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Flow Measurement Handbook

INDUSTRIAL DESIGNS, OPERATING PRINCIPLES, PERFORMANCE, AND APPLICATIONS

ROGER C. BAKER

and publisher wish to point out that the inclusion or omission of a particular device.org 10 Stamford Road. editors.cup.cup. discussion. manuals.cam. I. and conclusions developed by the author are for information only and are not intended for use without independent substantiating investigation on the part of the potential users. Flow measurement handbook : industrial designs. New York. Trumpington Street.M43B35 2000 681 . or other material in no way implies anything about its performance with respect to other devices. R. United Kingdom CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS The Edinburgh Building. application. design. Readers are strongly advised to pay careful attention to information provided by the manufacturer of any equipment that they plan to use and should refer to the most recent standards documents relating to their application. and applications / Roger C. The author. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Baker. TA357. Flow meters – Handbooks. no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.ac. Spain c Cambridge University Press 2000 This book is in copyright. etc. and publisher therefore disclaim all liability or responsibility for direct or consequential damages resulting from the use of data. ISBN 0-521-48010-8 1. operating principles. Australia Ruiz de Alarcon ´ 13. not least because industrial design and performance is constantly changing through research. designs. and publisher can make no warranties that the data and information contained herein is totally free from error. UK http://www. Cambridge. The author. Nevertheless. Includes bibliographical references. etc. or constructions based on any of the information supplied or materials described in this book. p. 28014 Madrid. and regulation. Cambridge CB2 2RU. AT X 2ε System L E [TB] A catalog record for this book is available from the British Library. performance. cm. Title. Oakleigh. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements.uk 40 West 20th Street. Melbourne 3166. Data. USA http://www. editors. Baker. . NY 10011-4211.PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building. C. editors. First published 2000 Printed in the United States of America Typeface Stone Serif 9/12.28 – dc21 99-14190 CIP ISBN 0 521 48010 8 hardback DISCLAIMER Every effort has been made in preparing this book to provide accurate and up-to-date data and information that is in accord with accepted standards and practice at the time of publication and has been included in good faith.5. the author.5 pt. development.

7 2.Contents Preface Acknowledgments Nomenclature CHAPTER 1 page xix xxi xxiii Introduction 1 1 2 4 7 9 9 13 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 21 21 24 24 24 24 27 30 32 34 36 38 39 1.2 1.2 2.8 2.A.A.6 1.1 1.6 1. Transfer Standards.3 2.A.5 1. and Youden Analysis CHAPTER 2 Fluid Mechanics Essentials 2.7 1.7 Statistics of Flow Measurement Introduction The Normal Distribution The Student t Distribution Practical Application of Confidence Level Types of Error Combination of Uncertainties Uncertainty Range Bars.1 1.8 Initial Considerations Do We Need a Flowmeter? How Accurate? A Brief Review of the Evaluation of Standard Uncertainty Sensitivity Coefficients What Is a Flowmeter? Chapter Conclusions (for those who plan to skip the mathematics!) Mathematical Postscript APPENDIX 1.A 1.4 1.6 2.5 2.10 Introduction Essential Property Values Flow in a Circular Cross-Section Pipe Flow Straighteners and Conditioners Essential Equations Unsteady Flow and Pulsation Compressible Flow Multiphase Flow Cavitation.4 2. Droplets.1 2.2 1.3 1.A.A. and Particles Gas Entrapment vii .9 2.5 1.A.A. Humidity.4 1.3 1.

