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PROBLEMAS RESUELTOS FISICA UNIVERSITARIA

CAPITULO 14

VOLUMEN 1

EDICION 11 SEARS ZEMANSKY

Sección 14.1 Sección 14.2 Sección 14.3 Sección 14.4 Sección 14.5 Sección 14.6

Densidad Presión de un fluido Flotación Fuerzas de flotación y principio de Arquímedes Ecuación de BERNOULLI Viscosidad y turbulencia

Erving Quintero Gil Ing. Electromecánico Bucaramanga – Colombia 2010

Para cualquier inquietud o consulta escribir a: quintere@hotmail.com quintere@gmail.com quintere2006@yahoo.com

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Problema 14.1 Sears Zemansky En un trabajo de medio tiempo, un supervisor le pide traer del almacén una varilla cilíndrica de acero de 85,8 cm de longitud y 2,85 cm de diámetro. ¿Necesitara usted un carrito? (Para contestar calcule el peso de la varilla)

w = m*g = ρ* V*g
ρ = 7,8 * 103 kg/m3 (densidad del acero) V = volumen de la varilla de acero g = gravedad = 9,8 m/seg2 V = área de la varilla * longitud de la varilla d = diámetro de la varilla = 2,85 cm = 0,0285 metros l = longitud de la varilla = 85,8 cm = 0,858 m

V = 6,3793 * 10-4 * 0,858 = 5,4735 * 10-4 m3

3.14 * (0,0285) 2 3,14 * 0,00081225 0,002551 area de la varilla = = = = = 6,3793 * 10 -4 m 2 4 4 4 4
w = ρ* V*g

π d2

w = 7,8 * 10 3

kg m * 5,4735 * 10 -4 m 3 * 9,8 = 41,83 Newton 3 m seg 2

No es necesario el carrito.

Problema 14.2 Sears Zemansky El radio de la luna es de 1740 km. Su masa es de 7,35 * 1022 kg. Calcule su densidad media? V = volumen de la luna R = radio de la luna = 1740 km = 174 * 104 m

2

m = masa de la luna = 7,35 * 1022 kg.

4 V = *π * r3 3 3 4 V = * 3,14 * 174 * 10 4 3 4 V = * 3,14 * 5268024 * 1012 = 22066647,3 2 * 1012 m 3 3

(

)

ρ=

m 7,35 × 10 22 kg = = 3.33 × 10 3 kg m 3 . 12 3 V 22066647,32 *10 m

(

)

Problema 14.3 Sears Zemansky Imagine que compra una pieza rectangular de metal de 5 * 15 * 30 mm y masa de 0,0158 kg. El vendedor le dice que es de oro. Para verificarlo, usted calcula la densidad media de la pieza. Que valor obtiene? ¿Fue una estafa? V = volumen de pieza rectangular V = 5 * 15 * 30 mm = 2250 mm3
V = 2250 mm 3 *

(1 m )3 (1000 mm )3

=

2250 m 3 = 0,00000225 m 3 9 10

m = masa de la pieza rectangular de metal = 0,0158 kg.

(0.0158 kg ) = 7,022 × 103 kg m3 . ρ= m = V 0,00000225 m3

La densidad del oro = 19,3 * 103 kg/m3 La densidad de la pieza rectangular de metal 7,022 * 103 kg/m3 Por lo anterior fue engañado.

Problema 14.4 Sears Zemansky Un secuestrador exige un cubo de platino de 40 kg como rescate . ¿Cuánto mide por lado? L = longitud del cubo V = volumen del cubo. V = L * L * L = L3
L=3V m = masa del platino = 40 kg. ρ = la densidad del platino = 21,4 * 103 kg/m3

ρ m V= = ρ

V=

m

40 kg kg 21,4 * 10 3 m3

= 1,869158 *10 - 3 m 3

3

3 * 103 kg/m3 (densidad del plomo) 4 .12318 m L = longitud del cubo = 12.3 m 3 = 0.7 * 103 kg/m3 (densidad del aluminio) ρ plomp = 11.869158 *10 . ¿Qué relación hay entre el radio de la esfera de aluminio y el de la esfera de plomo? mplomo = masa esfera de plomo maluminio = masa esfera de aluminio mplomo = Volumen de la esfera de plomo * densidad del plomo 4 *π * r3 plomo 3 4 m plomo = * π * r 3 * ρ plomo plomo 3 4 Valuminio = * π * r 3 aluminio 3 4 m aluminio = * π * r 3 * ρ aluminio aluminio 3 Vplomo = mplomo = maluminio 4 4 *π * r3 * ρ plomo = * π * r 3 * ρ aluminio plomo aluminio 3 3 Cancelando términos semejantes r3 * ρ plomo = r 3 * ρ aluminio plomo aluminio Despejando ρ plomo ρ aluminio = (raluminio )3 ( ⎛r ⎞ = ⎜ aluminio ⎟ ⎜ rplomo ⎟ rplomo 3 ⎝ ⎠ 3 ) r ρ plomo 3 ⎛ ( ) = ⎜ aluminio ⎜ ρ aluminio ⎝ rplomo 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ρ aluminio = 2.31 cm Problema 14.L=3V L = 3 1.5 Sears Zemansky Una esfera uniforme de plomo y una de aluminio tienen la misma masa.

msol = masa del sol = 1. V estrella = volumen de la estrella de neutrones rsol = radio de la estrella de neutrones = 20000 m 4 Vestrella = * π * (restrella )3 3 4 V = * 3.510321 * 1012 m 3 = 5.2654 * 10 24 m 3 m3 m estrella = masa de la estrella de neutrones = 1.2654 * 10 24 m 3 3 a) m ρ = sol = Vsol 1.3 * 10 3 3 ⎛ ( ) = ⎜ aluminio ⎜ rplomo 2. Vsol = volumen del sol rsol = radio del sol = 6.99 × 10 30 kg kg = 1.15 *10 24 = 1412. B) Calcule la densidad media de una estrella de neutrones que tiene la misma masa que el sol pero un radio de solo 20 km.05938 × 1018 kg m 3 33.96 * 108 m 4 Vsol = * π * (rsol )3 3 3 4 8 V = * 3.7 * 10 3 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (4.99 * 1030 kg.1851) 3 = ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ raluminio ⎜ ⎜ rplomo ⎝ 1 ⎛ raluminio ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ r plomo ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ = 1.510321*1012 m 3 3 b) D= 1.93 * 1016 kg m 3 5 .96 * 10 ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 3 4 V = * 3.409 * 10 3 1412.61 ⎟ ⎠ Problema 14.99 × 10 30 kg = 0.14 * 8 *1012 = 33.14 * (20000)3 3 4 V = * 3.6 Sears Zemansky a) Calcule la densidad media del sol.99 * 1030 kg.14 * ⎛ ⎜ 6.14 * 337.1 r 11.

8 m/seg2 6 . a) ρ * g * h = ⎛ ⎟ ⎜ 600 kg m ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ h agua = 0.03 * 10 3 kg m 3 ) * (9.8 m/seg2 3 ⎛ 9.581m ρ *g (1050 kg m 3 ) (9. La diferencia de presión entre la parte superior e inferior del tubo debe ser de al menos 5980 Pa para forzar el líquido en la vena p – p0 = ρ * g * h = 5980 Pa ρ = 1050 kg/m3 (densidad del fluido) g = gravedad = 9.8 m/seg2 Newton 5980 2 5980 Pa 5980 N m m2 h= = = = 0. El deposito esta abierto a la atmosfera por arriba.25 m ρ agua = 1000 kg/m3 (densidad del agua) g = gravedad = 9.12 m sobre 0.80 m s 2 ) 10.03 * 103 kg/m3 (densidad del agua de mar) g = gravedad = 9.80 m s 2 ⎞ (0.6) del fluido.8 m/seg2 1 * 10 5 Pa 100000 Newton m2 h= p − p0 = = = 9.12 m b) ¿Qué presión manométrica hay en el fondo del barril? ρ aceite = 600 kg/m3 (densidad del aceite) g = gravedad = 9.094 Newton m3 Problema 14.7 Sears Zemansky ¿A que profundidad del mar hay una presión manométrica de 1 * 105 Pa? p − p0 = ρ * g * h ρ = 1.25 m de agua.906 m ρ*g (1.Problema 14. a) Que presión manométrica hay en la interfaz aceite-agua? h aceite = 0.80 m s 2 ) 10290 Newton m3 h = 58. se inserta una aguja en una vena del brazo del paciente y se conecta un tubo entre la aguja y un depósito de fluido (densidad 1050 kg/m3) que esta a una altura h sobre el brazo. Suponga que el diámetro de la aguja es lo bastante grande para despreciar la viscosidad (sección 14.8 Sears Zemansky En la alimentación intravenosa.12 m ) = 706 Pa.1 cm Problema 14. Si la presión manométrica dentro de la vena es de 5980 Pa.9 Sears Zemansky Un barril contiene una capa de aceite (densidad de 600 kg/m3 ) de 0. ¿Qué valor minino de h permite que entre fluido en la vena?.

