Marketing Research

Unit 7

UNIT 7 SAMPLING DESIGN SIZE AND PROCEDURE
Structure 7.1 Introduction Objectives 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 Meaning of Sampling Importance of sampling in marketing research Sampling: basic constructs Process of Sampling Determining sampling size Probability and Non Probability Sampling Probability Sampling Simple random sampling Systematic random sampling Stratified sampling Cluster Sampling 7.9 Non Probability Sampling Convenience Sampling Judgement Sampling Quota Sampling Snowball Sampling 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 Selecting an appropriate sampling technique Summary Glossary Terminal Questions Answers
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Case Study

7.1 INTRODUCTION In the previous unit you might have study about the concept of scaling, their importance of measurement, fundamental, Assignment, order, Distance and origin properties as well. You must have learnt about the different measurement scales like primary scale, nominal scale, ordinal scale, interval scale, ratio scale, comparative and non comparative scale etc. you must be aware about the different comparative scaling techniques also which includes paired comparison, Rank order scaling, Constant sum scaling, Q-sort, Non-comparative scaling: Continuous rating scale, Itemized rating scale, Likert scale, Semantic differential scale and Stapel scale, in the end you must have learnt how to select a best appropriate scale among all, hoe to evaluate the validity, reliability, generalizability of scaling also. Now you will be aware about the sampling design, size and procedure concept. Sampling is a term which means collecting the data and information from a group of people in order to know about their tastes, preferences, ideas and beliefs. Sampling plays a significant role in marketing research studies. There is no marketing research study where sampling doesn’t play their role. A company selling a particular product needs sampling method to know the opinions of their consumers so that he can launch his product successfully in the market. Thus sampling acts as a foundation or considered as a backbone for the marketing research. In this unit you will aware about the different concepts of sampling. You will be further introduced to sampling and non sampling design also. In addition to this, a brief description of census (alternative to sampling) to sampling methods is also given. Further you will learn about the various techniques of probability and non probability techniques.The most important decision in sampling process is to select the extent of the sample. It depends upon the choice of sample size which includes various elements as time, accuracy, money etc. thus in this unit you will also be able to learn the determination of the sample size. Objectives
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After studying this unit, you should be able to:
   

Describe the concept of sampling Discuss the Importance of sampling in marketing research Enhance knowledge about the various key terms of sampling Give differentiation between probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling Determine the sample process and sample size Select an appropriate sampling technique

 

CASELET THE STANDARD EPI CLUSTER SURVEY METHOD In the standard EPI method, 30 villages were selected with PPS within a district. A starting point was selected in a central location such as a health facility. A bottle was spun at this central point and the interviewer then counted the number of households until the edge of the village and selected one at random. This is the first household in the sample. Subsequent households are selected by going to the house whose front door is closest to that house which has just been visited, until seven children aged 12–23 months (the age range of interest for vaccine coverage) were reached. This method is known at the “random walk.” A number of concerns were raised relative to this method, including: 1. In most countries, rural populations are not neatly organized into villages with well defined edges or boundaries, but live in more or less scattered households. 2. The scheme may oversample households close to village centers which might not be representative of the whole village. By moving from one household to the next closest one, scattered rural households are likely to be underrepresented. 3. By stopping when reaching a fixed number of children (not households), the method oversamples areas with few children
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(where many households had to be visited for finding seven children) and under represents areas with many children (where seven children were found within a few households). 4. It is very difficult to ensure that field workers have followed the instructions regarding the “random walk.” 5. The method of selection does not guarantee that every household has a known probability of selection. Therefore, it is not a strict probability sample. This is a somewhat technical point but it has caused concern among many statisticians because, strictly speaking, you cannot calculate the margins of error of the indicators. These issues do not undermine the usefulness of the EPI-type survey for estimating vaccine coverage for programmatic purposes, where a wider range of errors can be tolerated. They show, however, that the method can be improved. Source: http://www.childinfo.org/files/chap04.pdf

Activity 1 Suppose you are a Marketing Manager of a firm who wants to launch its washing powder in Delhi, India. To introduce your product in Indian market, what kind of sample size decision would you consider? Self Assessment Questions 1. _______ is a term which means collecting the data and information from a group of people in order to know about their tastes, preferences, ideas and beliefs. The most important decision in sampling process is to select the extent of the sample. (True/False)

2.

7.2 MEANING OF SAMPLING Sampling is a term used to collect the data from a population for achieving the objective of research study. The main objective of sampling is to draw some inferences from the sample of population for the study instead of a
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complete census of the population. It is easier, convenient and cheaper method to observe a sample rather than the whole population. A population is a group of individuals, persons, objects, or items from which samples are taken for measurement. For example: a population of lecturers, students or youths; A sample is a definite part of the population which is to be observed. Even doing research, it can be defined as while doing survey, a set of people or respondents is taken from the targeted population.

