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1.

(a)

particles to go through not bounce back for 1 mark each space for 1 mark

(b)

1
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2.

(a)

neutron atom with large nucleus/atom which is split fission products/atoms with small(er) nuclei for 1 mark each fission releases (more) neutrons these cause more fission/a chain reaction for 1 mark each (nuclear) fission releases more energy then chemical reaction gains 1 mark but an atom releases (much) more energy when it splits than when it forms a chemical bond gains 2 marks

(b)

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3.

(a)

4 2
[Accept He2+ for ] each (b)

224 + 88 Ra

for 1 mark 4

0 e 1
[Accept for e] each

228 + 90 Th

for 1 mark

watford grammar school for boys

(c)

(i)

beta/ alpha/ alpha/ beta/ beta/ but alpha/ alpha/ beta/ [i.e. consistent for 1; consistent and correct for 2] gains 2 marks ideas that many thorium atoms because they take so long to decay* (many lead atoms because) the thorium has been decaying for so long/for billions of years or (because) the rock is so/very/billions of years of years old many lead atoms because this is the stable end product [of the decay series] few atoms of other isotopes because they decay so quickly* [*N.B. credit answers in terms of half-life] any three for 1 mark each

(ii)

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4.

(a)

(i)

two protons 2 neutrons if neither point gained allow 1 mark for helium nucleus

1 1 1 1
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(ii) (b)

electron

neutron splits (to form proton and electron)

5.

(a)

(i) (ii) (iii)

centre protons and neutrons different number of neutrons gets 1 mark heavier gets 1 mark 3 more neutrons or specified numbers gets 2 marks

1 2 2

(b)

atom hit by neutron; splits into smaller nuclei; further neutrons released; neutrons released when one atom splits cause further fission; energy released. any 4 for 1 mark each

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watford grammar school for boys

6.

(a)

(i)

electron neutron proton nucleus 1 mark for each correct label H-1 has no neutrons H-3 has 2 neutrons more neutrons gets 1 mark nucleus unstable

(ii)

(iii) (b)

2 2
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lead/concrete lead/concrete needed to stop gamma rays

7.

(i)

the nuclei of hydrogen/smaller atoms join to make helium/larger atoms for 1 mark each the mass of the large nucleus (atom) is less than the mass of the smaller nuclei (atoms) for 1 mark mass loss converted into energy or small mass loss given a large amount of energy for 1 mark

(ii)

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8.

(a)

nucleus positive charge / protons in nucleus electrons / negative charges orbit nucleus each for 1 mark (i) positive dough repels positive alpha particles or 2 positive charges repel forces small each for 1 mark large force needed +ves in plum pudding spread out - may appear in (i) positive charge must be concentrated / in nucleus (ignore references to electrons) for 1 mark each

(b)

(ii)

(c)

1,0 X,l (X = negligible / very small/(1/1840) (1/2000),but not nothing) each row for 1 mark

watford grammar school for boys

(d)

(i) (ii)

4 for 1 mark B and C have the same number of protons / atomic number but different number of neutrons / mass number each for 1 mark

1 3

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9.

(a)

Y and Z they have the same number of protons or same atomic number accept they have the same number of electrons or same number of protons and electrons allow only different in number of neutrons N.B. independent marks

1 1

(b)

Quality of written communication for correct use of terms underlined in B or C Q Q A alpha particle passes straight through the empty space of the atom or it is a long way from the nucleus describes 3 tracks correctly for 2 marks describes 2 or 1 track correctly for 1 mark B alpha particle deflected / repelled / repulsed by the (positive) nucleus C alpha particle heading straight for the nucleus is deflected / repelled / repulsed backwards do not accept hits the nucleus do not accept answers referring to refraction do not accept answers in terms of reflected backwards unless qualified in terms of repulsion mention of difference in charge on nucleus negates that track

max 2

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watford grammar school for boys