Find Projectors Get Bids CuData-Video Projectors – A Glossary of Terms Understanding the terms used to describe any

technology can be a daunting task. Those who create technology have a tendency to use terms with the assumption that they are self-explanatory. Of course, that is not always the case, and the terminology used to describe data-video projector can also be as difficult to comprehend as those used to describe computer technology. Here is a glossary of the most commonly used terms used to describe the features and functions of a data video projector, and how they apply to Dukane data-video projectors. A AC Port: The AC port on a projector is simply another name for the port where he electricity (Alternating Current) comes into the projector. All Dukane projectors use the most widely used power cable, shown below

The fact that all Dukane projectors used this cable is fairly significant. Some projector manufacturers have chosen NOT to use these standard cables, which are the same power cables used on most PCs and many other devices. Most tech /IT offices have dozens of these cables, and a replacement cable of this type can also easily be found in most local stores. Buying or borrowing a power cable can easily fix the dilemma of leaving behind or misplacing the power cable. However, locating a special power cable for a particular projector that doesn't used this standard cable is often a problem.

ANSI-American National Standards Institute. A group that creates what are meant to be agreed-upon standards for technology. In terms of projectors, ANSI is most often used for two terms predictive of the quality of a projected image, ANSI Contrast and ANSI lumens. ANSI Contrast: Contrast is the ratio between white and black. The larger the contrast ratio the greater the ability of a projector to show subtle color details and tolerate extraneous room light. ANSI Lumens: A standard for measuring light output, used for comparing projectors. . Aspect Ratio: The most popular aspect ratio is 4:3 (4 by 3). Early television and computer video formats are in a 4:3 aspect ratio, which means that the width of the image is 4/3 times the height. Examples: A 15 inch monitor is 12 inches wide by 9 inches high (9 x 4/3 = 12). A resolution of 640x480 is a 4:3 format (480 x 4/3 = 640). Other formats are 5:4 used by the 1280x1024 SXGA resolution, 16:9 is used by HDTV, and 3:2 for 35mm slides Many movies are designed to be shown in he 16:9 ratio . ATA Rated Case: A case rated strong enough to be shipped by common carrier; freight lines, UPS, FedEx, etc. Most cases of this type are easily recognized by their metal reinforced corners and handles. . B -----------------------------------------------------------------------Back Room Projector: A projector with a "long-throw" lens designed to be used from the far back of the room, often in a projection booth, balcony, or back of an auditorium. Many projectors have lenses available for "long-throw" applications.

C -----------------------------------------------------------------------Component Video: Component Video is a method of delivering quality video (RGB) in a format that contains all the components of the original image. These components are referred to as luma and chroma and are defined as Y'Pb'Pr' for analog component and

Y'Cb'Cr' for digital component. Component video is available on some DVD players and projectors. The cable for component video is typically that with red, green and blue RCA tips. Composite video –With composite video, the entire video signal is transmitted on one cable. Composite cables are typically color-coded yellow( the video cable) white and red( the audio cables). This is the lowest quality means to send video to a projector, but still remains a common standard particularly on older VCRS, and DVD players where HDMI ( the highest quality) is not an option . These cable also have RCA tips. Contrast Ratio: The ratio between white and black. The larger the contrast ratio the greater the ability of a projector to show subtle color details and tolerate extraneous room light. A higher contrast ratio means a crisper image. D -----------------------------------------------------------------------Diagonal Screen: A method of measuring the size of a screen or a projected image. It measures from one corner to the opposite corner. A 9FT high, 12FT wide, screen has a diagonal of 15FT. It is typically assumed that the diagonal dimensions are for the traditional 4:3 ratio of a computer image as per the example above. Some screens are square, others particularly wide for 35mm slides 3:2 ratio. As such even if the screen is 12x12, we would rate it 15FT diagonal since that would be the diagonal of the usable area. OK, how about this! Remember high school? Here's your old geometry lesson. Xsquared times Y-squared equals Z-squared. 3ft by 4ft screen = 3 squared (9), + 4 squared (16), equals 25 (5 squared) a 5 ft diagonal image. Digital Light Processing (DLP): The commercial name for this technology from Texas Instruments (TI): The technology inside is often referred to as either "micro-mirrors", or DMD: The most amazing part of DLP micro mirrors, is the scale of size. The hinges and motors are packed onto a "wafer" a bit larger than your thumbnail. Distribution Amplifier: An amplifier used to maintain a clean noise free signal to the projector over significant distances. Even with good heavily shielded cables, range of video and computer signals is limited to a few dozen feet before noticeable degradation. In ceiling mount situations, where the wiring may pass along side or across electrical conduits, etc. a distribution amp may be needed with shorter distances. Many distribution amps can also split the signal into 2 or more amplified signals for driving multiple projectors, projectors and monitors. A common error is using a cable too long for a strong signal to reach the projector. The need for a “DA” varies with the quality of the cable, but using a cable much longer than 25 feet generally calls for a distribution amplifier.

