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Consumer awareness and preference regarding Various Brands of Jeans: A Case Study in Ludhiana City.
Submitted to

Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar In the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of two years

Management of Business Administration


PARUL DHANDA M.B.A- 2nd year Uni. Roll no.1174338



The project report concept in M.B.A curriculum is of immense utility to the students. Project helps to access the students ability to individually conceive, conceptualize, executive and present a life like project by making use of the skills acquired during the course of study.

My project could not have been fruitful without the able guidance . I extend my deepest gratitude to all the persons who gave me full support during the project.

Despite serious constraints of time and resources, the study was executed with sincerity and commitment. The report is characterized by its straight forward, to the point approach, with bare minimal reproduction of the theory of Marketing Research. A deliberate effort has been made to introduce novelty in the report.

PARUL DHANDA M.B.A- 2nd year 1174338


I hereby declare that the A Project Report on Consumer Awareness and Preference Regarding Various brands of Jeans: A Case Study in Ludhiana City has been undertaken by me for the award of M.B.A. I have completed this work under the guidance, Khalsa Institute of Management and Technology for Women, Ludhiana. I also declare that the dissertation has not been previously formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma, Associateship, fellowship or similar title in this university or in any other university.


Consumer is the focus of all marketing activities. It is now widely recognized that the study of the consumer is a useful testing ground for theories and methods of various types. Understanding of purchase process of consumers triggering of favourable buying decisions are implied in effective selling, this is one of the basic goals of marketing. Comparing the items on cost and on the utility a consumer expects to derive from them, preference of different household members, are certain factors influencing a purchase decision. These have been grouped as cultural, social, personal and psychological factors. When everybody is providing that much what is expected to its customers succeeds in long run. In today market it is no longer enough to satisfy the customers, the manufacture needs to delight them as well. The results of the study would an insight about the preferences of the consumers towards branded jeans and their shopping behaviour. This would help the branded jeans companies and different malls to target their potential customers in the right perspective.

_________________ Parul Dhanda


1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 3

Overview and Conceptual Frame Work Brand Quality Price Denim and Jeans - Where do the names come from? How jeans became popular? Famous brands of Jeans Consumerism Pricing Strategies Nicosia Model Need of the Research Objectives of the Study

Page no.
1 2 3 4 4 6 8 14 14 16 17 18 19

REVIEW OF LITERATURE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Research Design

26 26 27 27 27 28

Universe and Population Sample Size, Sampling Technique and Sampling Unit Data Collection
Data Analysis Limitations of the Study

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 4.1 Profile of the Respondents

28 29


Consumer Awareness of Branded Jeans 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 Spontaneous Recall Time of Purchase Best Brands Maximum no. of Shirts owned Insignia Placement

32 33 34 35 36 37 39 40 42 43 45 46 47 49 50


Applications of Components of Nicosia Model 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 4.3.7 Variables influencing the Purchase Awareness about the brand Influence for a particular brand Perception about price Choice of Retailer Factors for the choice of retailer Satisfaction for the brand


Loyalty among consumers 4.4.a 4.4.a.(i) 4.4.a.(ii) 4.4.a.(iii) 4.4.a.(iv) 4.4.a.(v) 4.4.b 4.4.b For Brand Maximum owned brand Repurchase Decision Suggestion of Brand to Others Brand Switching due to price Pre determination of brand For Product Standard Purchase Decision

51 52 53 55 56


SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 5.1 Conclusions 5.1.1 Consumer Awareness 60

5.1.2 5.1.3 5.2

Application of Components of Nicosia Model Loyalty among consumers for brand & product

