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Papercut Games — Free PnP Board Games

Lajos L. Brons (2007) – Rules version 1.6 — May 2010 3 - 6 players. (Solitaire and 2-player rules are not finished yet.) Approx. 6 hours.

method, medicine, and astronomy and made important contributions to many other fields. Because of these enormous achievements, and the relatively rationalist world view that flourished in many centres of Islamic learning, the period is often referred to as the ‘Enlightenment’ of Islam. To a great extent, the much later Enlightenment of Western Europe was built on the foundations laid by the Islamic Enlightenment. There is no exact historical date demarcating the end of Islamic Enlightenment and the fall of the Caliphate. As mentioned, from the 9th century onwards, the state started to fall apart. In the 11th and 12th centuries it was under crusader attack (followed by the Mongols in the 13 th century). Spain was slowly conquered by Christian forces (the ‘Reconquista’ wasn’t finished until the 15th century, however). And besides all this political turmoil and its economic consequences, mystical interpretations got ever more powerful in Islam in expense of the rationalist factions that were the main sources of philosophical and scientific progress. Main deviations from real history in the game The game starts with Muhammed’s conquests, but the players decide what is conquered by Muhammed. Arabia can be conquered, but there are other possibilities (always starting in Mecca, however). After Muhammed’s death, competing generals (the players) take over. These generals no longer work together, but start conquering land and founding Emirates of their own. From the start, these Emirates are pretty much independent and the Caliphate exists only in name (of the game). The theological debate is abstracted into two positions, rationalist and mystical, and has a much stronger effect on political and military events than in historical reality, potentially splitting up the Caliphate into two big factions that are in continuous civil war. Byzantium was never conquered and Italy (Longobardia) only partially and for a short time. Both can be conquered in the game and both can be subject to ‘Reconquista’ similarly to Spain (Cordoba). Preparation The board is made up of 8 segments. Print these out and stick them to thick cardboard. You can make a folding board out of them like this: The segments are connected at the red and blue lines. Red lines fold out; blue lines fold in. The two sheets of counters should be printed, stuck to thick cardboard, and cut out. The 11 sheets of cards can either be laminated or stuck to cardboard and have to be cut out as well, of course. Print one player sheet for each player. Besides the above, you’ll need some dice (one suffices, but more is a bit more practical), 42 small tokens, a piece of paper, and a pen or pencil. 1

Introduction Caliphate focuses on the rise and fall of Islamic civilization in the (approx.) 7th to 12th centuries. It is a game of conquest, trade, diplomacy, and building up your emirate economically, culturally, military, etc. Caliphate is not a historical simulation. It is a game based on historical events, but it is – of course – heavily abstracted. Consequently, some people may be offended by some of the design choices I made in trying to convert these events into a playable game. To these people, I offer my apologies and the suggestion to try another game. Short historical introduction Muhammed, the founder of Islam and the first military leader of Islamic civilization, conquered the whole of the Arabian peninsula before his death in 632. After Muhammed’s death, a series of Caliphs ruled the Islamic state, the Caliphate, and expanded it. The Caliphate consisted of a number of Emirates ruled by Emirs, but it would remain a single state until it started to fall apart in the 9th and 10th century. However, even in the period before that, the Caliphate wasn’t always an example of unity. After Muhammed’s death, there was a brief period of conflict between competing successors and there were two civil wars (‘Fitnas’) in the 7th century. With the growth of the Caliphate it became increasingly difficult to govern. The Emirates slowly became more independent and the Caliph’s authority gradually became a mere theoretical notion. The first Emirate to become independent was Spain (the Emirate of Cordoba). Besides these political struggles, there was a continuous theological debate as well. Different philosophers, theologians, and religious factions and sects had different answers to what was one of the core dilemmas: the relationship between reason and revelation. Islamic civilization inherited classical philosophy from the Greeks and imported mathematics and astronomy from India. Starting from there, they made important discoveries in numerous scientific fields. Islamic scholars of this period laid the foundations for modern mathematics, scientific

