technologies • • • Subsea Processing Separation Multiphase Pumping Metering Subsea Gas Compression Tree Separator/ Boosting FPSO Tanker To FPSO Coselle s Multiphase Transport • Gas • • • • • Oil Water Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir • Pipeline Thermal Management Raw Sea Water Injection Gas to Liquids Conversion Gas to Liquids Absorption Other Emerging Technologies .

Technology.FA Cost Vs Benefit Map Cost (Capex / Opex / Intervention) Chemicals Microbes ? Slurry Transport Down Hole Processing (ESP/HSP) Active Heating Electrical Induction Trace Liquid Circulation Subsea Processing Risk PIP Draining Systems Pigging Low Cost Insulation Intelligent Slug Control Chemicals Slug Control Multiphase Pumping Liquid Boosting Subsea G-T-L-A Simplicity Benefit .

• Innovation / Value. • Considerable Benefits (Capex / Opex). • Process of Gas Absorption of C1-C3..What is GTLA ? • Gas to Liquid Absorption.H2S by high gas solubility liquids. • Fluids Phase Equilibrium Change. • Recovery of Oil Light End Components (C3-C8). • Multiphase to Liquid Only Transport. . CO2.

• System configurations – Reservoir fluids characteristics. • Host Facilities Processing. • Transportation.What is GTLA ? 3 Components to GTLA: • Subsea Achitecture & Absorption. .

Hydrate Blockage Risks Conventional Production Rates Gas Water GTLA Oil 0 5 Years 10 15 .

Wax Blockage Risks Conventional Production Rates Gas Water GTLA Oil 0 5 Years 10 15 .

Marginal Field Development GTLA Floating Processing Power/Umbilical G-T-L-A Absorber Liquid Pump No Manifold No Well to Manifold lines No PIP / insulation Single Production Line Water Injection .

54 7 0 -60 -52 -44 -35 -27 -19 -11 -2.01 0.32 1. Hydrate Envelopes 140 120 Water Temperature 2000m .1 10 12 14 16 18 Temperature (C) 20 .3 -0.Angola 100 Pressure (Bara) 80 Normal GTLA 60 40 20 0.Impact of GTLA Technology on Hydrate Dissociation.

GTLA Technology Benefits Technical • • • • • No Slugging No Hydrates or Wax Reduced Corrosion Reduced Scale Reduced pipe wt. • • • • . • Reduced Riser fatigue • Increased Safety. • • • • Economic One Production Pipeline No Pipeline Insulation No Manifold 60% Pipeline Capex reduction (no insulation and use of CS rather than CRA) Use of SCR’s Smaller Umbilical Size No Hydrate or Wax inhibitors Reduced Interventions. Reliability & Recovery • Pressure Boosting via Liquid Pumps. Availability. expansion joints and burial. upheaval buckling. expansion & stress.

Integated System .

C. • Well Tubing = 5” & 1500m length. • Sea bed and sea surface temps.C.General Basis Sizing of Subsea Infrastructure: System Data: • Reservoir Pressure = 200bara & Host Pressure = 15bara.K Constraints: • Erosion Limit = C factor of 150 carbon steel pipe. • U = 3W/m2. • Water Depth =100-2000m • Tie-back Distance = 10-50km. • Reservoir temperature = 60deg. = 5 & 15deg. • Hydraulic Limit = Based on max Well Head pressure (150bara) . 20 & 30 degrees.Integated System. • Oil Viscosity = 15.

Integated System Infrastructure Offshore Host facilities Onshore Facility Deep Water Risers Seabed Wells .

Integated System-Charts 12" Multiphase Production-100-2000m Water Depth 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 GOR=100 Visc=30 GOR=100 Visc=20 GOR=100 Visc=15 GOR=500 Visc=30 GOR=500 Visc=20 GOR=500 Visc=15 GOR=1000 Visc=30 GOR=1000 Visc=20 GOR=1000 Visc=15 GOR=1500 Visc=30 mbopd WD=100m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km WD=500m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km WD=1000m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km WD=1500m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km WD=2000m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km GOR=1500 Visc=20 GOR=1500 Visc=15 GOR=2000 Visc=30 GOR=2000 Visc=20 GOR=2000 Visc=15 Tie-Back Distance (km) .

Integated System-Charts 10" Multiphase Production-100-2000m Water Depth 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 GOR=100 Visc=30 GOR=100 Visc=20 GOR=100 Visc=15 GOR=500 Visc=30 GOR=500 Visc=20 GOR=500 Visc=15 GOR=1000 Visc=30 GOR=1000 Visc=20 GOR=1000 Visc=15 GOR=1500 Visc=30 GOR=1500 Visc=20 mbopd WD=100m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km WD=500m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km WD=1000m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km WD=1500m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km WD=2000m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km GOR=1500 Visc=15 GOR=2000 Visc=30 GOR=2000 Visc=20 GOR=2000 Visc=15 Tie-Back Distance (m) .

Integated System-Charts GOR=100 Visc=30 8"Multiphase Production-100-2000m Water Depth 70 60 50 GOR=100 Visc=20 GOR=100 Visc=15 GOR=500 Visc=30 GOR=500 Visc=20 GOR=500 Visc=15 GOR=1000 Visc=30 GOR=1000 Visc=20 mbopd 40 30 20 10 WD=100m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km WD=500m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km WD=1000m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km WD=1500m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km WD=2000m D=10km D=20km D=30km D=40km D=50km GOR=1000 Visc=15 GOR=1500 Visc=30 GOR=1500 Visc=20 GOR=1500 Visc=15 GOR=2000 Visc=30 GOR=2000 Visc=20 GOR=2000 Visc=15 GOR=2000 Visc=15 0 Tie-Back Distance (km) .

Integated System-3D Chart .

Integated System-3D Chart .

Opportunity to Change Exploration Appraisal / FEED Detailed Design Operations .Flow Assurance Technology Options & Pipe Sizing for DeepWater & Long Distance Oil & Gas Transport.Transport Requires: • Innovative Flow Assurance Solutions • Better use of existing & New Technologies • Overcoming Fear to Change • Offer Value Added Benefits • Low Risks Cost of Change Beware: Operators are queuing up to be 2nd or 3rd to use new technology.

I would be happy to answer any easy questions Cost of Change Thank You Opportunity to Change Exploration Appraisal / FEED Detailed Design Operations .