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Nanomaterials and their optical applications

Lecture 4
Lecturer: Rachel Grange, rachel.grange@uni-jena.de Teaching assistant: Jessica Richter, jessica.hoenig@uni-jena.de

Downloads infos: (click on Teaching) http://www.asp.uni-jena.de/multiphoton.html

Lecture: Mondays, 14h-15h30, LH3 Physik, H 3. Seminar: Thursdays, 16h-18h, SR 4 , H 1

rachel.grange@uni-jena.de – Nanomaterials for photonics - Lecture 4 – 2011-2012

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Outline: Plasmonics
1. Fabrication of Plasmonics nanostructures • Chemical synthesis • Single nanoparticles • Self assembly of nanoparticles • Nanofabrication

2. Applications of plasmonics:     Field enhancement by plasmon coupling Optical antennas Field enhanced vibrational spectroscopy Nano-tools for medicine
Stained glass, Notre Dame de Paris , 1250
rachel.grange@uni-jena.de - Nanomaterials - Lecture 4 – 2011-2012

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Liquid chemical synthesis

• Gold is in solution in the Au+3 form • Addition of the reducing agent • Gold atoms are formed in the solution, and their concentration rises rapidly until the solution exceeds saturation • Particles formed in a process called nucleation • The remaining dissolved gold atoms bind to the nucleation sites and growth occurs

rachel.grange@uni-jena.de - Nanomaterials - Lecture 4 – 2011-2012

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J.Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 4 . Faraday. Stevenson. P. "A study of the nucleation and growth processes in the synthesis of colloidal gold". 55-75 rachel. 11. Soc.grange@uni-jena.Nanomaterials . C. or ion.de . Turkevich method • Hot chlorauric acid with small amounts of sodium citrate solution • The colloidal gold will form because the citrate ions act as both a reducing agent. J. Hillier. Turkevich. atom. Discuss. 1951.Liquid chemical synthesis Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation state by a molecule. and a capping agent.

like the GOLD SEEDS SCIENCE VOL 298 13 DECEMBER 2002 p. e.de . 2177 rachel. g.Nanomaterials .Under different reactions conditions… • Temperature : 120° to 190°. CTAB • Precursors: chemical compound preceding another. lower the surface tension of a liquid. transition between regular and irregular shapes • Molar ratio between the materials • Surfactants: organic compounds that are amphiphilic.Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 5 . meaning they contain both hydrophobic groups (their tails) and hydrophilic groups (their heads).grange@uni-jena.

C 2010.Nanomaterials . Phys. 7480–7488 6 .Lecture 4– 2011-2012 J. 114.grange@uni-jena.de .Seed-mediated growth method for nanorods Precursor: Gold seed Surfactant: CTAB rachel. Chem.

114. 7480–7488 7 .de . C 2010. Chem.grange@uni-jena.Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 J.Nanomaterials .Seed-mediated growth method for nanorods rachel. Phys.

de .phy-astr.gsu.Nanomaterials .grange@uni-jena.Self-assembly method Possible forces to be used between molecules or atoms • Covalent : sharing a pair of electrons • Ionic: transfer of electrons • Metallic: strong bond • Hydrogen: simplest covalent bond • Coordination bonds • Van der Waals : electrostatic forces • Casimir.edu rachel.Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 8 . π-π • Hydrophobic • Colloidal • Capillary forces http://hyperphysics.

Lett. 2009.de . 2012. 1790–1801 rachel. Nanosci. Molecular linkers Linking agent or linkers 1790 | Analyst. At an interface: water-oil. 134. and let one of the liquid evaporate J.Nanomaterials . 2: 10 2.Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 9 .grange@uni-jena.5 Self-assembly methods 1.

Molecular linkers J. 2012.Self-assembly methods 2. Lett. 2: 10 rachel.Nanomaterials .de . Nanosci.grange@uni-jena.Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 10 .

Lecture 3 – 2011-2012 11 . Lett.Self-assembly methods 2.de . 2012.Nanomaterials .grange@uni-jena. Molecular linkers J. Nanosci. 2: 10 rachel.

grange@uni-jena. Biomediated self-assembly DNA.Nanomaterials . Lett.de . Nanosci.Self-assembly methods 3. proteins. 2012. viruses. 2: 10 rachel. bacteria 4. Template directed self-assembly external forces that had been placed by design elements are used in forming the self-assembled structures J.Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 12 .

