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What shall we do with our girls1? A personal narrative concerning The Amazons - The First Ladies Fire Brigade Armidale, Australia.
Version: Draft 1, 4/4/2013. Merilyn Childs, Associate Professor of Digital Futures, Australian Institute of Digital Futures University of Southern Queensland, Queensland. [Recommendation for citing this article: Childs, M. (2013). What shall we do with our girls? A personal narrative concerning ‘The Amazons - The First Ladies Fire Brigade’ 1901-1903 Armidale, Australia. Version Draft 1, pp.1-27, http://womeninfirefighting.blogspot.com.au/ (Date sourced).]
Acknowledgment This narrative would not have been possible without the generosity of others. Neil McGrath (formerly Archival Assistant, NSWFB) first told me that he had heard about a ladies fire brigade in Armidale. Bill Oates (UNE Archivist) encouraged me to visit the UNE Archival Collection2 in August 2008 – and what an amazing experience it was. Pat McGufficke, Secretary Armidale Family History Group Inc. included my request for information in a monthly newsletter. Three Leonies – Leonie Farrugia, Leonie Mercer and Leonie Snell – have been generous in their help. My apologies if I have made errors or omissions in this narrative! I welcome feedback and will produce a revised version, and do plan to do further work3 to develop this account of the Amazons. Background This narrative is a summary only – much more work is yet to be done. It began as a labour of love and intrigue in November 2004 when I invited some colleagues of mine to visit the Museum of Fire in Penrith, New South Wales. At the time I was an academic working at the University of Western Sydney, and at the same time, academic advisor to the NSW Fire Brigades where I facilitated leadership and promotional programs for a decade (1996-2006). By 2004, after eight years, I’d never worked with a female fire fighter. Yet there, on a pillar
The title of this paper is drawn from an article written by Captain J.T.A Webb to the Armidale Chronicle 9/11/1901, p.4, which he began by asking “What shall we do with our girls”? See Attachments. 2 I was also granted permission to reproduce images of the Amazons, so long as thumb nails were used, and source acknowledged. 3 Context is important too- Armidale for example, provides an important context for the Amazons, as does the prevalence of ladies brigades in England.
2 in the Museum, deep within a male history, hung one old, dusty and grainy photograph of a group of twenty or so women who were clearly fire fighters. The caption to the photograph told me that these were women of the “Women’s Fire Auxiliary” and that they had existed during World War II.
That moment began for me a journey in search of a heritage that female fire fighters in the twenty first century did not know that they possessed. Here was a photograph of women fire fighters during the war. Yet women had not been permitted to be recruited or employed as paid fire fighters until after anti-discrimination legislation was passed within states and territories of Australia, largely during the late 1970s and early 1980s. It was not until 1985 for example, that the first women fire fighters were recruited into paid fire fighting in New South Wales – forty years after the end of the war. I found the contrast remarkable. I made a commitment at that time to explore, and share, the invisible and unknown history of female fire fighters in Australia.
The opposition to women fire fighters during the 1980s was strong. Many obstacles were put in aspiring women’s way. Unions argued they would lower the standards and put male fire fighters at risk. Commentators, outraged at the idea, argued building female toilets in station houses was a waste of money; better spent on new equipment. Cartoonists lampooned women fire fighters as sexual objects; and wives of fire fighters bemoaned the possibility of loose women destroying marriages. In those days there were only “firemen” and women were seen to be physically incapable and bodily unsuited to fire fighting work. Few pluses were identified. One was that women might serve the services by providing a civilising influence and the development of good manners for male fire fighters. This was only twenty years ago! I began to wonder what it had been like during World War II. What was the Women’s Fire Auxiliary? What happened to the women who did fire fighting as part of the war effort? What did they do, and how were they received as fire fighters? These questions lead me to somewhere unexpected, and to forty years before World War II – to a journey to Armidale NSW Australia, to the UNE Archives, up a set of stairs to witness an old wooden picture frame with the original images of the Amazons – the First (1901) and Second (1903) Ladies Fire Brigade. There began a new journey – in collaboration with costumier Gracie Matthews to reproduce previously lost historic female fire fighters uniforms of the Amazons, based on photographs of the originals provided by the UNE Archivist Bill Oates. As part of my key
3 note address4 to the Australasian Women in Fire Fighting Conference. The Amazons Imagine 1901 as a period of time for women. . Darling Harbour Sydney NSW. it is not only 4 You can see records related to the Australasian Women in Fire Fighting Conference. AFSM. the recreated uniforms. 6 At the time I was early in my research about the Amazons. 2006 descendants of Minnie Webb5 (the first known female Captain of a fire brigade in Australia) Leonie Snell and Mrs Netta Derby.blogspot. "What shall we wear?" is a query rising from every channel of woman's life: for upon each occasion we must be suitably clad to enjoy its peculiar benefits. April 1894. Nella Booth. Image 1: The first female Station Officer of the NZ Fire Services. p. were honoured 6. in this case.au/ 5 One of the conference rooms was also named “The Minnie Webb Room”. The Victorian Era remained in its prime. the following pressing questions was posed in The Ladies Standard Magazine. descendant of the first female Captain of the Amazons Ladies Fire Brigade. along with members of the Women’s Fire Auxiliary (WWII) by Commissioner Greg Mullins. NSW Fire Brigades. and a standing ovation from 180 delegates (95% female operational firefighters and support staff). and photographs and video related to honouring the Amazons by visiting my blog http://womeninfirefighting.com. Active women had only just begun to develop acceptable fashion standards for the newly developed bicycles. This is especially noticeable for such exercise as bicycling. As one history of women’s fashions pointed out. for. and was not aware of the descendents of the Schmutter women. 98. meeting Netta Derby.