1 Flying Start and Stop 4.4 Compact Provers Gas Calibration Facilities 4.4. Selection.2 3.5 4.4.1.3 Calibration from the Manufacturer’s Viewpoint Approaches to Calibration Liquid Calibration Facilities 4.1 Calibration Considerations 4.3 Large Pipe Provers 4.5 Introduction Essential Background Equations Design Details Installation Constraints Other Orifice Plates .8 4.viii CONTENTS 2.2 Mass Measurement 4.1 3.6 Soap Film Burette Method Transfer Standards and Master Meters In Situ Calibration Calibration Uncertainty Traceability and Accuracy of Calibration Facilities Chapter Conclusions CHAPTER 5 Orifice Plate Meters 5.6 4.4 pvT Method 4.5 Critical Nozzles 4.1.3.4 5.2 Typical Calibration Laboratory Facilities 4.9 Introduction 4. and Audit 3.7 4.4.2 Standing Start and Stop 4.A.1 5.11 2.4.4 3.2 Supplementary Audit Questionnaire CHAPTER 4 Calibration 4.12 Steam Chapter Conclusions 39 41 42 42 42 43 46 53 55 55 56 56 58 61 61 61 64 65 66 69 69 72 74 74 77 77 79 80 80 81 81 82 84 91 92 93 95 95 97 100 102 106 CHAPTER 3 Specification.4.3 5.2 5.1.A.4 4.3.7 Introduction Specifying the Application Notes on the Specification Form Flowmeter Selection Summary Tables Other Guides to Selection and Specific Applications Draft Questionnaire for Flowmeter Audit Final Comments APPENDIX 3.5 3.3.4.3 Gas/Liquid Displacement 4.1 4.1 Volumetric Measurement 4.3.1 Specification Questionnaire 3.3 4.A Specification and Audit Questionnaires 3.6 3.3 3.2 4.

12 5.4 7.2 6.1 6.7 5.5 7. Advantages. Advantages.2 Introduction Variable Area Meter 8.CONTENTS ix 5.17 Deflection of Orifice Plate at High Pressure Effect of Pulsation Effects of More Than One Flow Component Accuracy Under Normal Operation Industrially Constructed Designs Pressure Connections Pressure Measurement Temperature and Density Measurement Flow Computers Detailed Studies of Flow Through the Orifice Plate.11 5.4 Design Features 8.15 5.3 Remote Readout Methods 8.16 5.11 Introduction Design Details of a Practical Flowmeter Installation Practical Equations Discharge Coefficient C Critical Flow Function C∗ Design Considerations Measurement Uncertainty Example Industrial and Other Experience Advantages.6 5.2.A 106 109 113 117 118 119 122 124 124 124 127 127 128 130 130 131 134 135 135 137 138 140 140 141 143 145 146 147 148 149 151 152 152 153 153 153 154 154 155 156 157 Orifice Discharge Coefficient CHAPTER 6 Venturi Meter and Standard Nozzles 6. Both Experimental and Computational Application.5 6.10 7.2.7 Introduction Essential Background Equations Design Details Commercially Available Devices Installation Effects Applications.13 5.2.1 Operating Principle and Background 8.2.6 6. and Disadvantages Chapter Conclusions CHAPTER 7 Critical Flow Venturi Nozzle 7.6 7.3 6.2.1 8.1 7.7 7. Disadvantages.8 5. and Applications Chapter Conclusions CHAPTER 8 Other Momentum-Sensing Meters 8.5 Calibration and Sources of Error .9 5. and Disadvantages Chapter Conclusions APPENDIX 5.4 6.14 5.9 7.8 7.2 7.3 7.10 5.2 Design Variations 8.