b) The pressure difference is the gauge pressure.78 × 105 N. (Suponga que las paredes del neumático son flexibles de modo que la presión ejercida por el neumático sobre el suelo es igual a la presión de aire en su interior. and the net force due to the water and the air is 2 (2.5 KN. b) 706 Pa + ⎛ ⎜1000 kg m ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ Problema 14.8 m s 2 ⎞ (0. ) debe producir una bomba para subir agua del fondo del Gran cañón (elevación 730 m) a Indian Gardens (elevación 1370 m)? p = ρgh = (1.15 m) 2 ) = 1.10 Sears Zemansky Una vagoneta vacía pesa 16. Problema 14.1 KN de pasajeros y carga.3 ⎛ 9.27 × 106 Pa = 61. = 16500 Newton P= presión manométrica de cada neumático = 205 KPa = 205000 Pa. and so the total area is W = Peso de la vagoneta vacia = 16. W A (16500 N) W A= = = 0.12 Sears Zemansky ¿Qué presión barométrica (en Pa y atm.52 × 10 6 Pa.5 KN.80 m s )( 250 m ) = 2.25 m ) = 706 Pa + 2450 Pa = 3156 Pa. a) cuanto vale la presión manométrica a esa profundidad. calcule el área después de que el auto se carga con 9.9 atm.00 × 103 kg m 3 )(9. The pressure used to find the area is the gauge pressure. Calcule el área de contacto total de los neumáticos con el suelo. Cada neumático tiene una presión manométrica de 205 KPa (29.1248 m 2 * N P (205000 Pa ) (1 m )2 205000 2 m Problema 14.11 Sears Zemansky Se esta diseñando una campana de buceo que resista la presión del mar a 250 m de profundidad.0804 m 2 ⋅ P (205000 Pa ) A = 804 cm2 P= b) P = W A A= A = 1248 cm2 (100 cm )2 = 1248 cm 2 ⋅ 25600 N W (16500 N + 9100 N ) = = = 0.7 lb/pulg2).03 × 103 kg m 3 )(9.) Con la misma presión en los neumáticos.80 m s 2 )(640 m) = 6. b) A esta profundidad.52 × 106 Pa )(π (0. 7 . ¿Qué fuerza neta ejercen el agua exterior y el aire interior sobre una ventanilla circular de 30 cm de diámetro si la presión dentro de la campana es la que hay en la superficie del agua? (desprecie la pequeña variación de presión sobre la superficie de la ventanilla) a) ρgh = (1.

16 × 10−4 m3 = 816 cm3 Problema 14. Problema 14.680 m The volume of water is V = hA = (0. c) The absolute pressure is that found in part (b).1 m de profundidad.00 cm instead of y 2 gives 1.14 Sears Zemansky Hay una profundidad máxima la que un buzo puede respirar por un snorkel (Fig. Calcule la diferencia de presión interna-externa cuando los pulmones del buzo están a 6.0500 m )(13. then ρw ghw = ρm ghm. aumenta la diferencia de presión que tiende a colapsar los pulmones del buzo. Se vierte lentamente agua sobre el mercurio (los dos líquidos no se mezclan). d) ( y2 − y1 ) ρg = 5.Problema 14. If this is to be double the first value. La presion atmosferica es de 980 milibares. With just the mercury. the gauge pressure at the bottom of the cylinder is p = p0 + ρm ghm + pw ghw . 1. al aumentar la profundidad.80 m s 2 )(7.00 × 103kg m3 )(9.1 m) = 6. b) Repeating the calcultion with y = y 2 − y1 = 4. (un buzo que respira el aire comprimido de un tanque puede operar a mayores profundidades que uno que usa snorkel.80 m s 2 )(6.6 × 103 kg m 3 )(9.8 a es mercurio.00 × 103 ) = 0.07 × 10 5 Pa.16 Sears Zemansky 8 .33 × 103 Pa (this is not the same as the difference between the results of parts (a) and (b) due to roundoff error).31) pues. Dado que el snorkel conecta los pulmones con la atmosfera. a) ¿Qué presion absoluta hay en la base del tubo en U? b) Y en el tubo abierto 4 cm debajo de la superficie libre? c) Que presion absoluta tiene el aire del tanque? d) ¿Qué presion manométrica tiene el gas en pascales? a) pa + ρgy 2 = 980 × 10 2 Pa + (13.680 m)(12. la presión en ellos es la atmosférica. Problema 14. ¿Qué volumen de agua deberá añadirse para aumentar al doble la presión manométrica en la base del cilindro.0 × 104 Pa.00 × 10 −2 m) = 1. y1 = 3 cm y y2 7 cm. hw = hm ( ρm ρw ) = (0. 14.03 × 10 5 Pa. Suponga que el buzo esta en agua dulce.0 × 10 −4 m 2 ) = 8.15 Sears Zemansky Un cilindro alto con área transversal de 12 cm2 se lleno parcialmente con mercurio hasta una altura de 5 cm.03 × 10 5 Pa. the gauge pressure at the bottom of the cylinder is p = p 0 + p m ghm⋅ With the water to a depth hw .13 Sears Zemansky El liquido del manómetro de tubo abierto de la fig 14.6 × 103 1. por que la presión del aire dentro de los pulmones aumenta hasta equilibrar la presión externa del agua) ρgh = (1.

Despues.Un recipiente cerrado se llena parcialmente con agua.01 * 105 Pa) y la presion manometrica en la base del recipiente es de 2500 Pa. el aire arriba del agua esta a presion atmosferica (1. en un principio. se bombea aire adicional al interior aumentando la presion del aire sobre el agua en 1500 Pa) 9 .

80 m s 2 ) p= = = = 1. divided by the product ρg = mg V .153 m Problema 14.255 m (1000 kg m 3 ) (9. so F = ( ρgh) A − w = (1.71 m s 2 )(14. The pressure difference between the surface of the water and the bottom is due to the weight of the water and is still 2500 Pa after the pressure increase above the surface. making the total difference from atmospheric 2500 Pa+1500 Pa = 4000 Pa. But the surface pressure increase is also transmitted to the fluid.80 m s 2 ) (30 m) (0.27 × 105 N. b) The pressure due to the water alone is 2500 Pa = ρgh.20 Sears Zemansky F mg (1200 kg)(9.14 m.18 Sears Zemansky [ = 1. The difference between the pressure inside and out is the gauge pressure.01 × 105 Pa h= = 4.102 m (1000 kg m 3 )(9.102 m = 0.80 m s 2 ) (0. the pressure due to the water’s weight must be reduced to 1000 Pa: 1000 N m 2 h= = 0. Problema 14.255 m − 0.66 × 105 Pa = 1.64 atm.0700 m 2 ) − 2. Thus h= 2500 N m 2 = 0.80 m s 2 ) Thus the water must be lowered by 0.79 × 10 5 N.17 Sears Zemansky The force is the difference between the upward force of the water and the downward forces of the air and the weight.4 × 103 N) (0. 130 × 103 Pa + (1. (205 kg)(9.250 m3 ) Problema 14.19 Sears Zemansky The depth of the kerosene is the difference in pressure.15 m) 10 . 2 2 A π (d 2) π (0.2 m) − 93 × 103 Pa (2.03 × 103 ) (9.75 m 2 ) − 300 N = 2.80 m s 2 ) To keep the bottom gauge pressure at 2500 Pa after the 1500 Pa increase at the surface.a) Gauge pressure is the excess pressure above atmospheric pressure. (16.00 m 2 ) ] Problema 14.00 × 103 kg m3 )(3.