UNE Archives. Yet an all women Australian fire fighting crew was deployed in Armidale. This all women fire fighting crew was known as “the Amazons” in honour of an all female fire fighting crew of the same name that had existed in England earlier in the nineteenth century. the comfort and safety demand a carefully selected costume and equipment. Too often the answer was “corsets” that were laced tightly over heavy undergarments. There it was not uncommon for women to be fully trained in the use of ladders. May not be reproduced without permission. Image 2: The Amazons in operational uniform. Reprinted with permission. and above the waist a camisole and long-sleeved shirt worn beneath a coat. but the health. hospitals and ladies colleges” unaided by male fire fighters. and the women were dressed in uniforms that reflected the fashion of the times. . in 1901. 1903. leggings to the knees. fire engines and hoses and for it to fall upon them to defend “great country mansions. Imagine a woman fire fighter dressed in such garb! It sounds impossible. Silent black and white newsreels still exist of the English ladies fire brigades [See News Reels].4 a matter of appearing well.
T. further efforts were now made to establish a fire brigade.au/wordpress/index. Unlike some commentators of the 1980s9 who opposed women entering fire fighting. Image 3: Captain J. Penrith. “These girls are thoroughly drilled in handling the engine.com. The fire engine duly arrived and was commissioned in September 1891. fire escape and builders ladder (sic). Descendents of the Webb family continue to live in the Armidale area. and I have read through the many memos he sent to the central office in Sydney at the Museum of Fire.A Webb established the Amazons. As this was the second major fire in Beardy Street in two years.T. I struck the same “anti” female firefighters during media interviews in the 21 st Century. They handle the hose on top of a 50 foot ladder with a pressure of water that makes it difficult to control even on terra firma. 8 There was no fire brigade in Armidale in 1889 when the Great Fire had destroyed the Court House Hotel. http://www. reel. Con Webb was also Captain of the Armidale Fire Brigade. .” In answer to his 7 J.A Webb7 of the Armidale Fire Brigades8. They jump from greater height than is usually attempted at fire competitions.T.A Webb’s story is itself interesting. A Fire Brigade Board was formed and it received a £1000 grant from the NSW Government for buying a fire engine.5 The Amazons was established by Captain J.armidaleindependent. Captain Webb believed in the capacity of women to be serious fire fighters. Captain Webb wrote to the Armidale Chronicle on the 9th November 1901.php/2011/05/the-court-house-hotel-fire/ 9 In truth.
Franco British Exhibition (of Irish maidens Ballymaclinton) 12 http://www. J. “Perhaps it would be better to ask ‘What cannot we do with them’ “. Reprinted with permission.com/video/womens-wartime-fire-brigade-aka-ladies-fire-brigad/query/ON+032+G http://www. The following images are drawn from my private collection memorializing female firefighters in England (WWI)10 and Ireland11 (See below).britishpathe.6 own question “What shall we do with our girls” he answered.A Webb originally came from England.com/video/womens-fire-brigade-aka-firewomen/query/female+fire+fighter http://www. Silent film footage12 can be viewed of female fire fighters in England during WWI. where it was not uncommon for “ladies fire brigades’ to be established.T. and trained to do the same tasks as male fire fighters. UNE Archives. Image 4: Captain Minnie Webb demonstrates her skill jumping into the sheet. 10 11 1917 Northern England 1908.com/video/women-fire-fighters/query/ON+032+G .britishpathe.britishpathe.
