What shall we do with our girls1? A personal narrative concerning The Amazons - The First Ladies Fire Brigade Armidale, Australia.
Version: Draft 1, 4/4/2013. Merilyn Childs, Associate Professor of Digital Futures, Australian Institute of Digital Futures University of Southern Queensland, Queensland. [Recommendation for citing this article: Childs, M. (2013). What shall we do with our girls? A personal narrative concerning ‘The Amazons - The First Ladies Fire Brigade’ 1901-1903 Armidale, Australia. Version Draft 1, pp.1-27, http://womeninfirefighting.blogspot.com.au/ (Date sourced).]

Acknowledgment This narrative would not have been possible without the generosity of others. Neil McGrath (formerly Archival Assistant, NSWFB) first told me that he had heard about a ladies fire brigade in Armidale. Bill Oates (UNE Archivist) encouraged me to visit the UNE Archival Collection2 in August 2008 – and what an amazing experience it was. Pat McGufficke, Secretary Armidale Family History Group Inc. included my request for information in a monthly newsletter. Three Leonies – Leonie Farrugia, Leonie Mercer and Leonie Snell – have been generous in their help. My apologies if I have made errors or omissions in this narrative! I welcome feedback and will produce a revised version, and do plan to do further work3 to develop this account of the Amazons. Background This narrative is a summary only – much more work is yet to be done. It began as a labour of love and intrigue in November 2004 when I invited some colleagues of mine to visit the Museum of Fire in Penrith, New South Wales. At the time I was an academic working at the University of Western Sydney, and at the same time, academic advisor to the NSW Fire Brigades where I facilitated leadership and promotional programs for a decade (1996-2006). By 2004, after eight years, I’d never worked with a female fire fighter. Yet there, on a pillar

The title of this paper is drawn from an article written by Captain J.T.A Webb to the Armidale Chronicle 9/11/1901, p.4, which he began by asking “What shall we do with our girls”? See Attachments. 2 I was also granted permission to reproduce images of the Amazons, so long as thumb nails were used, and source acknowledged. 3 Context is important too- Armidale for example, provides an important context for the Amazons, as does the prevalence of ladies brigades in England.

2 in the Museum, deep within a male history, hung one old, dusty and grainy photograph of a group of twenty or so women who were clearly fire fighters. The caption to the photograph told me that these were women of the “Women’s Fire Auxiliary” and that they had existed during World War II.

That moment began for me a journey in search of a heritage that female fire fighters in the twenty first century did not know that they possessed. Here was a photograph of women fire fighters during the war. Yet women had not been permitted to be recruited or employed as paid fire fighters until after anti-discrimination legislation was passed within states and territories of Australia, largely during the late 1970s and early 1980s. It was not until 1985 for example, that the first women fire fighters were recruited into paid fire fighting in New South Wales – forty years after the end of the war. I found the contrast remarkable. I made a commitment at that time to explore, and share, the invisible and unknown history of female fire fighters in Australia.

The opposition to women fire fighters during the 1980s was strong. Many obstacles were put in aspiring women’s way. Unions argued they would lower the standards and put male fire fighters at risk. Commentators, outraged at the idea, argued building female toilets in station houses was a waste of money; better spent on new equipment. Cartoonists lampooned women fire fighters as sexual objects; and wives of fire fighters bemoaned the possibility of loose women destroying marriages. In those days there were only “firemen” and women were seen to be physically incapable and bodily unsuited to fire fighting work. Few pluses were identified. One was that women might serve the services by providing a civilising influence and the development of good manners for male fire fighters. This was only twenty years ago! I began to wonder what it had been like during World War II. What was the Women’s Fire Auxiliary? What happened to the women who did fire fighting as part of the war effort? What did they do, and how were they received as fire fighters? These questions lead me to somewhere unexpected, and to forty years before World War II – to a journey to Armidale NSW Australia, to the UNE Archives, up a set of stairs to witness an old wooden picture frame with the original images of the Amazons – the First (1901) and Second (1903) Ladies Fire Brigade. There began a new journey – in collaboration with costumier Gracie Matthews to reproduce previously lost historic female fire fighters uniforms of the Amazons, based on photographs of the originals provided by the UNE Archivist Bill Oates. As part of my key