and the average density of the floating ship is less than that of water. so ρ < ρ fluid . the entire V0 . and V= B ρwater g = (6.20 N = 6. 3 3 ρwater − ρice 1000 kg m − 920 kg m or 0.0 × 10 -6 m 3 ) = 1− = 0.50 N − 11.22: The buoyant force is B = 17. and the total volume be ρ P V . If p → 0.0 kg = = 0. su primo Tito recorta una pieza rectangular (dimensiones: 5 * 4 *3 cm) de un salvavidas y la tira al mar.Problema 14. Problema 14.042 kg) (5.0 × 4. b) If the ship does not leak.21 Sears Zemansky The buoyant force must be equal to the total weight.50 ⎞ 3 3 = = ρwater = (1.00 × 10 kg m 3 )(9. ¿Qué porcentaje de su volumen esta sobre la superficie ? a) The displaced fluid must weigh more than the object. 1− ρ ρ fluid (0.24 Sears Zemansky 11 . Then. c) Let the portion submerged have volume V.43 × 10 − 4 m 3 . ρVo = ρfluid V . ¿Cómo pueden flotar barcos de acero en el agua? c) En terminos de ρ y ρfluido ¿Qué fraccion del objeto esta sumergida y que fraccion esta sobre el fluido? Verifique que sus respuestas den el comportamiento correcto en el limite donde ρ → ρfluido y donde ρ → 0. ρwaterVg = ρiceVg + mg . La masa de la pieza es de 42 gr. (1.23 Sears Zemansky Un objeto con densidad media ρ flota sobre un fluido de densidad ρfluido a)?Que relacion debe haber entre las dos densidades? b) A la luz de su respuesta a la parte(a).30 N. none of the object is above the surface.563 m 3 . so V = ρfluid ⋅ The fraction above the fluid is then 1 − Pfluid 0 object floats. and if ρ → ρ fluid .80 m s 2 ) 3 The density is ρ= m wg w ⎛ 17. d) Using the result of part (c). much of the water will be displaced by air or cargo.00 × 103 kg m3 ) ⎜ ⎟ = 2. d) durante un paseo en yate.30 ⎠ Problema 14. 1030 kg m 3 Problema 14.22 Sears Zemansky 14.0 × 3. so V= m 45.32 = 32%.56 m 3 to two figures. V B ρwater g B ⎝ 6.78 × 10 kg m . donde flota.30 N) = 6.

10 m )3 = 822 m 3 .100 m ) = = = 0.15) (1000 kg m 3 ) . b) m = w g ( )( )( ) = B −T g = 6370 N . Note that is the same as the average density of the fluid 0. a) Calcule la fuerza de flotación ejercida por el agua sobre la esfera.85) 790 kg m 3 + (0.) If the submerged volume is V ′.900 N 9. En equilibrio. b) 790 kg m3 (0.100 m ) + 1000 kg m3 (0. ¿Qué fracción de volumen de la esfera estará sumergida? a) B = ρwater gV = 1.00 × 103 kg m 3 9.Un cable anclado al fondo de un lago de agua dulce sostiene una esfera hueca de plástico bajo la superficie. La densidad del aceite es de 790 kg/m3 a) ¿Qué presion manometrica hay en la superficie de arriba del bloque? b) ¿y en la cara inferior c) ¿Qué masa y densidad tiene el bloque? a) ρoil ghoil = 116 Pa.80 m s 2 ( ) The density of the block is p = (0.822 kg.80 m s 2 0. El volumen de la esfera es de 0. b) ¿Qué masa tiene la esfera b) El cable se rompe y la esfera sube a la superficie. V ρwater gV 6370 N Problema 14. V′ = w ρwater g and V′ w 5470 N = = = 0. Por lado flota en la interfaz entre aceite y agua con su superficie inferior 1. (0.25 Sears Zemansky Un bloque cubico de Madera de 10 cm. c) (See Exercise 14. Bajo la interfaz (fig 14.650 m3 y la tensión en el cable es de 900 N.5 cm. c) (( ) ( ) )( ) m= 2 w ( pbottom − ptop )A (805 Pa )(0.650 m 3 = 6370 N.9%.80 m s 2 = 921 Pa.80 m s 2 = 558 kg. g g 9.859 = 85.32). ( ) 12 .822 kg kg displaced.23.0150 m ) 9.

and −3 its 3 mass 3 is 20.8 N.27 Sears Zemansky a) The pressure at the top of the block is p = p 0 + ρgh.8 N 9.102 kg 1. 3 = 1.7 ⎠ ⎝ aluminum ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ρ ⎞ ⎛ 1. where h is the depth of the top of the block below the surface. c) T − w + B = 0 so T = w −B.Problema 14.6 N.80 m s 2. so T is larger for the brass block. B is the same for both. The liquid’s density is thus 2.7 × 10 kg m ( )( ) or 3.6 N 9. V= (89 N ) m w g w = = = = 3.102 kg. b) B = ρ flVobj g .6 N = 20.2 N − 18.102 × 10 − 3 m 3 3 3 1. water ⎟ 1− b) T = w −B = w − gρwaterV = ω⎜ ⎟ = 56.102 kg = 1. The blocks have the same volume Vobj so experience the same buoyant force.2 N .36 × 10 − 3 m 3 .00 × 10 kg m The weight of 2 unknown liquid displaced is 39.102 kg and its volume.4 N = 10. is 1. so the pressure is greater at the top of block Β . ¿Qué tensión hay en la cuerda (el peso aparente del lingote en agua)? a) Neglecting the density of the air. The mass of this much water is thus 10.28.102 × 10 m roughly twice the density of water. w = ρVg .4 × 10 −3 m 3 to two figures. ⎜1 − ρ ⎟ = (89 N )⎜ 2. h is greater for block Β . a) ¿Qué volumen tiene? b) el lingote se cuelga de una cuerda y se sumerge por completo en agua.29 Sears Zemansky 13 .91 × 10 kg m .26 Sears Zemansky Un lingote de aluminio sólido pesa 89 N en el aire.80 m s 2 = 1. block B. equal to the rock’s volume. The object have the same V but ρ is larger for brass than for aluminum so w is larger for the brass block.0 N.80 m s = 2. or Problema 14.00 ⎞ Problema 14. Problema 14.28 Sears Zemansky The rock displaces a volume of water whose weight is 39. 2 3 3 ρ ρ gρ 9.

32 Sears Zemansky a) From the equation preceding Eq. Sale agua del tanque a través de un agujero pequeño en el fondo. v2 = 5.245 m 3 s) (3600 s) = 882 m3 .80 cm)2 . Calcule la rapidez de salida del agua The hole is given as being “small. Problema 14. (14. A π (0.10 cm)2 v2 = (3.12). v2 = 2. (ii) Α2 = 0.33 Sears Zemansky Un tanque sellado que contiene agua de mar hasta una altura de 11 metros contiene también aire sobre el agua a una presión manométrica de 3 atmósferas.18) es v = 2( gy + ( p ρ)) 14 . (14.6 m s 20π (0.150 m) 2 b) r2 = r1 v1 v2 = (dV dt ) πv2 = 0.20 m3 s) = = 16. b) v1 Α1t = υ2 Α2t = (0. (14. y esto puede interpretarse en el sentido que la velocidad del agua de mar en la parte superior del tanque es cero.10) 2 Problema 14. dividing by the time interval dt gives Eq.317 m. (14.245 m 3 s = = ⋅ Α2 Α2 Α2 a) (i) Α2 = 0.50 m s)(0.33 m s.21 m s.0700 m 2 ) 0.10).0 m s) π (0. b) The Problema 14. v2 = v1 ( Α1 Α2 ) Α1 = π (0.v1 Α1 = v2 Α2 .30 Sears Zemansky v2 = v1 Α1 (3.1050 m 2 .98. volume flow rate decreases by 1. y la ecuación.80)2 = 9.18) gives El agujero se da como "pequeño".31 Sears Zemansky a) v = dV dt (1.50% (to two figures). Α2 = 20π (0.047 m 2 . and Eq. Problema 14.”and this may be taken to mean that the velocity of the seawater at the top of the tank is zero.