Luxuries track — see the ‘game board’ section. Bottom row. Top row. There is a deck of commodity cards for each of the 14 different Emirates and for each of the 7 different foreign nations. The Emirate box There is an Emirate box printed in each Emirate on the map. Event cards are used to determine (one or) two random events each round. Arabia. it is 50% mystical and 50% rationalist. There should be a small marker on each of these tracks (the colonists from Puerto Rico or the glass beads from Through the Ages are perfectly sized. (It was rather common in those days that only the non-Muslim population was taxed or that Muslims paid less tax. etc. Occupied Province — A province that has armies belonging to only one Emir (player) in it and that isn’t controlled. Components Counters Fanatic (possibly not the most appropriate picture…). Greater Emirate — All territory controlled by an Emir (player).g. from left to right: 2 . the number below that is the maximum tax income of that Emirate. Greece to Crete and vice versa is a land move for the controlling player if Greece is controlled.Rules 1. Foreign Nation — Possible trade partner that is either of board or present as greyish areas on the board. Emir — A succession of Emirs from a ruling family controlled by a player. there are three tracks. CRT — combat results table.) Conversion / tax track — see the ‘game board’ section. Game concepts Capital Province — The darker coloured province (always with a city) in an Emirate. Granada. Fortress. The third track represents investments in society: libraries. The first (top) track represents conversion and tax. Faction adherence track — see the ‘game board’ section. Great Person — Historical character that appears in the Great Person phase. Emirate box — see the ‘game board’ section. Faction — Religious-ideological current within Islamic culture that an Emir (player) (or people) adheres to. The game board The game board shows 14 Emirates divided into 4 or 5 provinces each. The second track is the faction adherence track. rivers and/or sea. etc. The percentage is the Muslim population in that Emirate. Occupied provinces in an Emirate that is controlled by the same Emir (player) are controlled. Cards There are three types of cards in the game.g. Below the Emir box and the Emirate’s name. In the middle. Cordoba. Emir box — see the ‘game board’ section. Controlled Province — A province that only has armies in it belonging to the same Emir (player) that controls / occupies the capital province of that Emirate. for example). Emirate boxes (see below) and a few other features that will be explained in the rules below. Merchant (red Emir). to the left more rationalist. This is used to mark the controlling Emir for that Emirate (if there is one). The Emirate box shows the name of the Emirate (top right). (Economic) Improvement. Commodity cards have the name of an emirate or foreign nation and one of 30 (!) different commodities on them. Great Mosque. The white army counters are neutral armies. In practice. The controlling Emir (player) places one of his/her (unused) army Emir 0% 5 25% 4 75% 25% Ifriquiya 50% 3 50% 50% 75% 2 25% 75% 100% 1 R M 0 1 2 4 8 counters in this box. Antioch to Cyprus and vice versa is a land move for the controlling player if Antioch is controlled. E. See also Greater Emirate. D6 — six-sided die. E. Great Persons are auctioned. These are represented with big circular symbols. (For capital provinces there is no difference between occupation and control. Controlled Emirate — An Emirate of which the capital province is controlled by an Emir (player). Medina. Similarly. from left to right: Army (yellow Emir).) This track is mentioned in the rules as the conversion / tax track. It represents to what faction the population adheres. See also Controlled Province and Occupied Province. Syracuse to Naples and vice versa is a land move. City — Some provinces have cities in them. public baths. Great Person cards introduce a historical figure into the game every game turn. etc. It is called the luxuries track. On the top left. Province — Single area with a name and number in white print on the board. are worth victory points and can have game effects. To the right it becomes more mystical. a number of sea spaces divided by dotted light blue lines. (Tanger to Granada is not!) Rome to Sardinia and vice versa is a land move for the controlling player if Rome is controlled. a number of greyish foreign provinces. Board clarifications Crossing the Bosporus (Nicaea to Constantinople) and vice versa is considered a land move. etc. you find the Emir box. Emirate — single coloured region on the board consisting of several provinces. an Emir is a player. A cross table showing losses relative to enemy size and a D6 roll. Bordered by white lines. Fleet (blue Emir).

