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Content …………………………………………………………………….( 1 )
Introduction ………………………………………………………………( 2-3 )
Problem within certain country Problem that acrose in the process of forming
malaysia……………………………………………………………………..( 4-8)
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………...( 9 )
References………………………………………………………………….( 10 )

Situated in the heart of Southeast Asia at one of the world's major crossroads,
Malaysia has always been pivotal to trade routes from Europe, the Orient, India
and China. Its warm tropical climate and abundant natural blessings made it a
congenial destination for immigrants as early as 5,000 years ago when the
ancestors of the Orang Asli, the indigenous peoples of Peninsular Malaysia, settle
here, probably the pioneers of a general movement from China and Tibet. They
were followed by the Malays, who brought with them skills in farming and the use
of metals. Around the first century BC, strong trading links were established with
China and India, and these had a major impact on the culture, language and social
customs of the country. Evidence of a Hindu-Buddhist period in the history of
Malaysia can today be found in the temple sites of the
Bujang Valley and Merbok Estuary in Kedah in the north
west of Peninsular Malaysia, near the Thai border. The
spread of Islam, introduced by Arab and Indian traders,
brought the Hindu-Buddhist era to an end by the 13th
century. With the conversion of the Malay-Hindu rulers of
the Melaka Sultanate (the Malay kingdom which ruled
both side of the Straits of Malaka for over a hundred
years),, Islam was established as the religion of the
Malays, and had profound effect on Malay society.
The arrival of Europeans in Malaysia brought a dramatic
change to the country. In 1511, the Portuguese captured
Malaka and the rulers of the Melaka Sultanate fled south
to Johor where they tried to establish a new kingdom. They were resisted not only
by the Europeans but by the Acehnese, Minangkabau and the Bugis, resulting in
the sovereign units of the present-day states of Peninsular Malaysia. The
Portuguese were in turn defeated in 1641 by the Dutch, who colonized Melaka
until the advent of the British in the Dutch exerted any profound influence on
Malay society. The British acquired Melaka from the Dutch in 1824 in exchange
for Bencoolen in Sumatra. From their new bases in Malaka, Penang and Singapore,
collectively known as the Straits settlements, the British, through their influence
and power, began the process of political intergration of the Malay states of
Peninsular Malaysia. After World War II and the Japanese occupation from 1941-
45, the British created the Malayan Union 1946.This was abandoned in 1948 and
the Federation of Malaya emerged in its place. The Federation gained its
independence from Britain on 31 August 1957.In September 1963, Malaya,
Sarawak, Sabah, and initially Singapore united to form Malaysia, a country whose
potpourri of society and customs derives from its rich heritage from four of the
world's major cultures - Chinese, Indian, Islamic and Western.

Problem within certain countries and problem
that acrose in the process of forming malaysia.
Following the Japanese occupation of Malaysia during World War II, a growing
nationalist movement prompted the British to establish the semiautonomous
Federation of Malaya in 1948. But Communist guerrillas took to the jungles to
begin a war of national liberation against the British, who declared a state of
emergency to quell the insurgency, which lasted until 1960.
The independent state of Malaysia came into existence on Sept. 16, 1963, as a
federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sabah (North Borneo), and Sarawak. In 1965,
Singapore withdrew from the federation to become a separate nation. Since 1966,
the 11 states of former Malaya have been known as West Malaysia, and Sabah and
Sarawak as East Malaysia.
By the late 1960s Malaysia was torn by communal rioting directed against Chinese
and Indians, who controlled a disproportionate share of the country's wealth.
Beginning in 1968, the government moved to achieve greater economic balance
through a national economic policy.

The Depression of the 1930s, followed by the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War,
had the effect of ending Chinese emigration to Malaya. This stabilised the
demographic situation and ended the prospect of the Malays becoming a minority
in their own country. At the time of independence in 1957, the Malays were 55% of
the population, the Chinese 35% and the Indians 10%. Since the Malays have until
recently had a higher birth rate, the proportion of Malays has increased since
independence – by 2000 it was over 60%.

This equation was upset by the inclusion of Singapore, which increased the
Chinese proportion to close to 40%. Both UMNO and the MCA were nervous
about the possible appeal of Lee's People's Action Party (then seen as a radical
socialist party) to voters in Malaya, and tried to organise a party in Singapore to
challenge Lee's position there. Lee in turn threatened to run PAP candidates in
Malaya at the 1964 federal elections, despite an earlier agreement that he would
not do so (see PAP-UMNO Relations). This provoked Tunku Abdul Rahman to
demand that Singapore withdraw from Malaysia, which it did in August 1965.