03 × 10 kg m )) 3 = 28.8 m seg 2 * 14 m = 274. p2 = 0 (the water is open to the atmosphere). 4 1 p2 = p1 + ⎡⎛ 15 ⎞ ⎤ 1 2 ) + ρg ( y1 − y2 ) = p1 + ρ ⎢⎜ ⎟υ12 + g ( y1 − y2 )⎥ ρ(v12 − v2 2 ⎣⎝ 32 ⎠ ⎦ 15 .36 Sears Zemansky Using v2 = 1 v in Eq.47 * 105 Pa Problema 14. V = volumen en m3/ seg V=v*A A = area = π * r2 r = 3 mm = 0. de modo que p es la presión manométrica dada en la parte superior del tanque Problema 14.013 × 10 Pa) (1.4 m2 m = 16. v = velocidad en m/seg. (Suponga que la toma tiene un diámetro mucho mayor que la manguera).003 m A = π * r2 = 3.34 Sears Zemansky Se corta un agujero circular de 6 mm de diámetro en el costado de un tanque de agua grande. El tanque esta abierto al aire por arriba. (14. 14 m debajo del nivel del agua en el tanque. v2 = 0.8 m/seg2 h = altura en metros. Tenga en cuenta que y = 0 y p = p0 se utilizaron en la parte inferior del tanque.8274 * 10-5 m2 V = v * A = 16.8 * 15 m = 147000 3 2 2 m seg m p1 = 1.8274 * 10-5 m2 V = 4.0 m) + (3. Note that y = 0 and p = pa were used at the bottom of the tank. The assumption may be taken to mean that v1 = 0 in Eq. (14.14 * (0.003)2 = 2.4 m s. Calcule a) la rapidez de salida b) el volumen descargado por unidad de tiempo.80 m s )(11.2 5 3 = 2((9. so that p was the given gauge pressure at the top of the tank.35 Sears Zemansky ¿Que presión manométrica se requiere en una toma municipal de agua para que el chorro de una manguera de bomberos conectada a ella alcance una altura vertical de 15 m?. g = gravedad = 9. At the maximum height.56 m/seg * 2.17). v2 = 2 * g * h v = 2 * g * h = 2 * 9. and using gauge pressure for p1 and p2 . kg m Newton p1 = ρ * g * y 2 = 1000 = 1.47 * 10 5 Pa * 9.00)(1.68 * 10-4 m3/seg Problema 14.17).56 2 seg seg b) el volumen descargado por unidad de tiempo.

00 × 10 4 Pa + (1.80 × 10 4 Pa + (1.50 m s ) + 1000 kg m3 9.355 L ) ×10 m s = 1. and so the volume flow may also be obtained rate from is 60.32×10 −3 m 2 = 0.355×10 −3 m 3 = 1000 kg m 3 . 1 1 ⎛ 2 v12 ⎞ 3 2 ρ v12 − v2 = p1 + ρ⎜ v1 − ⎟ = p1 + ρv12 ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ 4⎠ 8 3 2 = 1.0 m) ⎟ ⎝ 32 ⎠ 5 = 1.352 m s. (14. keeping an extra figure. v2 = v1 4 = 1.00×10 − 4 m 2 = 6.50 m s.230 .50 m s ) = 2.80 m s ) = −496 N.0 s = 1.2 m ) − (1340 kg)(9. Problema 14.80 m s 2 )(11.95 m s 4.00 m s) 2 + (9. 1 2 d) p1 = p2 + ρ(v2 − v12 ) + ρg ( y2 − y1 ) 2 2 2 = 152 kPa + (1 2) (1000 kg m3 ) (1. c) v1 = 1.30 × 10−3 m3 s = 1.17).00 × 10 3 kg m 3 )(2. with y1 = y 2 .03 × 10 4 Pa.355 kg ) 60. so the speed at the constriction is v2 = v12 + 2Δ p ρ = 8. so the cross-section are at the constriction is = 5.62 × 10 Pa.355 kg 0.63 m s ) − (6.38 Sears Zemansky a) ( 220 )(0. upward force is then Problema 14. −3 3 This result ( 220 )(0.30 L s.41 Sears Zemansky 16 . b) The density of the liquid is 1. Problema 14.41 cm.⎛ 15 ⎞ = 5.17)).00 × 103 kg m 3 ) ⎜ (3.40 Sears Zemansky From Eq.39 Sears Zemansky The water is discharged at a rate of v1 = 4. 2 p2 = p1 + ( ) Problema 14.80 m s 2 (− 1.30 kg s 1000 kg m 3 0. 8 v where the continutity relation v 2 = 1 has been used.37 Sears Zemansky Neglecting the thickness of the wing (so that y1 = y2 in Eq.19 × 10− 5 m 2 .30 kg s.65×10 −4 m 3 s 1.30 L s.95 m s. (14. The pipe is given as horizonatal.0 s = 1. and the radius is r = A π = 0. the pressure difference is 2 Δp = (1 2) ρ(v2 − v12 ) = 780 Pa. The net 2 2 (780 Pa) × (16.35 m ) = 119 kPa ( )( ) ( ) Problema 14.63 m s.65×10 −4 m 3 s 8.

92 × 103 m = 1.80 m s 2 ( )( ) ((5.80 m s 2 ( )( ) ((4.88 × 10 5 N.08 × 103 kg m 3 .0 m)) = 5.43 Sears Zemansky a) ρgh = 1.76 × 10 5 N.00 × 103 kg m3 9. F = ρgA d 2 = 1.44 Sears Zemansky a) The weight of the water is ρgV = 1.0%.00 cm and point 2 be where r2 = 2.16 × 108 Pa 45. Problema 14. A fractional increase of 5. b) Integration gives the expected result the force is what it would be if the pressure were uniform and equal to the pressure at the midpoint.45 Sears Zemansky 17 . b) The fractional change in volume is the negative of the fractional change in density. the gauge pressure and absolute pressure are the same.8 × 10 5 N to two figures. The volume flow rate has the value 7200 cm 3 s at all points in the pipe.10 × 108 Pa. or 5.03 × 103 kg m 3 9.43 m s v2 A2 = v2πr22 = 7200 cm3 .80 × m s 2 10.00 cm. so v1 = 1.73 m s 1 1 2 p1 + ρgy1 + ρv12 = p2 + ρgy2 + ρv2 2 2 y1 = y2 and p2 = 2.03 × 103 kg m 3 1 + 1. b) The force on a) The cross-sectional area presented by a sphere is π D 4 therefore each hemisphere due to the atmosphere is π 5.00 × 10 − 2 m ( ) (1.40 × 105 Pa.8 × 10 −11 Pa −1 ( )( ( )( )) = 1.975) = 776Ν. Problema 14.50 m ) = 1.0 m)(3.0 m ))(1.25 × 105 Pa 2 2 2 ( ) . Problema 14. so v2 = 5.0 m)(3. so p2 = p1 + Problema 14. The density at that depth is then ( )( )( ) ρ = ρ0 (1 + kΔp ) = 1.Let point 1 be where r1 = 4. Note that to three figures.013 × 10 2 5 Pa ) (0. v1 A1 = v1πr12 = 7200 cm3 .42 Sears Zemansky 1 2 ρ v12 − v2 = 2. or 1.00 × 103 kg m3 9.00 m)(4.9 × 10 5 N to two figures. F = ( p0 − p )π D4 .

M V . F = ρgωH 2 2 = ρgAH 2. Solving for C . the surface area of the lake does not affect either result (for a given width).700 kg m 3 and at r = R. The force on a strip of vertical thickness dh at a depth h is then dF = ρgh(wdh) and the torque about the hinge is dτ = ρgwh(h − H 2)dh. The denominator is just the total R2L volume V .49 Sears Zemansky a) At r = 0. So the average density is one-third the density at the x = L end of the rod.45. c) The force depends on the width and the square of the depth. the model predicts 18 . b) The torque on a strip of vertical thickness dh about the bottom is dτ = dF (H − h ) = ρgwh(H − h )dh.Let the width be w and the depth at the bottom of the gate be H . The volume element dV = πR 2 dx. where A = ωH . the net force is ∫ dF from h = 0 to h = H . radius R. Problema 14. Problema 14.48 Sears Zemansky The cylindrical rod has mass M . 3 2 M L = π3 . Integrating gives M = CπR 2 ∫ 0 b) The density at the x = L end is ρ = Cx 2 = ( 3M πR 2 L3 )( ) ( ) L .61 × 10 4 N ⋅ m. C = 3M πR 2 L3 .47 Sears Zemansky The acceleration due to gravity on the planet is g= Δp Δp = m ρd V d and so the planet’s mass is M = gR 2 ΔpVR 2 = G mGd Problema 14. and the torque about the bottom depends on the width and the cube of the depth. a) M = ∫ ρdV = ∫ Cx 2 dV . so ρ = 3M V . ρ = Cx 2 . integrating from h = 0 to h = H gives τ = ρgωH 3 12 = 2. and length L with a density that is proportional to the square of the distance from one end. or three times the average density. the model predicts ρ = A = 12.46 Sears Zemansky a) See problem 14. and integrating from h = 0 to h = H gives τ = ρgwH 3 6 = ρgAH 2 6. Problema 14. 3 Then the integral becomes L 2 L x dx = CπR 2 M = ∫0 Cx 2πR 2 dx.