X is twice the number of players. next to each other such that all players can see them. Take the ‘Advance Era’ card and keep it apart. III). And place these open.5] Randomly decide initial player order.3] Good year — I (3x). The different phases are explained below. 15 fleets. [2.2] If relevant. The game is played in a number of phases. The player that lost the last battle resulting in the number of conquered regions being too small gets a 10 victory point fine. The Aegean and the Black Sea are two different sea zones.4. The game starts after Muhammed’s death ending his conquest. [2. give each player all counters of one colour (40 armies.The Atlantic is a single sea zone. If two ‘Good year’ cards are drawn the bonus is still +1 (effects are not cumulative). Place these 4 cards face down on the table. Syracuse and Sardinia is a single sea zone. For the first era. put the rest of the counters within reach on the table (unused colours aren’t needed).2. there are two optional ‘No event’ cards that can be shuffled in as well. The second chooses next and places his/her player order counter in second last place. [4. players move part of Muhammed’s army to a neighbouring province and fight if necessary (see movement and combat rules in 5) until no further movement is possible.1 and 2. II. [2. and/or merchants).4] In each Emirate box. Place the other 6 cards face down on top of that. the game starts.3. U=C+F . (This is only relevant for events with immediate effects.7. select all 10 cards with a ‘I’ at the bottom. in the middle of the faction adherence track (50% / 50%). Shuffle the remaining 9 cards. Take 3 unseen cards from that deck and shuffle these with the ‘Advance Era’ card. [2.) Except that fanaticism is always second and that advance era cancels the other event.1] Obvious things: place the board in the middle of the table.7.3. 5 merchants) and a player sheet.7.6] Players choose whether their Emir belongs to either the rationalist or mystical faction and place an army counter in the appropriate box at the bottom left of the board. The player that won the right to go first chooses one of the provinces occupied by a neutral army counter and replaces that counter with ten of his/her own counters (armies. The space between Rome.2] For a longer game. II All emirates have a +1 production bonus this turn (in phase 3).1] For each controlled Emirate. [2. [2. and on the most left space of the luxuries track (0). [2.7.3] preparation of the event deck On the bottom of all event cards there are one of more Roman numbers (I. First the right to choose first is auctioned. [4. the ‘New Units’ box is intended for newly bought units that aren’t placed on the map yet. except for the cards selected of course. [2. The events [4. The Red Sea is connected to the sea space south-east of the Arabian peninsula. [2. Game phases A game turn consists of eight phases: 1 — Random events [Rules: 4] 2 — Movement and Combat [5] 3 — Production [6] 4 — Trade [6] 5 — Tax and Maintenance [7] 6 — Great person bid [7] 7 — Turn order bid [7] 8 — Purchases [7] 9 — Conversion [8] 4. Random events [4. This stack represents Muhammed’s army. All remaining neutral army counters are removed from the board.1] Preparation of the random events deck for later eras (II and III) is the same. Naples. [2. The result is the random events deck for that era. He/she places his/her player order counter in last place.7. etc.3] Players bid for turn order in victory points (these are subtracted later in the game). both events happen in the order that they are drawn.1] Draw two event cards from the top of the deck. place a marker on the most left space of the conversion / tax track (0% / 5). calculate the unrest number U. Place army counters of all players in that order on the player order track on the board. Separate the Great Person cards by Era (number after the ‘E:’ in the lower left) and shuffle the three decks. 3 [2. Set up [2. fleets. players can do their actions simultaneously.2] Separate the commodity cards by Emirate / foreign nation and shuffle the 21 decks. Player sheets The player sheets show a number of tables most of which are also included in these rules. The main exception is movement and combat. etc. II. 2. remove all neutral armies and repeat steps 2. then the right to go second.4] If the number of provinces conquered by Muhammed’s army is smaller than the number of players.1] Place a stack of X neutral armies on Mecca. 3. next to the draw pile. [2. Etc. III [4. In most phases. These number refer to the eras in which that card is used. there are two boxes: the ‘Unit Pool’ is for placing all available unit counters.7] Muhammed’s conquests Set up ends with Muhammed’s conquests.7. After this. Besides that.2] In player order. The players / emirs represent the rivalling leaders after Muhammed’s death.4] Unrest — I. All players place all their counters in the ‘Unit Pool’ box of their player sheet.