Figure 7.1: Sampling Design Source: http://www.google.co.in/imgres? q=sampling+design&num=10&hl=en&biw=800&bih=513&tbm=isch&tbn id=towCaajZfcFg_M:&imgrefurl=http://www.fao.org/forestry/11649/en/& docid=40xMKdhX2J2urM&imgurl=http://www.fao.org/forestry/762204e718c53749032455f06799a7bcfc296.gif&w=587&h=432&ei=t5jqT7G3 GoLNrQeGkvnFBQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=99&vpy=192&dur=1585&ho vh=193&hovw=262&tx=135&ty=74&sig=100889476022044570551&page =3&tbnh=132&tbnw=180&start=16&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:16,i:169 Census vs. Sampling Census is difficult to use in the research studies where the targeted population is large in size and same in these studies the inferences drawn are also large in size. In such a case, the only option to collect the required
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information is to select a representative sample. Samples are more economical to use as they require less resources and less time and efforts to get accurate results. Thus, census refers to complete inclusion of all elements in the population, whereas, sample is a subgroup of population. Census is appropriate for small population size. For example, number of companies offering cell phone services, or gathering information about the quality of food in a restaurant. Sample is used when the homogeneous population size is large enough. It can be more accurate; it has fewer "no sampling" errors than a census. Self assessment questions 3. A sample is a indefinite part of the population which is to be observed. (True/False) 4. _____ refers to complete inclusion of all elements in the population. 7.3 IMPORTANCE OF SAMPLING IN MARKETING RESEARCH It is very difficult to find out those persons who are not aware with the sampling. Normally individuals are used for collecting information for different kind of research surveys. There are lots of examples related to this context as follows: 1. You might have noticed at the book store that before buying any novel or magazine, individual normally flip some pages of the book to check whether it is related to their interest or not. 2. You come across finding this thing that when your mother prepares a new dish she gives you to taste before once just to get your opinion whether the dish is tasty or not. 3. You might acknowledge this thing that when any firm or company launches his new product in the market, he offers you a sample of their new product. They do this just to know your opinion related to their new product only. 4. Sometimes when you go to the market to buy a bag of rice or sugar from the shop. You normally check the thing by taking a handful of it in order to examine the quality of the whole bag of the product.

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The above said examples are just few selections of your day to day routine life where this word sampling is used to draw your opinions related to different categories of product among the entire population (universe). The other alternative to sampling is known as census or enumeration. Under this, where data is collected for each and every unit related to the whole population. And it comprises of the aggregation of all the units of a given category under consideration. The major advantages of sampling are as follows: 1. This method seems to be a cheaper source of data collection as compared to the enumeration or census. 2. This method has some specific time frame though under which researcher have to complete his study. 3. This method gives assurity of collecting the data accurately and up to date as well. On the other hand, enumeration is not the better option to collect the accurate data on time. 4. This sampling method is considered as the better option in situations where measuring of a particular element from a sample would exploit the other elements. Self assessment questions 5. The other alternative to sampling is known as census or _______. 6. It is very easy to find out those persons who are not aware with the sampling. (True/False) 7.4 SAMPLING: BASIC CONSTRUCTS Element: am element is a factor against which the information is collected. According to a well defined procedure, this factor helps in providing the base for doing a proper survey or analysis. It should be noted that, these elements should be specifically defined so that they can be identified physically. The households, shops, factory, industries, family and more on combine to form these elements. For example: a work station may be treated as a unit in a production house whereas a showroom may be considered as a unit in a retail outlets survey as well. Population: it is the total of all the elements carrying certain specific features or characteristics which a researcher really needs for doing their research. It is a combination of all elements, sampling units, time and extent.
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Figure 7.2: Targeted Population Source: http://www.google.co.in/imgres? q=population&hl=en&biw=800&bih=513&tbm=isch&tbnid=KLQCap6bl HwhOM:&imgrefurl=http://teabhaji.blogspot.com/2011/11/population700-crores.html&docid=D3mw0ZZSFr4RM&imgurl=http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-HcIUTN5iDYo/TqCiVQzoyI/AAAAAAAAAPs/GBAn2dKHjv0/s1600/population-six-billion1.jpg&w=400&h=329&ei=vJ7qT8KNAoS8rAeb2qzGBQ&zoom=1&iact=h c&vpx=211&vpy=39&dur=100&hovh=204&hovw=248&tx=115&ty=102& sig=100889476022044570551&page=1&tbnh=109&tbnw=133&start=0&n dsp=7&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:142 Consider examples as follows: Some specific relevant information of a consumer survey as: a) Element: Females 30-35 b) Sampling Unit: Females 30-35 c) Time: July 10- August 30, 2012 d) Extent: Bombay

Sampling Unit: a sampling unit is that kind of element or factor which is used at the time of selection in some stage of the process of sampling. In one stage sampling method, all the elements and units are same.

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For example: in your previous example given in population, you can easily analyse this thing. In a very delicate situate, you have to select males over 20 indirectly while using a multi stage process. Another example, Here firstly select a sample of household people. Then select a sample of males over 20 within these selected household people. Note: only at second stage of the process, it happens to be similar sampling units and elements. Another more delicate and complex example: here a sample of people from household background should be selected in three stages.