DVI: DVI means Digital Visual Interface. DVI is a standard that defines the digital interface between digital devices such as projectors and personal computers. For devices that support DVI, a digital-to-digital connection can be made that eliminates the conversion to analog and thereby delivers an unblemished image. DVI was an early digital interface. HDMI is largely taking the place of DVI. F -----------------------------------------------------------------------Focal Length: The distance from the surface of a lens to its focal point. Form Factor: A general description a major feature or features that identify a type of projector or category of capabilities. Projectors with a smaller form factor are more portable. However, a smaller form factor also allows for fewer inputs and a smaller fan and room for heat to dissipate. A smaller form factor is ideal for a traveling presenter or “road warrior. A slightly larger form factor for a classroom or conference room remains portable, but does not limit inputs or the size of the case. Projectors used for a permanently fixed in stallion can have a larger form factor, since they will seldom if ever be used. Again, a common error is to assume that a very small affordable projector will suffice for all day classroom or conference room use. Front Room Projector or Position: A unit that sits close to the screen, its short throw lens projects an image size that is about the same as the distance to the screen. 6FT diag. screen = 6FT distance. Generally the unit might be as close as 3/4 the screen size or as far as 1.2 times image size. H -----------------------------------------------------------------------Halogen Lamps: Used in most low and medium priced projectors, these lamps last about 40 hours, with consistent output throughout their life. Although halogens look very white compared to a normal incandescent lamp, they are not as white as metal halide units. Cost of operation: Under $0.50 per hour. Most projectors using halogen lamps carry a spare lamp inside. Halogen lamps were used in early projectors and may be in some “legacy projectors, but are no longer widely sold. Hard Wired Remote: Generally a remote control is wireless, and uses infrared transmitter. There are situations where this is not practical: Large rooms where the speaker is 35 ft or more from the projector. Rear projection, where the screen will pass some signal, but normally has the presenter pretty much tied down. Also, the presenter has to point the remote "at" the projector, which often means turning away from the audience. A hard-wired remote is generally used where the presenter cannot aim the

remote in the direction of the projector, such as a projector mounted in a projection booth.
HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a compact audio/video interface for transferring uncompressed video data and compressed/uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant device ("the source device") to a compatible digital audio device, computer monitor, video projector, or digital television. HDMI is a digital replacement for existing analog video standards. All of the current models of Dukane projectors have an HDMI input, in addition to the standard RGB inputs, which makes them ready for use with devices that can connect via HDMI, including some computers, DVD and Blu ray players and Ipads (with the Apple HDMI adapter) .

High Gain Screen: A screen that uses one of many methods to collect light and reflect it back to the audience, which dramatically increase the brightness of the image over a white wall or semi-matte screen. Technologies used include curved screens, special metal foil screens (some polarized), and certain glass bead screens. Screens with a matte-white surface offer less gain, but are the most commonly used screens in classrooms and conference rooms since they are more affordable and can be cleaned when needed. I -----------------------------------------------------------------------Infrared Remote: The traditional remote control, it transmits infrared, like a television remote. Typical range is limited to 30 or 35 feet. Infrared requires line of site or a bounce off of a hard surface. The presenter must pay attention to where the remote is pointed. Some projectors have an IR sensor in both the front and rear of the projector, which can help a bit. When working at or near the maximum distance pointing right at the receiver is necessary. Remember "line of sight" - a person's head, directly between your remote and the projector may be enough to render it unusable. Radio frequency remote mousing systems, by comparison, have two distinct advantages, no line of sight requirement, and longer range. A wireless tablet/slate gives the advantage of controlling the mouse functions and also is easier to use to simply advance slides or close or open computer windows .