2] The fanatical Emir (player) chooses an Emir belonging to the rationalist faction (or if there is none. [4.) [4. Greece. II. III For each merchant that is in a province that isn’t occupied or controlled by the same Emir (player). III For each fleet at sea. the controlling player rolls a D6 and consults the CRT (bottom left of the board). If Milan is conquered. If after that there are still any neutral armies left.12. At the end of the turn his/her marker is moved to the faction box (mystical or rationalists) with the lowest number of markers in it (player’s choice if equal).8. [4. these are placed in Constantinople. The marker of the highest rolling player / Emir is moved to the ‘fanatical’ box for one turn (reroll ties). III (cancels other event) [4. in which C is the number of open spaces to the right of the marker on the conversion / tax track. these are placed in Jerusalem. If after that there are still any neutral armies left. all remaining armies continue to conquer Durazzo. In that case. hence. In theory.12. II. that player controls these units as if they were that player’s armies.2] If Longobardia is controlled. Toledo. which would bring the unrest number to 6 ). more than one reconquista takes place. Place these units in these provinces. [4. If in eras I or II. [4. Sardinia. [4. [4. create a new . all remaining armies continue to conquer Damascus and Antioch (in that order – neutrals are allowed to vacate provinces). On a roll of 4 or higher. Provinces that are not controlled or occupied are conquered automatically by the neutrals.) [4. At the end of the turn the marker is moved to the ‘mystical’ box’ [4. and Jerusalem in that order (neutrals are allowed to vacate provinces). This event is ignored in the first turn. Longobardia and Byzantium is controlled. and adding 1 to the unrest number U. If Jerusalem is conquered.11. all remaining armies continue to conquer Asturia.11. these are placed in Rome.8] Rise of Mysticism — I. If after that there are still any neutral armies left.9. III (2x) [4. [4. The controlling player chooses which units are lost. If after that there are still any neutral armies left. Nicaea is attacked by a stack of 15 neutral armies.3] The heretical player makes unrest rolls as in 4. A fortress can be removed counting for two losses. and Syracuse in that order (the neutrals don’t need any fleets for this! – neutrals are allowed to vacate provinces). 4 if conversion is at 0%). (See also 5. in which C is the number of open spaces to the right of the marker on the conversion / tax track.1] If Cordoba is controlled. [4.13.9. Constantinople. the game will continue with phase 1 of a new game turn after the scoring round.2] If Constantinople is controlled.) [4. Provinces that are not controlled or occupied are conquered automatically by the neutrals. Provinces that are not controlled or occupied are conquered automatically by the neutrals.1] One of the Emirs becomes a fanatic.11. Saragossa is attacked by a stack of 10+2C neutral armies. apply rule 4. II. [4. If after that there are still any neutral armies left. The unrest number is the enemy size.11. [4.3] If Byzantium is controlled. Naples.4) in which 2 is added to the unrest number U. these are placed in Granada.6] Storm — I. it is lost in the storm. otherwise then apply rule 4. Cordoba.9. Normal combat loss rules apply except that losses can be from all provinces in that Emirate and that – if there are provinces in that Emirate that are occupied by other Emirs (players) – the controlling player may remove counters belonging to those occupying forces before removing his/her last counter occupying the capital province (but not before that).9] Fanaticism — I. For Emirs belonging to the mystical faction 4 is added to the die roll. Provinces that are not controlled or occupied are conquered automatically by the neutrals.2] For each controlled Emirate.2] If a faction adherence marker is on the M space (and.1] Move all markers on the faction adherence tracks of all controlled Emirates one space to the right. II. If Spalato is conquered. [4. all remaining armies continue to conquer Anatolia. roll a D6. these are placed in Jerusalem. 