1917 .7 Image 5: The king inspects firewomen.
under Captain Webb. “eight local girls aged 17 and under.” Captain Webb herself “jumped from the elevated platform 35 feet (sic) to the canvas (jumping sheet) and also carried a comrade down a 35 foot ladder (sic).” Crossle. 15th Feb 1901 in Crossle. 2001. which evoked great enthusiasm.8 Image 6: Ballymaclinton’s Colleen Fire Brigade On 28th January 1903 Captain Minnie Webb wrote in the Sydney Morning Herald that. at a local Fire Brigades demonstration.” .” The Amazon Fire Brigades was noted as “the only organisation of its kind in Australia. 4th Jan 1901.7) noted that the celebration of Federation (1st January 1901) included “display by the ladies’ fire brigade team”. ladder and rescue work. drawing on the Armidale Express (Armidale Express 1 Jan 1901. gave an exhibition of engine reel. p. “One grand feature in the procession was the display by the Armidale Fire Brigade.
and tan boots” paid for “by a generous gentleman of the district. Tattersall’s Hotel. lead by Captain Webb Crossle (ibid) continued: There was a display by the ladies’ fire brigade team. 1900? . Image 8: The male and female firefighting display. white caps.9 Image 7: The Armidale Fire Brigade. who desires that his name not be mentioned”. who were “tastefully attired the same in uniforms of dark blue with red facings.
in which a young lady. and a young lady who was on this burning stage. in height. and this was followed by a telescope ladder run. with great presence of mind. p. . appeared on a flaming stage. Image 9: Captain Minnie Webb leaping into the sheet. after lowering the hose. jumped off the height into a sheet which was held below by firemen to catch her.7): In the evening the brigade gave a rescue display on the dhow ground.10 Later in the day: The team of the ladies fire brigade then gave a run and played tow streams of water on an imaginary fire. After this came a sensational builder’s ladder run. again. one of the ladies mounting the ladder. The account of the day goes on to record (Crossle 2001. after which a dividing breech was put on and three streams of water was displayed. and a fireman ascended to her by ladder and skillfully threw her into a sheet held by firemen standing below. The firemen (sic) then gave another run. A high stage which had been erected was set on fire. which was 40 ft. and throwing therefrom a very powerful stream of water from the hose she skillfully handled.
Image 11: Fire fighting display.111) records this photo shows “an impressive demonstration at Tattersall’s Hotel. . about the turn of the century. is in vertical flight just above the tarpaulin.13 13 Gilbert & Rose (1982. of the Women’s Fire Brigade. combined Amazons and Armidale Fire Brigades.T. p.11 Image 10: Pulling the pump. date unknown. rolling the hose. Minnie.A Webb’s daughter. Captain J. Minnie Webb can be seen mid-air having jumped from the balcony into the sheet below.
. was daughter of Captain Tom (T. Captain of the Amazons. 2006 (we did not reproduce the cap!) Minnie Webb went on to become a trainer nurse at Armidale and New England Hospitals (HRCP0660.12 Women of the Amazon’s Ladies Fire Brigade Captain Minnie Webb Minnie Webb. Image 12: Minnie Webb in operational uniform (Left) and recreated uniform. Minnie Street Armidale c1911 (Record HRCP0659.J) Webb of the Fire Brigades. UNE Archives) and a nurse at Kiola Private Hospital. UNE Archives).
. 1911. A letter to me from her niece Murial Haynes (See attachments).13 Image 12: Sister Minnie Webb. indicated that Minnie Webb later married (to Wilfred Walsh) and lived in Sydney at 30 Moonbie Street Summer Hill. Image 13: Minnie Webb went on to live at 30 Moonbie Street Summer Hill.
and largely guessed .14 As noted earlier in 2006 I invited Mrs Netta Darby and Ms Patricia Webb. Gracie and I speculated on the colours of the operational uniform based on black and white photographs. Image 14: Mrs Netta Darby (left) and Ms Patricia Webb. For the conference. Figures 15 (left) and 16: Recreated dress and operational uniforms of the Amazons14 14 Project completed by Dr Merilyn Childs 2006. descendants of Minnie Webb. in collaboration with costumier Gracie Matthews. to be honoured during the key note address of the Australasian Women in Fire Fighting Conference. descendents of Minnie Webb. I had completed a project that recreated the dress and operational uniforms of the Amazons (as well as the uniforms worn by female fire fighters during WWII).