99 × 1024 kg) (6. p=− ρg s R ∫ r dr = R r ρg s R ∫ R r r dr = ρg s 2 ( R − r 2 ). 2R M V b) Using the above expression with r = 0 and ρ = = 3M 4πR 3 . 9(1. c) R ⎡ AR3 BR 4 ⎤ ⎛ 4πR 3 ⎞ ⎡ 3BR ⎤ ⎟ M = ∫ dm = 4π ∫ [ A − Br ]r 2 dr = 4π ⎢ A − =⎜ − ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ 4 ⎦ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎢ 4 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ 3 0 ⎛ 4π (6. 700 kg m − =⎜ ⎥ ⎟⎢ ⎜ 3 4 ⎦ ⎠⎣ ⎝ = 5.02 m s 2 .673 × 10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 kg 2 ) (5.37 × 106 m)3 ⎞ ⎡ 3(1. p(0) = 3(5.36% of the earth’s mass.4).37 × 106 m)2 = 9.50 × 10 − 3 kg m 4 ) Problema 14.15 × 10 3 kg m 3 .37 × 106 m) ⎤ 3 ⎟ 12 .700 kg m 3 ) 2 = = 10. then g = Gm ( r ) r 2 . g = Gm( R ) R 2 = (6. and at this radius ⎛ 4πG ⎞⎛ 2 A ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ 3 ⎞ ⎛ 2 A ⎞⎤ g =⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎢ A − ⎜ ⎟ B⎜ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ 3B ⎠⎦ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝ 3B ⎠ ⎣ 4πGA2 = 9B 4π (6. e) g = 0 at r = 0.80 m s 2 ) = 1. and g at r = R. d) If m ( r ) is used to denote the mass contained in a sphere of radius r . which is within 0. becomes dp = − ρg dr = − ρg s (r R)dr.50 × 10−3 kg m 4 )(6.50 × 10 −3 kg m 4 )(6. =⎜ =⎜ ⎟⎢ A − ⎟ ⎢ Ar − ⎥ 4 ⎦ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎣ 2 ⎥ dr ⎝ 3 ⎠ dr ⎣ ⎦ setting ths equal to zero gives r = 2 A 3B = 5. Using the same integration as that in part (b). with p = 0 at r = R. with an upper limit of r instead of R gives the result.97 × 1024 kg)(9.38 × 10 m) 19 .50 Sears Zemansky a) Equation (14.37 × 10 6 m) = 3. f) 3Br 2 ⎤ ⎛ 4πG ⎞ ⎡ 3Br ⎤ dg ⎛ 4πG ⎞ d ⎡ .700 kg m 3 − (1. b). Integrating.673 × 10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 kg 2 ) (12.85 m s 2 .99 × 10 24 kg. with the radius r instead of height y. This form shows that the pressure decreases with increasing radius.64 × 10 6 m .71 × 1011 Pa.ρ = A − BR = 12. 6 2 8π (6.

9 cm.55 × 10 3 m 3 . Problema 14.80 m s 2 )(15.54 Sears Zemansky The difference between the densities must provide the “lift” of 5800 N (see Problem 14.80 m s )(2200 m ) Problema 14.23 kg m 3 − (5800 N ) = 0. Problema 14.59).55 Sears Zemansky a) The submerged volume V ′ is w ρ water g . The mass of the barge itself is F = ∫ ( ρgy)(2πR)dy = ρgπRh2 o h (7.96 kg m 3 .8 × 103 kg m 3 ) ((2(22 + 40) × 12 + 22 × 40) × 4. Problema 14.53: For the barge to be completely submerged. but the coal must not be too loosely packed.0 × 10−2 m3 ) = 7. 14. This mass of coal occupies a solid volume of 6. this is not in very good agreement with the estimated value.00 × 103 kg m 3 )(22 × 40 × 12 m 3 ) = 1.c) While the same order of magnitude.0 cm − h) = ρwater g (15.51 Sears Zemansky a) ρwater ghwater = (1. ρHg g (15.056 × 107 kg. The average density of the gases in the balloon is then ρave = 1. so 20 . which is solved for h = 13.82 × 10 6 kg of coal.06 × 10 4 m 3 ).47 × 103 Pa. so the barge can hold 9. Using the given numerical values gives F = 5.0 × 10 −2 m) = 1.99). In more realistic density models (see Problem 14.0 cm − h below the top of the mercury column must be that found in part (a). the concentration of mass at lower radii leads to a higher pressure. which is less than the volume of the interior of the barge (1. where R and h are the radius and height of the tank (the fact that 2 R = h is more or less coincidental).39 × 105 kg. 2 3 (9.0 cm ).52 Sears Zemansky Following the hint.07 × 10 8 N.00 × 103 kg m 3 )(9.49 or Problem 9. b) The gauge pressure at a depth of 15. the mass of water displaced would need to be ρwaterV = (1.

and so 0. it is as if the volume displaced by the 9. which can be expressed as ρ fluid = ρ 1 .2 × 10 m ) 11.70 gm cm 3 = 9. where ρ is the average density of the hydrometer (see Problem 14.57 Sears Zemansky The total mass of the lead and wood must be the mass of the water displaced. or V ′′ w =1− = 1 − 0.00 × 103 kg m3 − 600 kg m3 = (1. A way of considering this situation (as a thought experiment only) is that the less dense water “floats” on the salt water.70 gm 1. solving for the volume VPb .00 × 103 kg m3 3 = 4.0 m 3 ) b) As the car is about to sink.V ′ w ρwater g m (900 kg ) = = = = 0. Problema 14. c) = 9. VPb = Vwood ρ water − ρ wood ρ Pb − ρ water −2 1.58 Sears Zemansky The fraction f of the volume that floats above the fluid is f = 1 − ρ ρ fluid . 1− f 21 .56 Sears Zemansky a) The volume displaced must be that which has the same weight and mass as the ice.24 cm3 ⋅ d) The melted water takes up more volume than the salt water displaced.30 = 0. and as there is insufficient volume to contain the melted ice. which has a mass of 5.70 gm of melted ice displaces the same volume.55). some spills over. Problema 14.00 gm 9.3 × 103 kg m3 − 1.00 × 103 kg m 3 ) (3. b) No. If the volume of water inside the car is V ′′ . when melted.23 or Problem 14.27 kg. or VPb ρ Pb + Vwood ρ wood = (VPb + Vwood ) ρ water .05 gm cm 3 units). Vρwater g = w + V ′′pwater g .46 cm3 flows over.70 cm3 (note that the choice of the form for the density of water avoids conversion of 9.70 = 70% ⋅ V Vpwater g Problema 14. and the water level does not change.66 × 10 −4 m3 . the weight of the water displaced is equal to the weight of the car plus the weight of the water inside the car.30 = 30% ⋅ V V ρwaterV (1. 1.

