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Torque

A A PowerPoint PowerPoint Presentation Presentation by by Paul Paul E. E. Tippens, Tippens, Professor Professor of of Physics Physics Southern Southern Polytechnic Polytechnic State State University University

©

2007

Torque is a twist or turn that tends to produce rotation. * * * Applications are found in many common tools around the home or industry where it is necessary to turn, tighten or loosen devices.

**Objectives: After completing this module, you should be able to:
**

• Define and give examples of the terms torque, moment arm, axis, and line of action of a force. • Draw, label and calculate the moment arms for a variety of applied forces given an axis of rotation. • Calculate the resultant torque about any axis given the magnitude and locations of forces on an extended object. • Optional: Define and apply the vector cross product to calculate torque.

Examples: . motion.Definition of Torque Torque Torque is is defined defined as as the the tendency tendency to to produce produce a a change change in in rotational rotational motion.

• • The The location location of of the the applied applied force. Each The 40-N of the force 20-N The forces nearer the forces produces has a twice different the end of the wrench torque torque as due does to the the have greater torques. of force. force. Magnitude Locationof of of force force Direction Force 20 N 2020 N 20NN 20 40NN 20 N 20 N . direction 20-N force. force.Torque is Determined by Three Factors: • • The The magnitude magnitude of of the the applied applied force. • • The The direction direction of of the the applied applied force. force.

cw cw .60 m) = 24. cw 6 cm 40 N Units: Nm or lbft = = 24.0 N Nm. m.0 24. axis.0 Nm. Thus. Thus.Units for Torque Torque Torque is is proportional proportional to to the the magnitude magnitude of of F F and and to to the the distance distance rr from from the the axis. a a tentative tentative formula formula might might be: be: = = Fr Fr = (40 N)(0.

magnitude. . Turning the handle of a screwdriver clockwise and then counterclockwise will advance the screw first inward and then outward.Direction of Torque Torque Torque is is a a vector vector quantity quantity that that has has direction direction as as well well as as magnitude.

counterclockwise torques are positive and clockwise torques are negative.Sign Convention for Torque By convention. into page . out of page cw ccw Negative torque: clockwise. Positive torque: Counter-clockwise.

Line of Action of a Force The The line line of of action action of of a a force force is is an an imaginary imaginary line line of of indefinite indefinite length length drawn drawn along along the the direction direction of of the the force. F1 F2 Line of action F3 . force.

rotation.The Moment Arm The The moment moment arm arm of of a a force force is is the the perpendicular perpendicular distance distance from from the the line line of of action action of of a a force force to to the the axis axis of of rotation. F1 F2 r r r F3 .

• • Draw Draw and and label label moment moment arm. force. • • Calculate Calculate the the moment moment arm arm if if necessary. • • Apply Apply definition definition of of torque: torque: = = Fr Fr Torque = force x moment arm .Calculating Torque • • Read Read problem problem and and draw draw a a rough rough figure. necessary. • • Extend Extend line line of of action action of of the the force. figure. arm.

draw.Example 1: An 80-N force acts at the end of a 12-cm wrench as shown.104 N)(0.104 m) m) = = = 8.4 cm cm = (80 (80 N)(0. rr = = 12 12 cm cm sin sin 60 6000 = = 10.4 10.31 N Nm m . • Extend line of action.31 8. Find the torque. calculate r.

Alternate: An 80-N force acts at the end of a 12-cm wrench as shown. positive 12 cm Resolve 80-N force into components as shown.3 N)(0. Note from figure: rx = 0 and ry = 12 cm = (69.31 8. Find the torque.12 m) = = 8.31 N Nm m as as before before .

• • Calculate Calculate moment moment arms arms if if necessary. and and label label a a rough rough figure. CCW CCW (+) (+) and and CW CW ((-). torques.Calculating Resultant Torque • • Read. • • Extend Extend lines lines of of action action for for each each force. . and and axis axis of of rotation. force. • -body diagram • Draw Draw free free-body diagram showing showing all all forces. affixing proper proper sign. draw. • • Resultant Resultant torque torque is is sum sum of of individual individual torques. rotation. distances. distances. figure. necessary. sign. • • Calculate Calculate torques torques due due to to EACH EACH individual individual force force affixing -). Read. draw. forces.

cw .00 m The torque about A is clockwise and negative.Example 2: Find resultant torque about axis A for the arrangement shown below: Find Find due due to to each each force. = 40 N m 20 = 40 N m 20 = Fr = (20 N)(2 m) = 40 N m. force. Consider Consider 20-N 20-N force force first: first: 30 N 300 6m 40 N negative r 2m 300 20 N A 4m r = (4 m) sin 300 = 2.

00 m The torque about A is clockwise and negative. Consider Consider 30-N 30-N force force next.): Next we find torque due to 30-N force about same axis A.Example 2 (Cont. cw . force. next. = -120 N m 30 = -120 N m 30 = Fr = (30 N)(4 m) = 120 N m. Find Find due due to to each each force. 30 N 300 6m 40 N 2m r negative 300 20 N A 4m r = (8 m) sin 300 = 4.