descendants of Minnie Webb. The following images were selected from HRCP1797. an amazing bunch. The Schmutter women The Schmutter women were members of The Amazons. Leonie Mercer noted: I think this is MAY (because it looks like my nephew. Brothers also worked in the paid brigades. I have noted them as copyright to protect these descendents.7) reported that the uniforms were “dark blue with red facings” – our recreated uniform lacked the red! . UNE Archives. p. The photos here do not belong to Merilyn Childs. Leonie Snell and Leonie Mercer – all three women helped to provide information about the Amazon women. Leonie Mercer provided the following information concerning the names of the women in the Amazon photograph (dress uniforms). View the video that includes the honour shown to Mrs Netta Darby and Ms Patricia Webb. Figures 17 to 30 (below): Leonie Mercer’s notes that attempt to identify the women if the Amazons who were her relatives.15 View the photostream associated with the Australasian Women in Fire Fighting Conference. by Leonie Mercer. Acknowledgement: Three “Leonies” are descendents of the Amazons: Leonie Farrugia. my sister & my grandmother) LILY (Leonie Snell – her granddaughter has already identified her in the centre of the 1901 photo) right – but Crossle’s (2001. but have been kindly provided by the descendents of the Schmutter family. and attempts to identify the women are noted below.
16 Leonie Mercer noted: I think this is GRACE (Have attached photos of her) Leonie Mercer noted: Could this be ADA? (Mainly because she looks very similar to Grace and is obviously older than the other girls) EDITH Leonie Mercer noted: My grandmother – So you can see similarities .
17 YOUNG EDITH Leonie Mercer noted: I think you can see a likeness here to the one that I think is May but around the eyes I think look like what I have said is Ada & Grace Leonie Mercer noted: Not a very good photo. Leonie Mercer noted: ADA – I don’t have younger photos Leonie Mercer noted: LILY – I don’t have younger photos . The 3 at the front (according to Leonie Snell) are Lily in the middle and (I think May & Grace).
“To what extent this ‘Lady fireman’ (sic) business is going to reach…” was answered by history “not very far”.au/Documents/AJEM_Vol21_Issue2. and the percentages remain. 15 Although when I visited Armidale. The Amazons remained a local initiative of a handful of pioneering women. Superintendent Webb pondered. almost forgotten by history.gov. below 5%. The “clever. their existence can be celebrated.18 Leonie Mercer noted: IS THIS GRACE? Leonie Mercer noted: GRACE Conclusion Leonie Mercer noted: GRACE The women of the Amazon Ladies Fire Brigade have faded into history15. but hopefully through this work. page 29-34. in most states in Australia. the local MacDonald’s fast Food restaurant had a picture of the Amazons on their wall.em.pdf. In 2006 I reported a study of the numbers of paid female fire fighters in Australia16. . 16 http://www. plucky brigade of girls” did not start a revolution. and work reported in my Blog.
17 18 http://proceedings. there remain no clear statistics about the numbers of female firefighters – paid or volunteer – in Australia. female volunteer firefighters continue to make an important contribution to fire fighting in Australia.au/tassiefire/posters_pdf/poster_jmclennan. p. that 25-33% of women has experienced some form of bullying. The 2010 study by the Bushfire research CRC noted that “most male firefighters felt accepted (91%) compared with 76% of female firefighters. negative comments or a sense of not belonging to the fire services within which they worked or volunteered. and the Women’s Fire Auxiliary (WWII) at the Australasian Women’s Fire Fighting Conference. and confirms my own study. at the time of writing.10)18.19 That said.pdf 19 http://trove. Hopefully when future research is done.pdf http://www. Branch-Smith & Pooley (2010)19 offer ideas about how to change these circumstances. the question posed by McLennan et al (2005) to guide their study (is fire fighting a “suitable job for a woman?”17 won’t be on the agenda. completed in 2005. harassment. Darling Habour Sydney. Normalising gender and other diversities within the fire services is what the aims should be.com. building from an assumption of the value of female firefighters.au/work/81051565?q&sort=holdings+desc&_=1364795318942&versionId=177915750 20 See the photostream http://www.nla. as part of the key note address by Dr Merilyn Childs20. and more work needs to be done.gov.com/managed/resource/volunteerism_int_rpt_synopsis_final_2. Faded in to history? Almost – but not quite! Image 31: Contemporary female firefighters model the dress and operational uniforms of the Amazons. This is an astonishingly high figure of feeling not accepted.bushfirecrc. the figure was 17% for women” (Birch 2011.com/photos/72653074@N08/sets/72157633022487774/ .flickr. Were this figure reported in any other industry it would be seen as scandalous – but perhaps an Australian ambivalence or indifference to female firefighters allows a blind eye to be turned to what would be unacceptable behaviour in many industries. while 2% of men indicated that they were not entirely accepted. and conversely. In 2013.
