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**Jaap J. de Wilde and René H.M. Huijsmans
**

Maritime Research Institute Netherlands (MARIN) Wageningen, The Netherlands

ABSTRACT

In order to address the response of a long cylindrical riser in current, design codes (like Vandiver, 1983) require lift and drag coefficients of 2-D sections. Uncoupling the flexible response from the loading these design codes will determine the flexural response based on sectional stiffness and mass coefficients. However the physics of VIV behavior indicate that the hydroelastic response is significant. Therefore a study has been initiated to research the 3-D response of a part of a long riser in current by experiments. A circular steel pipe of 16 mm diameter and 12.6 m long was towed horizontally in a towing tank at speeds between 0.5 and 3.0 m/s and with pretensions between 0.5 and 2.5 kN. Measurements were made of the drag loads, the acceleration and the bending moments. State-of-theart fibre optical measuring techniques were deployed to obtain detailed insight into the complex VIV response of the test pipe. The first analysis of the test data shows a very complex response, including strong coupling between cross flow and in-line motions, beating, multimode response, traveling wave response, etc. Further analysis will continue and additional results will be published later.

another or from one set of modes to another, even in steady uniform current. Non-stationary response may occur as well, including mode swapping or traveling waves. Full scale measurements, model tests and theoretical considerations indicate that all of these types of behavior can occur for deep water risers, especially in sheared current situations. For the riser design and the VIV analysis it is of key importance to understand when single mode response dominates or when several modes will be excited simultaneously. High quality experiments showing high mode VIV behavior of long risers or cables are rare (Hong et al., 2002; Kleiven, 2002 and Larsen, Vandiver, Vikestad, and Lie, 1997), especially at high Reynolds numbers (Allen and Henning, 1997; Allen and Henning, 2001 and Simantiras and Willis, 1999). Prototype measurements on real risers are presently undertaken, but results have not been published yet in open literature. Such measurements as well as model scale experiments are much needed for the better understanding of the high mode response behavior and for the validation of semi-empirical VIV prediction tools, as well as the latest developments in CFD. Laboratory experiments require a large test facility to accommodate sufficient riser length, even for relatively low Reynolds numbers and relatively small L/D ratios. Moreover a strong and stiff carriage is needed to cope with the large drag loads and pretensions. A large amount of instrumentation is required to capture the complex spatial VIV response of a long riser in detail. The pipe motions of every possible mode need to be measured in at least two degrees of freedom (cross flow and in-line) with sufficient accuracy and at a sufficient sampling rate. Obviously, the instrumentation and cabling should be non-intrusive and preferably be placed inside the tests pipe.

KEY WORDS: Vortex; vibration; VIV; riser; high mode; experiments; fibre optics.

INTRODUCTION

One of the great challenges in the offshore industry is still the assessment of the motions of a circular cylinder in waves and current for application to risers or riser bundles in water depths up to 3,000 m (approximately 10,000 feet). Here the fatigue life of the riser is often dominated by Vortex-Induced Vibrations (VIV). Also the important concern of riser interference is largely governed by VIV. There is a great difficulty in predicting the response of a long span of riser in current. The riser may respond in several possible modes, but it is most often uncertain whether the riser will predominantly respond in one or a few modes or that it will respond in several modes simultaneously (Blevins, 2001; Triantafyllou et al., 1999 and Vandiver, 1983 and 1993). The response may also transit from one mode to

**TEST DESCRIPTION Model Basin
**

The experiments were conducted in MARIN’s Shallow Water towing tank in Wageningen, The Netherlands. The basin is 15.8 m wide by 220 m long and is equipped with an overhead carriage. The water depth in the basin is 1.15 m. The carriage has a velocity range of 3 m/s and a power supply of 4 x 15 kW. The horizontal test pipe was supported by

