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Number of the Beast

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For other uses, see Number of the Beast (disambiguation).

The number of the beast is 666 byWilliam Blake.

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The Number of the Beast is a concept from the Book of Revelation of the New Testament of the Christian Bible, relating to the figure of "The Beast". The number is 666 in most manuscripts of the New Testament and in modern translations while critical editions of the Greek text (such as the Novum Testamentum Graece) also note 616 as a variant.

save he that had the mark. or the number of his name. both 1 Kings 10:14 and 2 Chronicles 9:13 state that Solomon collected "six hundred threescore and six" talents of gold each year.1 666 1.4 Other suggested names 3 Mark of the Beast o o 3. wisdom and insight are explained and . The original Greek reads: 17 καὶ ἵνα μή ηιρ δύνηηαι ἀγοπάζαι ἢ πυλῆζαι εἰ μὴ ὁ ἔσυν ηὸ σάπαγμα.1 Kabbalah 3. Here is wisdom. ηὸ ὄνομα ηοῦ θηπίος ἢ ηὸν ἀπιθμὸν ηοῦ ὀνόμαηορ αὐηοῦ. discernment.3 Muhammad 2. meaning "six hundred sixty-six". where understanding.Contents [hide]  1 Bible o o  1.[3] John's reference to "wisdom" and "understanding" might also point toward Proverbs 1 and 2. and his number is Six hundred threescore and six. 18 ὧδε ἡ ζοθία ἐζηίν· ὁ ἔσυν νοῦν τηθιζάηυ ηὸν ἀπιθμὸν ηοῦ θηπίος.1 Nero 2. The King James Version of the Bible translates:[2] And that no man might buy or sell. ἀπιθμὸρ γὰπ ἀνθπώπος ἐζηίν· καὶ ὁ ἀπιθμὸρ αὐηοῦ ἑξακόζιοι ἑξήκονηα ἕξ.1 Mark of commerce 3.2 616 2 Interpretations o o o o  2.2.2 Other views  o   3.3 Other interpretations 4 See also 5 Notes [edit]Bible [edit]666 The Number of the Beast is described in the Book of Revelation 13:17–18.[1] The number is the final 3 words (transliterated: hexakósioi hexēkonta héx).2 Papacy 2. or the name of the beast. In the Old Testament. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man.

along with the translation of P115. has led some scholars to conclude that 616 is the original number of the beast. there is still doubt by a minority of theologians about the original reading.[4] or sometimes literally as ἑξακόζιοι ἑξήκονηα ἕξ. – Rev. for it is the number of a man: His number is 666. every letter has a corresponding number. the other early witness Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus (C) has it written in full: ἑξακόζιοι δέκα ἕξ. Possible translations include not only "to count".advised by King Solomon. In the Greek manuscripts. [edit]Nero . "six hundred and sixtysix". [edit]Interpretations In Greek and Hebrew gematria. Summing these numbers gives a numeric value to a word or name. the existence of manuscripts attesting to 616 has been known long before this finding. However. "to reckon" but also "to vote" or "to decide".[3][5] There are several interpretations-translations for the meaning of the phrase "Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast" where the peculiar Greek word τηθιζάηυ (psefisato) is used. hexakósioi hexēkonta héx. 13:18 (NKJV) The use of gematria to calculate "the number of the beast" is used in many of the below interpretations. the number is rendered in Greek numerical form as σξϛʹ.[7][8] [edit]616 In May 2005.[10] This.[11] The NRSV translation for Rev 13:18 includes this translation note: "Other ancient authorities read six hundred and sixteen". "six hundred sixteen"). hexakosiai deka hex (lit.[6] Although Irenaeus (2nd century AD) affirmed the number to be 666 and reported several scribal errors of the number. Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast. it was reported that scholars at Oxford University using advanced imaging techniques had been able to read previously illegible portions of a manuscript which stated 616 instead of the majority of texts which state 666[9].