4 ▪ NO. 7 ▪ 3591–3605 ▪ 2010 rachel.Self-assembly methods 5.Nanomaterials . VOL.Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 13 .grange@uni-jena. solvent polarity ACS Nano. light. pH. Stimuli responsive self-assembly Temperature.de .

Nanofabrication: Direct writing method 1. 83–90 (2011) Low throughput. Focused ion beam milling: drill holes 2. 1407 VOL 332 17 JUNE 2011 Nature Photonics. Electron beam lithography direct-writing.Nanomaterials .Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 14 . 5. no large scale fabrication for industry rachel.de . p.grange@uni-jena. 2D arrays Three-Dimensional Plasmon Rulers SCIENCE. expensive.

Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 15 . Optical Lithography Diffraction limited More expensive for extreme UV rachel.Nanomaterials .de .grange@uni-jena.Nanofabrication: Templates Lithography 1.

and Xiang Zhang.Nanofabrication: Templates Lithography 1.Cheng rachel. 1085-1088 16 . Optical lithography: Plasmonic Nanolithography Optics is removed Mask directly in contact with the substrate 90 nm dot array patterns to a 170 nm period Plasmonic Nanolithography.Qi Luo. Nano Letters 2004 4 (6). Werayut Srituravanich. and.Nicholas Fang.de .Nanomaterials .grange@uni-jena.Lecture 4– 2011-2012 Sun.

transparent. chip Biocompatible. Parallelism Simplicity.Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 J. 2.de .grange@uni-jena. Flexibility rachel. Nanotechnol.Nanomaterials . 448–458 17 . Soft lithography PDMS = polydimethylsiloxane Soft stamp.Nanofabrication: Templates Lithography 2. 2011.

grange@uni-jena.Nanomaterials . Microelectronics Research Center Georgia Institute of Technology 18 .Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 Muhannad S.Nanofabrication: Templates Lithography 1.de . Optical 2. Nanoimprint rachel. Bakir. Soft lithography 3.

Nanoimprint metal V-grooves metal V-grooves rachel.Nanofabrication: Templates Lithography Plasmonic waveguides 3.Lecture 4– 2011-2012 19 .grange@uni-jena.de .Nanomaterials .

1250 rachel. Notre Dame de Paris .Outline 1. Fabrication of Plasmonics nanostructures • Chemical synthesis • Single nanoparticles • Self assembly of nanoparticles • Nanofabrication 2.Lecture 4– 2011-2012 20 .de . Applications of plasmonics:     Optical antennas Field enhancement by plasmon coupling Field enhanced vibrational spectroscopy Nano-tools for medicine Stained glass.grange@uni-jena.Nanomaterials .

Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 Antennas for light.grange@uni-jena.Nanomaterials .Applications: 1.de . Novotny. L. 83–90(2011Z 21 . Nanoantennas Yagi-Uda antennas EM antenna = transducer between electromagnetic waves and electric currents Purpose: convert the energy of free propagating radiation to localized energy. Nature Photonics 5. Niek van Hulst. and vice versa Antenna = transducer between free radiation and localized energy HF to UHF bands (about 3 MHz to 3 GHz) High gain: 10 dB rachel.

λ ~ 30 cm. L. Nature Photonics 5. 83–90(2011Z 22 .Nanomaterials . for optics 5 nm)  Bow-tie antennas  Yagi-Uda antennas rachel.Applications: 1.grange@uni-jena. Niek van Hulst.de .Lecture 4– 2011-2012 Antennas for light. Novotny. Nanoantennas • Characteristic dimensions of an antenna : of the order of the radiation wavelength • Optical antennas of the order of nanometers • For a cell phone: λ/100 (for a cell phone.

Applications: 1.de . Building blocks for data processing rachel.Nanomaterials . power consumption 2. Photodetection and photovoltaics Increased absorption cross-section thus reduce the dimension. Nanoantennas • all parts of the antennas are multiple or fraction of the em radiation λ • At optical frequency: penetration of radiation into metals can not be neglected Geometric constants Plasma wavelength Metal not ideal (conductivity drops at the nanoscale) but carbon nanotubes or graphene 1. Nanoimaging 3.grange@uni-jena.Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 23 .