Source: http://www.google.co.in/imgres? q=sampling+design&num=10&hl=en&biw=800&bih=513&tbm=isch&tbn id=5iTxlu_4Frzv9M:&imgrefurl=http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/tutorials/nhan es/SurveyDesign/SampleDesign/Info1.htm&docid=hlX0rsUJbKTdM&imgurl=http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/tutorials/nhanes/surveydesi gn/images/sampling_stages.gif&w=481&h=361&ei=t5jqT7G3GoLNrQeG kvnFBQ&zoom=1 Firstly a sample of countries is selected. Then a sample of states is selected from each states selected. then a sample of cities is selected. In the end stage a sample of household people is selected from each city. Here countries selection is considered as the first stage, states selection is taken as second stage, cities selection is considered as third stage and then household people selection is considered as the third stage.
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Sampling Frame: sampling frame comprises of a list of all the sampling units related to the studied population which includes their identification proof as well. These lists are used to select at a stage of the process of sampling. Though, sampling frame is used for collecting information for actual sample. Thus, you might consider this point that all the sampling units of the population are come under this sampling frame only. It must not contain any other units of the population. One point which should be notified here is that these sampling frames must be free from errors of duplication and omission of sampling units should be accurate and up to date as well. For example: a list of registered voters of a country, telephone directory, yellow pages book, railway enquiry book, details of specific students registered with a Govt. University, a metro route map etc.

Determine population: this is the criteria through which a research study does sampling. Due to some unavoidable reasons, the sample for actual or present research study is selected from another different sample of population from the one used prior to the sample selection. Here prior sample selection denotes the aggregation of the elements or characteristics collected early. Self assessment questions 7. Sampling _____ comprises of a list of all the sampling units related to the studied population which includes their identification proof as well. 8. Arrange the following steps: a) sample of cities is selected b) sample of states is selected c) sample of household people is selected i) ii) iii) iv) a, b, c c, b, a b, a, c c, a, b
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7.5 PROCESS OF SAMPLING Sampling process consists of five steps. They are:

Figure 7.3: Process of sampling Design Source:

http://www.google.co.in/imgres? q=sampling+design&start=137&num=10&hl=en&biw=8 00&bih=513&addh=36&tbm=isch&tbnid=QiOWhMm3Cf kV6M:&imgrefurl=http://www.scribd.com/doc/43319990/ Malhotra-SamplingDesign&docid=RoAySri9k6Re0M&imgurl=http://reflow.sc ribd.com/3ebwx4swcgrd9fq/images/image6.jpg&w=610&h=376&ei=yZnqT_G7EoiurAfAt5m0BQ&zo om=1&iact=hc&vpx=399&vpy=209&dur=5106&hovh=1 76&hovw=286&tx=190&ty=90&sig=100889476022044 570551&page=15&tbnh=123&tbnw=200&ndsp=10&ved =1t:429,r:5,s:137,i:155
Define the targeted population: Population is defined as (i) elements, (ii) sampling units, (iii) extent and (iv) time Example: If a company wants to monitor the sales of its recently launched product, the population will be;

1.

(i)

Element – company's product
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(ii)

Sampling unit – retail outlet, supermarket

(iii) Extent – Jaipur (iv) Time – September 10th to Oct l0th 2006 2. Identify the frame of sampling: Sampling frame could be yellow pages, telephone directory, various colonies in a municipal area list mentioning the details of all colonies. Example: If you want to know about a car owner in Jaipur city, then the transport office (RTO) can provide the name, address and type of vehicle possessed. 3. Specify sampling unit and techniques: It is defined as the element about which information is required and then selecting probability or non-probability methods. For example: retailers in a locality, husband or wife or children in a family. 5. Determine the sample size: This means deciding how many elements of the target population are to be chosen. The Sample Size depends on the type of the study. The sample size is small in exploratory study and this is large in size in descriptive study.

Figure 7.4: determination of Sample Size Source: http://www.google.co.in/imgres? q=sampling+design&start=654&num=10&hl=en&biw=800&bih=513& addh=36&tbm=isch&tbnid=tHIPmRGbyzBgQM:&imgrefurl=http://ww w.scribd.com/doc/55818828/Sampling&docid=pFLYb4soJIjSnM&img
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url=http://reflow.scribd.com/5chf6croe8yxdky/images/image8.jpg&w=232&h=230&ei=1pzqT46pNsrrAe23qzUBQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=260&sig=10088947602204457 0551&page=63&tbnh=143&tbnw=144&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:65 4,i:213&tx=71&ty=74 6. Select the sample and execute the process: This is the final
step in the sampling process. Self assessment questions 9. It is defined as the element about which information is required.name the term. 10. Sampling plan should clearly specify the _____ population. Activity 2 List out a few marketing research studies done in your company or firm you are aware of where the factors or elements of the population ere chose by using the single stage and two stage or multi stage process. 7.6 DETERMINING SAMPLE SIZE As samples are too large that it may result in the wastage of resources, time and money which is regarded as one of the important aspect in determining the size of the sample.

