Submitted by : Aditya Gupta 101116125 3rd Year 6th Sem Mechanical-2

I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my professor Dr. A. Rehman who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful work on the topic GAS TURBINE : EMISSION AND CONTROL STRATEGIES, which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and I came to know about so many new things. I am really thankful to him. Submitted by : Aditya Gupta
101116125 3rd Year 6th Sem Mechanical-2


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Bad impact on Health and Environment Improving Fuel Efficiency Damage to Ozone Layer Stricter Regulations by Civil Aviation Authorities

• CO Carbon Monoxide • CO2 Carbon Dioxide • NOX Nitrogen Oxides • UHC Unburned Hydrocarbon • H2O Water Vapour • Excess N2 and O2

• CO Carbon Monoxide

Reduces capacity of blood to absorb Oxygen May Result in Asphyxiation and even Death
• CO2 & H2O

Not always regarded as pollutant However Both Contribute to Global Warming and can only be reduced by Proper Combustion and improved Thermal efficiency

UHC Unburned Hydrocarbon Not only Toxic but on Combination with Nox forms Photochemical Smog Reduced Visibility Recent Scientific Research Contribute diseases like asthma and other Respiratory diseases to them

• NOX

(NO + NO2 ) Photochemical smog at Ground Level Damage to plant Life Formation of Ozone in Troposphere (Extends upto 12 KMs above Ground). This is the region in which Stationary GTs and Subsonic Aircrafts work.

This Reaction leads to formation of Ozone at Ground. Measurements taken over a long period of time at altitudes from 1 to 3 km indicate that the level of ozone over western Europe is now approaching 50 ppb (parts per billion). Prolonged exposure to ozone concentrations around 100 ppb is associated with respiratory illnesses, impaired vision, headaches, and allergies. Example of Los Angeles

Depletion of Ozone Layer at Extreme Altitudes where Supersonic Aircraft operates occurs by Reaction

Depletion of the ozone layer allows increased penetration of solar ultraviolet radiation, which produces a corresponding increase in the incidence of skin cancer.
• SOX Oxides of Sulpher Mainly SO2 & SO3

formed when sulfur-containing compounds in the fuel react with oxygen in the combustion air. They are toxic and corrosive and lead to the formation of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. Since virtually all the sulfur in fuel is oxidized to SOx, the only viable limitation strategy is to remove sulfur from fuel before combustion.

Gas Turbine Exahust Emission using Conventional Fuels

Carbon Monoxide

When a combustion zone is operating fuel-rich, large amounts of CO are formed owing to the lack of sufficient oxygen

If, however, the combustion zone mixture strength is stoichiometric or moderately fuel-lean, significant amounts of CO will also be present due to the dissociation of CO2.
Research suggests that much of the CO arises from incomplete combustion of the fuel.
• Inadequate burning

rates in the primary zone, due to a fuel/air ratio that is too low and/or insufficient residence time • Inadequate mixing of fuel and air, which produces some regions in which the mixture strength is too weak to support combustion, and others in which over-rich combustion yields high local concentrations of CO • Quenching of the postflame products by entrainment into the liner wallcooling air, especially in the primary zone

Reactions removing CO

At High Temperatures,
At Low Temperatures,

Effect of Equivalence Ratio on CO Emission : Minimum at ER=0.8 The high levels of CO at low equivalence ratios are due to the slow rates of oxidation associated with low combustion temperatures. An increase in the equivalence ratio raises the flame temperature, which accelerates the rate of oxidation so that CO emissions decline. However, at temperatures higher than around 1800 Κ, the production of CO by chemical dissociation of CO2 starts to become significant.

Other Minor factors affecting CO Emission are : 1.) Pressure An increase in pressure decreases CO and at high equivalence ratios, the same increase in combustion pressure virtually eliminated CO emissions by suppressing chemical dissociation. 2.) Ambient Air Temperature 3.) Wall-Cooling Air 4.) Fuel Atomization

Unburned Hydrocarbons UHC include fuel that emerges from the combustor in the form of drops or vapor, as well as the products of the thermal degradation of the parent fuel into species of lower molecular weight. They are normally associated with poor atomization, inadequate burning rates, the chilling effects of film-cooling air, or any combination of these. Smoke

Exhaust smoke is caused by the production of finely divided soot particles in fuelrich regions of the flame that, in conventional combustors, are always close to the fuel spray. These are the regions in which recirculating burned products move upstream toward the fuel injector, and local pockets of fuel vapour become enveloped in oxygen-deficient gases at high temperature.
In these fuel-rich zones, soot may be produced in considerable quantities. Most of the soot produced in the primary zone is consumed in the high temperature regions downstream. Thus, from a smoke viewpoint, a combustor may be considered to comprise two separate zones—the primary zone, which governs the rate of soot formation, and the intermediate zone (and, on modern high-temperature engines, the dilution zone also), which determines the rate of soot consumption. The soot concentration actually observed in the exhaust gas is the difference between two large numbers.

