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The acceleration is opposite to the displacement.

a=
Acceleration

k x m
a

k
x
Displacement Equilibrium point

m

The acceleration is opposite to the displacement.

x

a t

The acceleration is opposite to the displacement. Velocity is one quarter-cycle shifted from the displacement.

x v a

all the energy is kinetic (“in the mass”)

t

Velocity is one quarter-cycle shifted from the displacement.The acceleration is opposite to the displacement. x v a all the energy is potential (“in the spring”) t .

current acts like velocity.Masses resist changes in velocity. and there is an energy associated with current: "= dI L = dt d q L 2 dt 2 E= 2 1 LI 2 An inductor acts like a mass. and there is an energy associated with velocity: dv d x F =m =m 2 dt dt 2 E= 2 1 mv 2 Inductors resist changes in current. .

increase its x). It resists efforts to charge it (i. "= 1 C q E= 1 2 1 C q 2 A spring stores energy when it is deformed. increase its q). F = kx E= 2 1 kx 2 A capacitor acts like a spring.e. charge acts like position.A capacitor stores energy when it is charged.e. . It resists efforts to displace it (i.

Capacitors act like springs Inductors act like masses C L m .

Analogy between mechanical and electrical oscillations: F x v m k ε q I L -1 C .

LC Circuit R a b C L ε Let the capacitor become fully charged and throw the switch from a to b. What happens? .

LC Circuit I +Q −Q Q dI +L =0 C dt L (going around the loop clockwise) C Q d2 Q +L 2 =0 C dt d2 Q Q + = 0 dt2 LC Simple Harmonic Motion! d2 x x + =0 2 dt m/k Q(t) = Q0 cos (!0 t + ) 1 !0 = p LC .

Energy oscillates between charge on the capacitor & current in the inductor Energy oscillates between displacement of the spring & velocity of the mass .

Energy oscillates between charge on the capacitor & current in the inductor Energy oscillates between displacement of the spring & velocity of the mass .

Energy oscillates between charge on the capacitor & current in the inductor Energy oscillates between displacement of the spring & velocity of the mass .

Energy oscillates between charge on the capacitor & current in the inductor Energy oscillates between displacement of the spring & velocity of the mass .

Velocity is one quarter-cycle ahead of displacement. I F x v t ε q I L -1 C m k . q v. Current is one quarter-cycle ahead of charge. x.

. q C L I t 1. 3. when the current has its maximum value..In this circuit.The magnetic field is zero.The charge on the capacitor is zero 5.The electric field has its maximum value 4.The charge on the capacitor has its maximum value 2.I don’t know .

Is Q increasing or decreasing? Is I increasing or decreasing? . the current is to the right and the charge on the upper plate of the capacitor is positive.I +Q)>)0 C ~ E L −Q At this moment.

so Q is decreasing.I +Q)>)0 C ~ E L −Q At this moment. decreasing Q!means that the current is negative and decreasing (i. then the positive direction for I is towards the +Q plate). becoming more negative). (If we want I#to equal dQ/dt. Q Is Q increasing or decreasing? Is I increasing or decreasing? I t Charge is leaving the positive plate. .e. From our graph. the current is to the right and the charge on the upper plate of the capacitor is positive. we see that positive.

The energy of simple harmonic oscillation: x(t) = xm cos(!0 t + ) v (t) = !0 xm sin(!0 t + ) K ( t) = U ( t) = 2 1 mv ( t ) 2 1 2 2 = 1 2 2 m !0 2 xm 2 sin (!0 t + ) 2 k x ( t) = 2 1 k x m 2 cos (!0 t + ) 2 2 K ( t) + U ( t ) = = 2 1 k x m 2 2 1 k x m 2 ⇥ sin (!0 t + ) + cos (!0 t + ) Energy alternates between kinetic & potential. ⇤ . Total energy is conserved.

Energy in LC Oscillations Energy in capacitor: Energy in inductor: Q2 UE = = 2C UB = 2 1 2 LI ✓ Q0 2C ◆ 2 cos !0 t 2 2 = 2 1 2 LI0 sin !0 t .