International Power Supply: A unit that can operate under a international selection of power requirements. The specs of units vary widely, but the minimum is 105-230 volts, and 50-60 cycles AC (alternating current). If you see a specification like 110v, 220v instead of a range, those ratings are usually +/- a given percent such as 10%. Some units are "self-switching" they will automatically switch to whatever power source you plug it into. Others will have to be switched (internally or externally to accommodate a difference volt age or cycle range. If your projector comes with some “strange looking” power cables, those are ones for international use. Invert Image: Invert image flips the image from top to bottom, to compensate for ceiling mounting a projector upside down. Projectors typically ceiling-mount upside down, because most have "keystone" correction built in to compensate for the distortion created by "pointing up" from the table to the screen. Usual positioning has the projector about even with the bottom of the screen in a "table top position," or, even with the top of the screen when ceiling mounted. K Kensington Lock Port : Kensington is the brand name of company that produces security cables and locks for computers and projector. The port to use with a Kensington lock has become a “defacto” standard. Many Dukane projectors include a slot for a Kensington security device. Keystone Correction: Using optics design or other methods to apply a "negative" keystone to the image, which will partially cancel the effects of keystoning. If you aim a projector with keystone correction at a screen with the lens level with the middle of the screen, you will not that the image at the bottom is wider than at the top. When the projector is in normal position, pointing upward 10-25 degrees, the resulting image is fairly rectangular. Keystoning: Keystoning is caused when the projected image is not perpendicular to the screen, making the top and bottom of the image different lengths. The keystone effect, and the need for keystone correction can be avoided by simply placing the projector at a point as perpendicular at possible to the screen. They keystone correction feature offered in many projectors helps to assure of a rectangular image.

L LAN-Local Area Network: Some projectors now come with an input so the projector can be put on a LAN. There are two reasons to have your projector on a lan. Using software, a site or IT administrator can check the status of the projector monitoring

such things as the lamp life on the projector and whether it is on or off. Some projectors now come with software that allows an image to be wireless projected over a LAN as well Laser Pointer: A small pen or cigar-sized pointer, that contains a small battery powered laser, which can project a small, red (typically), high intensity beam of light that is immediately very visible on the screen. Excellent for pointing to objects or text, to make a point. Some schools have avoided or even banned the use of laser pointers simply because of the risk of them being used by incorrectly or picked up b students and aimed at someone’s eyes. LCD: LCD stands for liquid crystal display and comes in many forms, sizes, and resolutions. Its primary purpose is to present a digital image for viewing. A common use of LCDs is as a display on a notebook computer and “smart phones Lens Shift: The Lens Shift feature of a projector allows the optical lens to be physically shifted up and down (Vertical) or left and right (Horizontal). Most all lens shift mechanisms are motorized with vertical lens shift being the most popular. With a projector that has lens shift you can optically correct for keystone distorted images. It is also used to help geometrically align images when stacking projectors. Long Throw Lens: A lens designed for projection from the back of a room, or rather the back of a long room. Long throw lenses would be used a projection booth in the back of a theater, a church, or a large ballroom in a hotel or other venue. A typical long throw lens might have to be 50 to 100 FT back to project a 10FT diagonal image. Some long throw lens is “factory installed”. Some projectors include what is typically called a “bayonet mount” where different lens can be added, just as a bayonet can be added to, or left off of, some rifles as needed. M -----------------------------------------------------------------------Maximum Image Size: The largest image a projector can throw in a darkened room. This is usually limited by focal range of the optics. Menu Driven: Refers to the type of controls on a projector. A typical menu driven system, will first offer a menu of major categories such as Computer, Video, Audio, Display, Options. After selecting Computer, you will get another menu of choices with items like brightness, contrast, number of colors, color balance, sync. Select one of those and you can then adjust it. Many projectors, which are menu driven, also offer the most widely used functions in a non-menu fashion, such as have separate buttons on the remote for volume, brightness, and contrast, as well as switching between channels/sources. One factor to look for is if the projectors menus can be adjusted WITHOU a remote. There are two kinds of projector remotes: those that will soon be