Figure: 7.5: Sample Size Source:

http://www.google.co.in/imgres? q=sample+size&hl=en&biw=800&bih=513&tbm=isch&tbnid=tDTJBRQl9D KcJM:&imgrefurl=http://relevantinsights.com/tag/samplesize&docid=3uXIAlqBca08yM&imgurl=http://www.relevantinsights.com/w
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p-content/uploads/2011/02/What-Sample-Size-Do-WeNeed.png&w=417&h=327&ei=w6PqT8L_HcTnrAeZltXFBQ&zoom=1&iac t=hc&vpx=246&vpy=101&dur=2413&hovh=199&hovw=254&tx=118&ty= 70&sig=100889476022044570551&page=1&tbnh=120&tbnw=153&start=0 &ndsp=8&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:90
Thus, it can be determined by many constraints which is explained with the help of following example: Example: Sample size is pre specified by the funding that is available. A useful rule of thumb is to spent for data collection about one half of the total amount when research costs are fixed as well as the other half for data analysis. Hence it influences data collection procedures, sample size and sample design. Various approaches to determining the sample size are explained below: • published tables • imitating a sample size of similar studies • applying formulas to calculate a sample size • using a census for small populations 7.6.1 Using a Census for Small Populations A census provides data on all the individuals in the population as well as eliminates sampling error. Some costs like developing the sampling frame are "fixed" as well as questionnaire design which will be the same for samples of 50 or 200. For achieving a desirable level of precision, entire population would have to be sampled in small populations.

Figure 7.6: Census; Source: censusindia.net; britannica.com 7.6.2 Using a Sample Size of a Similar Study In this without reviewing the procedures employed in these studies there is a risk of repeating errors which were made to determine the sample size for

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another study. Hence a literature can provide guidance about "typical" sample sizes which are used. 7.6.3 Using Published Tables In this tables present sample sizes which is necessary for the given combinations of confidence levels, variability and precision. Here sample sizes reflect the number of obtained responses and the sample sizes in these tables presume that the attributes being measured are distributed normally. The entire population may need to be surveyed if this assumption is not be met. 7.6.4 Using Formulas to Calculate a Sample Size For determining sample size you need to calculate the necessary sample size for a different combination of levels of precision, variability and confidence whose the formula given below for calculating the sample sizes.

Figure 7.7: Selection of Sample Size Source: http://www.google.co.in/imgres? q=judgemental+sampling&hl=en&biw=800&bih=513&tbm=isch&tbnid=1K l-7SBsl1wcdM:&imgrefurl=http://www.q4points.com/2012/03/samplingmethods.html&docid=xjlqeDWmHwaH4M&itg=1&imgurl=http://3.bp.blogs pot.com/-8ReVFJEH6PE/T2dbousjWhI/AAAAAAAAAmo/oZBuEc6I_4/s640/sample_size_estimation.jpg&w=405&h=296&ei=LKDqT6i9GM_or Qf2kbjVBQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=126&vpy=4&dur=316&hovh=192&h ovw=263&tx=155&ty=96&sig=100889476022044570551&page=3&tbnh=1 51&tbnw=207&start=16&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:16,i:129
7.6.5 Other Considerations
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If descriptive statistics are used then the sample size will suffice such as frequencies, mean etc. A good size sample is required for log-linear analysis, multiple regressions and analysis of covariance which may perform for more rigorous impact evaluations. The sample size should be suitable for the evaluation which is planned. Self assessment questions 11. A census provides data on all the individuals in the population as well as eliminates _______ . 12. A good size sample is required for log-linear analysis, multiple regressions and analysis of covariance. (True/False) 7.7 PROBABILITY AND NON PROBABILITY SAMPLING Probability Sampling: in this sampling method, every unit has equal number of chances for selection as a sampling unit in the targeted population. Random, or probability sampling, gives each member of the target population a known and equal probability of selection. This probability is called sampling ratio, and it is equal to the number of the items in the sample divided by the number of the population. Probability sampling means there is a possibility for every element to be included in the sample.

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http://www.google.co.in/imgres? q=sampling+design&start=156&num=10&hl=en&biw=800& bih=513&addh=36&tbm=isch&tbnid=pV8Z3CUt9Hhs1M:&im grefurl=http://www.scribd.com/doc/52916040/P7-SAMPLINGDESIGN&docid=oJoXSARfKtGYXM&imgurl=http://reflow.scrib d.com/7a8che29vkx6isa/images/image5.jpg&w=675&h=393&ei=yZnqT_G7EoiurAfAt5m0BQ&zoom =1&iact=hc&vpx=91&vpy=56&dur=5158&hovh=171&hovw =294&tx=177&ty=63&sig=100889476022044570551&page =17&tbnh=114&tbnw=195&ndsp=11&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:156 ,i:204
Source: Figure 7.8: Types of Sampling Non-Probability Sampling: These methods do not provide every .item of population any known chance of being selected in, the sample. Here there is no attempt to select a representative sample. The elements of samples are selected on the convenience and/or judgment of the researcher or field interviewer. The selection process is subjective. However, if sample is not considered as the representative of the population, it is impossible to make

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an estimate of sampling error. Also„we cannot say whether our sample estimates are correct or not. Self assessment questions 13. _______ sampling, gives each member of the target population a known and equal probability of selection. 14. Non-Probability sampling methods provide every item of population any known chance of being selected in, the sample. (True/False) 7.8 CLASSIFICATION OF PROBABILITY SAMPLING TECHNIQUES Probability sampling techniques can be categorized as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Simple Random Systematic Random Stratified Random Random Clusters Complex Multistage Random