Childs. vii. * Married 1905 in Armidale. iv. Armidale Family History Group Inc. Hope this information may be of help to Dr. JOYCE DOREEN SNELL * * * Thomas Snell was in the Fire Brigade in Armidale. ii. AMELIA EDITH SNELL. Thomas Snell Jnr was high up in the Sydney Fire Brigade. THOMAS STANLEY SNELL.-died 10 June 1956 Sydney. v. THELMA SNELL. Regards Leonie Farrugia .NSW . ADA SNELL. PHILLIP SNELL.2006 * Lilly Schmutter was the 3rd Child of Phillip Schmutter [Gas Manager in Armidale] and Sarah Sly born 1886 in Armidale. vi.Buried Armidale Cemetery.30 May 2006. Secretary.Schmutter b 1886 Page 13 NEWSLETTER May. ALLEN LESLEY SNELL. and died 26 May 1946 Armidale.20 ATTACHMENTS Correspondence from Pat McGufficke. viii. 24 May 2006 6:42 PM To: Pat & Peter Edwards Subject: Armidale Amazon Information Regarding Miss L.NSW. JEAN ATKINS SNELL. forwarding information provided by Leonie Farrugia: From: C and L Farrugia Sent: Wednesday.NSW to Thomas Snell born 26 December 1878 Tamworth. ii. Allan Snell was also in Armidale Fire Brigade.NSW .NSW * Children of LILLY SCHMUTTER and THOMAS SNELL are: i.
(I am a History teacher and recorded my grandfather's early experiences before he died in 1979 so I have been interested in this period for years). I will also let her know that you are interested in Minnie and the Amazons. This might fit into the context of women in a relatively affluent town having the vote (or agitating for the vote in the new Commonwealth and the temperance movement) wanting to prove their equality and community mindedness.he told John Thomas about the terrible cold as he stumped around the forge in Armidale. I knew that my great grandfather had started the fire brigade and have see his picture in the Armidale fire house but did not know that he had also started a female group. mother of Greg Haynes (above).21 Correspondence from Greg Haynes. Greg Correspondence from Murial Haynes. I don't know whether you also knew that John Thomas was apprenticed to a Crimean Veteran who had lost a leg at the battle of Sevastopol in 1854 . From: Greg Haynes Sent: Thu 6/07/2006 11:49 PM To: Merilyn Childs Subject: My Mothers Email Address Hi. Further to my earlier email I will send you my mother's email address. descendant of Captain Webb. Her address is: (supplied). Actually I only found out about the Amazons today as my son was taking a vacation care group to the museum of fire. . I am sure she would be most willing to pass on anything she knows.
22 Correspondence from Leonie Mercer .
Leslie (Con) Schmutter was only a year younger than Stan so may have been a fire-fighter too. Hi Merilyn. Let me know if you need anything else. He was a very active member with the freemasons and they conducted his funeral. Leonie Date lost. He is the only sibling that I don’t have a photo of.23 29th July 2009 This is another of Phillip’s children – Stanley Schmutter with his sister’s boy Tom Snell. I would love to find that he was and that there was a photo of him out there somewhere. This is the Schmutter family: Phillip Schmutter – Father Edward b1883 Ada b1884 Lily b1886 – Leonie Snell’s grandmother May b1888 Grace b1892 Stan b1894 Leslie (Con) b1895 Edith b1897 – My (Leonie Mercer) grandmother Pearl b1900 – Leonie Farrugia’s grandmother I cut the faces of the Fire-fighting girls out of the main photo that I got from The UNE Heritage centre and they only look like small files so they might not turn out very well when you attach them to your webpage. He was accidentally shot by one of his mates and died the next morning. I hope I have included all of the photos. Bye for now Leonie . There was an inquest and it took up almost a whole page of the Armidale paper. He was the eldest boy and he died in 1901 aged 18. Let me know and I will see if I can make them into a better resolution to use. The way he was described he sounds like the type of fellow that would have been a member of the fire brigade. I have lots of information about him though because he made the headlines when he died. I found it all at State Records and had my daughter type it up because the print was so small. Seems like everyone else in the family was… The other son was Edward Schmutter. There were two more sons but I am not sure yet whether they were members too.