Paper No. 2004-EF-005

De Wilde

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which is much higher. fore and aft. The instrumentation was calibrated and checked for linearity prior to the testing. 2003).000 2. Physical or mechanical properties such as temperature or stress may affect the reflected wavelength.3 mm diameter were mounted in small axial grooves in the pipe surface.375.15 m 15.0 m or less than 8% of the pipe length.6 8. excluding the 50 mm of the universal joint. at 90 degrees angle: top. Paper No. which in our case was deployed to construct an optical strain gauge. All signals were sampled at 250 Hz. The maximum measured in-line deflection of the test pipe was less than 1.625 2.750 3. Test pipe Water level Rail Tensioner Transducer 1.32 m from the right end of pipe.02E6 232 2. The test pipe itself had a total axial stiffness of 640 kN/m.04 m and 9. The load cells were located between the universal joints and the struts. respectively at 6.250 1. The steel houses were kept small as possible to minimize the influence on the pipe properties. Because of the very constant temperature of the water in the basin (less than 1 degree Celsius variation). Four fibres of approximately 0.6 m 6m 4. Carriage Instrumentation and Data Acquisition The carriage speed was measured by means of an encoder on a fifth wheel on the carriage.500 m from the right end of the test pipe. The vertical (lift) loads and the axial loads were measured in the same way.750 0.8 mm wall thickness. 2.250. the temperature effect could be disregarded and the measured shift in wavelength was as a direct measure of the local strain.500. Test set-up for towing 12.two vertical struts from the carriage. The effective lateral stiffness of the vertical struts was 51 kN/m and acts as axial springs on both ends of the test pipe. Table 1. Properties of test pipe Parameter Diameter Length Axial stiffness Bending stiffness Mass ratio Symbol D L EA EI m+ Unit mm m N Nm2 Value 16 12. which reflects light with a wavelength corresponding to the so-called Bragg wavelength lB (Doyle. Test pipe with load cells and universal joint The properties of the test pipe are summarized in the next table at model scale. 1. adding about 2 x 50 mm to the total effective pipe length from joint to joint. Instrumentation of test pipe with 40 FGB strain gauges Each Bragg grating serves as a wavelength selective mirror. The pipe surface was reasonably smooth. 1. Fibre Optic Measuring Technique The right-hand side of the test pipe was instrumented with 40 optical fibre strain gauges. The FGB strain gauges were located at 0. However. 2004-EF-005 De Wilde 2 of 6 14 Optical fibres are flush mounted . Some flexibility was built into the vertical struts to reduce the increase of the mean tension in the pipe during towing and also to reduce the dynamic variations in pipe tension. 2.125 0. Small two-component accelerometers were mounted inside the pipe at two location. 6. bottom.500 3. in which two accelerometers (x and z) could be firmly mounted. A universal joint was placed on both ends to obtain a pinned connection without bending moments. in future correlation studies it might still be necessary to take the locally different mass and bending stiffness properties into account. The pipe was filled with tank water.875 1.875.000.29 0 FBG locations 16 mm Cross section Fig.500 1. to keep a smooth pipe surface.625. The electrical cables of the accelerometers were fed through the pipe. 1. excluding the 50 mm of half a universal joint.4 m m . A total of 10 Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBG) were burned in each fibre. 0.750. 3. 1.750 and 4.8 m Fig. Steel end caps were welded on each end for mounting the pipe between the two vertical struts. 2. The rest of the light propagates down the fibre uninterrupted. The pipe was cut at the two locations and the steel houses were welded in between.125. 3. The drag loads were measured on both pipe ends by means of strain gauge type load cells. The effective horizontal and vertical stiffness of the end supports are very high.375 Fig. A threaded end was used for adjusting the initial pretension in still water. Special steel houses were manufactured for each location.6 m horizontal pipe (cross section) Test Pipe and Test Set-Up The test pipe was a seamless thin walled steel pipe of 16 mm outer diameter and 0. 3. The small grooves were carefully machined in the pipe surface and filled with resin after the fibres had been placed inside. using a spatially varying pattern of intense UV light. A specialized company in UK was responsible for the preparation of the optical fibres and the mounting in the pipe surface.