misplaced and those that are misplaced. Of course a celling mounted, fixed projector should be mounted so that the menus don't need to be adjusted, but it is good to know whether the menus can be controlled on the projector without a remote. Most projectors DO have “redundant menus” on both the remote and the unit itself. Some don't.

Metal Halide Lamp: The type of lamp used in most current projectors. These lamps typically have a "half-life" of 2000-6000 hours. That is they slowly lose intensity (brightness) as they are used, and at the "half-life" point, they are half as bright as when new, but typically don't suddenly fail these lamps output a very "hot" temperature light, similar to mercury vapor lamps used in streetlights. Smaller “road warrior projectors”, the less than 5 lb. category, have a smaller form factor and thus a smaller fan. While these are being used in classrooms and conference rooms, they were not designed or meant to be “always on” for several hours.

Mini Plug: Since most laptop, and many desktop computers, has a headphone port, this port can be used to send the sound from a computer to a projector. A male-to-male mini plug cable, using the tip shown below can be used to accomplish that, if the projector has a mini plug in. Likewise a projector may have an audio-out port that uses the kind of mini-pin connection, so that a set of speakers can be attached to the projector.

Minimum Distance: The closest position that a projector can focus an image onto a screen.

NTSC: The United States broadcast standard for video and broadcasting. A VCR has NTSC output. PAL is a European standard O -----------------------------------------------------------------------OHP: The common abbreviation for overhead projector. Overhead Projector (OHP): A device consisting of a light source, a transmissive or reflective platform, and a focusable lens assembly. An OHP is designed to project images from transparencies onto a screen. With the advent of affordable visual presenters and document cameras, OHPs are not the classroom staple they once were. However, they do represent a tool that does what is was mean to do. It is also possible to get inkjet compatible transparencies, and make good transparencies where an OHP is available to use. P -----------------------------------------------------------------------PAL: A European and international broadcast standard for video and broadcasting. Higher resolution than NTSC. Panel: Also known as a projection panel, LCD projection panel, or plate. The panel is the predecessor of today's projectors. They worked with an overhead projector. Most of these are “retired” from use. Power Zoom : A zoom lens with the zoom in and out controlled by a motor, usually adjusted from the projector's control panel and also the remote control. Projector: A projector is a device that integrates a light source, optics system, electronics and display(s) for the purpose of projecting an image from a computer or video device onto a wall or screen for large image viewing. There are hundreds of products available in the market and their resolution, performance features, warranty and support differentiate them. These devices attached to a computer or video devices, as you would connect a monitor. A “data-video “ projector is a more accurate term as it suggests the fact that these can be used to project the Image from a computer or a video source, such as a Video camera, VCR, DVD player or blu ray player .

R -----------------------------------------------------------------------Rear Screen Projection: Using an opaque screen, the projector is placed behind the screen, invisible to the audience. It projects onto the screen and the audience sees it on the other side. Good rear projection screens actually produce brighter images than some standard screens. So as not to waste space behind the screen, ideally a projector with a short throw lens is used. Since the projector can be placed even with the middle of the screen, without blocking anyone's view, keystoning is not a problem. RCA cable –An RCA cable uses the plug seen below . Both composite(Red Green, Blue) and Component ( Yellow, white and red) use RCA cables, which make it easy to confuse them. Also, some projectors have a pair and Red and White RCA ports, which can be used for “audio out” to a set of speakers.