probably in A. whose names have not been written in the Book of Life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.Bust of Nero at Musei Capitolini. transliterates into Aramaic as "‫ "נרון קסר‬or nrwn qsr.D.[22] Additional Protestant scholars are in agreement.[12][13][14][15][16][13][15][17][18][19] Charagma is well attested to have been an imperial seal of the Roman Empire used on official documents during the 1st and 2nd centuries. The Aramaic spelling is attested in a scroll from Murabba'at dated to "the second year of emperor Nero. "Nerōn Kaisar"." [28] Adding the corresponding values yields 666.[20] In the reign of Emperor Decius (249– 251 AD). as shown: Resh (‫ )ר‬Samech (‫ )ס‬Qof (‫ )ק‬Noon (‫ )נ‬Vav (‫ )ו‬Resh (‫ )ר‬Noon (‫ )נ‬TOTAL 200 60 100 50 6 200 50 666 [edit]Papacy Main articles: Vicarius Filii Dei and Antichrist (historicism) . critics have noted that the interpretation of Nero meeting the fulfillment is an impossibility as Revelation was written around 30 years after the death of Nero. 95 or 96". a prohibition that conceivably goes back to Nero. those who did not possess the certificate of sacrifice (libellus) to Caesar could not pursue trades. "All who dwell on the earth will worship him. reminding one of Revelation 13:17.[21] However.[23] [24] Because Revelation 13 speaks of a future prophetic event. [25] [26] [27] The Greek spelling. others believe the Book of Revelation was written after Nero committed suicide in AD 68. The Catholic Encyclopedia has noted that the book of Revelation was "written during the latter part of the reign of the Roman Emperor Domitian." (Revelation 13:8 NKJV). Rome Some scholars contend that the number 666 is a code for the Roman Emperor Nero.

" the numerical value of which title is just six hundred and sixty-six The most plausible supposition we have ever seen on this point is that here we find the number in question. The earliest extant record of a Protestant writer on this subject is Andreas Helwig in 1612 in his work Antichristus Romanus. .[29] To this end. the papacy.[37][38] We noted that contrary to some Catholic sources who deny the use of Vicarius Filii Dei as a papal title.[34] Uriah Smith maintained his interpretation in the various editions of Thoughts on Daniel and the Revelation. which was influential in the church. N. 666.Some Protestant Bible commentators and some Protestant Reformers have equated the "beast" of Revelation chapter 13 with the Papacy. November 20. Samuele Bacchiocchi a Bible scholar. we have found this title to have been used in official Catholic documents to support the ecclesiastical authority and temporal sovereignty of the pope. Andrews also adopted this view. In The United States in the Light of Prophecy he wrote The pope wears upon his pontifical crown in jeweled letters. it is the number of a man. Vicarius Filii Dei (Vicar of The Son of God). Uriah Smith was the first to propose the interpretation to the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Thus the charge that Adventists fabricated the title to support their prophetic interpretation of 666. the letters of a title of the Pope. this title: "Vicarius Filii Dei.[32] See Review and Herald 28:196.[36] has documented the pope using such a title. it is the number of his name. are summed to total 666 in Roman numerals. The title was contained in the Donation of Constantine. 1866.[32] Various documents from the Vatican contain wording such as "Adorandi Dei Filii Vicarius. V I C A R I V S F I L I I D E I TOTAL 5 1 100 0 0 1 5 0 0 1 50 1 1 500 0 1 666 In 1866. for he adopts it as his distinctive title. as corresponding to the title Vicarius Filii Dei of the Pope. for he who bears it is the "man of sin. is unfair and untrue.[31] Seventh Day Adventists have interpreted the number of the beast." "Viceregent of the Son of God. The number 666 is calculated by using gematria."[33] Prominent Adventist scholar J.[30] by which large privileges and rich possessions were conferred on the pope and the Roman Church. to whom the eternal divine will has given the highest rank of the holy Church". et Procurator quibus numen aeternum summam Ecclesiae sanctae dedit" [35] Which as translated is "As the worshipful Son of God's Vicar and Caretaker. It is the number of the beast. and only Adventist to be awarded a gold medal by Pope Paul VI for the distinction of summa cum laude (Latin for "with highest praise").