This is especially noticeable for such exercise as bicycling. and photographs and video related to honouring the Amazons by visiting my blog http://womeninfirefighting. and was not aware of the descendents of the Schmutter women. April 1894. 2006 descendants of Minnie Webb5 (the first known female Captain of a fire brigade in Australia) Leonie Snell and Mrs Netta Derby. descendant of the first female Captain of the Amazons Ladies Fire Brigade. and a standing ovation from 180 delegates (95% female operational firefighters and support staff). the recreated uniforms. AFSM. The Victorian Era remained in its prime. Nella Booth. "What shall we wear?" is a query rising from every channel of woman's life: for upon each occasion we must be suitably clad to enjoy its peculiar benefits. along with members of the Women’s Fire Auxiliary (WWII) by Commissioner Greg Mullins. for. . Image 1: The first female Station Officer of the NZ Fire Services. Active women had only just begun to develop acceptable fashion standards for the newly developed bicycles.au/ 5 One of the conference rooms was also named “The Minnie Webb Room”.com. 6 At the time I was early in my research about the Amazons.3 note address4 to the Australasian Women in Fire Fighting Conference. in this case. As one history of women’s fashions pointed out. Darling Harbour Sydney NSW. the following pressing questions was posed in The Ladies Standard Magazine. were honoured 6. The Amazons Imagine 1901 as a period of time for women.blogspot. meeting Netta Derby. p. it is not only 4 You can see records related to the Australasian Women in Fire Fighting Conference. NSW Fire Brigades. 98.

Silent black and white newsreels still exist of the English ladies fire brigades [See News Reels]. in 1901. This all women fire fighting crew was known as “the Amazons” in honour of an all female fire fighting crew of the same name that had existed in England earlier in the nineteenth century. May not be reproduced without permission. and the women were dressed in uniforms that reflected the fashion of the times. Imagine a woman fire fighter dressed in such garb! It sounds impossible. but the health. Too often the answer was “corsets” that were laced tightly over heavy undergarments. leggings to the knees. and above the waist a camisole and long-sleeved shirt worn beneath a coat. fire engines and hoses and for it to fall upon them to defend “great country mansions. Image 2: The Amazons in operational uniform. Reprinted with permission. UNE Archives. 1903.4 a matter of appearing well. hospitals and ladies colleges” unaided by male fire fighters. There it was not uncommon for women to be fully trained in the use of ladders. Yet an all women Australian fire fighting crew was deployed in Armidale. the comfort and safety demand a carefully selected costume and equipment. .

A Webb established the Amazons. Con Webb was also Captain of the Armidale Fire Brigade. . Penrith. 8 There was no fire brigade in Armidale in 1889 when the Great Fire had destroyed the Court House Hotel. reel. http://www.” In answer to his 7 J.armidaleindependent. As this was the second major fire in Beardy Street in two years. A Fire Brigade Board was formed and it received a £1000 grant from the NSW Government for buying a fire engine.com. Captain Webb believed in the capacity of women to be serious fire fighters. Captain Webb wrote to the Armidale Chronicle on the 9th November 1901. The fire engine duly arrived and was commissioned in September 1891. Unlike some commentators of the 1980s9 who opposed women entering fire fighting.T. Image 3: Captain J.T. Descendents of the Webb family continue to live in the Armidale area. They jump from greater height than is usually attempted at fire competitions. further efforts were now made to establish a fire brigade. I struck the same “anti” female firefighters during media interviews in the 21 st Century. and I have read through the many memos he sent to the central office in Sydney at the Museum of Fire. They handle the hose on top of a 50 foot ladder with a pressure of water that makes it difficult to control even on terra firma. “These girls are thoroughly drilled in handling the engine.A Webb’s story is itself interesting.5 The Amazons was established by Captain J.au/wordpress/index. fire escape and builders ladder (sic).php/2011/05/the-court-house-hotel-fire/ 9 In truth.T.A Webb7 of the Armidale Fire Brigades8.

The following images are drawn from my private collection memorializing female firefighters in England (WWI)10 and Ireland11 (See below). Silent film footage12 can be viewed of female fire fighters in England during WWI.com/video/womens-wartime-fire-brigade-aka-ladies-fire-brigad/query/ON+032+G http://www. Reprinted with permission.britishpathe. UNE Archives.6 own question “What shall we do with our girls” he answered. Franco British Exhibition (of Irish maidens Ballymaclinton) 12 http://www.com/video/women-fire-fighters/query/ON+032+G .A Webb originally came from England. 10 11 1917 Northern England 1908.T. Image 4: Captain Minnie Webb demonstrates her skill jumping into the sheet.britishpathe. where it was not uncommon for “ladies fire brigades’ to be established.com/video/womens-fire-brigade-aka-firewomen/query/female+fire+fighter http://www. and trained to do the same tasks as male fire fighters.britishpathe. “Perhaps it would be better to ask ‘What cannot we do with them’ “. J.

