You are on page 1of 6

PERSONAL CERTIFICATION IN VIBRATION ANALYSIS

:
A NECESSITY

César Belinco
Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica-CNEA, Av. Del Libertador 8250-(1429) Capital Federal-Rep. Argentina
belinco@cnea.gov.ar
Alberto Pastorini
Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica-CNEA, Av. Del Libertador 8250-(1429) Capital Federal-Rep. Argentina
Mauricio Sacchi
Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica-CNEA, Av. Del Libertador 8250-(1429) Capital Federal-Rep. Argentina
Alberto Martín Ghiselli
Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica-CNEA, Av. Del Libertador 8250-(1429) Capital Federal-Rep. Argentina
Raúl Kulichevsky
Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica-CNEA, Av. Del Libertador 8250-(1429) Capital Federal-Rep. Argentina

Abstract: The non-destructive evaluation of systems, structures and components require techniques that can guarantee reliability,
availability and also that can contribute with the environment preservation. One of the techniques that recently starts its certification
procedure, in several countries around the world, is the mechanical vibration analysis. This technique, that have been used since a long
time, was recognised as a non-destructive technique since several years ago, included as a the “special non-destructive techniques” and
limited the application only to rotational machines.
Even exists standards with respect to general measurements methods, that evaluate the machinery and other rotational
components condition (ISO, VDI, etc.), as the other non destructive techniques, to perform a right diagnostic, the results must be
analysed based on physical concepts. Taking this into account, the success in each particular application will depend strongly on the
knowledge and training of the operator. This shows the necessity of specific courses and training centres where those can be dictated.
The present paper includes a discussion of the activities that must be done to spread the vibration analysis certification to the
countries that are interested and the related areas that can be covered with this technique.

Keywords: vibrations, analysis, certification, NDT.

CONTENTS:
1- INTRODUCTION
2- VIBRATION CERTIFICATION ACTIVITIES IN THE REGION
3- ACTIVITIES TO SPREAD THE VIBRATION ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION
4-COMMENTS

02 a 06 de Junho de 2003 / June 2 to 6 2003
Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brasil
1-INTRODUCTION:

The non-destructive evaluation of systems, structures and components require techniques that can guarantee
reliability, availability and also that can contribute with the environment preservation. One of the techniques that recently
starts certification, in several countries around the world, is the mechanical vibration analysis. This technique, that have
been used since a long time, was recognised as a non-destructive technique since several years ago, included in the “special
non-destructive techniques” and limited the application only to rotational machines.
Even exists standards with respect to general measurements methods, that evaluate the machinery and other
rotational components condition (ISO, VDI, etc.), as in the other non destructive techniques, to perform a right diagnostic,
the results must be analysed based on physical concepts. Taking this into account, the success in each particular application
will depend strongly on the knowledge and training of the operator. This shows the necessity of specific courses and
training centres where those can be dictated.
In some countries, included countries of our Region, three levels qualification schemes have been organised for the
vibration analysis, normally oriented to rotational machines.
This can be the platform to discuss the way to introduce the certification schemes in our countries, and also a good
opportunity to establish, in the frame of the present applications of the vibration analysis, to which areas could be extended
the certification of this technique.
The present paper includes a discussion of the activities that must be done to spread the vibration analysis
certification to the countries that can be interested, the related areas that could be covered with this technique and also, the
basis to generate tentative programs for each of the three certification levels.