Find Find due due to to each each force.Example 2 (Cont. ccw . Consider Consider 40-N 40-N force force next: next: 30 N 300 6m 40 N positive r 2m 300 20 N A 4m r = (2 m) sin 900 = 2. force. = +80 N m 40 40 = +80 N m = Fr = (40 N)(2 m) = 80 N m.): Finally.00 m The torque about A is CCW and positive. we consider the torque due to the 40-N force.

80 80 N Nm m Clockwise . torques.Example 2 (Conclusion): Find resultant torque about axis A for the arrangement shown below: Resultant Resultant torque torque is is the the sum sum of of individual individual torques. 30 N 300 6m 40 N 2m 300 20 N A 4m R = 20 + 20 + 20 = -40 N m -120 N m + 80 N m RR = = -.

Optional Discussion This concludes the general treatment of torque.Part II: Torque and the Cross Product or Vector Product. . Check with your instructor before studying this section. Part II details the use of the vector product in calculating resultant torque.

consider the figure below. . Torque r Magnitude: (F Sin )r F Sin F The effect of the force F at angle (torque) is to advance the bolt out of the page.The Vector Product Torque can also be found by using the vector product of force F and position vector r. Direction = Out of page (+). For example.

this becomes simply: r (F Sin ) r or F (r Sin ) .Definition of a Vector Product The magnitude of the vector (cross) product of two vectors A and B is defined as follows: A x B = l A l l B l Sin In our example. the cross product of F and r is: F x r = l F l l r l Sin Magnitude only F Sin F In effect.

4 lb in. 6 in. what about F x r? . Torque 600 12 lb Explain difference.)(12 lb) Sin r x F = 62. r x F = l r l l F l Sin r x F = (6 in.4 lb in.)(12 lb) Sin 120 r x F = 62. 600 6 in.Example: Find the magnitude of the cross product of the vectors r and F drawn below: Torque 12 lb r x F = l r l l F l Sin r x F = (6 in. Also.

A x B = C (up) B x A = -C (Down) What is direction of A x C? C B -C A B A Curl fingers of right hand in direction of cross product (A to B) or (B to A). Thumb will point in the direction of product C. .Direction of the Vector Product. The direction of a vector product is determined by the right hand rule.

) k What are magnitude and direction of F x r? .)(10 lb) Sin r x F = 38. 500 6 in.Example: What are the magnitude and direction of the cross product. r x F? Torque 10 lb r x F = l r l l F l Sin r x F = (6 in. Magnitude F r Out Direction by right hand rule: Out of paper (thumb) or +k r x F = (38.3 lb in.3 lb in.

k) y j k i i Magnitudes are zero for parallel vector products. k Consider cross product: i x i i x i = (1)(1) Sin 00 = 0 j x j = (1)(1) Sin 00 = 0 k x k = (1)(1)Sin 00= 0 .Cross Products Using (i. z) Define unit vectors. z i x Consider 3D axes (x. i. j.j. y.

k Consider dot product: i x j i x j = (1)(1) Sin 900 = 1 j x k = (1)(1) Sin 900 = 1 k x i = (1)(1) Sin 900 = 1 Magnitudes are “1” for perpendicular vector products. i. j. .k) y j k z j i i x Consider 3D axes (x. y.j. z) Define unit vectors.Vector Products Using (i.

.Vector Product (Directions) y j k z j i x j = (1)(1) Sin 900 = +1 k j x k = (1)(1) Sin 900 = +1 i k i k x i = (1)(1) Sin 900 = +1 j i x Directions are given by the right hand rule. Rotating first vector into second.

j.i (left) + k (out) + 6 j (up) . ixk=? kxj=? j x -i = ? k i 2 i x -3 k = ? .j (down) .Vector Products Practice (i. Rotating first vector into second.k) y j k z j i x Directions are given by the right hand rule.

Using i.4 j and B = 3 i + 5 j A x B = (2 i .Vector Products Consider: A = 2 i .4 j B=3i+5j Evaluate determinant 0 k -k 0 A x B = 10 .j Notation .4 j) x (3 i + 5 j) = (2)(3) ixi + (2)(5) ixj + (-4)(3) jxi + (-4)(5) jxj A x B = (2)(5) k + (-4)(3)(-k) = +22 k Alternative: A = 2 i .(-12) = +22 k .

rotation.Summary Torque Torque is is the the product product of of a a force force and and its its moment moment arm arm as as defined defined below: below: The The moment moment arm arm of of a a force force is is the the perpendicular perpendicular distance distance from from the the line line of of action action of of a a force force to to the the axis axis of of rotation. The The line line of of action action of of a a force force is is an an imaginary imaginary line line of of indefinite indefinite length length drawn drawn along along the the direction direction of of the the force. = = Fr Fr Torque Torque = = force force x x moment moment arm arm . force.

distances. sign. necessary. force. CCW CCW (+) (+) and and CW CW ((-). affixing proper proper sign. draw. • • Calculate Calculate torques torques due due to to EACH EACH individual individual force force affixing -). • • Resultant Resultant torque torque is is sum sum of of individual individual torques. • -body diagram • Draw Draw free free-body diagram showing showing all all forces. torques. . forces. and and label label a a rough rough figure.Summary: Resultant Torque • • Read. • • Extend Extend lines lines of of action action for for each each force. draw. distances. and and axis axis of of rotation. • • Calculate Calculate moment moment arms arms if if necessary. rotation. Read. figure.

CONCLUSION: Chapter 5A Torque .

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