6. Stratified Clusters

P r o b a b il i t y

S im p l e R a n d o m S y s te m a tic R a n d o m S tra tifie d R a n d o m R a n d o m C lu s te r S t a r t if ie d C l u s t e r

C o m p l e x M u l t i - s t a g e R a n d o m ( v a r io u s k i n d s ) N o n - p r o b a b il it y C o n v e n ie n c e Q u o ta P u r p o s iv e

Source: Avinash Kapoor, Marketing Research Ch-7,P-137 Figure 7.9: Types of Probability Sampling

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1. Simple Random Sampling: there is equal possibility to select each element of the population. Similarly there is equal possibility of selection of each combination of the elements. i) Names drawn out of bowl generally known as lottery method. ii) To select elements randomly from an ordered list, table or random numbers. 2. Systematic Random Sampling: Systematic sampling is a advancement of random sampling. If the proposed sampling ratio is 1/n, you can start by selecting the 1st item at random among the 1st n objects in the population list, and after that you pick each nth object i.e., to get a sample in a systematized way, simply calculate the desired sampling fraction, e.g., if there are 100 retail stores selling a particular product in which we are interested and our budget allows us to sample say 20 of them, then we divide 100 by 20 and get the sampling fraction 5. Thereafter, we go through our sampling frame selecting every 5th distributor. In the purest sense this does not give rise to a true random sample since some systematic arrangement is used in listing and not every distributor has a chance of being selected once the sampling fraction is calculated.
Systematic sampling Population = 100 Retail Stores Sample desired = 20 Retail Stores a. Draw a random number 1-5 b. Sample every Xth store Sample Numbered Stores 1 1, 6, 11, 16, 2 2, 7, 12, 17, 3 3, 8, 13, 18, 4 4, 9, 14, 19, 5 5, 10, 15, 20,

21… 22… 23… 24… 25…

96 97 98 99 100

Source: Avinash Kapoor, Ch-7,P-138 Table 7.1: Systematic Survey of Retail Stores
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Sampling

as

applied

to

a

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Mathematically: If the Population size is N, and the desired sample size is n, then sampling interval will be – k=N/n. Now, randomly select a number j between 1 and k, sample element j and then every kth element thereafter, j+k, j+2k, etc. for example: N=64, n=8, k=64/8=8. Random j=3.

Figure 7.10: Simple, Random and Systematic Sampling Source:

http://www.google.co.in/imgres? q=sampling+design&start=156&num=10&hl=en&biw=800&bih=513& addh=36&tbm=isch&tbnid=o8aQdEKC5hWWJM:&imgrefurl=http://w ww.innovativegis.com/basis/mapanalysis/Topic3/Topic3.htm&docid=V NgNLxehv0nwHM&imgurl=http://www.innovativegis.com/basis/mapa nalysis/Topic3/Topic3_files/image003.png&w=803&h=493&ei=yZnqT _G7EoiurAfAt5m0BQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=331&vpy=175&dur=1 663&hovh=176&hovw=287&tx=79&ty=61&sig=10088947602204457 0551&page=17&tbnh=139&tbnw=215&ndsp=11&ved=1t:429,r:9,s:15 6,i:233

3. Stratified Sampling: this method divides the data into a number of strata and within each stratum, random sampling is done. This can only be done when the distribution of population with respect to a particular factor is known to the interviewer.

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For example, characteristics like: income, age, sex, region etc. can be used to stratify a population.

Figure 7.11: Stratified Sampling Source: http://www.google.co.in/imgres? q=cluster+sampling&hl=en&biw=800&bih=513&tbm=isch&tbnid=EpDo klSYynNl6M:&imgrefurl=http://rchsbowman.wordpress.com/2009/08/16 /statistics-notes-sampling-techniques2/&docid=UwpHHyEEPfsJ6M&imgurl=http://rchsbowman.files.wordpre ss.com/2009/08/081609_2352_4.png&w=544&h=274&ei=PKfqT8SvHIjKr Afxt3PBQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=320&vpy=226&dur=3248&hovh=159&ho vw=317&tx=133&ty=76&sig=100889476022044570551&page=4&tbnh=1 04&tbnw=206&start=28&ndsp=9&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:28,i:199 4. Cluster Sampling: The process of sampling of complete groups or units is called cluster sampling. In this method, population is divided into groups, usually, geographic or organizational; some of the groups are randomly chosen.