assuming a Strouhal number of 0.17 Hz 4. the mass per unit length (m) and the added mass (ma).000 0.55 Hz 3.2. The bending moment is also proportional the difference in strain on two opposing sides of the circular test pipe.5 Hz.00 Hz 11.0 kN pretension Mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 Frequency 1. ∂y ∂y 2 (4) TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Theoretical VIV Response of Tensioned Beam The natural frequencies of a tensioned beam are given by the following relation (Timoshenko. Natural frequencies of test pipe in still water at 1. Drag load fn = 1 2π n4 + n 2 L2T π EI 2 π2 EI ( m + ma ) L4 (1) The mode number (n) represents the number of half waves in the response shape.5000 2. which is known as “drag amplification”. the axial tension (T).0 kN pretension are given in Table 2.3 mm cladding æ nπ y ö φn = A sin ç ÷ è L ø (2) in which y is the co-ordinate along the cylinder length and A the amplitude of the oscillation. The Reynolds numbers are all in the sub-critical regime (7. The bending moment is proportional to the curvature and can be found by double differentiation of the shape: M = − EI ∂ 2φn ∂y 2 = Aπ 2 n2 L 2 æ nπ y ö sin ç ÷ è L ø (3) Bragg grating burned in core of optical fibre Fig.0000 0. 1974): This relation shows how the displacements can be derived from the measured curvatures. 5 the drag coefficient of the vibrating cylinder is plotted as a function of the tow speed. The unit illuminates the four fibres with a swept-wavelength light source and measures the reflected light by means of a photodiode detector.12 Hz 20..Bottom" and "Fore .0000 2. It should be noted that no corrections were made for the end effects and the drag on the universal joints. The drag amplification factor in our tests is about 2 at small speeds and decreases for increasing speeds.000 2. Lock-in VIV response can therefore be expected for mode 6 or 7 at this speed. This step.85 Hz 9. Our test pipe of 16 mm diameter had a mass in air of 0.5000 0. involving an inverse matrix operation for each time step. In our case the measured differences in strain "Top .461 kg and an added mass of 0. Table 2.201 kg per unit length (assuming Cm = 1 in still water). 2004-EF-005 De Wilde 3 of 6 . has not been carried out yet. 5.5000 1. At 3. the bending stiffness (EI). 4.37.0000 Cd [-] 1.2.92 Hz 6..500 1. The sampling rate was 250 Hz.000).0000 0. Measured drag coefficient as a function of the tow speed The vibrations of the cylinder lead to higher drag loads than for the same cylinder kept stationary at the same speed. Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is used to address the different sensors in each line. The vortex shedding frequency at 1. The mode shape of an oscillating uniform beam can be represented by a sinusoid: Paper No.11 Hz 17.0 m/s the drag coefficient of about 1.000 < Re < 43.12 Hz 32.000 3. The mean tension in the experiments increased with the tow speed from 0. Drag Loads In Fig.Aft" were regarded as a measure of respectively the cross-flow and in-line curvature at each location.500 Tow speed [m/s] Positive speed Negative speed Fig.41 Hz Mode 7 8 9 10 11 12 Frequency 14.45 Hz 24.5 kN at the maximum tow speed of 3.000 1.0.48 Hz 3.500 2. Using of a Taylor series expansion the displacement at a position y can be expressed by: z( y ) = z( y0 ) + ( y − y0 ) ∂z 1 ∂2 z + 2 ( y − y0 )2 + .500 3. The natural frequencies of the first 12 modes at 1. which is only slightly above the normal drag coefficient for a stationary smooth cylinder of Cd = 1.0 m/s. Young and Weaver. Schematic drawing of Bragg grating in optical fibre A W3/4250 FBG unit was used for the interrogation of the 40 optical strain gauges. The other parameters are the pipe length (L).11 Hz 28.0 m/s current speed is 12.45 kN in still water to 2.

Response peaks can be observed at 9. 8.g. due to the large variability of the added mass. The measured dynamic tension in the presented test 101008 was approximately 10% of the mean tension. 7. The tow speed was 1. complex non-linear response or strong coupling between cross-flow and in-line motions may also be responsible for the unexpected results. Spectral density plots of the measured accelerations are presented in Fig. presented at the end of this paper. +z Flow +x - Fig. Spectral density plot of measured accelerations at pipe mid The unexpected response will be further investigated after submission of this paper. The cabling of the accelerometers was checked prior to the test. be noted that the natural frequencies of lock-in VIV can significantly deviate from the theoretical values.31. Trajectory plot of cross flow vs.35 for the cross flow oscillations and A/D = 0.6 Hz. 6. corresponding to Strouhal numbers of respectively 0. Froude scaling is not the obvious choice. Instead it is proposed to scale as follows: geometrical scale: velocity scale: tension: l:1 1:1 l2:1 (e. 6. The dynamic tension is not normally considered in the response analysis of marine risers. by rotating the pipe in still water and measuring the gravity component. The following comments seem appropriate at this stage however: The sign convention of the signals in Figs. 1988). 9. 6. but may still be high enough to induce significant dynamic tension in the pipe for the higher response modes and response amplitudes. The stiffness of the vertical struts is 51 kN/m at each side. The theoretical calculated natural frequencies of mode 5 and 6 are close to the lower frequency peak in the spectral density plot.6 Hz AX1 AZ1 Fig. The contribution of the bending stiffness was relatively small. however. The higher frequency is twice the lower frequency.8 Hz 19. show unexpected complex responses at the different locations of the pipe as well. It should. Possibly the dynamic tension in our experiment was higher than for most real marine risers. Dynamic end effect. 2004-EF-005 De Wilde 4 of 6 . Calculations are often based on the linearized beam equation: m ∂2 y ∂t 2 +b ∂y ∂ é ∂y ù ∂ 2 é ∂ 2 y ù T ú− + ê EI 2 ú = L( x.g. It is assumed that these frequencies are related respectively to the cross-flow excitation (two opposing cross flow vortices per cycle) and the in-line excitation (two in-line vortices per cycle).Motion Response Time traces of the measured motions at the pipe mid are presented in Fig. The trajectory plots of the curvature. because gravity is not an important parameter in the experiment. 50:1) (e. Time traces of measured motions at pipe mid The amplitude ratios are respectively A/D = 0.t ) ∂t ∂x ê ë ∂x û ∂x 2 ë ê ∂x û ú (5) Finally it should be noted that the scaling of our experiment to prototype dimensions is not straightforward. These motions were derived by double integration of the measured accelerations. Fig. 8. In general "figures of eight" or "standing bananas" type trajectory plots are expected for the vortexinduced vibrations of a circular pipe.8 Hz 9.8 and 19.16 and 0.9 kN. 7 and 8 has been carefully checked and no error was found. 2500:1) Paper No. It seems worthwhile to check for possible Mathieu instabilities (Hagedorn.0 m/s and the mean tension 0. A trajectory plot of the cross flow versus in-line motions is presented in Fig. The mean tension provided the main restoring mechanism. Our unexpected result deserves further investigation. 7.64 for the in-line oscillations. which is much lower than the axial stiffness of the steel pipe itself (640 kN/m). in-line motions at pipe mid A "lying banana" type motion is observed.