[1] [edit]Other suggested names  Andrew of Caesarea in his Commentary on Revelation gives seven names: Lampetis (the lustrous one). Antichristus (Antichrist).[42] [edit]Mark [edit]Mark of the Beast of commerce . after Genseric became notorious through the sack of Carthage or of Rome. the passage as a whole can not go back to Victorinus. Benediktos (blue bastard). however surprising that the commentary should be brought up to date. Kakos Odegos(bad guide). and Acxyme (for aichime or achine=666). Teitan. It is not. and Amnos Adikos (unjust lamb) each of which gives a total of 666. a Spanish monk.[40][41] Other proponents include Charles Montagu. In Quia Maior. the last he calls Gothic. A leading exponent of the Maometis interpretation was Charles Walmesley. Alethes Blaberos (really harmful). It is said to be the Latin counterpart of Teitan and by reckoning each letter at its value in Roman numerals. The numerical interpretation of Antichristus is based on the order of letters in the Latin alphabet. [42]  Beatus. Diclux (double-dealer) and Genserikos.[42]  Victorinus of Pettau gives the names Teitan. gives eight names among which are Damnatus (Damned). the encyclical calling for the Fifth Crusade. Pope Innocent III identifies Muhammad with the beast of Revelation[citation needed]. He observed that the name Muhammad was spelled Maometis or Moametis by Euthymius Zygabenus and the Greek historians Zonaras and Cedrenus.[40] Maometis in Greek gematria totals 666: M A O M E T I S TOTAL 40 1 70 40 5 300 10 200 666 Muhammad is however spelled Moamet in Greek. Palaibaskanos (an ancient sorcerer). As it is plainly Genseric. the Vandal king. the Roman Catholic bishop of Rama. who captured Romein 455 AD. Most of these names are repeated by Arethas of Caesarea. who belonged to the 3rd century. who in his Commentary adds Teitan from Irenaeus and O Niketes (the winner). Of the other names in Victorinus only Diclux needs mention. Antemos (opponent). a = 1 to x = 300. Francois Feuardent. the total of 666 is again given. Gilbert Genebrard. but the accusative must be taken and spelled Antechristum. [39] [edit]Muhammad Further information: Medieval Christian view of Muhammad Some researchers have reportedly found the number of the Beast in the Greek word Maometis.– ' Samuele Bacchiocchi. and Rene Massuet.

[51] [edit]Other interpretations ."[49] A similar view is offered by Craig R.'"[46] "The Sunday Sabbath is purely a child of the Papacy. implanted RFID tags).g. to overcome the extant difficulties the Antichrist will use forced religious syncretism[44] (i.g. people used coins that bore the images of Rome's gods and emperors. Down). According to the Futurist view." [50] The verse is also seen as making a pointed ironical contrast with the Jewish institution of tefillin – bible texts worn bound to the arm and the forehead during daily prayer. Some interpret the mark as a requirement for all commerce to mean that the mark might actually be an object with the function of a credit card (e.e. Up.[43] Religious difficulties with a supranational currency currently exist (see World currency – Political difficulties). Thus each transaction that used such coins was a reminder that people were advancing themselves economically by relying on political powers that did not recognize the true God. West.. will receive the 'mark of the beast. by including the sun's rays in the ruler's portrait). It had become increasingly difficult for Christians to function in a world in which public life. who's very coinage bore the emperor's image and conveyed his claims to divinity (e. Koester. without which no one could buy or sell.[45] [edit]Other views Seventh-day Adventists believe that the "mark of the beast" (but not the number 666) refers to a future. East. universal.Those who hold to Futurist Christian eschatology believe that the rise of a supranational currency could be a hallmark of the End Times. [48] [edit]Kabbalah In Kabbalistic Judaism the number 666 represents the creation and perfection of the world. Hill says. in the name of counterterrorism and world economic stability) to enable the creation of the supranational currency. South. "It is far more probable that the mark symbolizes the all-embracing economic power of Rome.[48] New Testament scholar Craig C. "As sales were made. and there are 6 cardinal directions (North. 6 is also the numerical value of one of the letters of God's name. "Those who reject God's memorial of creatorship — the Bible Sabbath — choosing to worship and honor Sunday in the full knowledge that it is not God's appointed day of worship. including the economic life of the trade guilds."[47] Some who take a preterist view of the Book of Revelation identify the Mark of the Beast with the stamped image of the emperor's head on every coin of the Roman Empire: the stamp on the hand or in the mind of all. The world was created in 6 days. legally enforced Sunday-worship. Instead of binding their allegiance to God to their arm and head. required participation in idolatry. the place is instead taken with people's allegiance to The Beast. It is the mark of the beast.