The most vexed issues of independent Malaysia were education and the disparity
of economic power among the ethnic communities. Since there was no effective
opposition party, these issues were contested mainly within the coalition
government, which won all but one seat in the first post-independence Malayan
Parliament. The two issues were related, since the Chinese advantage in education
played a large part in maintaining their control of the economy, which the UMNO
leaders were determined to end. The MCA leaders were torn between the need to
defend their own community’s interests and the need to maintain good relations
with UMNO. This produced a crisis in the MCA in 1959, in which a more assertive
leadership under Lim Chong Eu defied UMNO over the education issue, only to be
forced to back down when Tunku Abdul Rahman threatened to break up the

The Education Act of 1961 put UMNO’s victory on the education issue into
legislative form. Henceforward Malay and English would be the only teaching
languages in secondary schools, and state primary schools would teach in Malay
only. Although the Chinese and Indian communities could maintain their own
Mandarin and Tamil-language primary schools, all their students were required to
learn Malay, and to study an agreed “Malayan curriculum.” Most importantly, the
entry exam to the University of Malaya (which moved from Singapore to Kuala
Lumpur in 1963) would be conducted in Malay, even though most teaching at the
university was in English until the 1970s. This had the effect of excluding many
Chinese students. At the same time Malay schools were heavily subsidised, and
Malays were given preferential treatment. This obvious defeat for the MCA greatly
weakened its support in the Chinese community.

At the time of independence Malaya had great economic advantages. It was among
the world’s leading producers of three valuable commodities, rubber, tin and palm
oil, and also a significant iron ore producer. These export industries gave the
Malayan government a healthy surplus to invest in industrial development and
infrastructure projects. Like other developing nations in the 1950s and '60s, Malaya
(and later Malaysia) placed great stress on state planning, although UMNO was
never a socialist party. The First and Second Malayan Plans (1956-60 and 1961-65
respectively) stimulated economic growth through state investment in industry and
repairing infrastructure such as roads and ports, which had been damaged and
neglected during the war and the Emergency. The government was keen to reduce
Malaya’s dependence on commodity exports, which put the country at the mercy of
fluctuating prices. The government was also aware that demand for natural rubber
was bound to fall as the production and use of synthetic rubber expanded. Since a
third of the Malay workforce worked in the rubber industry it was important to
develop alternative sources of employment. Competition for Malaya’s rubber
markets meant that the profitability of the rubber industry increasingly depended
on keeping wages low, which perpetuated rural Malay poverty.

As in education, the UMNO government’s unspoken agenda in the field of
economic development was to shift economic power away from the Chinese and
towards the Malays. The two Malayan Plans, and the First Malaysian Plan (1966-
70), directed resources heavily into developments which would benefit the rural
Malay community, such as village schools, rural roads, clinics and irrigation
projects. Several agencies were set up to enable Malay smallholders to upgrade
their production and increase their incomes. The Federal Land Development
Authority (FELDA) helped many Malays buy farms or upgrade ones they already
owned. The state also provided a range of incentives and low-interest loans to help
Malays start businesses, and government tendering systematically favoured Malay
companies, leading many Chinese-owned businesses to “Malayanise” their
management. All this certainly tended to reduce to gap between Chinese and Malay
standards of living, although some argued that this would have happened anyway
as Malaysia’s trade and general prosperity increased.

T he termination of the Malayan Union in 1948 had made the British to
commit themselves to prepare the way from the Federations independence.
Under the twin pressure of the Emergency and the development of a strong
Malay nationalist movement, that is UMNO, the British introduced elections
in 1951 at the local level. The problem of obtaining political coopertaion
among the main ethnic groups in the country to fight for independence was
resolved by the successful establishment of an alliance between UMNO and
the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA), the two principal communal parties
and later joined by the Malayan Indian Congress (MIC). When the first federal
elections were held in 1955, the UMNO-MCA-MIC Alliance, which was
headed by Tunku Abdul Rahman, won an overwhelming vistory, that is 51 out
of the 52 seats contested. Tunku Abdul Rahman was appointed the Federation
of Malayas first Chief Minister. The Alliance was successful in pressuring the
British to relinquisht heir sovereignty and the Federation of Malaya achieved
its independence on the 31st August 1957.

To avoid this situation from happening, we must not ever believe other people
opinion because that will make our malaysia not very safe to our community
because that will make our country not in good condition. One important thing is
we must support our country because it will make our MALAYSIA on the right
track in the future but not ever treat our MALAYSIA in bad way.

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