24 . Field enhancement by plasmon coupling Interaction of a gold nanoparticle with a single molecule • Plasmon resonance = local enhancement of the electric field. Sandoghdar. vol. and V.Applications: 2.” Physical Letters.Lecture 3 –Review 2011-2012 Nanoparticle as an Optical Nanoantenna. increased absorption of a molecule • Non planar field distribution matching a molecular assembly • Fluorescence lifetime is decreased thus the molecule returns sooner to its ground state S. no. Håkanson. 1. Jul.Nanomaterials . 2006. L. pp. 97.grange@uni-jena.de . “Enhancement of Single-Molecule Fluorescence Using a Gold rachel. U. Kühn. Rogobete. 1-4.

Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 25 .grange@uni-jena. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) What is Raman scattering ? Field enhanced vibrational spectroscopy rachel.Applications: 3.Nanomaterials .de .

Applications: 3. University of Illinois rachel. Shan Jiang.Nanomaterials .Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 26 .de .grange@uni-jena. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) Raman scattering Fluorescence Infrared absorption Term paper for Physics 598 OS.

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) Internal total reflection for the momentum conservation • 15 orders of magnitude enhancement • From an enhanced electric field = plasmon resonance • Chemical enhancement too (factor of 200 on non metallic substrate) ! Term paper for Physics 598 OS.Nanomaterials . University of Illinois rachel.Applications: 3.de . Shan Jiang.Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 27 .grange@uni-jena.

grange@uni-jena. Nanotools for medicine Two combined effects: 1. Optical property: plasmon resonance 2.de .Applications: 4. Thermal property : remaining energy HEAT Metal particle = point-like sources of either light or heat Heat generated in four different colloidal gold nanoparticles of same volume and fixed intensity rachel.Nanomaterials .Lecture 3 – 2011-2012 28 .

5 / OPTICS EXPRESS 3291 rachel.Applications: 4. 17.Nanomaterials . Nanotools for medicine 1.de .grange@uni-jena.Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 29 . No. Temperature mapping • Technique to locally probe the stationary temperature of the medium surrounding 2 March 2009 / Vol.

pp 1231–1237 rachel. 3 (5). Binding of molecules between plasmon structures ACS Nano. 2009. Nanotools for medicine 2.grange@uni-jena.Nanomaterials .de .Applications: 4.Lecture 4– 2011-2012 30 .

2011 rachel. Plasmon-based optical trapping Towards an integrated plasmonic platform for bio-analysis • Low fluid volumes (less waste.480 (2007) Plasmon nano-optical tweezers.Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 . fast heating. smaller fluid volumes and stored energies 31 Nature Physics 3. small heat capacities. lower reagents costs and less required sample Faster analysis and response times due to short diffusion distances. • Compactness • Massive parallelization. Nanotools for medicine 3. radioactive or biological studies because of integration of functionality. high surface to volume ratios. 5.de . Nature Photonics. 477 . highthroughput • Lower fabrication costs • Safer platform for chemical.Applications: 4.Nanomaterials . 349.grange@uni-jena.

grange@uni-jena.Lecture 4– 2011-2012 32 . Nanotools for medicine 4.Nanomaterials . Gold-Nanoparticle.Mediated Thermal Therapies.Applications: 4. 2010 rachel. Small.de . Thermal therapy Kennedy et al.

Rogobete. The promis of Plasmonics. pp. Jul. Righini. L. “Enhancement of Single-Molecule Fluorescence Using a Gold Nanoparticle as an Optical Nanoantenna. “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers. L. Quidant. U. Kühn. no. 2011. M. Juan. 2011. Håkanson. 97. 6. Nature Photonics.Nanomaterials . 2006. Jun. 2007 S. Antennas for light.Outlook H. 349-356. and R. vol. 5.grange@uni-jena.” Nature Photonics. no. Atwater. vol. Sandoghdar. rachel. Scientific Amercian. M. and V. 1. pp.” Physical Review Letters.Lecture 4 – 2011-2012 33 .de . 1-4.