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Figure 7.12: Cluster Sampling Source: http://www.google.co.in/imgres? q=cluster+sampling&hl=en&biw=800&bih=513&tbm=isch&tbnid=cHBIR 5ruGl5hM:&imgrefurl=http://faculty.elgin.edu/dkernler/statistics/ch01/43.html&docid=9JOg0M2cDJKUTM&imgurl=http://faculty.elgin.edu/dker nler/statistics/ch01/images/clustersample.gif&w=383&h=312&ei=PKfqT8SvHIjKrAfxt3PBQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=122&vpy=117&dur=1566&hovh=203&ho vw=249&tx=163&ty=123&sig=100889476022044570551&page=2&tbnh= 147&tbnw=180&start=8&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:8,i:151 Though in simple multistage sampling random sampling is done and in the pure cluster sampling, the whole cluster is sampled. The error is smaller in random sampling in comparison to whole cluster sampling method. The error can be reduced by creating strata of clusters and sampling one cluster from each stratum. Self assessment questions 15. The process of sampling of complete groups or units is called stratified sampling. (True/False) 16. The error is smaller in ______ sampling in comparison to whole _______ sampling method. 7.9 CLASSIFICATION OF NON PROBABILITY SAMPLING

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Units in the population have unequal or zero chances for being selected as a sample unit. Non-probability sampling, you can not specify the possibility of element to be included in the sample. Convenience Sampling: Here, subjects are selected because of easy access to them and there is no cause tied to the purposes of research. For example: you can choose any group for sampling purpose like it can be school going students, people on the roadway, friends or colleagues in your office or tourists at picnic spot though. More clearly it includes those persons who are actually interesting to take part in it. This is a method when you generally need a few customers to help in product development on the condition that it will be further tested with a better revised sample. Panel Samples: list of people or a group is selected for testing purpose and then a sample is taken from that group which can also be known as test panel. A test panel is the panel which can be used to evaluate the dressing style of professional group, an offer a new or improved service or other aspects of marketing plan. The sample which is selected may be further asked to take participation in the discussion like television ndtv talk show panel.

Figure 7.13: judgmental sampling Source: http://www.google.co.in/imgres? q=panel+sampling&start=128&hl=en&biw=800&bih=513&tbm=isch&tbnid=F LWT1zTe7mdc2M:&imgrefurl=http://www.stalbans.gov.uk/council-anddemocracy/your-council/contacts-consultationSikkim Manipal University Page No. 23

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feedback/&docid=QtiYcx1Gkv1UEM&imgurl=http://www.stalbans.gov.uk/Im ages/SADC%252520Panel%252520063c_tcm1512456.jpg&w=550&h=361&ei=2Z_qTzdIYnOrQeOpsjPBQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=240&sig=10088947602204457 0551&page=14&tbnh=140&tbnw=208&ndsp=11&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:128,i:16 8&tx=72&ty=69 Example: Assume that a researcher conducts a market-research panel discussion concerned with a product or a promotion, such as a panel of consumers doing a taste test or offering their opinion on a new commercial. Quota Sampling: this is a part of stratified sampling in which selection within strata is non random. Selection is normally left to the wish of the interviewer. Quota sampling involves the following steps: (i) Step 1: Identify important attributes like age, sex and class level, and divide the population on the basis of these characteristics in to segments. These segments are also called cells. (ii) Step 2: A quota of unit is selected from each cell. Example: Surveying MBA students about their campus food services, we can summarize the most popular sampling techniques as below:
Sampling Method Cluster Sampling Definition Units in the population can often be found in certain geographic groups or "clusters" (e.g., primary school children in Derbyshire. A random sample of clusters is taken, then all units within the cluster are examined. Uses those who are willing to volunteer. Uses Quick and easy; does not require complete population information; good for faceto-face surveys. Limitations Expensive if the clusters are large; greater risk of sampling error.

Convenience Sampling

Readily available; large amount of Information can be Gathered quickly. Good for providing illustrative examples or case studies. Simply to design and interpret; can calculate the estimate of population and the sampling error. Easier to extract the sample than via simple random; ensure sample is spread across the population.

Cannot extrapolate from sample to infer about the population; prone to volunteer bias. Very prone to bias; samples often small; cannot extrapolate from sample. Need a complete and accurate population listing; may not be practical if the sample requires lots of small visits all over the country. Can be costly and time-consuming if the sample is not conveniently located.

Judgement Sampling

A deliberate choice of a sample – the opposite of random. Ensures that every member of the population has an equal chance of selection .

Simply Random Sampling

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Systematic Sampling After randomly selecting a starting point from the population, between I and "n", every nth unit is selected, where n equals the population size divided by the sample size.

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Table 7.2: selection of quota units; Source: Avinash Kapoor, Ch-7,P-144 17. Snow Ball sampling: it comes under the special category of judgmental sampling. This method is most suitable for small size of population where each respondent is asked to give reference for one or more other population members. Example: While taking interview, a researcher can usually ask the respondents to nominate other members in that group who are enriched with lot of relevant information on the same topic.The researcher then interviews the new individuals and continues in the same way until it gets saturated. Self assessment questions 17. Snow Ball sampling comes under the special category of judgmental sampling. (True/False) 18. In _______ sampling, subjects are selected because of easy access to them and there is no cause tied to the purposes of research. 7.10 SELECTING AN APPROPRIATE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE There are four pillars used to select the best sampling technique. You learn all one by one as follows: 1. Set out your goals first: this preliminary goal has two kind of objectives: a) Possibility of high level of preciseness b) Bound with your budget only

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2. Identify the different sampling techniques: this step must cover three types of sampling techniques namely; simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling. Further you will see some variations on these basic techniques as well like stratified and non stratified sampling, one stage vs. two stage cluster sampling, replacement sampling and non replacement sampling. Though, the main objective of sampling technique selection is to maximize precision, you can deduct some of these alternatives. Like as you know, non replacement sampling technique gives a better kind of precision in comparison to sampling with replacement. Thus you must use only non replacement sampling technique. Similarly precision is better in one stage cluster sampling in comparison to two stage cluster sampling. Thus you must focus on the one stage cluster sampling. 3. Test methods: in order to match the potential sampling with the research objectives, testing of sampling methods is done. This testing helps you in knowing the level of precision and cost related to each potential sampling method. For this purpose, you must follow the standard error method to measure precision. The smaller the standard error, higher the precision ratio.

