10.8 SUMMARY o Data can be corrupted during transmission. Some applications require that errors be detected and corrected.

o In a single-bit error, only one bit in the data unit has changed. A burst error means that two or more bits in the data unit have changed. o To detect or correct errors, we need to send extra (redundant) bits with data. o There are two main methods of error correction: forward error correction and correction by retransmission. o We can divide coding schemes into two broad categories: block coding and convolution coding. o In coding, we need to use modulo-2 arithmetic. Operations in this arithmetic are very simple; addition and subtraction give the same results. we use the XOR (exclusive OR) operation for both addition and subtraction. o In block coding, we divide our message into blocks, each of k bits, called datawords. We add r redundant bits to each block to make the length n ::: k + r. The resulting n-bit blocks are called codewords. o In block coding, errors be detected by using the following two conditions: a. The receiver has (or can find) a list of valid codewords. b. The original codeword has changed to an invalid one. o The Hamming distance between two words is the number of differences between corresponding bits. The minimum Hamming distance is the smallest Hamming distance between all possible pairs in a set of words. o To guarantee the detection of up to s errors in all cases, the minimum Hamming distance in a block code must be dmin ::: s + 1. To guarantee correction of up to t errors in

In this arithmetic.com SECTION 10. What is the Hamming distance? What is the minimum Hamming distance? 6. o A simple parity-check code is a single-bit error-detecting code in which n ::: k + 1 with dmin ::: 2. A simple parity-check code can detect an odd number of errors.9 PRACTICE SET 303 o A category of cyclic codes called the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is used in networks such as LANs and WANs. the result is another codeword.1. 10.9 PRACTICE SET Review Questions 1.blogspot. o A pattern of Os and Is can be represented as a polynomial with coefficients of 0 and 1. the Internet has been using a I6-bit checksum. Discuss the concept of redundancy in error detection and correction. 3. the exclusive OR (XOR) of any two valid codewords creates another valid codeword. o All Hamming codes discussed in this book have dmin ::: 3. theSumit67. o Cyclic codes are special linear block codes with one extra property. which uses one's complement arithmetic. o In a linear block code. o Traditionally. Distinguish between forward error correction versus error correction by retransmission. The relationship between m and n in these codes is n::: 2m . we can represent unsigned numbers between oand 2n -1 using only n bits. if a codeword is cyclically shifted (rotated). the minimum Hamming distance in a block code must be dmin ::: 2t + 1. 4. What is the definition of a linear block code? What is the definition of a cyclic code? 5. How is the simple parity check related to the two-dimensional parity . In a cyclic code.all cases. How does a single-bit error differ from a burst error? 2.

1500 bps b. 12 kbps c.check? 7. Can the receiver detect the error? Defend your answer. . (10001) EB (10001) (What do you infer from the result?) c. the sender sends dataword 10. Apply the exclusive-or operation on the following pair of patterns (the symbol EB means XOR): a. In Table 10. (11100) EB (00000) (What do you infer from the result?) d. 14.2. (10011) EEl (11111) (What do you infer from the result?) 304 CHAPTER 10 ERROR DETECTIONAND CORRECTION 13. 100 Mbps 12. What kind of arithmetic is used to add data items in checksum calculation? 9. The size of the dataword and the size of the codeword b. Can the value be allIs (in binary)? Defend your answer. A 3-bit burst error corrupts the codeword. What is the maximum effect of a 2-ms burst of noise on data transmitted at the following rates? a. In CRC. The degree of the polynomial generator and the size of the remainder 8. show the relationship between the following entities (size means the number of bits): a.1. Exercises 11. In Table 10. the sender sends dataword 10. Can the value of a checksum be all Os (in binary)? Defend your answer. The size of the divisor and the remainder c. can the receiver detect the error? Defend your answer. 100 kbps d. The degree of the polynomial generator and the size of the divisor d. (10001) EB (10000) b. If a 3-bit burst en-or conupts the first three bits of the codeword. What kind of error is undetectable by the checksum? 10.