2-VIBRATION CERTIFICATION ACTIVITIES IN THE REGION

The countries that have some vibration qualification schemes working, in our region, are: Canada, Chile, Cuba,
Mexico, Peru and the United States. Mainly all are oriented to the rotational machines and has three levels of qualification.
The basic program of the qualification is the same because, the institutions that support the certifications have taken as
reference the Vibration Institute (VI) of the US. Other countries like Brazil and Argentina are working with a qualification
procedure as target, they have companies and public institutions, with large experience in using vibration analysis as a
predictive maintenance tool that also gives specific courses. We suppose that this information is not complete and, in the
other countries of the region, many activities in this direction have been done. That efforts must also be added.
As a sample to start a discussion we can have a look on the VI main definitions. The certification program benefits
are: “The Vibration Institute's Certification Program is the focal point for recognising the capability and motivation of
individuals in the vibration field. It provides professional recognition by clients, employers, and colleagues and
acknowledgment of proven capability at the level certified. The examination content and questions are developed by the
Vibration Institute Certification committees composed of certified members of U.S. and Canadian industry and academia”.
In this case the terms of certification are: certification is valid for five years, as long as certification fee is paid annually to
the Vibration Institute; after five years, re-certification is required by retesting, or by providing evidence of professional
practice, training, or published material.
The three levels has to fulfil the following proficiency and knowledge skills:
Vibration Specialist I:
An individual certified as Vibration Specialist I is expected to have a basic knowledge of machine vibration,
be capable of routine data collection and periodic monitoring, and be able to perform basic fault diagnosis and condition
evaluation. The certification committee recommends that applicants have at least one year of experience in the vibration
field and a formal four-day short course or equivalent self-study. A proficiency in math that includes arithmetic and basic
algebra is also necessary.

Required Technical Areas of Proficiency:

Basic Vibration

basic time waveform
period, frequency (CPM, Hz, orders), phase
frequencies (natural, forcing)
amplitude - peak, derived peak, rms
resonance and critical speeds
measures and conversion (displacement, velocity, acceleration)
vibratory forces

Data Acquisition

selecting a measure
frequency spans/response
transducers: mounting location, units
proximity probe conventions
pitfalls of data acquisition
senses and safety
principles of data collection

Data Processing

averaging
data acquisition time
dynamic range
determination of resolution
lines of resolution, window selection, FMAX triggering

Fault Analysis

timing mark
calculation of frequencies (gear, bearing, vane-pass)
basic spectrum analysis
fault analysis (mass unbalance, misalignment, looseness; gearbox, motor, fan, and pump faults; rolling
element bearing)

Condition Evaluation

severity measures and charts/chart applications

Machine Testing

impact testing - force, application, sensor location, data
acceptance testing - test plans, sensor selection and location
periodic monitoring (frequency spans, frequency of measurement, trending, routes)
basic balancing principles - heavy/high spot, trial weight selection/size
Vibration Specialist II:
To take the examination for Vibration Specialist II, an individual must be certified as a Vibration Specialist
I. In addition to the skills required for Specialist I, the individual certified as Specialist II must be capable of carrying out
fault diagnosis, condition evaluation, and acceptance testing, and be able to set up periodic monitoring programs and
perform minor corrective actions. The certification committee recommends that applicants have at least three years of
experience in vibration analysis and have taken at least one short course or review course prior to taking the examination.

Required Technical Areas of Proficiency:

Theory

concept of modes
phase determination
modulation/sidebands/beats

Data Processing

calibration/scaling
synchronous time averaging/overlap averaging
waterfall (cascade) plots/Bode plots/polar diagrams
determination of dynamic range
use of logs on meters and amplifiers

Equipment Knowledge

impact testing
start-up/coast-down testing
ratio of casing to rotor weight

Fault Analysis

phase analysis/time waveform/spectrum analysis
orbital analysis: rules on loops
faults - operating speed/gears/rolling element bearings/motors/fluid-film bearings/cetrifugal pumps and
compressors/turbines/machine tools/presses/rolls/blowers/fans/oil whirl and whip

Condition Evaluation

severity charts - seismic/shaft/bearing
overall and filtered measures

Monitoring Programs

equipment evaluation and categorization
route planning
continuous monitoring: test and operational equipment

Acceptance Testing

specifications
measurement techniques
test planning

Corrective Action

vibration control: balancing, alignment
detuning: mass, stiffness
basic concepts of isolation and damping
Vibration Specialist III:
To be certified as a Vibration Specialist III, an individual must be certified as a Vibration Specialist II and
have basic knowledge in signal processing, rotor dynamics, vibration control, and dual channel analysis. The certification
committee recommends at least five years of experience.