Analysis of the soot found in exhaust gases shows that it consists mostly of carbon (96%) and a mixture of hydrogen, oxygen, and other elements. Soot is not an equilibrium product of combustion except at mixture strengths far richer than those employed in the primary zones of gas turbines. Thus, it is impossible to predict its rate of formation and final concentration.

Oxides of Nitrogen

Most of the nitric oxide (NO) formed in combustion subsequently oxidizes to NO2. For this reason, it is customary to lump NO and NO2 together and express results in terms of NOx, rather than NO. It can be produced by four different mechanisms: 1.) thermal NO 2.) nitrous oxide mechanism 3.) prompt NO 4.) fuel NO Thermal Nitric Oxide This is produced by the oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen in hightemperature regions of the flame and in the postflame gases. The process is endothermic and proceeding at a significant rate above1850 K. Most of the proposed reaction schemes for thermal NO utilize the extended Zeldovich mechanism:

NO formation is found to peak on the fuel-lean side of stoichiometric. This is a consequence of the competition between fuel and nitrogen for the available oxygen. Although the combustion temperature is higher on the slightly rich side of stoichiometric, the available oxygen is then consumed preferentially by the fuel.

NOX formation as a function of time & Temperature

Influence of Inlet Air Temperature

Prompt Nitric Oxide

Under certain conditions, NO is found very early in the flame region—a fact that is in conflict with the idea of a kinetically controlled process. According to Nicol, the initiating reaction is

The balance of the prompt NO mechanism involves the oxidation of the HCN molecules and N atoms. Under lean-premixed conditions, the HCN oxidizes to NO mainly by a sequence of reactions involving HCN → CN → NCO → NO. The N atom reacts mainly by the second Zeldovich reaction.
Fuel Nitric Oxide Light distillate fuels contain less than 0.06% of organically bonded nitrogen (usually known as fuel-bound nitrogen; FBN), but the heavy distillates may contain as much as 1.8%. During combustion, some of this nitrogen reacts to form the so-called “fuel NO.” The fraction of nitrogen undergoing this change increases only slowly with increasing flame temperature. As far as gaseous fuels are concerned, natural gases contain little or no FBN, but some is found in certain processes and low-Btu gases. Depending on the degree of nitrogen conversion, fuel NO can represent a considerable proportion of the total NO

Factors affecting formation of NOX

1. Pressure

Pressure effects on NOx formation are of special importance due to the continual trend toward engines of higher pressure ratio to meet the need for lower fuel consumption.

For Conventional Combustors, NOx ∝ Pn

n ∈ {0.5,0.8}

2. Fuel Atomization

NO emissions increase with an increase in mean drop size, especially at low equivalence ratios. An increase in SMD means that a larger proportion of the total number of fuel drops in the spray is capable of supporting “envelope” flames. These envelope flames, which surround the larger drops, burn in a diffusion mode at near-stoichiometric fuel/air ratios, giving rise to many local regions of high temperature in which NOX is formed in appreciable quantities. Reduction in mean drop size impedes the formation of envelope flames, so that a larger proportion of the total combustion process occurs in what is essentially a premixed mode, thereby generating less NOX.

The main factors controlling emissions from conventional combustors :
• Primary-zone temperature and equivalence ratio • Degree of homogeneity of the primary-zone combustion process • Residence time in the primary zone • Liner-wall quenching characteristics • Fuel spray characteristics (with liquid fuels)

Emission Control techniques for different pollutants

The presence of these species in the exhaust gases is a manifestation of incomplete combustion. Common philosophy to all approaches to CO and UHC reduction is to raise the level of combustion efficiency.
• Redistribution of the airflow to bring the primary zone equivalence ratio closer to the optimum value of around 0.8

• Increase in primary-zone volume and/or residence time
• Reduction in liner wall-cooling air, especially in the primary zone • Improved fuel atomization

• Lower the reaction temperature. • Eliminate hot spots from the reaction zone, as there is little point in achieving a satisfactorily low average temperature if the reaction zone contains local regions of high temperature in which the rate of NOx formation remains high • Addition of more air into the primary combustion zone to lower the flame temperature

• Improved atomization
• Increase in liner pressure drop to promote better mixing, thereby eliminating hot spots from the combustion zone

• Reduction in combustor residence time
Unfortunately, reductions in flame temperature and residence time lead to increased output of both CO and UHC.