Energy in LC Oscillations Energy in capacitor: Energy in inductor: Energy is conserved: Q0 2 cos !0 t 2C ✓ 2◆ Q0 2 2 1 UB = 2 LI = sin !0 t 2C Q2 UE = = 2C ✓ ◆ 2 U = UE + UB = 2 Q0 2C .

What if the oscillations are driven by some (oscillating) external EMF? .

not the natural frequency ω0 of the oscillator. . but at the frequency ω of the external force.Apply an external force F(t): k F (t) = F0 cos(! t) m ma = 2 kx + F (t) x(t) = xmax cos(! t + ) d x k + x = F ( t ) 2 dt m The motion is still sinusoidal.

xmax depends on the drive frequency. xmax x(t) = xmax cos(! t + ) ω0 ω .Also. and is largest when the system is driven at its natural frequency.

An example of resonance Youtube 0M21_zCo6UM .

They oppose changes in current. an AC voltage source. like a spring For the mechanical resonance.F x v m k ε q I L External force or EMF Charge acts like position: “where we are” in the circuit Current acts like velocity: the rate of change of charge Inductors have inertia. For electrical resonance. . like a mass. -1 C Capacitors store energy. we take an EMF with a similar time dependence. we considered a force F(t)=F0cosωt.

the current flows one way. .“AC” means “Alternating Current” V (t) = V0 sin ! t In direct current (dc). like from a battery. the current oscillates. In alternating current (ac).

An AC circuit with a single element + V☐ V⇤ (t) = V0 sin ! t I☐ + What is I☐(t)? Let’s try writing the current as: Vext = V0 sin ! t I⇤ (t) = I0 sin(! t What are I0 and φ? ) .

. Also. I0=VR/R.Resistors in an AC circuit + VR VR (t) = V0 sin(! t) IR + IR (t) = I0 sin(! t + ) Vext = V0 sin ! t VR I R ( t) = sin(! t) R IR and VR are in phase. meaning that φ=0.

Resistors in an AC circuit + VR IR + Vext = V0 sin ! t IR and VR are in phase. . I0=VR/R. Also. meaning that φ=0.

.The plot shows the drive voltage V(t) and the current I(t) in a driven RLC circuit. V I t The current leads the voltage The current lags the voltage .. In this circuit.

.Capacitors in an AC circuit VC + VC (t) = V0 sin(! t) IC (t) = I0 sin(! t + ) IC + dQ d I C ( t) = = (CVC ) dt dt = CV0 ! cos(! t) = CV0 ! sin(! t + ⇡ 2 ⇡ 2) Vext = V0 sin ! t I0 = CV0 ! . = IC leads VC by π/2.

Capacitors in an AC circuit VC + IC + Vext = V0 sin ! t I0 = CV0 ! . = ⇡ 2 IC leads VC by π/2. .

!L = IC lags VC by π/2. .Inductors in an AC circuit VC + VL (t) = V0 sin(! t) IC + V0 I L ( t) = L Z sin ! t dt = V0 cos ! t !L ⇡ ) 2 Vext = V0 sin ! t V0 = sin(! t !L ⇡ 2 V0 I0 = .

Inductors in an AC circuit VC + IC + Vext = V0 sin ! t V0 I0 = . . !L = ⇡ 2 IC lags VC by π/2.

V⇤ (t) = V0 sin ! t I⇤ (t) = I0 sin(! t ) This is the “response” from the circuit element.AC response of circuit elements This is the “input” from the AC voltage source. =? I0 /V0 = ? .

AC Circuits: Summary I0 Resistor: Current vs.L/ωL φ)=#0 (in#phase) R XC=1/ωC XL=ωL Capacitor: φ)=#−π/2 (current#leads) Inductor: φ)=#π/2 (current#lags) Although derived from single-element circuits.R/R ωCV0. Voltage Resistance Reactance Impedance V0. these relationships hold generally! .C V0.

Next time: More RLC Circuits Re-read HRW Chapter 31 .