62 62 62

Implications of the Study


Consumer is the focus of all marketing activities. It is now widely recognized that the study of the consumer is a useful testing ground for theories and methods of various types. Consumer Behaviour is defined as the act of individuals directly involved in obtaining and using consumer goods and services, including the decision process that precedes and determine these acts. So it is the behaviour that consumers displays in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and in disposing of products, services and ideas which they expect will satisfy their needs. Purchase behaviour refers to the act of the consumers in obtaining and using goods and services and the decision process that determines these acts. Purchase decision is a set of many decisions which may involve a product, brand, style, quality, dealer, time, prices and way consumer pay. l. Overview and Conceptual Framework Understanding of purchase process of consumers triggering of favourable buying decisions are implied in effective selling, this is one of the basic goals of marketing. Comparing the items on cost and on the utility a consumer expects to derive from them, preference of different household members, are certain factors influencing a purchase decision. These have been grouped as cultural, social, personal and psychological factors. The starting point for understanding the buyer is the stimulus response model according to which the marketing and environmental stimuli enter the buyers consciousness. The characteristics and decision process of the buyer lead to certain purchase decisions. The marketers task is to understand what happens in the buyers consciousness, between the arrival of outside stimuli and the buyers purchase decision. This requires a study of various influences on the buyer and developing an understanding as to how consumers actually make their buying decisions. According to a stage model of buying process the consumer passes through five stages: problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision and postpurchase behaviour. Clearly the buying process starts long before the actual purchase and has consequence long after the purchase. Consumers may skip or reverse some stages.

From managerial view point, the importance lies in understanding how consumer behaviour changes with the effect of price, brand and quality of product. The present study will take into account the behaviour of consumers towards branded jeans. Majority of the consumers are unaware of technical details that define a perfect jean. A thorough knowledge about the product is a consumers right and privilege. In short, a perfect jean expects a perfect consumer. The concept of perfect jeans came with international brands educating the consumer on what an ideal jean should look, feel or wear like. Until then even though many established brands followed strength rules that define the perfect jeans, awareness was not created about its existence. As trends and styles are cyclic, so also the definition of perfect jeans is flexible, changing with time. Notwithstanding, certain fundamental rules have been defined to maintain standardization. 1.1.1 Brand According to the American Marketing Association a brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. It is essentially a sellers promise to consistently deliver a specific set of features, benefits and services to the buyers. Brands are perceived by the consumer in the form of brand images. This is the sum total of impressions that the consumer receives from many sources - actual experience and hear say about the brand, its packaging, its name, the company making it, the types of people the individual has seen using the brand, what was said in its advertising as well as from the tone, format, type of advertising vehicle in which the product story was told. These entire impressions amount to a sort of brand personality which is similar for the consuming public at large, although different consumer groups may have different attitudes towards it.

The brand image contains objective product qualities, particularly if these are observable product characteristics such as difference in strength or shape or texture. These qualities themselves have rational as well as symbolic meanings which merge with the meanings created by all the other sources through which the public meets a brand. Brands with high market share tend to exhibit greater levels of repeat purchasing behaviour than the brands with small market share. 1.1.2 Quality According to the American Society for Quality Control, quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. This is a customer centered definition of quality. Customers have a set of needs, requirements and expectations. We can say that the seller has delivered quality whenever the sellers product and services meets or exceeds the customers expects. Now-a-days consumers have become quality conscious. Consumers use a variety of factors to infer product quality. These include external factors and internal factors. External factors are those which are not related to the product performance. Internal factors are derived directly from the physical nature of the product and if changed, would change the product itself. For instance, while assessing the quality breakfast cereal, price, brand name and store name would as external factors and nutrition contents of the cereal as internal factor. In buyer markets customers can choose from a large array of goods and services. Here sellers must deliver acceptable product quality or rapidly lose customers to competitors. Even todays acceptable quality and service may not be acceptable tomorrow. Todays customers are much more educated and demanding. Their quality expectations have been elevated by the practices of superior manufactures (Toyota, Sony) and retailers (Marks and Spencer). The shrinkage of many industries in US-autos, cameras, machine tools, consumer electronics offers dramatic evidence that firms offering average quality lose their customer franchise when attacked by superior manufacturers. Companies wanting to win, let alone survive need a new philosophy. Only customer centered companies will win those that can deliver superior value or quality to their target customers.