3.7 Unsteady and Pulsating Flows 8.6 The Effects of Gas in Solution .6 Installation 8.2.8 8.3 Accuracy Classes 157 158 158 159 159 159 162 163 163 165 167 168 168 169 170 173 176 177 177 178 180 182 182 182 183 184 184 184 185 185 187 189 190 190 191 192 194 194 196 197 197 CHAPTER 9 Positive Displacement Flowmeters 9.2.5 8.5 Sliding Vane Meters 9.2. Equations.A.1 Some History 8.5 The Effects of Temperature and Pressure Changes 9.9 Computational Analysis of the Variable Area Flowmeter 8.14 8.11 8.A.3 Leakage Through the Clearance Gap Between Vane and Wall 9.7 8.2.10 Applications Spring-Loaded Diaphragm (Variable Area) Meters Target (Drag Plate) Meter Integral Orifice Meters Dall Tubes and Devices that Approximate to Venturis and Nozzles Wedge and V-Cone Designs Differential Devices with a Flow Measurement Mechanism in the Bypass Slotted Orifice Plate Pipework Features – Inlets Pipework Features – Bend or Elbow Used as a Meter Averaging Pitot Laminar or Viscous Flowmeters Chapter Conclusions APPENDIX 8.6 8.2.1.2.9 8.2.4 8.7 Reciprocating Piston Meters 9.2 Oscillating Circular Piston Meter 9. Environmental Compensation.8 Industrial Types.3.2. Ranges.A.1 Nutating Disk Meter 9.2 Equations 8.3.2.3.2 9.1.A History.6 Helical Rotor Meter 9.8 Precision Gear Flowmeters Calibration.1 Background 9.4 Slippage Tests 9.4 Oval Gear Meter 9. and Other Factors Relating to the Accuracy of Liquid Flowmeters 9.x CONTENTS 8.2.3 Multirotor Meters 9.1 Calibration Systems 9.3 Introduction 9.1 9.10 8. and Accuracy Classes for the VA Meter 8. and Performance 8.3.12 8.2.3 8.2.2 Qualitative Description of Operation Principal Designs of Liquid Meters 9.2.2 Clearances 9.3.13 8.

5.1 Background 10.3.4 9.2.3 Rotary Positive Displacement Gas Meter Positive Displacement Meters for Multiphase Flows Meter Using Liquid Plugs to Measure Low Flows Applications.5.2.2.5 9.1 Principal Design Components 10.4 Materials 10.3.2 Bearing Design Materials 10.13 Viscosity.A.17 Applications 10.15 Multiphase Flow 10.2.A.1.2.CONTENTS xi 9. Advantages. and Disadvantages Chapter Conclusions APPENDIX 9.2.1. Temperature.5.11 Installation 10.2.1 9.3 Basic Theory Precision Liquid Meters 10.2.18 Advantages and Disadvantages Precision Gas Meters 10.2.2 Bearing Design 10.8 9.2.2.2 10.6 CHAPTER 10 Theory for a Sliding Vane Meter Flowmeter Equation Expansion of the Flowmeter Due to Temperature Pressure Effects Meter Orientation Analysis of Calibrators Application of Equations to a Typical Meter Turbine and Related Flowmeters 10.2.7 9.A.1 10.4 Size Range 10.3 Materials 10.16 Signal Processing 10.3.A.9 Accuracy and Calibration Principal Designs of Gas Meters 9. and Pressure 10.2.5 Size Ranges 10.6 Other Mechanical Design Features 10.2 Diaphragm Meter 9.8 Sensor Design and Performance 10.5 9.9 Characteristics 10.3.2.10 Accuracy 10.2 9.3 9.3 Strainers 10.2.7 Cavitation 10.3.12 Maintenance 10.2.2.6 9.1 Principal Design Components 10.A 198 199 199 200 202 203 205 205 206 207 207 209 210 210 211 213 215 215 215 215 216 221 221 223 224 224 225 225 226 227 228 228 229 231 232 232 232 233 233 234 234 234 235 236 236 236 9.A.5 Accuracy .2 Qualitative Description of Operation 10.14 Unsteady Flow 10.A.1 Wet Gas Meter 9.2.3 Introduction 10.4 9.1.