7 Image 5: The king inspects firewomen. 1917 .

” The Amazon Fire Brigades was noted as “the only organisation of its kind in Australia. 15th Feb 1901 in Crossle. gave an exhibition of engine reel.” . p.7) noted that the celebration of Federation (1st January 1901) included “display by the ladies’ fire brigade team”. which evoked great enthusiasm.” Captain Webb herself “jumped from the elevated platform 35 feet (sic) to the canvas (jumping sheet) and also carried a comrade down a 35 foot ladder (sic). at a local Fire Brigades demonstration.8 Image 6: Ballymaclinton’s Colleen Fire Brigade On 28th January 1903 Captain Minnie Webb wrote in the Sydney Morning Herald that. “eight local girls aged 17 and under. 2001. drawing on the Armidale Express (Armidale Express 1 Jan 1901.” Crossle. 4th Jan 1901. ladder and rescue work. under Captain Webb. “One grand feature in the procession was the display by the Armidale Fire Brigade.

who were “tastefully attired the same in uniforms of dark blue with red facings. 1900? .9 Image 7: The Armidale Fire Brigade. white caps. Image 8: The male and female firefighting display. Tattersall’s Hotel. and tan boots” paid for “by a generous gentleman of the district. lead by Captain Webb Crossle (ibid) continued: There was a display by the ladies’ fire brigade team. who desires that his name not be mentioned”.

after which a dividing breech was put on and three streams of water was displayed.10 Later in the day: The team of the ladies fire brigade then gave a run and played tow streams of water on an imaginary fire. and a young lady who was on this burning stage. . again. one of the ladies mounting the ladder. appeared on a flaming stage. A high stage which had been erected was set on fire. and this was followed by a telescope ladder run.7): In the evening the brigade gave a rescue display on the dhow ground. p. and throwing therefrom a very powerful stream of water from the hose she skillfully handled. in which a young lady. The firemen (sic) then gave another run. Image 9: Captain Minnie Webb leaping into the sheet. in height. After this came a sensational builder’s ladder run. with great presence of mind. jumped off the height into a sheet which was held below by firemen to catch her. which was 40 ft. after lowering the hose. and a fireman ascended to her by ladder and skillfully threw her into a sheet held by firemen standing below. The account of the day goes on to record (Crossle 2001.

rolling the hose. is in vertical flight just above the tarpaulin. p.T. Captain J. about the turn of the century. Image 11: Fire fighting display. Minnie. Minnie Webb can be seen mid-air having jumped from the balcony into the sheet below. .11 Image 10: Pulling the pump.A Webb’s daughter.111) records this photo shows “an impressive demonstration at Tattersall’s Hotel. combined Amazons and Armidale Fire Brigades.13 13 Gilbert & Rose (1982. of the Women’s Fire Brigade. date unknown.

Image 12: Minnie Webb in operational uniform (Left) and recreated uniform. Captain of the Amazons. UNE Archives) and a nurse at Kiola Private Hospital. . was daughter of Captain Tom (T.12 Women of the Amazon’s Ladies Fire Brigade Captain Minnie Webb Minnie Webb. UNE Archives).J) Webb of the Fire Brigades. Minnie Street Armidale c1911 (Record HRCP0659. 2006 (we did not reproduce the cap!) Minnie Webb went on to become a trainer nurse at Armidale and New England Hospitals (HRCP0660.

A letter to me from her niece Murial Haynes (See attachments).13 Image 12: Sister Minnie Webb. Image 13: Minnie Webb went on to live at 30 Moonbie Street Summer Hill. indicated that Minnie Webb later married (to Wilfred Walsh) and lived in Sydney at 30 Moonbie Street Summer Hill. . 1911.

