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The Roma.

The Roma are believed to have migrated front India more than a millennium ago, settling first in Persia. then arriving in Europe in the 13th or 14th century. The name 'Gypsy“ was mistakenly applied by medieval Europeans. who thought all dark-skinned people came from Egypt. Leading a nomadic life. the Roma were often regarded as tramps and accused of thefts and robberies. From the beginning of the 17th century, attempts were made to forcibly assimilate the Roma people by requiring permanent settlement and banning the Romany language. The Roma were particularly persecuted by Nazi Germany. About 500.000 died in Nazi gas chambers and concentration camps. The Roma now nuntber slightly more than S million in Eastern Europe. 2 million more in Western Europe. and about 2 million elsewhere. mainly in North and PART 2 COMMUNICATION VARIABLES South America and North Africa. Romania has the largest number-about 1 million. For decades. Eastern European Communist governments suppressed preiudice against the Roma and banned the nomadic life. As the countries shifted to market economies and many lost iobs. the Roma have again experienced discrimination. Graffiti have now reappeared on walls: “Gypsies go away” and “Gypsies to the gas.” The Roma language and culture. including the remembrance of the Holocaust (known in the Roma language as porraimos, or “the devouring"). are central to Roma identity throughout the world. The European Union states have made better treatment of the Roma a condition for new members. Critics charge that diese efforts are for the purpose of reducing migration into the more prosperous Western European nations. Japan and Korea. Relationships between japan and Korea reflect deep-seated and long standing preiudice. Historically. Korea had closer ties to China than did Japan. and both Korea and China tended to view _lapan as a “troublemaking" state. This view was reinforced time and again by japanese incursions into Korean territory and 35 years of japan`s colonial rule. It has only been in recent times that the South Korean and Japanese govemments have signed mutual friendship treaties. established normal diplomatic relations.and entered into joint economic development agreements. In an act

Japan`s sutrender to the Allied Forces brought an end to the annexation of Korea. economic. are legally foreigners. thousands of Koreans migrated into _lapan seeking employment. there remains a sense of ban. the National Council for Combating Discrimination Against Ethnic Minorities (Mintobren) was founded by Korean residents and concemed Japanese to ñght for the human and civil rights of the Korean residents in japan. Following the great 1923 Kanto earthquake in japan. and political preiudice. and by the 1840s. or bitter resentment. Chapter 4 Barriers to intercultural Communication United States. After _lapan's annexation of Korea in 1910. As the largest minority group in _Iapan.()(){1 to 60(). Japanese-bom Koreans are the victims of social. Despite economic ties. that many Koreans feel toward the Japanese. Ireland got the potato plant from South America. it was rumored that Koreans were poisoning water supplies. During World War ll.0U() Koreans remained in _lapan (Fukuoka. 1994). Later. who may never have been to Korea and who may not speak Korean. 1996).South Korea and japan cohosted the 2002 World Cup soccer games. The descendants of the Koreans who remained in Japan. and the majority of Koreans who had been brought to japan under forced immigmtion returned to Korea. _lapanese law provides little or no protection against the housing and employment discrimination many Japanese-born Koreans experience.of historic symbolism. more Koreans were forced to migrate by the Japanese government to work in mines (Weiner.lapan claimed that the Koreans then in japan should not be granted Japanese nationality. but some 5{l(). A fungus wiped . When the San Francisco Peace Treaty came into effect in 1952.()(l() Koreans dead. In 1974. one third of Ireland's tilled land was devoted to potato production. between 1939 and 1945. the government of . Mob violence left some 6. the Koreans in _lapan were forced to become _lapanese nationals.

Surveys continue to show that preiudiced attitudes exist in the United States (Crosby. When and how has the United States assumed similarity to China? When and how have both displayed ethnocentrism? Population ln terms of land area. Editorial cartoons depicted the Irish as lazy. with a shared language and a physical appearance similar to the dominant English immigrant culture and with improved economic status and political participation. identify examples of the intercultural communication barriers that exist between the two cultures. Bromley. China`s population accounts for about one fifth of the entire human race. 1980) and that preiudice exists not only between Whites and minority groups but between minority groups as well. > cAss sruov or |Nrencu|. & Saxe. (Ihina is larger than the United States. the moral values of the Catholic Church were important. as of July 2006. It is also the most populated country in the world.pply. and by 1850. and more than 1 million migrated to the United States between 1846 and 1851. Many settled in shantytowns of cities in four states-Illinois. “fighting. As you read this section and become more familiar with China and its history." In the largely segregated Irish communities." and drunken. “job Available" signs in the period often included the phrase “No Irish Need . New York. Some migrated to Australia. Its population was estimated to be 1.runAt. the Irish assimilated into the dominant culture. or about live times as many people as populate the Lfnited States. The country has SS other ethnic groups.^. Many took iobs few other workers would take: the Irish worked in mines and mills and constructed canals and railroad lines. Most Chinese are of lian ethnicity.out 90% of the crop by 1847. one fourth of the population had died or migrated. Massacliusetts. commumcmou aAnn|sns= cumA Ann THE usman srmas In the United States. and Pennsylvania. There is a large economic gap between the coastal and urban areas and the . a lack of knowledge about China and its history contributes to communication barriers.5 billion.

1 trillion gross domestic product IGDPI compared to $l5.8 GNP for the United States).less prosperous interior. China has led the world in economic growth. It is now the w0rld's sixth largest impoiter and the fourth largest exporter. Wal-Mart alone bought $14 billion in merchandise from China. By 2001. Overall as the world`s third largest economy ($7. .