Figure 7.13: testing method

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http://www.google.co.in/imgres? q=panel+sampling&start=198&hl=en&biw=800&bih=513&tbm=isch&tbnid =Qv3ElK0SaBlCYM:&imgrefurl=http://www.mroptimus.com/&docid=Zfhp FFItPzpg-M&imgurl=http://www.mroptimus.com/images %2525202/P_Home.jpg&w=381&h=315&ei=8p_qT9edM4HZrQeY8vHDB Q&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=512&vpy=181&dur=36&hovh=204&hovw=247 &tx=207&ty=112&sig=100889476022044570551&page=21&tbnh=149&tb nw=180&ndsp=11&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:198,i:28
Source: To avoid getting stuck in the computational method, you should use the previous sample problems results. 4. Select best option or alternative: after matching the potential methods with your objective, its right time to select the best alternative among the various options. For example: if your research study says that cluster sampling is the best suitable option for you, then go with it. Thus, you can use the above said four pillars in order to determine which method is best suitable for you. Self assessment questions 19. Arrange the following steps: a) Select best option or alternative b) Set out your goals first c) Test methods d) Identify the different sampling techniques i) ii) iii) iv) a, b, c, d d, c, b, a b, a, d, c b, d, c, a
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20. The main objective of sampling technique selection is to maximize _______. Activity 3 Suppose that you have been appointed as a consultant for a company who manufacture water purifier safeguard with a name of “Aqua fresh purifier” in India. What process of sampling you follow for this? Which sampling technique you adopt for your segment, market and product? 7.11 SUMMARY Let us recapitulate the important concepts discussed in this unit: • • • • • In this unit, you have able to learn the importance of sampling in marketing research. Various basic techniques. concepts are discussed related to sampling

Here, a thorough study is given on both sampling as well as non sampling techniques. The process of sampling techniques is also discussed. In probability sampling, discussion has done related to simple random sampling, systematic random sampling, stratified sampling and cluster sampling. And on the other hand, under non probability sampling, you must have learnt about the convenience sampling, judgmental sampling, snowball sampling and quota sampling. In the end you might have been aware about how to select an appropriate sampling technique as well.

7.12 GLOSSARY Sampling: Sampling is a term which means collecting the data and information from a group of people in order to know about their tastes, preferences, ideas and beliefs.

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Element: Unit about which information is sought for example: individuals, households. Sudman and Blair suggest a conceptual sample of sales dollars or potential sales dollars. Statistic: The estimate of a characteristic is obtained from the sample. Non-response error: Error created when chosen sample members do not participate. Sampling frame: it could be yellow pages, telephone directory, various colonies in a municipal area list mentioning the details of all colonies. Probability Sampling: it is that sampling method in which there is a possibility of every element to be included in the sample Stratified Sampling: here, a division of data is done into a number of stratum and then from each stratum random samples are selected. Cluster Sampling: this is that sampling method in which a complete group is selected to do the sampling. Judgmental sampling: here a list of people or a group is selected for testing purpose and then a sample is taken from that group which can also be known as test panel. Quota Sampling: in this method, survey respondents are selected. Firstly a group is made by segmenting the population into mutually exclusive sub groups. It is just similar like stratified sampling. 7.13 TERMINAL QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. Define the term 'sampling'. Distinguish between census and sampling. Discuss sample size decision-making process with suitable examples. Discuss various types of probability sampling techniques with suitable examples. 5. Discuss various types of non-probability sampling techniques with suitable examples. 6. Make comparison and differences between stratified and quota sampling. 7. Frame out the differences between stratified and cluster sampling.
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8. Discuss the relevance of sampling in marketing research. 7.14 ANSWERS Self-Assessment Questions 1. Sampling 2. True 3. False 4. Census 5. Enumeration 6. False 7. Frame 8. iii) 9. Specify sampling unit 10. Target 11. Sampling error 12. True 13. Probability 14. False 15. False 16. Random, cluster 17. True 18. Convenience
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19. iv) 20. Precision Terminal questions 1. Sampling is a term used to collect the data from a population for achieving the objective of research study…… refer 7.2 2. Census is difficult to use in the research studies where the targeted population…. refer 7.2 3. Sampling process consists of seven steps. They are:….. refer 7.5 4. Probability sampling techniques can be categorized as follows: …..refer 7.8 5. Units in the population have unequal or zero chances for being selected as a sample unit….. refer 7.9 6. Stratified Sampling: this method divides the data into a number of strata and within each stratum, random sampling is done……Refer 7.8 & 7.9 7. The process of sampling of complete groups or units is called cluster sampling…. Refer 7.8 & 7.9 8. It is very difficult to find out those persons who are not aware with the sampling….Refer 7.3 7.15 CASE STUDY SAMPLING A large private university has eight science departments (biology, chemistry, etc.). Each department has an introductory course that all students must take first. Within a department, the courses share a common scope, sequence, and learning objectives, though individual lecturers are given latitude on instructional methods. All lecturers are required to administer a year-end, university-developed satisfaction questionnaire to their students. It consists of scaled items designed to measure how interested the students were in the material and how satisfied they were with the lecturer's teaching. The results are archived in a database for 7 years.
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All lecturers are also required to administer a final exam, but they have freedom over the exam's format and content. They are also free to develop additional assessments during the course. As a result, there is considerable diversity in assessment procedures across courses. For example, some lecturers grade solely on midterm and final exam scores; others grade on weekly or biweekly problem sets. Some lecturers' tests are composed solely of multiple-choice questions; others require constructed responses. The university has completed the second year of a 4-year pilot implementation of "Learning by Doing," a pedagogical approach in which inquiry-related skills and strategies specific to a discipline are taught in parallel with its concepts and theories. Its primary advocate is the Dean of Academic Affairs, who adopted it at a different university in his prior tenure as a chemistry professor. Learning by Doing requires that the students carry out an inquiry-based task throughout the length of the course. It can be a controlled experiment, a non-experimental data collection and analysis effort, or a research proposal. That is up to the lecturer. The assumptions of change underlying Learning by Doing are that: 1. 2. Students will become more interested in the subject matter when engaged in this approach. Students will learn abstract scientific principles better if they are engaged from the start in applying the principles to a concrete, meaningful inquiry task.

