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Igrayne, wife of Gorlois, Duke of Cornwall. • Merlin the Magician forced the King to “swear a solemn oath” to allow Merlin to bring up Arthur as he chose. • Merlin delivered the newborn unchristened child to Sir Ector. • Sir Ector christened the child and raised him as his own, not knowing he was the future king. • King Uther died two years after Arthur’s birth, leaving England in turmoil – a country without a king • Several years passed, until all the lords of the realm gathered on Christmas Day looking for a miracle to show them who should rightly be King. • The “Sword in the Stone” appeared in the church courtyard, bearing the famous inscription. Who would be King? • It was decided that a tournament would be held to determine who would win the right to pull the sword out of the stone. • Sir Ector and his son, Sir Kay, traveled to the tournament. • Sir Kay forgot his sword and asked his younger brother, Arthur to retrieve it. • Arthur decided to get the sword that was in the stone and give it to Sir Kay. Arthur Becomes King • Sir Ector and Sir Kay both knelt down to Arthur and told him of his true identity. • The Lords were upset because they did not want a boy who was not of “high blood” to govern their country. • The commoners finally cried out that Arthur was the rightful King and should be crowned. • Arthur was first knighted, and then crowned, by the Archbishop of Canterbury. • Arthur swore to his Lords and Commoners to be a true King, and to govern with “true justice.” The Land Called Camelot Arthur ruled in peace for many years… • Guinivere, daughter of King Leodegrance, married Arthur • Sir Lancelot, son of the Lady of the Lake, Arthur’s “First Knight” • Merlin, wizard and advisor to the King • Other Knights of the Round Table: Sir Gawain, Sir Galahad, Sir Percivale, Sir Bedivere The Age of Chivalry Arthur and his Knights practiced the Code of Chivalry… • Courage, Justice, Mercy, Generosity, Faith, Nobility, Hope Settings: Rome Characters: Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, Tristan, Gawain, Galahad, Bors Merlin, Bishop Germanius, Marius Honorius, Alecto, Saxons, Woads, Jols Conflict: The conflict of the story when the bishop Germanus did not give the release paper for the freedom of Arthur and his knights instead he give them another task to save Alecto son of Marius Honorius. Resolution: Even though they feel the betrayal of bishop, still they did their mission as a true man to get their discharge paper.
ELEMENTS OF A SHORT STORY OVERVIEW Short stories often contain structural and character elements that should be familiar to you. These elements can be used as guides to help you think about the actions, themes, and contexts of the story. Elements of a Short Story • Theme, Setting, Characters, Point of view, Characterization, Plot, Exposition Statement, Rising Action, Conflict, Climax, Falling Action, Resolution THEME- The main idea of a literary work usually expressed as a generalization. SETTING- The time and place in which a work of literature happens CHARACTERS- The people (or actors) in the story • CHARACTERIZATION- The description of the personalities of the characters in the story and the way in which an author reveals their personalities. *Mr. Bean *Sadako POINT OF VIEW- The story teller from whose point of view the story is being told, the narrator Kinds of Point of View • First Person -The story is told by the protagonist or one of the characters who interacts closely with the protagonist or other characters (using pronouns I, me, we, etc). • Omniscient -The author can narrate the story using the omniscient point of view. He can move from character to character, event to event, having free access to the thoughts, feelings and motivations of his characters and he introduces information where and when he chooses. PLOT - The sequence or order of events in a story. The plot includes: • Exposition Statement - The part of the plot that tells how the story begins. • Rising Action - The action in the story leading up to the climax. • Conflict - Struggles or problems between opposing forces. More PLOT • Climax - The point of crisis in the plot. It may be the reader’s point of highest interest. • Falling action - The action in the story after the climax is revealed. • Resolution - The part of the plot that reveals the final outcome. Types of Conflict • External - A struggle with a force outside one's self • Internal - A struggle within one's self; a person must make some decision, overcome pain, quiet their temper, resist an urge, etc. Kinds of Conflict 1) Man vs. Man - The leading character struggles with his physical strength against other men, forces of nature, or animals. 2) Man vs. Circumstances - The leading character struggles against fate, or the circumstances of life facing him/her. 3) Man vs. Society - The leading character struggles against ideas, practices, or customs of other people. 4) Man vs. Himself/Herself - The leading character struggles with himself/herself; with his/her own soul, ideas of right or wrong, physical limitations, choices, etc.