4 For this turn only. Damascus. it is killed. in which C is the number of open spaces to the right of the marker on the conversion / tax track.4 for all his/her controlled Emirates as if he/she belongs to the rationalist faction.5] Trade war — I. all remaining armies continue to conquer Rome. If Saragossa is conquered.12] Crusade (land / sea) — III [4.1. cannot move any further to the right) that Emirate is subject to an unrest event (see 4. [4.7] Civil war — I (*=no effect in first turn). 2 in both cases if the marker is in the middle. Milan is attacked by a stack of 10+2C neutral armies. If Nicaea is conquered. to the mystical faction) and declares him/her a heretic. (Hence.9. there can be reconquistas in all three Emirates at the same time (if all three are controlled).11] Reconquista — II. and F is the number of spaces to the left of the marker on the faction adherence track if the Emir belongs to the rationalist faction and to the right if the Emir is mystical (hence. Losses are applied immediately. II All players are allowed to attack each other this turn.10.1] The game is stopped for a scoring round.3. the heretic becomes a member of the minority faction. (Fanatic Emirs count as mysticist and heretics as rationalists for the application of this rule.5] All remaining fanatics act as enemy units towards all players next turn. which C is the number of open spaces to the right of the marker on the conversion / tax track (hence.4. roll a D6. [4. If more than one of Cordoba.9. II. [4.10. Spalato is attacked by a stack of 10+2C neutral armies. apply rule 4. III (always the second event) [4.13] Advance era — I. III Jerusalem is attacked by a stack of 10 neutral armies.1] If Constantinople is not controlled.8. Constantinople is neutral (uncontrolled).10] Crusade (sea) — II. All players roll a D6.4] The fanatical Emir gets one fanatic unit for each controlled province.12. If after that. and Granada in that order (neutrals are allowed to vacate provinces). and Crete in that order (the neutrals don’t need any fleets for this! – neutrals are allowed to vacate provinces). III [4. Move that last player’s marker to the ‘heretical’ box. On a roll of 4 or higher.

that province becomes neutral. [5. (Note that fleets are placed in coastal land areas and move to sea later.5. . [5. Movement and Combat [5.1. [4.5. If he/she passes for the second time.4] Fleets can be used to transport armies. 5. Any buildings in the province remain. [5.3. all players can either: [5. any fleets in this provinces are destroyed on a roll of 4 or more and moved to an adjacent sea otherwise. If the die roll is lower than the number of sea spaces crossed (or fleets used by that army). An attacker can only withdraw his/her armies to the province they came from. [5.1] move one. II.3] If there hasn’t been a ‘Rise of Mysticism’ event in the finished Era.1] A fortress adds 2 to the defenders size. the ‘advance era’ event ends the game after the final scoring round. the first cards of this new deck will be drawn. In such a case of shipping over greater distances. In each round both players roll for losses on the combat results table (CRT – see 5.2] Combat takes place in rounds.1] Fleets on land have no defence strength. two armies can be moved from Damascus to Alexandria. For example.2] Provinces in Emirates with a large Muslim population have civil defence.5 apply.7] There can be fleets of different players in the same sea.3 with the cards for era II or III. Next turn.8). that province becomes neutral. Combat only occurs when one of the players wishes to attack another player who has fleets in that same sea and who belongs to a different faction (except in case of civil war). he/she may use these to transport four armies from Damascus to Tripoli.4] Neutral provinces have a strength (number of