Thus. and the period of oscillation is T = 2π M M = 2π .839) ρwater = 839 kg m 3 . f 2 = ( 3.80 m s ) 3 b) For the same volume. the proportionality between the displacement x and the applied force F. The period is then 22 .2 cm ) 3 = 0. 3 2 (1.00 cm)(0. it’s clear 1 − f2 that a larger f 2 corresponds to a larger density.60 Sears Zemansky a) Archimedes’ principle states ρgLA = Mg . Problema 14. ρA b) The buoyant force is ρgA( L + x ) = Mg + F . ⎛ ρ − ρHe (120.” that is. the “lift” would be different by the ratio of the density differences.61 Sears Zemansky 1: (70.2 cm 3 ) = 0. so L = gives x = M . M is the mass of the buoy.400 cm 2 ) (13.59 Sears Zemansky a) The “lift” is V ( ρair − ρH 2 ) g . k ρgA Problema 14.03 × 10 kg m 3 π (0. if two fluids are observed to have floating fraction f1 and f 2 .000 N)⎜ air ⎜ ρair − ρH 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ = 11. In this form.000 N = 11. from which V = 120.097 gives ρalcohol = (0.20 cm)(0. c) The “spring constant.107 m.400 cm 2 ) (13.2 × 10 4 N.450 m )2 b) Note that in part (c) of Problem 14. more of the stem is above the fluid.20 kg m − 0.242. and using the result of part (a) and solving for x F ρgA .0899 kg m )(9.0 kg ) w mg m = = = = 0.0 × 10 3 m 3 . not the mass of the man. 3 ρgA ρgA ρA 1. ρ2 = ρ1 1 − f1 . Problema 14. is k = ρgA.60. not the amplitude. Using f1 = ( 8. ⎟ ⎠ This increase in lift is not worth the hazards associated with use of hydrogen. and a) x = ( ) A is the cross-section area of the buoy.

but not compared to that of the wood.64 Sears Zemansky 23 . M and V . Eliminating V in favor of ρ1 and M .0950 kg )⎜ ⎟ = 0.03 × 10 kg m − 0.0958 kg. the mass of the brass is given to three figures.42 s. Problema 14. and dividing out the common factor of g . and M wood = ρwoodVwood = M brass ⎛ ρwood ρ ⎞ 1 − air ⎟ = M brass ⎜ ⎜ ρwood − ρair ρwood ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ −1 −1 ⎛ 1. ρwater ((0.80)V + v ) = ρ0v + ρ1V .62 Sears Zemansky To save some intermediate calculation. mass and volume of the life preserver be ρ 0 .T = 2π (1. Vwood ( ρwood − ρair ) = M brass. equating the buoyant force and the weight. The weight of the brass is the difference between the weight of the wood and the buoyant force of the air on the wood. let the density. m and v.03 × 103 kg m3 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜1 − (0. ⎜1 − 150 kg m 3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ Problema 14.80 m s )π (0. Then. The fact that the density of brass may not be known the three-figure precision does not matter.20 kg m 3 ⎞ = (0.80) 980 kg m3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ = 732 kg m 3 ⋅ Problema 14.63 Sears Zemansky To the given precision.03 × 10 (950 kg ) 3 kg m 3 )(9. and eliminating m in favor of ρ0 and v. 80 − ρ0 = ⎜ ρ + v M water ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ v⎜ ρ 1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ M⎛ ρ 1 − (0.0 kg = 1. ⎜ (0. and canceling a common factor of g . ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ 1⎛ M ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ( ) 0 . ⎞ ⎛ M ρ0v + M = ρwater ⎜ ⎟.450 m) 2 2 = 2.400 m3 3 3 ⎛ 1.80) water ⎟ = ρwater − ⎜ ⎜ v ⎝ ρ1 ⎟ ⎠ 75. the density of air is negligible compared to that of brass. and the same quantities for the person be ρ1 .80) ρ + v ⎟ 1 ⎠ ⎝ Solving for ρ 0 .

0 N. Problema 14.80×10.6 N.00)(19.70 kg 3.6). the weight in air is g ( ρAuVAu + ρA1VA1 ) = 45.0 N − 39. it displaces a weight of water equal to its weight.0 N) − (2.80 kg.00)(45. as found above.0 N. you displace an additional amount of water equal to 84% of the ball’s volume or (0.16)(7238 cm3 )(1.0 N)) (1.70 kg (see Example 14.3 m 3 = 1. Note that in the numerical determination of wAu .6 N. divided by g .80 kg = 4.0)) ρwater ( ρAu − ρA1 ) (19.5 N.7) = 33.70 kg + 3. b) The upward force on the ball in excess of its own weight was found in part (a): 59. a) The mass of the liquid displaced by the block is 4.84)(7238 cm 3 ) = 6080 cm 3 .00 g cm3 ) = 1158 g = 1.65 Sears Zemansky Neglecting the buoyancy of the air. so the mass block is 4. 24 .3 − 2.0 N) − ρA1 (6. Scale E will read the sum of the masses of the beaker and liquid. a) By pushing the ball under water.158 kg.20 kg.80 m s 2 ) = 59.50 kg − 1. must be 7. These are two equations in the two unknowns VAu and VA1.080 kg)(9.24 × 10 3 kg m 3 .0 N) − ρAu (6.66 Sears Zemansky The ball’s volume is V= 4 3 4 πr = π (12. This much water has a mass of 6080 g = 6. Multiplying the second by ρ A1 and the first by ρ water and subtracting to eliminate the VA1 term gives ρwaterVAu g ( ρAu − ρA1 ) = ρwater (45. which is how hard you’ll have to push to submerge the ball.The buoyant force on the mass A. The ball’s mass is equal to the mass of water displaced when the ball is floating: (0.70 kg.7)(6.080 kg and weighs (6.20 kg. Problema 14.0 N = 6. b) Scale D will read the mass of the block. so the density of the liquid is 4.0 cm)3 = 7238 cm 3 3 3 As it floats. 8. and the buoyant force when suspended in water is ρwater (VAu + VA1 ) g = 45.00 kg − 1.3) = ((1. 2.50 kg = 8. specific gravities were used instead of densities.0 N) ρAu wAu = ρAu gVAu = ( ρwater (45.

wwater w and wfluid w gives ρsteel w ρ w = .wfluid ρfluid w . c) Approximating the average density by that of lead for a “thin” gold Problema 14. f = 1 − ρ crown . and the specific gravity of the crown is very large.158 kg Problema 14.6 N = = 51. the specific gravity of the crown tends to 1.67. fw = fρcrown gV = ( ρcrown − ρwater ) gV . respectively.2 N.3))(12. as reflected in the above expression.wfluid = . and when suspended the apparent weight is the difference between the weight and the buoyant force.8 N. which means that the buoyant force is negligble compared to the weight. which means the crown tends to float. indicating the the fluid is denser than water. the term on the right in the above expression is less than one.3))(12. the apparent weight would be (1 − (1 11. the apparent weight approaches zero. ρfluid w .9 N ) = 12. and this is consistent with the buoyant force when suspended in liquid being less than that when suspended in water. the term on the right in the above expression is greater than one. the apparent weight is the same as the weight. as expected. c) Writing the result of part (a) as 25 . b) Solving the above equations for f in ρ water terms of the specific gravity.68 Sears Zemansky a) See problem 14. steel = . ρwater w .9 N ) = 11. Similarly.67 Sears Zemansky a) The weight of the crown of its volume V is w = ρcrown gV . indicating that the fluids is less dense than water. Dividing by the common factors leads to − ρwater + ρcrown = fρcrown or 1 ρcrown = . Replacing f with. if wfluid is less than wwater . from the above result. ρwater 1 − f As f → 0.and its acceleration upon release is thus a= Fnet 59. If the density of the fluid is the same as that of water wfluid = wwater . and so the weight of the crown would be plate.5 m s 2 m 1. (1 − (1 19. As f → 1.wwater b) When wfluid is greater than wwater.wwater and dividing the second of these by the first gives ρfluid w .

220)(0.025 m)(1000 kg m 3 ))(9.00 = 0. h and L are related by d + h + (0. and A is the area 26 . As a check. the gauge pressure. ρwater 1 − f water and solving for f fluid . and so rises. the cavities are 12.65) L − (0. Problema 14. found from the depths and densities of the fluids. b) The gauge pressure at the lower face must be sufficient to support the block (the oil exerts only sideways forces directly on the block). Problema 14.040 m. let the original depth of the barge in the water be h0 = (mb + ma ) ( ρ water A).80 m s 2 )(0. is ((0.69 Sears Zemansky a) Let the total volume be V.35) L = L.844 = 84. where mb and ma are the masses of the barge and the anchor. f fluid = 1 − ρfluid (1 − f water ) = 1 − (1.040 m)(750 kg m 3 ) + (0. To find the amount the barge rises.4% of the total volume.128) = 0. and p = ρ wood gL = (550 kg m 3 )(9.d . h the depth that the cube is submerged in the water.71 Sears Zemansky The ship will rise.ρfluid 1 − f fluid = .100 m) = 539 Pa. setting the buoyant force equal to the weight. the buoyant force in terms of the weight is ⎞ ⎛ (w g ) ⎟ B = ρwater gV = ρwater g ⎜ + V 0 ⎟. ρwater Problema 14. so h = (0. the total mass of water displaced by the barge-anchor combination must be the same.52 × 10−4 m 3 . neglecting the density of the air. and when the anchor is dropped overboard. Then.65)(1000) − (550) (1000) − (750) d. ⎜ ρ ⎠ ⎝ m or V0 = B ρwater g b) − w ⋅ ρw g B ρ water g − w ρ Cu g = 2. it displaces some water and so the barge itself displaces less water. and L be the length of a side of the cube. Substitution into the first relation gives d = L = 2L 5.80 m s 2 ) = 539 Pa.70 Sears Zemansky a) Let d be the depth of the oil layer.4%. (1000) h + (750) d = (550) L. canceling the common factors of g and the cross-section area and supressing units. Since the total volume of the casting is B ρ water g .