Reverse Image: Reverse image is a feature found on most projectors, which flips the image horizontally. When used in a normal forward projection environment text, graphics, etc, are backwards. Reverse image is used for rear projection. RGB: Red, Green, Blue; the normal type of monitor used with computers, examples of usage: RGB input or output often referred to as Computer input or output. RS-232 Port : An RS-232 Port is a serial connection found on the input section of many projectors. Its typical use is for the addition of a wired remote as described here in the glossary. It has “male “ pins and is easy to confuse with

S -----------------------------------------------------------------------S-Video: A video transmission standard that uses a 4-pin mini-DIN connector to send video information on two signal wires called luminance (brightness, Y) and chrominance (color, C)

SECAM: A French and international broadcast standard for video and broadcasting. Higher resolution than NTSC. Short Throw Lens: A lens designed to project the largest possible image from short distance. Most front room projectors use short throw lens. They are often required for rear projection, where the depth behind the screen is limited. A typical short throw lens might produce a diagonal image size of 10 FT, from a distance of 7 to 10 FT. SVGA: SVGA is used to define a specific display resolution. Resolution is defined by the number of individual dots that a display uses to create an image. These dots are called pixels. An SVGA display has 800 horizontal pixels and 600 vertical pixels giving a total display resolution of 480,000 individual pixels that are used to compose the image delivered by a projector. SXGA: SXGA is used to define a specific display resolution. Resolution is defined by the number of individual dots that a display uses to create an image. These dots are called pixels. An SXGA display has 1280 horizontal pixels and 1024 vertical pixels giving a total display resolution of 1,310,720 individual pixels that are used to compose the image delivered by a projector. T Throw Distance : Throw distance is a term used to explain how far the image can be “thrown” from the computer to the screen. Put another way, if you have an existing screen size, the throw distance will determine how fan away from the screen the computer should be placed for the best image. Throw distance falls in one of four categories. Long throw, Standard throw, short throw , and ultra-short throw.

Since most classrooms are 12” from floor to ceiling , the typical screen sizes are 6”x6”, 8’x8’ or 10’x10’. Larger rooms or larger presentation areas can of course support larger screens. Dukane makes the process of determining the throw distance easy with this very useful Prjojection distance calculation webpage: Every current Dukane model is listed, as well as “historic models” ( no longer sold but still in use) . It also suggests a location based on ambient light in the room. This chart makes it much easier to chose the right projector for your needs, and to know where to place if for the best results. Here is a another way to look at this. The location of a standard throw projector should be roughly twice the width of the screen. If you walk into a room and look at the existing screen, you can estimate how far away from the screen a standard throw Projector using the formula L ( location) = SW( screen width) X 2. Example: Given a 6 foot screen a standard throw projector would be 12 feet away from the screen A short throw projector could be 9 feet away from the screen An ultra short throw projector could be three feet away from the screen. And a long throw projector could be at the back of the room, 25 feet away. These are rough distances used for the sake of example. The projector calculator on the Dukane website takes away any guesswork. Most projectors include a throw distance chart either on the data sheet or the user manual. A zoom lens adds a plus/minus variable . Meaning you can make the image slightly larger or smaller. Ideally you want to zoom in the projector as much as possible,since that also means the light is more focused and less difused, resulting in a a brighter and sharper image from a given distance.

U Ultra short throw projector : A category of projectors designed to be set up and used only a few feet from the screen or projection surface. These projectors are widely used with interactive whiteboard or in the case of a rear projection screen.

USB-Universal Serial Bus- USB is another term for a standard on computers and related technology devices like Data video projector. The USB port on a Projector can be used either to connect the projector to the computer in some cases. USB ports on projectors can also be used to allow “computer-less “presenting if the presentation is put on a USB “Flash drive” UXGA: UXGA is used to define a specific display resolution. Resolution is defined by the number of individual dots that a display uses to create an image. These dots are called pixels. A UXGA display has 1600 horizontal pixels and 1200 vertical pixels giving a total display resolution of 1,920,000 individual pixels that are used to compose the image delivered by a projector V -----------------------------------------------------------------------VGA: VGA is used to define a specific display resolution. Resolution is defined by the number of individual dots that a display uses to create an image. These dots are called pixels. A VGA display has 640 horizontal pixels and 480 vertical pixels giving a total display resolution of 307,200 individual pixels that are used to compose the image delivered by a projector. Virtually all computers today produce an image greater than VGA. At one time many projectors were only capable of VGA resolution. VGA Cable: The VGA cable is a 15 pin male-to-male cable. It remains the most common way to attach a computer to a projector. This same cable is used on many PCs to connect the video card on the computer to a monitor. This is also sometimes called an RGB cable, and some projectors show the port where this cable is to be plugged as the “RGB “ port instead of the “Computer “port.