armies) equal to the big white number in that province on the map plus any neutral or fanatical armies left because of events in that or earlier turns.1] In turn order.14] No event — I.5. they can attack anyone and be attacked by anyone. Any buildings in the province remain. A defender can only withdraw his/her armies to adjacent controlled or occupied provinces.2] Scoring: points controlled province 1 controlled province with city 2 occupied or controlled province with a defence +2 number larger than or equal to 4 controlled province in an emirate with a 75% +1 Muslim population controlled province in an emirate with a 100% +2 Muslim population great mosque 1 great work produced in that era 5 great person card* turn order bid (subtract from points in first era –bid scoring only) Note(*): The victory point value of a Great Person is marked after ‘P:’ in the lower right of the card. roll a D6 for each army transported. [5.1. Any fleets in these provinces are destroyed on a roll of 4 or more and moved to an adjacent sea otherwise.3. an economic improvement in the contested province is destroyed. Combat continues until there is only one party left. They are included for those who prefer a slightly longer game.15] If because of an event. Add 1 to the defender size if the Muslim population is at 75% and 2 if at 100%. III These cards have no effects. For example.5.3. [5. ( Since fanatics and heretics are always alone in their factions. Population cannot be taken as casualties.12. If the last army of the same colour in a province is lost in battle. ). Hence. If in era 3. it is not destroyed by conquest. No province may be vacated completely. [5. except in the case of civil war (4.5] If because of combat.7). four fleets in total).5. Neutral defenders can never withdraw.1] Shipping chains can be used to ship armies over greater distances. [4. [4. Hence. the last army in a province is lost.1. he/she cannot move any more units that game turn. or [5.1] No combat is allowed between Emirs (players) that belong to the same faction. [5.3] CRT 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 0 1 1 2 2 3 4 0 1 2 2 3 4 5 or more 0 2 2 3 4 5 The columns headers represent die roll results. Every fleet can transport two armies in a player turn.13.10 to 4.) [5.6.5.random events deck as in rule 2.) Fleets cannot be moved into a land province from one sea and moved out into another sea in a later turn.2] A player may pass.7. [5. The row titles are the enemy sizes. for each fleet in the sea south of Cyprus. several or all their units one space. the last army in a province is lost. if a player has two fleets in the seas southeast and southwest of Crete (hence. (The no vacation rule does not apply to neutral armies. 5 [5. It can be taken as 2 casualties if the defender wishes so. [5. but it does apply to Muhammed’s armies.5.5] All moves of armies into provinces that are controlled or occupied by another player or that are neutral result in combat. (Fleets cannot occupy or control provinces. After that they can decide to withdraw or to continue. all controlled Emirates experience this event now (see 4. but if there are any casualties. [5.3] There is no stacking limit.6] Fleets cannot be moved into uncontrolled provinces. see 4. a roll of 4 against a enemy sized 3 results in 2 losses. see 2. [4.) [5. Place fleets on land on the border between the province and the sea they were in.4.2] place a stack of at most five units from the ‘New Units’ box of the player sheet in any of their controlled provinces. Fleets cannot move in the same turn that they are used to transport armies.5. but if it isn’t.3). Normal combat rules as in 5. Any fleets in these provinces are destroyed on a roll of 4 or more and moved to an adjacent sea otherwise. it is lost at sea. [5. an Emir (player) may not move his/her armies into a province controlled or occupied by an Emir (player) belonging to the same faction. in addition to the number of units lost in accordance to the CRT.