I had completed a project that recreated the dress and operational uniforms of the Amazons (as well as the uniforms worn by female fire fighters during WWII). descendants of Minnie Webb. For the conference. descendents of Minnie Webb. to be honoured during the key note address of the Australasian Women in Fire Fighting Conference. and largely guessed . in collaboration with costumier Gracie Matthews. Image 14: Mrs Netta Darby (left) and Ms Patricia Webb. Gracie and I speculated on the colours of the operational uniform based on black and white photographs. Figures 15 (left) and 16: Recreated dress and operational uniforms of the Amazons14 14 Project completed by Dr Merilyn Childs 2006.14 As noted earlier in 2006 I invited Mrs Netta Darby and Ms Patricia Webb.

but have been kindly provided by the descendents of the Schmutter family. my sister & my grandmother) LILY (Leonie Snell – her granddaughter has already identified her in the centre of the 1901 photo) right – but Crossle’s (2001. Leonie Mercer provided the following information concerning the names of the women in the Amazon photograph (dress uniforms). Figures 17 to 30 (below): Leonie Mercer’s notes that attempt to identify the women if the Amazons who were her relatives.7) reported that the uniforms were “dark blue with red facings” – our recreated uniform lacked the red! . an amazing bunch. The photos here do not belong to Merilyn Childs. View the video that includes the honour shown to Mrs Netta Darby and Ms Patricia Webb. p. Brothers also worked in the paid brigades.15   View the photostream associated with the Australasian Women in Fire Fighting Conference. The following images were selected from HRCP1797. The Schmutter women The Schmutter women were members of The Amazons. I have noted them as copyright to protect these descendents. Leonie Snell and Leonie Mercer – all three women helped to provide information about the Amazon women. Acknowledgement: Three “Leonies” are descendents of the Amazons: Leonie Farrugia. and attempts to identify the women are noted below. by Leonie Mercer. descendants of Minnie Webb. UNE Archives. Leonie Mercer noted: I think this is MAY (because it looks like my nephew.

16 Leonie Mercer noted: I think this is GRACE (Have attached photos of her) Leonie Mercer noted: Could this be ADA? (Mainly because she looks very similar to Grace and is obviously older than the other girls) EDITH Leonie Mercer noted: My grandmother – So you can see similarities .

17 YOUNG EDITH Leonie Mercer noted: I think you can see a likeness here to the one that I think is May but around the eyes I think look like what I have said is Ada & Grace Leonie Mercer noted: Not a very good photo. The 3 at the front (according to Leonie Snell) are Lily in the middle and (I think May & Grace). Leonie Mercer noted: ADA – I don’t have younger photos Leonie Mercer noted: LILY – I don’t have younger photos .

and work reported in my Blog. the local MacDonald’s fast Food restaurant had a picture of the Amazons on their wall. In 2006 I reported a study of the numbers of paid female fire fighters in Australia16. but hopefully through this work. almost forgotten by history. plucky brigade of girls” did not start a revolution. in most states in Australia. their existence can be celebrated.gov. The “clever. .au/Documents/AJEM_Vol21_Issue2.em. 16 http://www. Superintendent Webb pondered. 15 Although when I visited Armidale. page 29-34. below 5%.pdf. The Amazons remained a local initiative of a handful of pioneering women. “To what extent this ‘Lady fireman’ (sic) business is going to reach…” was answered by history “not very far”. and the percentages remain.18 Leonie Mercer noted: IS THIS GRACE? Leonie Mercer noted: GRACE Conclusion Leonie Mercer noted: GRACE The women of the Amazon Ladies Fire Brigade have faded into history15.

The 2010 study by the Bushfire research CRC noted that “most male firefighters felt accepted (91%) compared with 76% of female firefighters.au/tassiefire/posters_pdf/poster_jmclennan. building from an assumption of the value of female firefighters.com/photos/72653074@N08/sets/72157633022487774/ . while 2% of men indicated that they were not entirely accepted. In 2013. This is an astonishingly high figure of feeling not accepted. completed in 2005. p. Were this figure reported in any other industry it would be seen as scandalous – but perhaps an Australian ambivalence or indifference to female firefighters allows a blind eye to be turned to what would be unacceptable behaviour in many industries. 17 18 http://proceedings.nla. Hopefully when future research is done. at the time of writing. the question posed by McLennan et al (2005) to guide their study (is fire fighting a “suitable job for a woman?”17 won’t be on the agenda. Branch-Smith & Pooley (2010)19 offer ideas about how to change these circumstances.pdf 19 http://trove.bushfirecrc. female volunteer firefighters continue to make an important contribution to fire fighting in Australia.10)18. and more work needs to be done. as part of the key note address by Dr Merilyn Childs20. Darling Habour Sydney. Faded in to history? Almost – but not quite! Image 31: Contemporary female firefighters model the dress and operational uniforms of the Amazons. harassment.19 That said.au/work/81051565?q&sort=holdings+desc&_=1364795318942&versionId=177915750 20 See the photostream http://www.pdf http://www.gov. and the Women’s Fire Auxiliary (WWII) at the Australasian Women’s Fire Fighting Conference.com/managed/resource/volunteerism_int_rpt_synopsis_final_2. the figure was 17% for women” (Birch 2011. negative comments or a sense of not belonging to the fire services within which they worked or volunteered. and confirms my own study. and conversely.com.flickr. Normalising gender and other diversities within the fire services is what the aims should be. there remain no clear statistics about the numbers of female firefighters – paid or volunteer – in Australia. that 25-33% of women has experienced some form of bullying.