2. 00000) b. Show that the Hamming code C(7. Detection of 3 errors or correction of 2 errors.4) of Table lOA can detect two-bit enors but not necessarily three-bit error by testing the code in the following cases. Prove that the code represented by Table 10.3 to partially prove this fact. .8 Table for Exercise 18 Dataword Codeword 00 00000 01 01011 10 10111 11 11111 19. 000) 16. c. Table 10. Although it can mathematically be proved that a simple parity check code is a linear code. what is the dataword if one of the following codewords is received? a. The character "V" in the burst en-or means no en-or. d (11111. Find the minimum Hamming distance for the following cases: a.8 is not a linear code. b. d. the character "E" means an error.11111) d. 00000 d. 11111 c. d (000. 20. What is the Hamming distance for each of the following codewords: a.15. d (10101. 10000) c. Detection of two en-ors. Using the code in Table 10. use manual testing of linearity for five pairs of the codewords in Table 10. Correction of two errors. 11011 18. 17. 01011 b. You need to find only one case that violates the linearity. Detection of 6 errors or correction of 2 errors. d (10000.

What is the result of shifting 101110 four bits to the right? e. Dataword: 0100 Burst error: VEEVVVV b. Although it can be proved that code in Table 10. d. Dataword: 0000 Burst en-or: EEVEVVV theSumit67. Repeat part d using polynomials. use only two tests to partially prove the fact: a. Dataword: 0000 Burst error: EEVVVVE 22. Test the linear property on codewords 0010110 and 1111111. 26. 23.com SECTION 10. What is the polynomial representation of 10111O? b. (x3 + xl + x + 1) . Answer the following questions: a.4) of Table lOA can correct one-bit errors but not more by testing the code in the following cases. The character "V" in the burst error means no error. Dataword: 0111 Burst error: EVVVVVE c. b. the character "E" means an error. (x3 + xl) X (x4 + x2 + x + 1) d. We need a dataword of at least 11 bits. (x3 + x2 + x + 1) / (x2 + 1) 25.6 is both linear and cyclic. Dataword: 0100 Burst error: EVVVVVV b.a. Repeat part b using polynomials.9 PRACTICE SET 305 21. Dataword: 1111 Burst error: EVVVVVE d. Test the cyclic property on codeword 0101100. Dataword: 1111 Burst error: EVEVVVE d. Find the values of k and n in the Hamming code C(n. Dataword: 0111 Burst error: VEVVVVV c. Apply the following operations on the corresponding polynomials: a. 24. Show that the Hamming code C(7.blogspot. a. (x3 + xl + X + 1) + (x4 + xl + x + 1) b. Which of the following CRC generators guarantee the detection of a single bit . What is the result of shifting 101110 three bits to the left? c.(x4 + xl + x + 1) c. k) with dmin ::: 3.

a. What is the probability of detecting a burst error of size 33? d. Given the dataword 1010011110 and the divisor 10111.7. Find the checksum at the sender site. Referring to the CRC-8 polynomial in Table 10. 1110111 30. Find the checksum at the receiver site if there is no error. h. Show the checking of the codeword at the receiver site (assume no error). 32. OxABCC. c. b. What is the probability of detecting a burst error of size 55? 306 CHAPTER 10 ERROR DETECTION AND CORRECTION 29. 3 I. c. and OxEEEE. Answer the following: a. Assuming even parity. 1 d. A sender needs to send the four data items Ox3456. x3 + x + 1 b. x4 + xl c. a. 1001011 b. What is the probability of detecting a burst error of size 9? d. Does it detect a burst error of size 16? Defend your answer. Does it detect a burst error of size 6? Defend your answer. Does it detect a single error? Defend your answer. Referring to the CRC-32 polynomial in Table 10. Repeat Exercise 30 using polynomials.error? a. answer the following questions: a. answerthe following questions: a. Find the checksum at the receiver site if the second data item is changed to OxABCE. . What is the probability of detecting a burst error of size 15? 28. Does it detect a single error? Defend your answer. b. 1000000 d. b.7. c. find the parity bit for each of the following data units. Show the generation of the codeword at the sender site (using binary division). Ox02BC. 0001100 c. x2 + 1 27.

d. 33. This problem shows a special case in checksum handling. A sender has two data items to send: Ox4567 and OxBA98. Find the checksum at the receiver site if the second data item is changed to OxABCE and the third data item is changed to Ox02BA. What is the value of the checksum? .

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