1. [6.[5. For example. [7. [6.2. Players (Emirs) can bid (in income points) for this Great Person. D. he/she has to destroy the number of units he/she cannot pay maintenance for.3. The production number is equal to the number of controlled provinces plus cities in those provinces plus economic improvements (buildings) in those provinces plus 1 in case of a ‘good year’ event. [7. Interception works as normal sea combat except that the attacker (the intercepting player) adds 2 to all his/her die rolls (and therefore has higher losses) and that the defender also loses an army for every fleet lost in battle. or a fleet in a sea space with the name of a foreign nation printed in white. and B.1] If at the end of a movement phase. Income and expenses [7. [5. B.7. [5.2] The controlling Emir combines the decks of the Emirates under his/her control and lays out the cards in two rows: The top row has exactly one card of each unique commodity produced in that Greater Emirate. the controlling player shuffles the cards in that Emirate’s deck and draws a number of cards equal to the production number.1] For each Emirate. For example. Emirs controlling the Emirate in which the Great Person was born have a discount of one.8] If a merchant moves into a province that is unoccupied (or uncontrolled) by a unit of the same colour. or [6.3. [6. For each Emirate. A merchant is isolated if there is no adjacent occupied region belonging to the same Emir (player) or a fleet or chain of fleets connecting it to such an occupied region. a merchant gets isolated.1] For each merchant and/or fleet that is in a different province or sea space and to which 6. [6.1) is lower than the maximum tax income.1] Some Emirs have a discount on their bid. [7.2] If an Emir’s (player’s) income falls below the minimum of 10. This is the only possible action outsides one’s turn in this phase and it may even be done after a player has passed twice. the top card of the appropriate deck of great persons (that of the current Era) is revealed. 6. C. but are allowed to decommission fleets. calculate the production number.3.1] If a player tries to transport armies as in rule 5. he/she receives that minimum income.3. Effects – if any – last until the next Great Person phase.3. B and C.3] Greater Emirates can trade with foreign nations if they have a merchant in a province with the name of a foreign nation printed in black.1.4] The number of cards on the third row is the trade income of that Greater Emirate. can be traded away with other players (other Greater Emirates) or foreign nations. On a roll of 5 or 6 it is destroyed.2] they have a fleet in the same sea area that is (either directly or through a chain of fleets) adjacent to controlled or occupied regions belonging to those Greater Emirates.1] Total income of a Greater Emirate is trade income plus the sum of the tax incomes of the controlled Emirates.2. the surplus. If the production number (see 6. it is destroyed. [7.1] If an Emir (player) cannot pay maintenance. the top row could be commodities A. [7.8).8. [6. All doubles or triples are placed in this row. is equal to the maximum tax income).3 applies.3. meaning that they have to pay one or two income points less than their bid if they win the auction. Emirs (players) are not allowed to choose not to pay maintenance for armies.2] Two Greater Emirates can trade with each other if: [6. 7. Maintenance costs is 1 per unit. A merchant in a controlled or occupied province is never isolated. Commodity cards received in trade are placed in a third row: [6. or A. 6 . Shuffle the deck and randomly draw a card.1] There can be no commodity in the third row that is also present in the first row. and E and the second row could then be A. one commodity can be traded for a card from that foreign nation’s or uncontrolled Emirate’s deck. Hence. The second row shows the surpluses. that Emir (player) has to pay 2 maintenance. A.1] An Emirate’s maximum tax income is the bottom number under the marker on the conversion / tax track.9] Al units lost – for whatever reason – go back into the ‘Unit Pool’ box on the owning player’s player sheet.3] The commodities on the second row.2] If more than one player wants to trade with the same foreign nation or uncontrolled Emirate. continuing until all trades with that foreign nation or uncontrolled Emirate are done.3.3. those player take turns trading one commodity per turn in player order.3.10] Any Emirate that has one or more fanatics in a province at the end of the movement and combat phase experiences a ‘rise of mysticism’ event (see 4. if there are 3 units in a province. Players can trade with uncontrolled Emirates if they have a merchant in that Emirate. tax income is equal to the production number. [6.4.4 (and/or 5.3. [5.1) any player who has fleets in one or more of the seas used may try to intercept. Production and Trade [6. [5. roll a D6.2. a Greater Emirate cannot trade for something that Greater Emirate produced itself. the highest bidder discards that number of income points and gets the Great Person.3. [7.3] In the ‘Great Person’ phase. Otherwise tax income is the number on the conversion / tax track (hence.1] they have a land border. [6.2] Maintenance has to be paid for every unit (of the same Emirate) (except merchants) in surplus of 1 in every province or sea area. etc.