Allan Snell was also in Armidale Fire Brigade. Regards Leonie Farrugia . PHILLIP SNELL. THOMAS STANLEY SNELL. Hope this information may be of help to Dr.NSW. and died 26 May 1946 Armidale.-died 10 June 1956 Sydney.20 ATTACHMENTS Correspondence from Pat McGufficke.NSW . ii. AMELIA EDITH SNELL. forwarding information provided by Leonie Farrugia: From: C and L Farrugia Sent: Wednesday. JOYCE DOREEN SNELL * * * Thomas Snell was in the Fire Brigade in Armidale. 24 May 2006 6:42 PM To: Pat & Peter Edwards Subject: Armidale Amazon Information Regarding Miss L. Thomas Snell Jnr was high up in the Sydney Fire Brigade. Armidale Family History Group Inc. * Married 1905 in Armidale. iv. ALLEN LESLEY SNELL.Childs.Schmutter b 1886 Page 13 NEWSLETTER May. vii.NSW * Children of LILLY SCHMUTTER and THOMAS SNELL are: i.NSW to Thomas Snell born 26 December 1878 Tamworth.Buried Armidale Cemetery.2006 * Lilly Schmutter was the 3rd Child of Phillip Schmutter [Gas Manager in Armidale] and Sarah Sly born 1886 in Armidale. ii. vi. JEAN ATKINS SNELL. viii.NSW . Secretary. THELMA SNELL. v.30 May 2006. ADA SNELL.

I will also let her know that you are interested in Minnie and the Amazons. I don't know whether you also knew that John Thomas was apprenticed to a Crimean Veteran who had lost a leg at the battle of Sevastopol in 1854 . mother of Greg Haynes (above). Her address is: (supplied).he told John Thomas about the terrible cold as he stumped around the forge in Armidale. Further to my earlier email I will send you my mother's email address. I knew that my great grandfather had started the fire brigade and have see his picture in the Armidale fire house but did not know that he had also started a female group. This might fit into the context of women in a relatively affluent town having the vote (or agitating for the vote in the new Commonwealth and the temperance movement) wanting to prove their equality and community mindedness. (I am a History teacher and recorded my grandfather's early experiences before he died in 1979 so I have been interested in this period for years). Actually I only found out about the Amazons today as my son was taking a vacation care group to the museum of fire. . Greg Correspondence from Murial Haynes.21 Correspondence from Greg Haynes. I am sure she would be most willing to pass on anything she knows. From: Greg Haynes Sent: Thu 6/07/2006 11:49 PM To: Merilyn Childs Subject: My Mothers Email Address Hi. descendant of Captain Webb.

22 Correspondence from Leonie Mercer .

I found it all at State Records and had my daughter type it up because the print was so small. Leslie (Con) Schmutter was only a year younger than Stan so may have been a fire-fighter too. I have lots of information about him though because he made the headlines when he died. The way he was described he sounds like the type of fellow that would have been a member of the fire brigade. This is the Schmutter family: Phillip Schmutter – Father Edward b1883 Ada b1884 Lily b1886 – Leonie Snell’s grandmother May b1888 Grace b1892 Stan b1894 Leslie (Con) b1895 Edith b1897 – My (Leonie Mercer) grandmother Pearl b1900 – Leonie Farrugia’s grandmother I cut the faces of the Fire-fighting girls out of the main photo that I got from The UNE Heritage centre and they only look like small files so they might not turn out very well when you attach them to your webpage. Let me know if you need anything else. Let me know and I will see if I can make them into a better resolution to use. There were two more sons but I am not sure yet whether they were members too. There was an inquest and it took up almost a whole page of the Armidale paper. He was the eldest boy and he died in 1901 aged 18. He was accidentally shot by one of his mates and died the next morning. I would love to find that he was and that there was a photo of him out there somewhere. Leonie Date lost. Seems like everyone else in the family was… The other son was Edward Schmutter. I hope I have included all of the photos. He is the only sibling that I don’t have a photo of. Hi Merilyn. Bye for now Leonie . He was a very active member with the freemasons and they conducted his funeral.23 29th July 2009 This is another of Phillip’s children – Stanley Schmutter with his sister’s boy Tom Snell.