Todays top executives view the task of improving product and service quality to be their top priority. Many global successes of Japanese companies are due to the exceptional quality into their products. Most customers will no longer accept or tolerate average quality performance. 1.1.3 Price Price which is one of the most important factors of marketing mix, price, product, place, promotion is resent in all purchase situations. For a consumer, price is the money that he must give, in order to engage self in a purchase transaction. Through most of history, price has operated as the major determinant of buyer choice. However, non price factors have become relatively more important in buyer choice behaviour in recent decades. Price is the only element in the marketing mix that produces revenue; the other elements produce costs. It is also one of the most flexible elements of the mix, in that it can be changed quickly. By no means is price the core of every mans definition of the shopping situation. A study of advertising revealed that while most shoppers do read price listings, or at least feel they should and that 10 per cent of them do so religiously. Most men follow prices for other psychological reasons than to act on them. A consumers decision to modify, postpone or avoid a purchase decision is heavily influenced by perceived risk. Expensive purchases involve some risk taking. Consumers are not certain about the purchase outcome. This produces anxiety. The amount of perceived risk varied with the amount of money at stake. Every consumer aims at negotiating the price to get the maximum utility for the goods being purchased. Therefore the price plays very important role in buying decision making. 1.2 Denim and Jeans - Where do the names come from? The word jeans come from a kind of material that was made in Europe. The material, called jean was named after sailors from Genoa in Italy, because they wore clothes made from it. The word

'denim' probably came from the name of a French material, serge de Nimes: serge (a kind of material) from Nimes (a town in France). The 18th Century At first, jean cloth was made from a mixture of things. However, in the eighteenth century as trade, slave labor, and cotton plantations increased, jean cloth was made completely from cotton. Workers wore it because the material was very strong and it did not tear out easily. It was usually dyed with indigo, a dye taken from plants in the America and India, which made jean cloth a dark blue color. The 19th century the California Gold Rush In 1848, gold was found in California (not too far from San Francisco) and the famous Gold Rush began. The gold miners wanted clothes that were strong and did not tear easily. In 1853, a man called Leob Strauss left his home in New York and moved to San Francisco, where he started a wholesale business, supplying clothes. Strauss later changed his name from Leob to Levi Strauss Rivets A big problem with the miners clothes was the pockets, which easily tore away from the jeans. A man called Jacob Davis had the idea of using metal rivets (fasteners) to hold the pockets and the jeans together so that they wouldn't tear. Davis wanted to patent his idea, but he didn't have enough money, so in 1872, he wrote to Levi Strauss and offered Strauss a deal if Strauss would pay for the patent. Strauss accepted, and he started making copper-riveted 'waist overalls' (as jeans were called then).In 1886, Levi sewed a leather label on their jeans. The label showed a picture of a pair of jeans that were being pulled between two horses. This was to advertise how strong Levi jeans were even two horses could not tear them apart.

1.3 How jeans became popular? The 1930's: Westerns In the 1930's, Hollywood made lots of western movies. Cowboys - who often wore jeans in the movies-became very popular. Many Americans who lived in the eastern states went for vacations on 'dude ranches' and took pairs of denim 'waist overalls' back east with them when they went home. The 1940's: War Fewer jeans were made during the time of World War 2, but 'waist overalls' were introduced to the world by American soldiers, who sometimes wore them when they were off duty. After the war, Levis began to sell their clothes outside the American West. Rival companies, like Wrangler and Lee, began to compete with Levi for a share of this new market The 1950's: Rebels In the 1950's, denim became popular with young people. It was the symbol of the teenage rebel in TV programs and movies (like James Dean in the 1955 movie Rebel without a Cause). Some schools in the USA banned students from wearing denim. Teenagers called the waist overalls 'jean pants' - and the name stayed The 1960's: Hippies & the Cold War In the 1960's many, many university and college students wore jeans. Different styles of jeans were made, to match the 60's fashions: embroidered jeans, painted jeans, psychedelic jeans. In many non-western countries, jeans became a symbol of 'Western decadence' and were very hard to get. US companies said that they often received letters from people all around the world asking them to send the writer a pair of jeans. The jeans were gaining the popularity all over the world because of different styles and pattern. The jeans were becoming a style and status symbol.

