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Partial List of Musical Terms for Music 110C Midterm Review

People (should know nationality, position and/or relationship to Bach)

Bach’s contemporary composers
Georg Böhm (German [Thuringia] organist and composer)
Dieterich Buxtehude (German Baroque composer, organist, lutenist)
Arcangelo Corelli (Italian Baroque composer, violinist)
Francois Couperin (French Baroque composer)
Georg Frideric Handel (born in German, but considered “English Baroque
composer”. Born same year as Bach)
Johann Kuhnau (predecessor at Thomaskirche, composer)
Johann Pachelbel (German Baroque composer, organist)
Georg Philipp Telemann (German baroque composer, Godfather to Bach’s son,
founder of collegium musicum)
Antonio Vivaldi (Italian Baroque composer. Bach transcribed his concertos)

Others contemporaries: employers, acquaintances, collaborators…
Georg Erdmann (classmate at Ohrdruf)
J. A. Ernesti (Leipzig rector at Thomasschule)
Johann Gottlieb Goldberg (virtuoso keyboardist. Studied with Bach. “Goldberg
Variations” written for him)
Count von Keyserlingk (Goldberg Variations dedicated to him)
Louis Marchand (French virtuoso)
Frederick the Great (King of Prussia, flutist)
“Picander” (Christian Friedrich Henrici) librettist/collaborator with Bach (St.
Matthew Passion)
Martin Luther (16th century. German monk. Associated with beginnings of
Lutheranism)
Prince Leopold (Cöthen)
Princess Friderica Henrietta (Prince Leopold’s new wife)
Prince Johann Ernst (Weimar)
Duke Wilhelm Ernst (Weimar)
Scheibe (critic, Leipzig)
Gottfried Zimmerman (Zimmerman’s Coffee house)

Biographer/people who revived or helped Bach’s legacy
Forkel (biographer)
Wolfgang Schmieder (19th century biographer, assigned BWV numbers)
Mendelssohn (Romantic composer, pianist, conductor, reviver of Bach’s music)

Family
Viet Bach (b. 1578 in Hungary. founder of Bach family, great-great grandfather to
J.S. Bach)
Emanuel (son)
Maria Barbara (first wife from 1707. Also first-cousin)
Anna Magdalena (second wife from 1721. singer)
Johann Christoff (brother, raised him in Ohrdruf)
J.G. Walther (relative. Teacher to Prince Johann Ernst)

Types of musicians and/or positions:(what is the difference between
these positions. Which positions are ranked higher and/or more
prestigious)
Capellmeister
Concert Meister
cantor
Church organist
Court organist
Stadtpfeifer
Stadtmusicus
Collegium musicum
Grosse Concert

Technical Terms used to describe music techniques and form
Basso continuo
Cantus firmus
Chorale
Chorale fantasia
Continuo
cross motif
Melisma/melismatic
Motives (motifs)
motif: BACH motif
Obbligato
Phrases/sections (sections marked by letters: ABC)
Punctus contra punctum
Recitativo accompagnato
Recitativo secco
secco, accompagnato
stile antico (old style)
stile nuovo (recitative)

cadence
parody
counterpoint (contrapuntal, polyphony)
fugue terms: subject, answer, episode
stretto
imitative
keys/key signature
tonic, dominant
diatonic, chromatic
modulation

“halo music” (St. Matthew Passion)
“turba choruses” (St. Matthew Passion)

Musica forms or movements:
Da capo form: ABA (also ternary form)
Variation Form: AA’A’’A’’’…
Symmetrical structure
Prelude
Fantasia
Toccata
French overture
fugues
variations
canon
Ensemble or solo suites
Aria
Passacaglia (ground bass, basso ostinato, chaconne)
Chorale
Cantata
Ritornello
Ricercar
Concerto
Mass (sections of)
Opera
Toccata
Theme and Variations
Suite movements (prelude, allemande, courante, sarabande, minuet, gigue)

Other terms (misc)
Well tempered verses equal tempered (tuning)
BWV (Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis) (Bach Works Catalogue)
Bach Gesellshaft (formed in 1850. Society to publish Bach’s works)

Terms to describe different styles/schools of performing in the Baroque:
North German Organ School

Types of music Bach wrote (generally speaking)
Secular music: concertos, sonatas, burlescas)
Higher music-study (counterpoint, fugue, four-part harmonization)

Places where Bach lived/ Dates, travels and employment

Eisenach (1685-1695)
Born, lived with parents til their deaths (within a year of each other)
1692: Enters Lateinschule, Eisenach

Ohrdruf (1695-1700)
lived with brother Johann Christoph here after parents death

Lüneburg (1700-1703, student)
1700: enrolls in Michaelisschule
1702: applies (unsuccessfully) for organist post at Jakobikirche

Weimar (1703, Court musician)
Appointed court musician (March-Sept)

Arnstadt (1703-1707, Organist)
1705: trip to Lünebeck (Oct-Jan, 1706)