24 Stanley Russell SCHMUTTER and his nephew Thomas Stanley SNELL 1894 – 1954 Son of Phillip SCHMUTTER Grandson of Heinrich SCHMUTTER Jnr Great Grandson of Heinrich SCHMUTTER Snr 1913 – 1971 Son of Lillian SCHMUTTER Grandson of Phillip SCHMUTTER .
25 Apologies for poor copy: .
landed quite safely and no one fell off the ladders or was burnt. It was finally decided that the girls to whom the uniforms would be of most use would be the Captains of the School. 21 HRCP3676. 1923. the girls gave their own account of the establishment of the school Brigade: After the fire at Cunningham it was decided to form a School Fire Brigade. HRCP3677. and the UNE Archives hold photographs of his funeral procession21. To make our display as perfect as possible Captain Webb came out to drill us. giving them quite a professional air. . was added to the hats. drawing on accounts reported in the NEGS school magazine. and the thought that the NEGS Fire Brigade was not be a name only. a belt and a big coat reaching to the knees was essential. The next discussion was the type of uniform we should have. top boots. p. but despite the fact that we possessed only regulation boots.” Captain Webb died in May 1924. Jean Newall (date to be confirmed. Having uniforms raised the discussion as to who was to be in the Brigade. and before very long we were able to handle the hose and ‘elevate the ladder’. The girls. felt very elated by the red bands on the top. In my mind. The display on Sports Day (5th October) was a great success. HRCP3679.B. belt and F. without knowing it. so I think I am quite safe in saying everyone went away with the impression that we knew a great deal about handling fire brigade implements. of April 1924. When the full uniforms arrived we were immediately taken out and photographed. This year there is a general fire practice every three weeks. The Chronicle. and two rows of brass buttons down the front of our coats. were not complete for us to wear in the procession at the Diamond Jubilee. and then the girls brigade at NEGS. We certainly caused great consternation. Later a brass F. All agreed that a felt hat. As Sports’ Day was not very far away we thought it would vary the programme to give a display during the afternoon. thrilled us all.26 Establishing the NEGS School Fire Brigade. HRCP3678. I think. All of us. fit within the English tradition of ladies fire brigades. Captain Webb went on to establish a Schoolgirl’s Brigade at NEGS in 1923. we manned the fire engine and drove with great glee in the procession. we won the prize for the most original competition. “in which the events of the previous year were reported. and in fact. and the school is now well trained in the intricacies of fire drill. The uniforms. however.133-134) wrote a wonderful account of the establishment of the Brigade. this confirms the speculation I have made that the establishment of the Amazons.B. who had to be saved by jumping into the sheet. During the afternoon we heard that Mr Frank White (of ‘Saumarez’) was supplying the Brigade with uniforms.
D (1982).au/tassiefire/posters_pdf/poster_jmclennan. (2010). Birch. Adelaide. Armidale Chronicle. J. sketch and photograph (Ist Ed)/ New Wngland Regional Art Museum Association. L. Beatson. 9/11/1901. . Gilbert. (1901).com/managed/resource/volunteerism_int_rpt_synopsis_final_2.pdf Newall. And Cowlishaw S. 12-18. Women firefighters' experiences in the Western Australian volunteer bush fire service. & Pooley. & Rose. p. 25(3). A. June. Volunteer firefighting: A suitable job for a woman? Proceddings of the 7th Inndustrial/Organisational Psychology Conference. J.T. (2011). (2007). Recruiting and retaining volunteer firefighters in Australia: an integrative summary of research (synopsis). Webb.pdf Branch-Smith.27 References Birch. Early morning sensation: fire at NEGS. pp. Ladies’ Fire Brigade. Melbourne. Armidale. (Date to be confirmed). A. No. J.4. Australia http://www.. A.bushfirecrc..A. C. Armidale and District Historical Society Journal and Proceedings. Australian Journal of Emergency Management. J. R. http://proceedings. McLennan. 127-140.com. NSW. La Trobe University . An Armidale Album: Glimpses of Armidale’s history and development in word. 48.A.