The 1970's: Sweatshops As regulations on world trade became more relaxed in the late 1970's, jeans started to be made more and more in sweatshops in countries in the South. Because the workers were paid very little, jeans became cheaper. More people in the countries of the South started wearing jeans. The 1980's: Designer Jeans In the 1980's jeans finally became high fashion clothing, when famous designers started making their own styles of jeans, with their own labels on them. Sales of jeans went up and up The 1990's: Recession Although denim is never out of style, it certainly goes out of fashion from time to time. In these years the youth market wasnt particularly interested in 501s or other traditional jeans styles, mainly because their parents. The generation born in blue was still busy squeezing their aging bodies into them. Since no teenager would be caught dead in anything their parents are wearing, the latest generation of rebellious youth turned to other fabrics and other styles of casual pants such as khakis, chinos, combat and carpenters and branded sportswear pants. They still wore denim, but it had to be in different finishes, new cuts, shapes, styles, or in the form of aged, authentic, vintage jeans, discovered in markets, secondhand and thrift shops, not conventional jeans stores. Levi Strauss & co., the number-one producer of jeans and the "single most potent symbol of American style on planet earth"(as the Los Angeles times succinctly put it), is in trouble. Eleven North American factories close, a nation grieves. 2000: Reinventing Denim Something decidedly weird is happening in the world of denim. The products need to be reinvented from time to time and jeans have been back on designers catwalks, at Chanel, Dior, Chloe and Versace. The single most potent symbol of fashion, summer '99 - Tom ford's feathered, beaded, beat-up, torn-knee Gucci blue jeans, seen globally, sell out instantaneously at $3715 a pop. And then, on the internet, was the shining image of Helmut Langs silver-sprayed pants, striding out beyond our conception of basic utility. Freed of all social and creative

restrictions, denim is assuming much number of disguises and contexts to be worn in and has broken through almost any limitation on price. It can also be found in home collections, appearing in cushions, bed spreads and furniture-coverings. And now the industry is flooded with lot of branded jeans. Every company has built its own brand in the mind of consumers. One notable point in the history of denim jeans is that even though various variants were introduced over the years, blue jeans remained the undying love of the all segments of the population. Ripped and destroyed jeans also looks set to be around of years to come. All indications show that jeans will continue to flourish. Today, it is a billion dollar and fragmented industry with a proliferation of brands like True Religion, Blue Cult, Rock N Republic and Citizen of Humanity. Limited edition jeans like the Red Monkey Jeans drives enthusiasts wild it is difficult to get hold of a pair of authentic jeans. Jeans made of natural fibers such as wool, hemp, silk; cashmere and linen are also available. The apparel is available via internet purchase. Enterprising manufacturers have also used it to make a wide variety of products like handbags, skirts, caps, shoes, cushions and furniture-coverings. 1.4 Famous brands of Jeans Lee Lee is a brand of denim jeans founded in 1889 in Salina, Kansas, headquartered in Kansas City, KS,U.S.A. and owned by the VF Corporation. The history of the H.D. Lee Co. is woven into America's western expansion and the world events of the 20th Century. Lee opened his first garment factory in Salina, Kansas, producing dungarees and jackets. In 1913, the Union-All work jumpsuit was created, followed by the first-ever "Overall" in 1920 laying the foundation for Lee's early growth. Also in 1920, the Buddy Lee doll was launched for promotional use, but quickly became a popular play doll. Through the '20s, Lee introduced many new innovations to manufactured denim, most notably the zipper fly. Throughout the '30s and '40s Lee continued to build on their brand, becoming the nation's 1 manufacturer of work clothes. The decade of the '50s was a time of intense expansion for Lee as the company ventured into casual wear. Lee expanded its presence throughout the '60s, spreading to 51 countries and