^ The Revelation of St. Retrieved 2009-08-03. Retrieved 2006-06-22. Stephanus New Testament. who opposed the Imamate. hence 6 is the number of imperfection. according to the beliefs of the Shi'ites. The Beast is said to have "a human number" in that the governments that the beast symbolizes are all of a human origin. `Abdu'l-Bahá states that the numerical value given to the beast referred to the year[55] when the Umayyad ruler Muawiyah I. Bible Gateway. Bible Gateway. 2. Retrieved 2009-03-01.Jehovah's Witnesses believe that The Beast for which 666 stands symbolizes many unified governments. Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts.Thomas Whittaker page 226 ^ Anderson. Retrieved 2006-06-22." thus imperfection (7 is used by God in many ways to indicate perfection such as days in the week. Archived from the original on 23 March 2006. and thus bore a social "mark".[53] Greek for "The Great Beast". the number 666 "itself all point to one unmistakable conclusion—gross shortcoming and failure in the eyes of Jehovah. Bible Gateway. ^ "Revelation 13:18" (JPEG). John the Divine self-interpreted . 6. 3. ^ a b "biblegateway666". 5. "Revelation! 666 is not the number of the beast (it's a devilish 616)". Tom (2005-05-01). ^ "Revelation 13:18". which adds up to 666 by isopsephy. Codex Alexandrinus. Furthermore. they aren't made up of spirit or demon entities.[56] [edit]See also Christianity portal  Hexakosioihexekontahexaphobia  Leviathan number [edit]Notes 1. . 7. the Greek form of gematria. King James Version of the Bible. 4. took office as Caliph in 661 AD – see also the scholarly accepted year of birth of Jesus about 666 years before as well as the concept of Mawali who were non-Arab Muslims but not treated as other Muslims – who continued to pay the tax required of nonbelievers and were excluded from government and the military.[16][54] In the writings of the Bahá'í Faith.[52] Aleister Crowley (1875–1947) claimed that he was The Beast prophesied in the Book of Revelation and took the name "Το μεγα θηπιον" (To Mega Therion). falling short of 7). The Independent (London). Retrieved 2006-06-22. ^ Revelation in the Greek New Testament at Internet Sacred Text Archive ^ "Revelation 13:17–18". harmonizing with the symbolic depiction of past governments (denoted as "kings") in the Book of Daniel as wild beasts.

Paul Lewes. doi:10. which add to 666.nationalgeographic.The New Jerome Biblical Commentary.3). Note: website requires subscription. using the Hebrew numerology ofgematria). The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts . 17. a manner of speaking against the emperor without the Roman authorities knowing. ^ a b The Book of Revelation. 11.com. Ed. the sum of the first 36 numbers (1+2+3+4+5+6. Brown. Retrieved 2006-08-07. Doomsday Delusions. Books. Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers Incorporated. Boyer 13. Fitzmyer. Felix (2002-02-02). April 1913).8. v. 1990. p. 2001) 12. Retrieved 2006-06-06. 1699. can be valued at 666. Benedictine. Retrieved 2010-0811. News..uk/Tyndale/staff/Head/NTOxyPap. the [Greek] number of Jesus (Deissmann). ^ a b Just. 1 – 16http://www. Paris).R. ^ a b Catholic Youth Bible. ^ (whose name. which when used as numbersrepresent 50 200 6 50 100 60 200. SE. Alan John Philip Garrow 15.+36 = 666)". D. 1932. Englewood Cliffs. Paul S. Joseph A.Dr. p. but did not adopt it (Haer. 41 –42 .. ^ There is debate in regards to this. ISBN 9780884897989. "Revelation 13:18 and a Scroll from Murabba'at". ^ Martin Pate and Calvin B. Souter in the Journal of Theology. ed. C (Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus. Also "Nero Caesar" in the Hebrew alphabet is ‫ נרון קסר‬NRWN QSR. ^ "Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology Mark of the Beast". It is probably original.tyndale. The Greek term σάπαγμα ( charagma. one wrote "The figure 616 is given in one of the two best manuscripts. Tyndale Bulletin 51 (2000). Dom G Morin in the Rev. vol. ^ Fearful hope.google.30.cam. Catherine A. 1907). ^ Revelation. 10. Irenaeus knew about it [the 616 reading]. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 170: 65. Murphy.com.ac. by the Latin version of Tyconius (DCXVI. Head. 2. 20.htm#_ftn39 19. 364. Hoskier. 16. ed. ^ Hillers.Jerome adopted it (De Monogramm. 140) 9. (1963). London. Retrieved 2010-08-11.com. 1009 18. and Roland E. ^ Some Recently Published NT Papyri from Oxyrhynchus: An Overview and Preliminary Assessment by Peter M. 2005-08.. (Wheaton.. ^ Herman C. The number 666 has been substituted for 616 either by analogy with 888. Biblestudytools. Conybaere. A Key to Christian Origins (Watts & Co. ^ Philip W Comfort and David P Barrett. Retrieved 2010- 08-11. Cory 14.2307/1355990. Concerning the Text of the Apocalypse. 1903). or because it is a triangular number. and by an ancient Armenian version (ed. Raymond E. "mark" in Revelation 13:16) was most commonly used for imprints on documents or coins. NJ: Prentice-Hall. "666: The Number of the Beast". pp. ^ "Papyrus Reveals New Clues to Ancient World". 21. written in Aramaic. Haynes.