7 Sensing 10.4.13 Applications.4.3.4 Sensing Options 11.2 Pelton Wheel Flowmeters 10.10 Advantages and Disadvantages Water Meters 10.3.9 Applications 10.1 Experimental Evidence of Performance 11. and Fluidic Flowmeters 11.2 Accuracy and Ranges .5 10.A.3.3 Standardization of Bluff Body Shape 11.3.4 10.3. Swirl.7 Installation 10.5.6 Installation 10.14 Future Developments Swirl Meter – Industrial Design 11.3.10 Two-Phase Flows 11.3.3.4 Introduction Vortex Shedding Industrial Developments of Vortex-Shedding Flowmeters 11.1 Design and Operation 11.2 Bluff Body Shape 11.8 Installation Effects 11.4 Vane-Type Flowmeters Chapter Conclusions APPENDIX 10.3.8 Special Designs Other Propeller and Turbine Meters 10.2 CHAPTER 11 Turbine Flowmeter Theory Derivation of Turbine Flowmeter Torque Equations Transient Analysis of Gas Turbine Flowmeter Vortex-Shedding.5.1 10.3.3 11.4.xii CONTENTS 10. Advantages.4 Size Range 10.4.12 Computation of Flow Around Bluff Bodies 11.4.5 Sensing 10.4.3.2 Bearing Design 10.4.3.5.3.2 11.3.3.1 Principal Design Components 10.4.3.3.11 Size and Performance Ranges and Materials in Industrial Designs 11.1 11.4.3.5. and Disadvantages 11.5 Cross Correlation and Signal Interrogation Methods 11.4.6 Characteristics and Accuracy 10.6 Other Aspects Relating to Design and Manufacture 11.8 Unsteady Flow 10.7 Accuracy 11.3 Materials 10.3 Bearingless Flowmeter 10.9 Effect of Pulsation and Pipeline Vibration 11.1 Quantum Dynamics Flowmeter 10.3.A.6 10.A 237 238 238 240 241 241 241 242 243 243 243 243 244 244 244 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 251 253 253 253 254 255 257 259 260 263 264 264 264 267 267 268 269 270 271 272 272 273 10.

1 12.9.1 Brief Review of Theory Introduction .8.4 Applications.7.9.12 12.3 Materials 11.2 Theoretical Comparison of Meter Performance Due to Upstream Flow Distortion 12.1 Slurries 12.3 Nonuniform Conductivity Multiphase Flow Accuracy Under Normal Operation Applications.4 12.12.8.4.2 Change of Fluid 12. Advantages.4.10 12.7.7 12.1 Surrounding Pipe 12.A. and Disadvantages 12.4 Installation Effects 11.5 11.5 12.12.6 11.3 Disadvantages Chapter Conclusions APPENDIX 12.8.A.1 11.4.2 CHAPTER 12 Vortex-Shedding Frequency Vortex Shedding from Cylinders Order of Magnitude Calculation of Shedding Frequency Electromagnetic Flowmeters 12.4 Conclusions on Installation Requirements Installation Constraints – Fluid Effects 12.3 Installation Effects 11.7 11.2 12.A 273 273 273 274 274 275 276 276 276 276 278 278 279 282 282 282 284 286 286 289 292 293 295 296 296 297 297 297 298 299 300 300 300 300 301 301 302 302 303 303 304 305 305 11.8.4. and Disadvantages Fluidic Flowmeter 11.9 12.1 Sensor or Primary Element 12.1 Design 11.2 Temperature and Pressure Installation Constraints – Flow Profile Caused by Upstream Pipework 12. Advantages.1 Introduction 12.6 12.5 Applications.A.1 Applications 12.4. and Disadvantages Other Proposed Designs Chapter Conclusions APPENDIX 11.3 12.2 Advantages 12.2 Accuracy 11.5.5.12.3 Experimental Comparison of Meter Performance Due to Upstream Flow Distortion 12.A 12.8 12.CONTENTS xiii 11.5.9. Advantages.11 12.13 Introduction Operating Principle Limitations of the Theory Design Details 12.5.2 Transmitter or Secondary Element Calibration and Operation Industrial and Other Designs Installation Constraints – Environmental 12.