consolidating with VF Corporation in 1969. The company continued to expand its fashion lines throughout the '70s, '80s and '90s, launching Lee National Denim Day in 1996. Today's Lee is all about bringing more fits, styles, finishes, features and choices than ever before to market. Lee Jeans are also sold in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Scandinavia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Whether outfitting cowboys in the twilight of the Wild West, supplying an American military entrenched in war, or producing the fashion and durability contemporary culture demands, the H.D. Lee Co. has led the way in innovation and style. Here, categorized by decades and featuring elements of business, leadership and style, is a history of the H.D. Lee Company. Levis Strauss & Co. Jacob Davis was a tailor who frequently purchased bolts of cloth from Levi Strauss & Co.'s wholesale house. After one of Davis' customers kept purchasing cloth to reinforce torn pants, he had an idea to use copper rivets to reinforce the points of strain, such as on the pocket corners and at the base of the button fly. Davis did not have the required money to purchase a patent, so he wrote to Levi suggesting that they both go into business together. After Levi accepted Jacobs' offer, on May 20, 1873, the two men received patent 139,121 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The patented rivet was later incorporated into the company's jean design and advertisements. Contrary to an advertising campaign suggesting that Levi Strauss sold his first jeans to gold miners during the California Gold Rush (which peaked in 1849); the manufacturing of denim overalls only began in the 1870s. Modern jeans began to appear in the 1920s. In the 1950s and 1960s, Levi's jeans became popular among a wide range of youth subcultures, including greasers, mods, rockers, hippies and skinheads. Levi's popular shrink-to-fit 501s were sold in a unique sizing arrangement; the indicated size was related to the size of the jeans prior to shrinking, and the shrinkage was substantial. The company still produces these unshrunk, uniquely sized jeans, but they don't sell very well. There is no other company with a comparable global presence in the jeans and casual pants markets. The companys market-leading apparel products are sold under the Levi's,

Dockers and Levi Strauss Signature brands. By 2007, Levi Strauss was again said to be profitable after declining sales in nine of the previous ten years. Its total annual sales, of just over $4 billion, were $3 billion less than during its peak performance in the mid 1990s. Wrangler Only 20-years old C.C. Hudson from Spring Hill Farm in Tennessee leaves his home in 1897 to find work in the growing town of Greensboro, North Carolina. He got his first job in a textile factory that produces overalls. For 25 cents a day he was sewing on buttons. In 1904 this factory was closing its doors and C.C. Hudson saw his chance to open his own business. He and some colleagues bought a couple of sewing machines from their old employer, rented a small business space and opened their own company: the Hudson Overall Company. In 1936 the company introduced a sheer revolutionary new fabric that limited the shrinking after washing to under 1%. It is called 100% Sanforized Fabric. This invention catalyzed the sales again and the company grew. In 1943 they acquired a company named "Casey Jones WorkClothes" and with it a brand name that shall make them famous in the future. The brand was called Wrangler. It was not until 1947 that they knew what to do with the name Wrangler but eventually the used it for their newly designed Western Wear product line. To push into the Rodeo and Western wear market they hired a star designer and tailor of this particular scene, Rodeo Ben. To build the brand and connect the name with durability and quality the company convinced celebrity rodeo stars like Jim Shoulders, Bill Linderman and Freckles Brown to wear and test the fabric - named 13MWZ -. After the Rodeo Championships in 1949 the success of "Wrangler" was programmed. The Wrangler jeans became clearly the number 1 among all outfitters of the Western Wear Scene. In 1996 every fifth sold jeans in the world is a Wrangler. In 1997 the Brand 'Wrangler" had its 50th anniversary - 100 years after C.C.Wrangler FR apparel is constructed from flame resistant fabrics and components to protect against burn injuries in the workplace, designed to meet the rigorous requirements specified by major protection agencies, against burn injuries in the workplace.