Generalised fact , Change in Operating condition that reduce NOX increases CO and UHC

Also known as Wet Low Emission Technique
Has direct consequence on Nox as Thermal Nox is directly proportiona;l to Temperature. But result in Rise in Nox and UHC level (We can see from graph that Lowest Emissions are observed at Water-Fuel ratio of 1.0 after that CO and UCH Emission rises rapidly.) Also there is greater primary Zone velocity adversely affecting ignition and stability performance.

Disadvantages with water injection : • Higher capital cost • Increase in fuel consumption • High cost of water treatment • Potential for corrosion of hot section components • Higher maintenance costs • Increase in CO and UHC emissions • Increase in combustion pressure pulsations

Lead to development of “dry low-NOx” (DLN) combustors, i.e., combustors that can meet the emission goals without having to resort to diluents injection.

This is a method for converting NOX in a gas turbine exhaust stream into molecular nitrogen and H2O by injecting ammonia into the stream in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust gases first pass through an oxidation catalyst and are then mixed with ammonia before entering the SCR catalyst. The oxidation catalyst removes the CO and UHC emissions by oxidizing them to CO2 and H2O. Properly mixed NOX with NH3 pass over a catalyst (usually vanadium pentoxide), which results in the selective reduction of NOX to form N2 and H2O.

The underlying principle is the reduction of flame temperature by recirculating cooled combustion products back into the primary zone.
Main Advantage : Little or no combustor development is required and standard production combustors can be used. Main drawback : Need for an intercooler between the exhaust and Inlet. Need of Cleaner fuel.

An ideal variable-geometry system would be one in which large quantities of air are admitted at the upstream end of the combustion liner at maximum power conditions to lower the primary-zone temperature and provide adequate film-cooling air. With a reduction in engine power, an increasing proportion of this air is diverted to the dilution zone to maintain the primary zone temperature within the low-emissions “window”.
Drawback : complex control and feedback mechanisms tending to increase cost and weight and reduce reliability.

United States Military Helicopter with Variable Inlet Geometry

In contrast to Variable Geometry, the airflow distribution within staged combustors remains constant; the fuel flow is switched from one zone to another in order to maintain a fairly constant combustion temperature. One Method is Selective Fuel injection

Objective of this Method Raise the equivalence ratio and hence also the temperature of the localized combustion zones at low-power operation reducing CO and UHC emissions.

Drawback of selective fuel injection is the “chilling” of chemical reactions that occurs at the outer edges of the individual combustion zones. This chilling lowers combustion efficiency, as discussed above, and increases the formation of CO and UHC. Lower Circumferential Temp also reduces Turbine efficiency.
Second Method is Staged Combustors No attempt is made to achieve all the performance objectives in a single combustion zone. Instead, two or more zones are employed, each of which is designed specifically to optimize certain aspects of combustion performance.

Two Design Approaches
1. 2.

Serial Parallel ( Radial Staging ft. the use of Dual-Annular Combustors)

No attempt is made to achieve all the performance objectives in a single combustion zone. Instead, two or more zones are employed, each of which is designed specifically to optimize certain aspects of combustion performance. Parallel Advantages : The main advantage of radial staging is that it allows all the combustion performance goals to be achieved, including low emissions, within roughly the same overall length as a conventional combustor. This short-length feature is attractive from the standpoints of low engine weight and reduced rotor dynamics problems

If the combustor domes of the inner and outer stages are arranged to be radially in-line, the fuel injector tips for both stages can be mounted on a common feed arm. An important advantage of this arrangement is that the main stage fuel injectors are cooled by the continuously flowing pilot fuel. This prevents coking of main fuel injectors when unfueled but still to hotter temperatures.

General Electric dual-annular combustor

Fuel Nozzle General Electric dual-annular combustor

Disdvantages : One basic drawback is that all zones are supplied with air at the compressor outlet temperature, which means that all zones have the same relatively poor lean blowout limit. It is also clear that pollutants reduction is achieved at the expense of increased design complexity and a marked increase in the number of fuel injectors.

Serial A portion of the fuel is injected into a fairly conventional primary combustion zone. Additional fuel premixed with air injected downstream into a “secondary” or “main” combustion zone, which operates at low equivalence ratios to minimize the formation of NOx and smoke. The primary combustion zone used engine startup and generates the temperature rise needed to raise the rotational speed up to engine idle conditions. At higher power settings, fuel is supplied to the secondary combustion zone and, as the engine power rises toward its maximum value, the function of the primary zone becomes increasingly one of providing the heat needed to initiate rapid combustion of the fuel supplied to the second stage. Advantages : Higher Efficiency than Radial even at lower Equivalence Ratios. Disadvanatges : In-line arrangement of stages create additional length. Pilot fuel cannot be used to cool the main stage fuel as can be done quite conveniently with radial staging.