VGA-Out (also called Monitor out). : Many projector have a port that allows the signal coming INTO the projector from a computer to be “split” and shared with a PC monitor. This feature is useful, for example , where the PC is at a desk and what is being presented is showing up behind the desk. When a monitor is attached to the projector, the presenter gets a “mirror image” of what is being presented to the audience.

W -----------------------------------------------------------------------WSXGA: WSXGA defines a class of SXGA displays with a width resolution sufficient to create an aspect ratio of 16:9. Resolution is defined by the number of individual dots that a display uses to create an image. These dots are called pixels. A WSXGA display has 1920 to 1600 horizontal pixels and 1080 to 900 vertical pixels respectively that are used to compose the image delivered by the projector. WXGA: WXGA defines a class of XGA displays with a width resolution sufficient to create an aspect ratio of 16:9. Resolution is defined by the number of individual dots that a display uses to create an image. These dots are called pixels. A WXGA display has 1366 to 1280 horizontal pixels and 768 to 720 vertical pixels respectively that are used to compose the image delivered by the projector. X -----------------------------------------------------------------------XGA: XGA is used to define a specific display resolution. Resolution is defined by the number of individual dots that a display uses to create an image. These dots are called pixels. An XGA display has 1020 horizontal pixels and 768 vertical pixels giving a total display resolution of 783,360 individual pixels that are used to compose the image delivered by a projector. Most, if not all projectors today, have minimum resolution of XGA.

Z -----------------------------------------------------------------------Zoom Lens: A lens with a variable focal length providing the ability to adjust the size of the image on a screen by adjusting the zoom lens, instead of having to move the projector closer or further. Zoom Lens Ratio: Is the ratio between the smallest and largest image a lens can projector from a fixed distance. For example, a 1.4:1 zoom lens ratio means that a 10 foot image without zoom would be a 14 foot image with full zoom. Conversely, a 10 foot diagonal image at 15 feet with no zoom would still be a 10 image at 21 feet at maximum zoom (15 x 1.4 = 21 feet). A zoom lens is "not as bright" as a fixed lens, and the higher the ratio, the less light output. As anyone knows who has shined a flashlight on a nearby wall , and then on a wall several feet away, light disperses over distance. However, without a zoom lens , some projectors would not FIT on the available screen where it not possible to place the projector as close to the screen as might produce a brighter image. Here is how these terms apply to a typical Dukane projector The Data sheet on the Dukane 8928A can be found here :

Here is a picture of the 8928A

While it has a low profile form factor, you can also see it has a good-sized air filter port on the right to keep the unit cool. The product sheet lists this as a 2700 ANSI Lumen Unit, bright enough for almost any classroom The 4000:1 Contrast ratio means it will produce a very crisp image.

This diagram of the input area on the 8928 A will show many of the glossary terms in use

“Crestron” is the name of company well known for software to control projectors at large scale installations. The fact this unit is “Crestron Ready” simply acknowledges that fact to those who already use Creston’s products. Finally, there is one term that probably doesn't need explanation in a glossary but does need to be pointed out in terms of how it applies to Dukane’s products: Warranty
Dukane offers FIVE year warranty on most of its projectors. Most other carry either a two or three year warranty. Since a one year extension of a warranty can cost as much as $400, there is added value in each Dukane projector.

The full line of Dukane products can be found here :
For more information contact: Delia Valdez Dukane Customer Service Representative Phone: 888-245-1966 Fax: (630) 584-5156 Emai; Website: For information on Dukane’s Innovative Convey Response system, go to Dukane AV 2900 Dukane Drive St. Charles, IL 60174

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