USA. Willden. pp 481-508. Choi. “Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Long Flexible Cylinder. Because the curvature is presented and not the actual displacements the results cannot be compared directly with "figure of eight" type plots. A (1993). but also much higher modes and double frequency modes (mode 11 or 12) participated. Triantafyllou. Marcollo.” Journal of Fluids and Structures. even in uniform current. Blevins. Possibly the relatively high dynamic tension plays a role in our experiments. Triantafyllou. Next it will be attempted to identify the VIV vibration modes from the experiments. P (1988). Vandiver. “Prototype Vortex-Induced Vibration Tests for Production Risers. Vandiver.” Journal of Fluid Mechanics.” BOSS. In general "figures of eight" or "standing bananas" type trajectory plots are found for the vortex-induced vibrations of a circular pipe. which was also expected for the long pipe. For presented test in this paper (1. USA.” Conference of Bluff Body Wakes and Vortex-Induced Vibrations BBVIV3. “Vortex-Induced Vibration Tests of a Flexible Smooth Cylinder at Supercritical Reynolds Numbers. (2002).” Fourth Edition.” OMAE2002-28425. Houston. “Mode Competition in a Flexible Cylindrical Riser. 9. DW and Henning. The analysis techniques described by Kleiven (2002) for identifying the VIV vibration modes by use of the Empirical Orthogonal Functions technique will be used. P and Willis. Presented is about 2 seconds of the test. however. W (1974). GS. Young. N (1999). DH and Weaver. Vol 7. JK (1993). “Vortex Induced Vibrations of Long Marine Risers . Honolulu. USA. YH (2002). However. BD (1999). “Investigation on Vortex Induced Oscillations and Helical Strakes Effectiveness at Very High Incidence Angles. USA. Doyle. as shown in Fig. “Pragmatic Riser VIV Analysis. the plots in Fig. “Dimensionless Parameters Important to the Prediction of Vortex-Induced Vibration of Long Flexible Cylinders in Ocean Currents. Kleiven. The slender test pipe with a length over diameter ratio of 788 exhibited VIV response with a high modal content. D and Ambrose. MS.” Offshore Technology Conference. J (2002). Krieger Publishing Company. D and Laneville. K and Lie. Finally it seems worthwhile to validate semi-empirical VIV prediction programs against our test results.” International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Vol 250. JB. “Flow Induced Vibrations. at least not for the tests with the higher tow speeds. “Drag Coefficients of Long Flexible Cylinders. Vikestad. H and Hinwood. YR. CM. Conventional accelerometers and state-of-the-art optical fibre stain gauges were successfully deployed for capturing the complex response behavior. RD (2001). France. REFERENCES Allen. Single mode response with a stable sinusoidal mode shape was not observed. DL (1997). Florida. was the complex shape of the trajectories.” Second Edition. “Vibration Problems in Engineering. Larsen.” Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. the curvature response does not resemble much of a "figure of eight". “An Introduction to Bragg Gratings and Interrogation Techniques.9 kN) it is assumed that mode 5 or 6 was dominant. Not expected.Trajectory Plots of Curvature Derived from FBG Measurements Trajectory plots of the measured curvature are presented in Fig.” Smart Fibres. Brest. 10 still show how complex the VIV response of the long riser can be. Further analyses will be carried out to derive the motion response from the measured curvature at the 10 locations of the optical strain gauge measurements. Timoshenko. G. Vol 249. The 10 plots correspond to the 10 FBG strain gauge locations along the pipe. Park. Brida. Malabar. Based on the preliminary results presented in this paper. JK (1983).” Journal of Sound and Vibration. Paper OTC 13144. Further analysis is needed to get more insight in this complex behavior. “Experimental Study on Vortex-Induced Vibration of Towed Pipes. Paper OTC 10931. 9. 10 4 3 2 1 Fig. R and Graham. 7. Paper OTC 4490. S.” Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. C (2003). Paper No. pp 229-232. where each cycle consists of a number of distinct lobes. pp 649-661. Houston. YK and Kim. it can be concluded that the vibrational response of the long pipe is much more complex than expected. One of the future aims is to learn more about the mode participation and to compare our measurements with the results of VIV prediction tools. Hong. H (1997). The observed "lying banana" trajectory at the pipe mid is intriguing and deserves further investigation.0 m/s and 0. Swapping from one type of motion to another does not occur in the presented part of the test. S. JK. Similarly as for the motions in Fig. 10. Houston.” Offshore Technology Conference.” Offshore Technology Conference.Experimental Investigations of Multi-Frequency Response. Hagedorn. Clarendon Press. John Wiley & Sons. Park. “Identifying VIV Vibration Modes by Use of the Empirical Orthogonal Functions Technique. Plotting the same graphs for a shorter duration shows that approximately the same path is followed every cycle. pp 455-468. Simantiras. G (2002). Vandiver. Oxford. Allen. Locations of curvature trajectory plots The response was very different at each of the 10 locations. CONCLUSIONS The vortex-induced vibrations of a horizontal cylindrical pipe in a cross flow situation were investigated at small scale in a tow tank for a range of tow speeds and pretensions. DW and Henning. The curvature in z direction is plotted against the curvature in x direction. Tein. 2004-EF-005 De Wilde 5 of 6 . pp 423455. DL (2001). However some cyclic repetition can still be recognized in plots. “Multi-Modal Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Vertical Riser Pipe Subject to a Uniform Current Profile. “Non-linear Oscillations”.