Current Implementation of Learning by Doing In the first 2 years, each of the eight departments got 10 lecturers to participate in the pilot (out of a population of 20 to 22 lecturers per department). Training was delivered to the participating lecturers during the summer before the first year of the project. The goal was to build the lecturers' capacities to apply and adapt the model to their own curricula and determine how to assess their students' outcomes. Now they are about to enter their third year. Preliminary evidence gathered informally by the dean has large differences in how the intervention is being implemented. For example, some lecturers follow the guidelines, they learned in the training sessions meticulously, while others pick and choose among them. Expectations

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Now that the lecturers have had two years of experience with the intervention, the university has hired a team to evaluate it. The dean wants the evaluator to examine how much Learning by Doing is leading to increased learning of abstract scientific principles and increased interest in the course content. He wants to see if there are differences in impact of the intervention from department to department. Ultimately, he wants to use the results to decide which of the following actions to take: 1. 2. 3. 4. Mandate Learning by Doing in all the introductory courses. Mandate it for only certain departments. Maintain it solely as a voluntary project. Discontinue it.

The dean expects that the intervention will have only a small effect on student learning and interest. However, he feels that even a small effect would justify continuing it, because it is relatively inexpensive to implement. Also, many faculties and administrators believe that its goals are important to address, even if they are difficult to achieve. There is not enough money in the evaluation budget for collecting data from all the lecturers and students participating in the project. Hence, the dean requests that random samples of lecturers and students be drawn. Now that you have read the details of the intervention, please answer the following questions. Source: Adapted from OERL QUESTIONS 1. 2. Is the project mature enough to look at outcomes, or should it examine only implementation? What would be an appropriate evaluation question to ask to determine if the intervention is leading to increased student interest? To see if student interest is increasing because of the intervention, what data should the evaluators collect? What would be an appropriate evaluation question to ask in order to find out whether the intended learning outcomes are being achieved?

3. 4.

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5.

To see if the intended improvements in students' understanding of abstract scientific principles are being achieved, what data should the evaluators collect? To understand the context in which the learning outcomes occur, what data should be collected? Within the constraints of the limited evaluation budget, whom should be sampled and how? The dean wants the evaluator to examine how much Learning by Doing is leading to increased learning of abstract scientific principles and increased interest in the course content. Is this a reasonable request? The dean wants to see if there are differences in impact of the intervention from department to department. Is this reasonable? Will the findings be generalizable?

6. 7. 8.

9. 10.

Source: Avinash Kapoor, Marketing Research, Case study-10 REFERENCES • Freund, John E. and Frank J. Williams, "Elementary Business Statistics - The Modern Approach", Prentice Hall International Editions. Kinnear, Thomas C. and James R. Taylor, "Marketing Research - An Applied Approach" McGraw-Hill International Editions. Luck, David J. and Ronald S. Rubin, "Marketing Research" Prentice Hall of India M. Ltd.. Green, Paul E. and Donald S. Tull "Research for Marketing Decisions" Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. Westfall, Boyd and Stasch, "Marketing Research - Text and Cases" Richard D. Irwin, Inc. E-References

• • • •

http://www.egyankosh.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/35540/3/Unit-5.pdf 25-06-2012, 11.30 am http://stattrek.com/survey-research/compare-sampling-methods.aspx 25-06-2012, 3.00 pm
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http://www.childinfo.org/files/chap04.pdf 25-06-2012, 5.45 pm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sampling_(statistics) 26-06-2012, 12.30 pm

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