An improvement increases the production number (see 6.5. Bidding continues in turn order until all players but one have passed. a single province or Emirate can be traded (or given away) between the same two players only once per Era.3] After the conversion phase. Otherwise. If another player wishes to make a bid next. [7. This means. etc. If no one wants to make a bid anymore.3] A Great Mosque costs 3. [8.1] All units (armies. [7. All units bought are placed in the ‘New Units’ box of the player sheet.7] An attempt to build a Great work costs 5.1.7. if the marker is on the 25% / 4 position. The player who wins the auction chooses his/her position on the player order track and places his/her counter there.5. [7. the monuments by the architects. [7. because he/she already is heretic). [8.3. [7.1] Some Great Person cards have an R in a brownish circle at the bottom.5. shift the counters down to fill the open space on the player order track in the same order as these counters (those of the players that didn’t won an auction) were before. etc.1.4 except that C = 2 and that F is determined after the change. Al Ghazali goes to the fanatical Emir if there is one.1] Players / Emirs can make and break agreements with each other at any point in the game. merchants) cost 1. hospitals. the cost of which is represented by the number on the next (right) space on the luxuries track. [7. Conversion [8. It can be taken as casualties if the defenders wishes so.1. [7.1] Whether an attempt succeeds depends on the Emir’s and the Emirate’s faction adherence and a D6 roll. However. for each controlled Emirate.4] An (Economic) Improvement costs 3. Continue with phase 1 of the next game turn.). Other rules [9. Only one extra conversion attempt per Emirate per turn is allowed.1. Only one great work attempt per Emirate per turn is allowed. that if there is a heretic Emir.5.3.3] Similarly. units (exchange counter for other Emir’s colour).5.2] Great Person effects are described on the cards and are applied immediately if the effect is an event or a free building or last until the next Great Person phase if the effects are related to other game phases. With noted exceptions. Such a change results in minor unrest.5] Players can use their income for purchases. shift all counters on the player order track to above the spaces. etc.2] A conversion attempt succeeds if the result of a die roll is lower than or equal to the bottom number in the space on the right of the marker on the conversion / tax track plus 2 if there is a great mosque in that Emirate.5. A great mosque improves the chance of success when trying to convert (see 8). [9. the game turn ends.2] A Fortress costs 3.1] In the conversion phase.2] Once each turn an Emir (player) can change his/her faction adherence (from Mystical to Rationalist or vice versa). but if it isn’t.3. [7. Great works are the books of the philosophers. he/she automatically gets that card (in which case the heresy event is ignored. there is an (additional) discount of one for rationalist Emirs.[7. it isn’t destroyed by conquest. That means that Emirs belonging to the rationalist faction have an (additional) discount of 1.6] An increase in the luxuries level (building libraries.4] Players can bid for turn order if they wish to do so. 9. provinces. [7.2] Ar Rawandi has an R in a brownish circle and an H in a green circle at the bottom of the card. and Emirates. [7. [7. If there is no heretic Emir. For example. [9. A fortress adds 2 to the defenders army size (even in the case of unrest!). Apply rule 4. Players cannot re-enter bidding after they passed. . the discoveries of the explorers. a roll of 3 or less results in a successful conversion. pos. fleets. the same procedure is repeated. An increase in the luxuries level will result in an increase in rationalism in that Emirate (move the faction adherence marker to the left). There can be no more than one improvement in a province. If there is a great mosque in that Emirate. adh. except that one position on the track has already been taken. a roll of 5 or less would have the same result. There can be only one great mosque in an Emirate and it can only be build in the Capital province. there is an (additional) discount of one for mystical Emirs.1] Players / Emirs can trade (or give away) income points.3.5. To succeed at a great work attempt check the table below 7 and roll lower than or equal to the number found for that Emir and Emirate. on faction.1). If a player makes a bid for turn order.5] An extra conversion attempt costs 5 (see 8). any purchase can be placed in any province controlled by the purchasing player. track faction of Emir 50 R /50 M Heretical 4 3 2 — — Rationalist 5 4 3 2 1 Mystical 2 2 2 2 2 Fanatical — — — 2 3 8. There can be no more than one fortress in a province. one conversion attempt may be made if the controlling Emirate wishes to do so. [7. [7. public baths.5.