Mühlhausen (1707-08, organist)
Appointed organist at Blasiukirche
1707: marries Maria Barbara

Weimar (1707-1717, organist and chamber musician to court, 1714:
konzertmeister)
Appointed organist and chamber musician to Duke Wilhelm Ernst
1708: first child born (Catharina Dorothea)
1710: second child: ilhelm Friedemann born
1713: visits Weissenfels
1714: offered post at Halle. Turns down/is promoted to Konzertmeister at Weimar

Anhalt-Cöthen (1717-1723, Kapellmeister)
1717 visits Dresden and accepts invitation to take part in contest with Marchand.
1717 (Nov): imprisoned by Duke Wilhelm Ernst to keep Bach from taking post.
1717: travels to Leipzig (Examines organ in Paulinerkirche)
1718: visits Carlsbad with Prince Leopold (spas)
1720: Wife Maria Barbara dies (while Bach is visiting Carlsbad again)
1720: visits Hamburg, is offered post as organist at Jakobikirche (he declines)
1721: Brandenburg concertos dedicated to Margrave Christian Ludwig
1721: Marries Anna Magdalena

Leipzig (1723-1750, cantor and music director)
1724: St. John Passion performed in Nikolaikirche
1724: examines organ in Johanniskirche
1725: Bach gives organ recitals in Sophienkirche, Dresden
1725: visits Cöthen
1727: St. Matthew Passion performed in Thomaskirche
1729: visits Weissenfels
1729: visits Cöthen to perform funeral music for Prince Leopold. (St. Matthew
Passion, parts)
1729: disputes with council over admission of unmusical pupils to Thomasschule
1729: Bach takes over collegium musicum
1729: illness prevents his visiting Handel in Halle (they never met)
1730: Bach addresses memorandum on church music to town council
1730: letter to Erdmann seeking possible employment
1731: St Mark Passion performed in Thomaskirche
1731: Bach gives organ recital in Dresden
1732: examines organ in Martinskirche, Cassell
1733: Son Wilhelm Friedemann appointed organist at Sophienkirche, Dresden.
1733: Bach visits Dresden and presents Missa (from B Minor Mass) to Elector Friedrich August II
1734: J.A. Ernesti appointed Rektor at Thomasschule
1734: Christmas Oratorio performed
1735: Bach examines organ in Marienkirche, Mühlhausen
1735: Son, Gottfried Bernhard appointed organist in Mühlhausen
1736: “Battle of the prefects” with Ernesti begins.
1736: appointed Hofcompositeur to Elector of Saxony
1736: gives organ recital in Dresden
1737: Music critic: Scheibe wrote a criticism of Bach’s music
1737-1739: temporarily gives up Collegium musicum
1738: son, Carl Philipp Emanuel appointed harpsichordist to crown prince Frederick of Prussia
1738: Bach visit Dresden
1739: visits Weissenfels with Anna Magdalena
1740: visits Halle
1741: Bach visits son Carl Philipp Emanuel in Berlin
1741: Bach visits Dresden
1743: Grosse Concert formed: (not involving Bach)
1745: first grandchild, Johann August Bach born
1746: son, Wilhelm Friedemann, appointed organist at Liebfrauenkirche, Halle
1747: Bach visits Frederick the Great at Potsdam and gives organ recital
1748: hand-writing starts to show signs of decline
1750: eye operation (March-April),
July 22, 1750: takes final communion
July 28, 1750: stroke and then dies
July 31, 1750: buried in graveyard of Johanniskirche

More on death
Advanced diabetes
Little newspaper reporting about it (more in Dresden)
Burial location was ambiguous
Buried at Johanniskirche churchyard (with no gravestone. Unusual).
Coffin moved in 1900 inside the rebuilt Johanniskirche, moved to Thomaskirche in 1949. 1962 moved
into present central positionear the crossing.

Perception:
Reverence for Bach in the later part of the 18th century was expressed with respect to Bach’s skill in
writing counterpoint. Less so for vocal, chamber sonatas and instrumental concertos---these were
superseded by the Italianate operas, symphonies, quartets, concertos of next generation.

Questions to consider:
1. What were Bach’s primary duties at each position he held? What was his
(compositional) output and how did it differ from one residence to the next?
2. What composers and/or regional styles influenced Bach?
3. How did he learn the music of composers from other areas?
4. What are the movements of a Mass? A suite?
5. What are the primary instruments Bach was writing for?
6. What were the events Bach was writing for?
7. Name the various keyboard forms? What are the differences (characteristics
in terms of mood, speed, form…)
8. What issues did Bach have to contend with in his personal life? His
professional life? As a composer?
9. Related to this, what caused him strife?
10.Bach the teacher?
11.Bach the parent?
12.Bach the colleague?
13.Name the characteristics/elements of a particular form (Mass? Fugue? Suite?
)
14.What instruments did Bach write for?
15.What is Bach’s legacy? Which musicians/biographers helped in retaining
Bach’s legacy?