Required Technical Areas of Proficiency:

Signal Processing

data acquisition - sampling rates/anti-aliasing/dynamic range/bits/ extended memory
data processing - basic signal analysis/phasor representation/amplitude modulation/beats/
dual- and cross channel FFT analysis/order tracking/synchronous time/rms/time series
averaging/windowing/envelope processing/amplitude and phase demodulation

Advanced Diagnostics

machinery function
process effects
excitation frequencies
component function
analysis - time/phase/orbital/spectral/torsional
conditional evaluation

Structural/Rotor-Dynamic Testing

test planning
dual-channel impact testing - natural frequency/mode shape/damping
start-up/coast-down testing - critical speeds/damping
operational deflection shapes

Vibration Correction and Control

force reduction - balancing/alignment/process
rotor-dynamic tuning - rotor/bearings/couplings
structural tuning - pedestals/frames/casings/foundations/piping/ducting
solation and damping - fundamentals of isolator selection/damping applications

Design and Test Specifications

3- ACTIVITIES TO SPREAD THE VIBRATION ANALYSIS CERTIFICATION (VAC)

There are many activities to be performed to spread the VAC in our region but, at first, we must define the frame.
Our proposal is to perform the certification in the frame of the ISO 9712, as a new technique. This implies that the
VAC must include not only a theoretical test but also the certification of field experience.
At first we must discuss if we will develop a common certification scheme for the whole region. In this case, the
great benefit will be that all countries will recognise each other.
The following topic is to discuss if we include not only rotational machines in our VAC programs. We understand
that some other subjects could be included in the programs to give a more general vision to our specialists. We consider that
the vibration theoretical aspects have not a principal role in the formation programs available. The following concepts could
be added to the programs:
• Structural components & building vibrations
• Flow induced vibrations
• Concepts of noise related to vibration

If that implies that the program extension is not appropriated, we can upgrade at least the theoretical base in that
subjects that can influence the behaviour of rotational machines, although the source was not specifically a rotational
machine. This will allow a right understanding of problems that are not the typical ones. As a real example we can include a
general wedge looseness detected at a large electrical generator, provoked by strong vibrations and caused by the shell
resonance.
Other activity that we will need to perform is a Portuguese & Spanish vocabulary.
The programs for the three levels can be developed by a team formed with various vibration specialists, actually an
available resource in the region, representing the different countries of the region. Another subject to discuss will be the
addition or not of environmental and machines radiated noise measurements into the certification programs. This topic,
strongly related to the vibration processes and also a non-destructive vibration tool, is also covered by standards and
recommendations (ISO, IEC, ANSI) that establish the measurement procedures and sometimes, the sound level limits, but
not include the personal qualification.
Once the program is defined, that team can teach in all the countries of the region that have interest, and also take the
examinations to start the certification scheme in each country. That will work as the initial event to establish the new
method in the local media, that is, to have a group of specialists of levels II and III. That people, in the frame of the ISO
9712, will be the future local support to develop the technique in each country.

4-COMMENTS
This paper present a proposal to establish a certification scheme in vibration analysis, based in the ISO 9712, in our
region. In that way we will make a contribution in the development of a new NDE technique in our region. If we take this
decision we will be able to present the scheme to international organisations with general assent.
This is only one idea to start that the discussion but, of course, we are open to contributions.
The subjects that could be included to enlarge the scope in the certification, has as benefit that the operator would
solve more complex problems. On the other hand this will require an extra dedication and formation for the specialists.
For example, knowledge of the flow induced vibrations mechanisms, will allow to solve problems related with heat
exchangers, ducts and other components subject to fluid; but the specialists will have to manage design guides and some
mathematical analysis concepts. More simple is the case of noise. We don’t need high mathematics, only are necessary
some new concepts. This will allow the specialist to understand in components reception , noise impact of plants and air
ducts problems.
The proposed idea has as target to share not only the costs of the certification schemes using specialists of our
region, but also the contents and programs for each level.
We will be very happy if a lot of papers of this, or a similar scheme for the certification program implemented in
some countries, take place in the next Pan American Conference.