500 100 300 500 Fig.875 100 300 500 2.Aft [microstrain] 0.Aft [microstrain] 300 200 100 0 -500 -300 -100 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 Strain Fore .Bottom [microstrain] Strain Top .000 100 300 500 3. Curvature trajectory plots derived from FBG strain gauges Paper No.Aft [microstrain] 300 200 100 0 -500 -300 -100 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 Strain Fore .Bottom [microstrain] Test 1001008 500 400 300 200 100 -500 -300 0 -100 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 Strain Fore .Bottom [microstrain] Test 1001008 500 400 Strain Top .750 100 300 500 Test 1001008 500 400 Strain Top .625 100 300 500 3.750 100 300 500 1.Bottom [microstrain] Test 1001008 500 400 Strain Top . 10.Test 1001008 500 400 Strain Top .Aft [microstrain] 4.Bottom [microstrain] Test 1001008 500 400 300 200 100 -500 -300 0 -100 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 Strain Fore .500 100 300 500 1.Aft [microstrain] 300 200 100 0 -500 -300 -100 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 Strain Fore .Bottom [microstrain] Strain Top .Aft [microstrain] 300 200 100 0 -500 -300 -100 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 Strain Fore .Bottom [microstrain] Test 1001008 500 400 300 200 100 -500 -300 0 -100 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 Strain Fore .Aft [microstrain] 2.Bottom [microstrain] Test 1001008 500 400 Strain Top .Aft [microstrain] 300 200 100 0 -100 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 Strain Fore . 2004-EF-005 De Wilde 6 of 6 .Bottom [microstrain] Strain Top .Aft [microstrain] 300 200 100 0 -500 -300 -100 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 Strain Fore .375 100 300 500 -500 -300 0.125 100 300 500 Test 1001008 500 400 Strain Top .250 100 300 500 Test 1001008 500 400 Strain Top .Aft [microstrain] 1.Bottom [microstrain] 300 200 100 -500 -300 0 -100 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 Strain Fore .

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