b) The fraction that floats (see Problem 14. When the anchor is dropped. or about 0.120 m 3 )(9. which is less than the density of seawater. m3 Problema 14.0 Problema 14.150 = 15. which is solved for Δh = h0 − h′ = ρ steel A ma = (7860 kg (35.8 (0. symbolically.72 Sears Zemansky m a) The average density of a filled barrel is ρ oil + V = 750 kg m 3 + 15.80 sm )(0. ΔV is the volume of water that has the same weight as the metal.73 Sears Zemansky a) See Exercise 14.23. where A is the surface A 27 .of the bottom of the barge. so the barrel floats.00 m ) 2 = 5.120 m 3 = 875 kg m 3 .120 m 3 )(9.6 −1. .046 m. Problema 14.56 mm.80 sm 2 ) − (1030 2 ) = 173 N is required. Then ρLgx + ρwgy = ρ B gL and x + y = L.0 kg ) m 3 )(8. a tension T = (1177 kg m3 kg )(0.0 kg 0.6 − 7. ρ water 1030 kg m 3 c) The average density is 910 m3 + kg 32. In order to lift it.120 m 3 kg = 1172 m 3 which means the barrel sinks. c) y = 13 13.74 Sears Zemansky a) The change is height Δy is related to the displaced volume ΔV by Δy = area of the water in the lock. h′ρ water Ag = h0 ρ water Ag − (ma ρ steel )ρ water g . Therefore x = L − y and y = ( ρL − ρB ) L ρ L − ρω .23) is 1− ρ ave 875 kg m 3 = 1− = 0.0%.57 × 10 −4 m.0 kg 0. so ΔV . the fraction of the volume that remains unsubmerged is 1 − ρB ρL . the buoyant force on the barge is less than what it was by an amount equal to the buoyant force on the anchor.10 m) = 0. b) Let the depth of the liquid be x and the depth of the water be y.

even if it varies. and Δy − Δy′ = 8 Δy = 0. Newton’s second law gives dpA = pAdla from which the area A cancels out. ΔV is the volume of the metal. the change in pressure with respect to radius supplies the force necessary to keep a fluid element accelerating toward the axis. the pressure difference between the sides of this piece is dp = ρ (ω 2 r )dr (see Problem 14.0 m)(20. 9 Problema 14.50 × 106 N) = 0. which gives Δy′ = Δy 9 . the fluid is accelerating.213 m. the center of mass has a radial acceleration of magnitude a rad = ω 2 l 2.0 m)) b) In this case. This is related to the height of the columns through Δp = pgΔy from which p cancels out. For the rotating fluid. This fluid.Δy = w ΔV w ρwater g = = A A ρwater gA = (2. As in part (a). an equivalent way to do part (b) is to break the fluid in the horizontal part of the tube into elements of thickness dr.00 ρ water . which is the difference between the gauge pressures at the bottoms of the ends of the tubes.77. with mass ρAl . Problema 14. the water sinks by this amount.00x103 kg m3 )(9. and so the difference in heights between the columns is (ω 2 l 2)(l g ) = ω 2 l 2 2 g . or ( yL − yR ) = a l. Anticipating Problem.189 m. (1. ρ water is replaced by ρ metal = 9.75 Sears Zemansky a) Consider the fluid in the horizontal part of the tube. and the net force on the horizontal part of the fluid is ρ g ( y L − y R ) A = ρ Ala . is subject to a net force due to the pressure difference between the ends of the tube.80 m s 2 )((60. giving the same result. 14. in the above expression. This difference is ρg ( yL − yR ). and integrating from r = 0 to r = l gives Δp = ρω 2 l 2 2. g b) Again consider the fluid in the horizontal part of the tube. 28 .76 Sears Zemansky a) The change in pressure with respect to the vertical distance supplies the force necessary to keep a fluid element in vertical equilibrium (opposing the weight). Integrating the above result from 0 to l gives Δp = pal between the ends.78). Therefore the cross-sectional area does not affect the result. c) At any point.

If ρRcm < ρob Rcmob . . p2 = pa . y = 0) as found in part (b). (14. ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ which is the desired result. and the mass of the fluid element is ρAdr ′. From Newton’s second law. d) If ρR cm > ρob Rcmob . y = 0) = pa + r 2 c) In Eq. dp = ∂p ∂p dr = ρa dr .3 (and Problem 14.specifically. and objects with higher densities will tend to move away from the center. Using the result of part (b) gives h(r ) = ω 2 r 2 2 g .77 Sears Zemansky a) The net inward force is ( p + dp )A − pA = Adp. r = 0 be p a (atmospheric pressure). the height of the liquid above the y = 0 plane.5). with the inward radial acceleration of the above expression. ω 2 r ' .) a) The mass of air in the volume element is ρdV = ρAdx .78). e) Objects with lower densities will tend to move toward the center. the net force is insufficient to keep the object in the circular motion at that radius. Such a fluid element 2 is accelerating inward with an acceleration of magnitude ω Rcm. and using a = ω 2 r gives ∂p ∂p = ρω2 r. b) Let the pressure at ∂p ∂p y = 0. c) Using the same reasoning as in Section 14. integrating the expression for from part (a) gives ρω 2 2. p(r . Problema 14. and with p = p0 at x = 0. b) With ρ given to be constant. from which dp = ρadx. c) Using 29 . the inward force is greater than that needed to keep the object moving in a circle with radius Rcmob at angular frequency ω . p1 = p (r . and the object moves outward. Adp = ( ρA dx ) a. gives dp = ρω2 r ′dr ′. b) Integrating ∫ p p0 dp = ∫ ρω2 r ′dr ′ r0 r ⎛ ρω2 ⎞ 2 2 p − p0 = ⎜ ⎟(r − r 0 ).78 Sears Zemansky (Note that increasing x corresponds to moving toward the back of the car. Problema 14. and so the force on the object is ρVω 2 Rcm . p = p0 + ρax. y1 = 0 and y 2 = h(r ). Using Newton’s second law. and the object moves inward. the net force on the object must be the same as that on a fluid element of the same shape. and the net force on the element in the forward direction is ( p + dp )A − pA = Adp.

02 N ⋅ m. Note that the buoyant force and the block’s weight form a couple. or ρVa . and so h′ = H − h gives the same range. For a helium balloon. A 2 gh = dV . and the torque is the same about any axis.2 kg/m3 in the result of part (b) gives (1. and is equal to the product of the block’s weight and the horizontal displacement of the center of gravity from the geometric center. . f) For a balloon filled with air. the speed of efflux is 2 gh.2 kg m 3 )(5. The acceleration relative to the car is the difference between this Problema 14. dt 30 . 2 2 or 7. the water is in free fall.075 m) 2. and the fact that the center of gravity is not at the geometric center does not affect the buoyant force.8.ρ = 1.075 m (9. e) The acceleration of the balloon is the force found in part (d) divided acceleration and the car’s acceleration. A hole H − h below the water surface is a distance h above the bottom of the tank.81 Sears Zemansky The water will rise until the rate at which the water flows out of the hole is the rate at which water is added. Problema 14. the balloon moves to the back of the car.0 Pa ~ 15 × 10 -5 patm . ( ρ ρbal ) < 1 (air balloons tend to sink in still air). so the net torque is (0. and 2( H − h) g the time it takes any portion of the water to reach the ground is t = travels a horizontal distance R = vt = 2 h( H − h). so the fractional pressure difference is negligble. this force is the product of the mass ρV and the acceleration. Problema 14.79 Sears Zemansky If the block were uniform. the quantity in square brackets is positive. in which time the water b) Note that if h′ = H − h.0 N ⋅ m to two figures. and the balloon moves to the front of the car. or ( ρ ρbal )a. d) Following the argument in Section 14-4.80 Sears Zemansky a) As in Example 14. the force on the balloon must be the same as the force on the same volume of air.0 m s 2 ) (2.80 m s 2 ) = 7. This means that the torque about the geometric center is due to the offset of the center of gravity. The block’s mass is half of its volume times the density of water. (0.5 m ) = 15. h′( H − h′ ) = ( H − h) h.30 m)3 (1000 kg m 3 ) 0. by the mass ρbalV . the buoyant force would be along a line directed through its geometric center. arel = [( ρ ρbal ) − 1]a. After leaving the tank. and so the quantity in square brackets in the result of part (e) is negative.