to a Diocese: Acta Apostolicae Sedis. 6-12. p. ^ books. Retrieved 2010-0901. ^ Halley..109.adventistarchives. ^ Uriah Smith. 29. Halley's Bible Handbook." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. ^ Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Encyclopedia. ^ The general history of the Christian .22. ^ http://www. New York: Robert Appleton Company.com The New York Times guide to essential knowledge].Google Books. The United States in the Light of Prophecy. By The New York Times p. ^ Samuele Bacchiocchi. Michigan: Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association (1884).H.ISBN 9783161444975.states "The book of Revelation was written by the Apostle John about AD 95" 27. ISBN 8820960680. ^ Understanding the book of revelation by dr.google. 170 (Apr. 1913. No. 41. Ridges p. 1877 reprint. pp.com/endtimeissues/et_145. p. Zondervan Publishing house. Cameroon. 9788820960681. thought. 36. . Libreria Editrice Vaticana.biblicalperspectives. 223 33. 317-319. ^ Understanding Bible Prophecy for Yourself by Tim LaHaye p. n. notes in consensus that Revelation was written around 95 AD 25. Books.ca. ^ a b The contribution of British writers . ^ http://www. 409 . 4th edition. Catholic Encyclopedia. 6. ^ books. 1820.google. p. slide 116 40. 1983.com/endtimeissues/et_146. H. 73 28.google..htm 38. ^ The Three Angels of Revelation XIV. 118.com Your Study of the New Testament Made Easier Part 2: Acts Through Revelation].ca. Retrieved 2010-07-17. 726 30. Battle Creek. Hillers "Revelation 13:18 and A Scroll from Muraba'at.. ^ 32. 861 23. Books. 26. The Latin Library..pdf#view=fit 37. ^ D.224. vol.R. LX (1968). . ^ http://www..biblicalperspectives. 31. 34. Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary.google.terri lewis . Cited from Adventist Bible Commentary 35. Commentarium Officiale. ^ "CONSTITUTUM CONSTANTINI (Donation of Constantine)". p.htm 39. and history By Daniel Berthold-Bond p.Google Books. 1963). By David J. 126 24.He along with other scholars note that Revelation was written about 95 AD. ^ Hegel's grand synthesis: a study of being. 1978. ^ Decree of Paul VI elevating the Prefecture Apostolic of Bafia.. . Retrieved 2010-0717. ^ a b "Donation of Constantine".org/docs/AAR/AAR19751027-V80-43__C.

ISBN 0-471-272426 54. 46. ^ "Student Resources. No. p. The Arab Empire of the Umayyads . 196. ^ Advent Review. 2. ^ "Six Six Six « Ask The Rabbi « Ohr Somayach". ^ Seventh-day Adventists Believe (2nd ed). InterVarsity Press. The Watchtower. The Magical Diaries of Aleister Crowley (Tunisia 1923). Aleister. Robert Todd (2003). 44. In God's Time: The Bible and the Future. Retrieved 200311-25. Retrieved 2006-06-29. pp. ^ Scheeres.com. Versebyversecommentary. Retrieved 2010-07-17. Bahá'í Library. . 2004-04-01. 45. Eerdmans. Wired News. 1850. No. ^ "Identifying the Wild Beast and Its Mark". 124 50. Sanders (1918) "The Number of the Beast in Revelation". p. ^ Research Department of the Universal House of Justice (1986-01-07). Retrieved 2010-08-11.42. 95-99 (Subscription required for JSTOR link. Hill (2002). Julia (2003). August.pearsoned. ^ Crowley. Vol. 1998-1231. Grant C. 56. Revelation and the End of All Things. Stephan (editor). The Skeptic's Dictionary (Aleister Crowley). Retrieved 2010-08-11. p. Samuel Weiser. I. 48.edu. Koester (2001).org. p. Journal of Biblical Literature. ^ Craig R. Skinner. the lamb & the dragon: A Reader's Guide to the Book of Revelation. ^ Craig C. 132 51. Vol. The throne. Wiley.com. Ohr. Eerdmans. ISBN 0-87728-856-9 55. ^ "Verse-by-Verse Commentary by Dr. 37.com. Retrieved 2010-08-11. Ministerial Association. Chapter 12: The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam. 1/2. ^ Carroll. Retrieved 2007-05-16. Bible. (1918). General Conference of Seventhday Adventists. Occawlonline.Converts and "People of the Book"". 2005. "Interpretation of Biblical Verses". ^ a b c Henry A. Richison". wired. 47.) 43. 53. ^ a b Paul Spilsbury (2002). ^ "Here Comes the Beast (Revelation 13:1–18)".99 49. "When Cash Is Only Skin Deep". 52.