24 Stanley Russell SCHMUTTER and his nephew Thomas Stanley SNELL 1894 – 1954 Son of Phillip SCHMUTTER Grandson of Heinrich SCHMUTTER Jnr Great Grandson of Heinrich SCHMUTTER Snr 1913 – 1971 Son of Lillian SCHMUTTER Grandson of Phillip SCHMUTTER .

25 Apologies for poor copy: .

without knowing it. The uniforms. The Chronicle. “in which the events of the previous year were reported. Captain Webb went on to establish a Schoolgirl’s Brigade at NEGS in 1923. were not complete for us to wear in the procession at the Diamond Jubilee. was added to the hats. we won the prize for the most original competition. of April 1924. HRCP3679. this confirms the speculation I have made that the establishment of the Amazons. p. Having uniforms raised the discussion as to who was to be in the Brigade. When the full uniforms arrived we were immediately taken out and photographed. we manned the fire engine and drove with great glee in the procession. The girls. and the school is now well trained in the intricacies of fire drill. who had to be saved by jumping into the sheet. and the thought that the NEGS Fire Brigade was not be a name only. Later a brass F. Jean Newall (date to be confirmed. the girls gave their own account of the establishment of the school Brigade: After the fire at Cunningham it was decided to form a School Fire Brigade. fit within the English tradition of ladies fire brigades. a belt and a big coat reaching to the knees was essential. so I think I am quite safe in saying everyone went away with the impression that we knew a great deal about handling fire brigade implements. 1923. To make our display as perfect as possible Captain Webb came out to drill us. This year there is a general fire practice every three weeks. landed quite safely and no one fell off the ladders or was burnt. The display on Sports Day (5th October) was a great success. and the UNE Archives hold photographs of his funeral procession21. giving them quite a professional air. top boots. It was finally decided that the girls to whom the uniforms would be of most use would be the Captains of the School. and in fact. drawing on accounts reported in the NEGS school magazine. As Sports’ Day was not very far away we thought it would vary the programme to give a display during the afternoon. The next discussion was the type of uniform we should have. thrilled us all. We certainly caused great consternation. HRCP3677.26 Establishing the NEGS School Fire Brigade. but despite the fact that we possessed only regulation boots.133-134) wrote a wonderful account of the establishment of the Brigade. however. I think. and two rows of brass buttons down the front of our coats. felt very elated by the red bands on the top. All of us. All agreed that a felt hat. 21 HRCP3676.” Captain Webb died in May 1924. In my mind. and before very long we were able to handle the hose and ‘elevate the ladder’. HRCP3678. During the afternoon we heard that Mr Frank White (of ‘Saumarez’) was supplying the Brigade with uniforms. and then the girls brigade at NEGS. . belt and F.B.B.

NSW. (Date to be confirmed). . (2007). R. Webb. Adelaide. (2011). C. 25(3).T. An Armidale Album: Glimpses of Armidale’s history and development in word. Women firefighters' experiences in the Western Australian volunteer bush fire service. J. Melbourne. Birch. J. J. & Rose. A. J.pdf Newall. And Cowlishaw S. L. 12-18.pdf Branch-Smith. D (1982). La Trobe University . sketch and photograph (Ist Ed)/ New Wngland Regional Art Museum Association. Volunteer firefighting: A suitable job for a woman? Proceddings of the 7th Inndustrial/Organisational Psychology Conference.bushfirecrc.com. Early morning sensation: fire at NEGS.com/managed/resource/volunteerism_int_rpt_synopsis_final_2. Australia http://www. & Pooley. Armidale. 9/11/1901. Armidale Chronicle. Australian Journal of Emergency Management. McLennan. Beatson. (1901). Gilbert. pp.au/tassiefire/posters_pdf/poster_jmclennan. A. http://proceedings. p.27 References Birch. A. Recruiting and retaining volunteer firefighters in Australia: an integrative summary of research (synopsis).4. 48.A. June.. Armidale and District Historical Society Journal and Proceedings. (2010). 127-140. Ladies’ Fire Brigade. No..A.