Pratt and Whitney axially staged combustor

Its underlying principle is to supply the combustion zone with a completely homogeneous mixture of fuel and air, and then to operate the combustion zone at an equivalence ratio that is very close to the lean blowout limit. The smaller the margin between stable combustion and flame blowout, the lower the output of NOx. A typical LPP combustor can be divided into three main regions. The first region is for fuel injection, fuel vaporization, and fuel–air mixing. Its function is to achieve complete evaporation and complete mixing of fuel and air before combustion.

Advantages : 1.) By eliminating droplet combustion and supplying the combustion zone with a homogeneous mixture of low equivalence ratio, the combustion process proceeds at a uniformly low temperature and very little NOx is formed. 2.) Essentially free from carbon formation 3.) for flames in which the temperature does not exceeds 1900 K, the amount of NOx formed does not increase with an increase in residence time .This means that LPP systems can be designed with long residence times to achieve low CO and UHC, while maintaining low NOx levels.

Disadvantages : 1.) the long time required for fuel evaporation and fuel– air premixing upstream of the combustion zone may result in the occurrence of autoignition at the high inlet air temperatures and pressures associated with operation at high-power settings 2.) Essentially free from carbon formation 3.) for flames in which the temperature does not exceeds 1900 K, the amount of NOx formed does not increase with an increase in residence time .This means that LPP systems can be designed with long residence times to achieve low CO and UHC, while maintaining low NOx levels. EX. Rolls-Royce Ulstein Turbine, Eurodyn, LPP Combustor, 2.6 MW 32% Efficiency Opra Turbines OP-16, 1.6 MW, 28% Efficiency (Below)

Combustion is initiated in a fuel-rich primary zone and NOX formation rates are low due to the combined effects of low temperature and oxygen depletion. A gradual and continuous admission of air into the combustion products emanating from the primary zone would raise both their temperature and oxygen content, thereby greatly accelerating the rate of NOX formation, as indicated by the high NOx route. If, however, the additional air required to complete the combustion process and reduce the gas temperature to the desired predilution zone level could be mixed uniformly and instantaneously with the primary-zone efflux, the combustion process would then follow the low NOx route

Schematic Diagram of RQL Combustor

one obvious requirement is that of meeting the emissions goals at base load on both gas and liquid fuels and controlling the variation of emissions levels across the load range of the engine. Another, equally important, requirement is for high system operability to achieve stable combustion at all operating conditions, good system response to rapid load changes, acceptable levels of combustion noise and, if required, capability for switching smoothly from gas to liquid fuel, and vice versa. Ex. Solar Dry Low-Emissions Concepts
Siemens Hybrid Burner

Catalytic combustion is a process that employs a catalyst to initiate and promote chemical reactions in a flowing premixed fuel–air mixture at leaner conditions than are possible in homogeneous gas-phase combustion. This allows stable combustion to proceed at equivalence ratios that are below the normal lean flammability limit of the fuel–air mixture. Combustion at such reduced temperatures can be expected to dramatically decrease the production of thermal NOx.

Concluding Remarks
The continuing need to conserve fuel resources can only be met by raising the engine cycle efficiency calling for an increase in engine pressure ratio, an approach that reduces CO2 emissions, but results in higher combustion temperatures and higher levels of NOx.

Thus, the desire to burn less fuel, thereby generating less CO2, is in direct conflict with the equally important need to reduce NOx. In future, engine pressure ratios will rise to a maximum value of around 60 and yet designers of future combustors will be called for this challenge to eliminate any soot and reduce further by 50%.

These will be the research and development challenges of the future.

Challenge is not over…… it’s just the beginning of Green Engineering

References
1.Gas Turbine Combustion Alternate fuels and emissions – CRC Press Arthur H. Lefebvre and Dilip R. Ballal 2. GE Power Systems Gas Turbine Emissions and Control Roointon Pavri Gerald D. Moore GE Energy Services Atlanta, GA 3. TECHNOLOGY UPDATE ON GAS TURBINE DUAL FUEL, DRY LO'ULI1 ENEHSSEON COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

Petter Egil Rekke, Johan E. Hustad, Nils A. Rekke1, Oie Bilger Svenciegaeird:2 Norwegian University of Soienoe and Technology, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, 7491 Trondheim 1Sintef Energy Research, 7465 Trondheim 2RoHS-Royce Ulstein Turbine AS, 5811 Bergen NORWAY

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Aditya Gupta +91-8517869472 adiityagupta@ymail.com

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