is Δp = (1 2) ρ(vtop − vbottom ).8 × 10 Pa.6 km h ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ v2 c) 2 g = 160 m to two figures.2 kg m 3 ) ((200 km h ) 2 − (17 km h) 2 )⎜ ⎟ = 1. Problema 14. The pressure difference is comparable to that due to an altitude change of about 200 m. the product of the radius and speed is constant.50 × 10 m ⎠ 2(9. Problema 14. Problema 14. b) The pressure is lower at the eye.200 m s . Subsititution of numerical values gives p2 = 6.97 × 10 4 Pa. the gauge pressure at point 2 is 2 ⎛ A3 ⎞ ⎞ 1 1 2⎛ 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ = 8 ρg ( y − y ). so the speed at the rim is about ( 200 km h) ⎜ amount ⎛ 30 ⎞ ⎟ = 17 km h.00 m) (0. ⎜ 3. ⎟ p2 = ρ (v 3 − v2 ) = ρv3 1 − ⎜ 1 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ A2 ⎠ ⎟ 9 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ using the expression for υ3 found above. so ignoring the thickness of the wing is valid. 31 .20 kg m3 ) = 133 m s .84 Sears Zemansky a) Using the constancy of angular momentum.80 m s ) 2 2 Note that the result is independent of the diameter of the bucket. neglecting the thickness of the wing. and solving for the speed on the top of the wing gives vtop = (120 m s) 2 + 2(2000 Pa) (1. d) The pressure at higher altitudes is even lower. by an ⎝ 350 ⎠ 2 ⎛ 1m s ⎞ 1 3 Δp = (1.82 Sears Zemansky 2 2 3 14.which is solved for −4 3 1 ⎛ dV dt ⎞ 1 ⎛ 2.1 cm.83 Sears Zemansky 2 2 The pressure difference.0160 m ) = 0.40 × 10 m s ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = h=⎜ = 13. ⎟ − 4 2 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ A ⎠ 2 g ⎝ 1.82: a) v3 A3 = 2 g ( y1 − y3 ) A3 = 2(9.80 m s )(8. b) Since p3 is atmospheric.

The gauge pressure at C is then ρgh1 − 4 ρgh1 = −3 ρgh1. 2g 2(9.86 Sears Zemansky a) v = dV dt A . and this is the gauge pressure at E. the radius r of the stream a distance y below the pipe is r= r0 v0 2 (v 0 + 2 gy )1 4 ⎛ 2 gy ⎞ ⎟ = r0 ⎜ ⎜1 + v 2 ⎟ 0 ⎠ ⎝ −1 4 .80 m s 2 ) = 12.00 × 10−3 m3 s = 6 . or 1. Problema 14. and the cross-section area of the flow is inversely proportional to this speed.50 m s . 2 14 b) From the result of part (a).688×10 4 Pa) (13. the height is found from (1 + 2 gy v 0 ) = 2.Problema 14. Δp ρH g g = (1. and if the radius of the pipe is r0 .88 Sears Zemansky a) The volume V of the rock is 32 .0 × 10− 4 m 2 40.69 × 10 4 Pa to three figures.10 m. The height of the fluid in the column is 3h1 .0 × 10− 4 m 2 b) Δp = c) Δh = 1 2 2 ρ (v12 − v 2 ) = 1. 2 gh1 .6×10 3 kg m 3 )( 9.00 × 10−3 m3 s 6. 10.87 Sears Zemansky a) The speed of the liquid as a function of the distance y that it has fallen is v = 2 v0 + 2 gy .688 × 10 4 Pa. so the speeds are 6. and so is Problema 14. 00 m s and = 1. The radius is then inversely proportional to the square root of the speed.7 cm.85 Sears Zemansky The speed of efflux at point D is 8 gh1 at C.80 m s 2 ) Problema 14.2 m s) 2 = = 1. or y= 2 15v0 15(1.

50 c) For a = −2. but has a horizontal component that is opposite that of the other side.50 m s 2 . buoyant forces. the tension is T = mg ′ − B′ = ( m − ρV ) g ′ = T0 − 2. The horizontal component of the net buoyant force is zero. with the positive direction taken upward.46.80 m s 2 ) − 21.80 m s ) In the accelerated frames. The average pressure is p0 + ρg (h0 − (l (2 2 ))). Denote the length of the piece of foam by L and the length of the two sides by l. for a = 2.20 m) 2 (0.50 m s 2 .00 × 10 kg m )(9.0° from the vertical.0 N) 9. As the tank drains.57 × 10− 4 m 3 . 2 Problema 14. Although these problems found forces on vertical surfaces. and the vertical component is B = ( p 0 + ρgh0 ) Ll 2 − 2(cos 45. the result that the force is the product of the average pressure and the area is valid. and the force on one side has magnitude ( ) ( p0 + ρg (h0 − l (2 2 ))) Ll and is directed perpendicular to the side. 3 3 2 ρ water g (1. the force can be found by integrating. 9.44 or Problem 14. Thus.V= B ρ water g = w − T ((3.0 N) = = 8. The pressure on each side is not constant.00 kg)(9.90 Sears Zemansky When the level of the water is a height y above the opening. 9.80 = 26.6 N. + 2. where T0 = 21.50 m)(9. T = (21. and = π (d 2) 2 2 gy . Ll 2 . The pressure force on the bottom of the foam is then ( p0 + ρgh0 ) L 2l and is directed up. The force on the other side has the same magnitude. let this depth be h0 . g′ g .0 N) 9.80 m s 2 )(1000 kg m 3 − 180 kg m 3 ) = 80.4 N. all of the quantities that depend on g (weights. so T = Vg ( ρ water − ρ foam ) = (1 2)(0. the efflux speed is dV dt 2 gy . the height decreases. b) The depth of the bottom of the styrofoam is not given. T = (21. g ′ = 0 and T = 0.4 N. or using the result of Problem 14.50 b) g ′ = g + a.89 Sears Zemansky a) The tension in the cord plus the weight must be equal to the buoyant force. and 33 .80 = 15.0°)( p 0 + ρg (h0 − l (2 2 ))) Ll = ρg the weight of the water displaced.80 Problema 14. at an angle of 45.0 N.80 d) If a = − g . gauge pressures and hence tensions) may be replaced by g ′ = g + a.

The hose is open to the atmosphere at the bottom. This is a separable differential equation. b) Water will not flow if the absolute (not gauge) pressure would be negative. 34 . but the levels need not be the same. The use of a hose as a level assumes that pressure is the same at all point that are at the same level. the pressure at the surfaces of the water will be the same. g Problema 14. Problema 14.92 Sears Zemansky Any bubbles will cause inaccuracies. Setting p = 0 and solving for H gives H = ( pa ρg ) − h.π (d 2) 2 2 gy dV dt dy ⎛d⎞ =− =− = −⎜ ⎟ 2 dt A π ( D 2) ⎝D⎠ dy ⎛d⎞ = −⎜ ⎟ y ⎝ D⎠ 2 2 2 gy .91 Sears Zemansky a) The fact that the water first moves upwards before leaving the siphon does not change the efflux 2 gh . an assumption that is invalidated by the bubble. 2 which integrates to [2 y ] or 0 H ⎛d⎞ = −⎜ ⎟ ⎝ D⎠ 2 2 gT . so the pressure at the top of the siphon is pa − ρg ( H + h). and the time T to drain the tank is found from 2 g dt . 2 ⎛D⎞ 2 H ⎛D⎞ =⎜ ⎟ T =⎜ ⎟ 2g ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝d⎠ 2H . At the bubble. the assumption that the cross-section area is constant has been used to equate the speed of the liquid at the top and bottom. where speed.