Pepe Jeans Pepe Jeans London was established in the chic Portobello Road area of London in 1973 established as weekend road side stall by three brothers Nitin Shah, Arun Shah and Milan Shah. Their shop was located at Portabello Road Market, West London. Before the brand began Nitin Shah worked for a petrol station and was spotted by a man named Shantilal Parmar who ran a Jeanswear business. Shantilal Parmar took Nitin Shah on from the petrol station to work for him as a commissioned agent selling jeans. From these beginnings and learning all about the Jeanswear industry, fabrics, stitching, washes, packaging and marketing from Shantilal, Nitin and his three brothers started their own company Sholemay Ltd trading as Pepe Jeans. Ultimately Shantilal Parmar Company manufactured jeans for the three brothers whom they sold on the stalls and to other retailers whom they knew. From its origins as a tiny market stall to more than half a US $billion dollar denim and casual wear brand, Pepe has transformed itself to one of the fastest growing jeans wear labels in Europe. The brand today has presence in more than 80 countries across the world. Pepe Jeans was launched in India in 1989. The brand is currently the leading player in the premium jeans and casual wear segment, enjoying a market share of more than 25 percent. The manufacturing of jeans is done from start to finish by Pepe Jeans Company. The process includes blending of cotton and turning it into web of fibers in the process called Carding. The yarn is then made stronger by spinning it. The dyes used are mostly sulphur and indigos; finally beaming, weaving and last finishing are done and jeans are available to be sold and exported. The unique solutions for apparel and footwear manufacturing, called Style man are used by Pepe Jeans. Pepe Jeans are known for their diverse apparel collections. They have the Utilitarian collection which comprises of fashion apparel with military attire elements imbibed in it. They vary in colors from green, khakis, grays, tans and olives and have other features like multiple pockets and loose fashion silhouettes. Pepe Jeans contribute to both man and womens wardrobe by their wide collection of trendy T- jeans, shorts, pants, Jerseys and skirts. The jeans have colored checks and highlighted stripes. The Pepe clothing sports tones of red, yellow, pink, lime and green and some have hand embroidered details. Pepe Jeans host many fashion shows and advertising campaigns and sign many famous models and sports personalities. Pepe Jeans introduced art exhibitions in their birth

lace- Portobello Road, London. They exhibit the work of local artists as well as international ones. Lee Cooper Lee Cooper is a British denim company. The company was founded in 1908 by Morris Cooper as an overalls manufacturer. The company then manufactured fatigues during both World Wars. After World War II, the company began manufacturing jeans as leisure wear. Lee Cooper traces its roots to the production of overalls and work wear. Jeans were strictly for workman in the first three decades of the century. In 1908, Morris Cooper created a work wear production company in his own name. By the 1910s, 600 people were employed in the Morris Cooper factory in London, producing work wear clothing from durable and versatile fabrics for various trades. Popular at the time were the Bib-and-Brace overalls. With the arrival of the First World War, the company converted its production to military uniforms. In 1931, the company was renamed "M Cooper Overalls Limited", and in 1937 opened up a new factory in Stratford East London. Spykar Jeans The Spykar story started way back in 1992, when Mr. Prasad Pabrekar led by ambition ventured into fashion apparels and accessories to make use of his vast repertoire of technical knowledge in processing of denim garments. He started the company with the firm belief that the best investment for the Co. was Human Capital, starting with a just a handful, and slowly built up a company with over 300 associates. He gave them the best possible infrastructure to work within, resulting in a strong & dedicated team. The company is based on strict code of ethics which is evident in its dealing with all its partners; namely employees, trade associates, vendors and the like.

Its accent on the quality of its products has been unwavering right from its inception. It has always strived to produce a product, having a global appeal. Denims are the core of the company's business. This has been facilitated by the company's in-house processing unit and gives the company the competitive edge in consistently producing denims of international quality. To continuously innovate and to bring new styles, cuts and fabric to the market, the company has a team of young and dedicated designers and merchandisers, who are extremely aware of the latest trends in the international market. The company experiments a great deal on new styles and accessories, making them trendy and accessible to the Indian consumer. Since Spykar designs specifically for Indian audiences, it has the best fits and designs in its repertoire. In 1994, Spykar moved beyond denims and introduced Helium's, a collection of cotton casual wear. This was followed by Forays in 1996; a brand with an attitude positioning that caters to the after-office leisurewear segment. SPYKAR products are available at over 700 MBOs across the country, apart from the large format stores. Spykar Jeans currently has 148 Exclusive Brand Outlet and plans to increase that number to 200 by the end of 2008. To mark its foray in the international arena, Spykar has also opened its first exclusive outlet Australia. The brand has always focused on the u: th and their aspirations and built up the product portfolio accordingly. All its marketing efforts are targeted at making the brand relevant at all times to this discerning audience. They revolutionized Cargo's in the country with the very non-conformist look and its innovative presentation. They broke all norms of how a pair of pants should be sold. Rolled and tied by a canvas strip and stocked in this form on the shelves - it defied conventional norms and challenged tradition. Target audience who identified with this rebellious approach lapped-up the product and yet again Spykar scored in turning the table upside down. We sold nearly 70,000 pants and cargos with not even 60% of the demand fed. To cut the monotonous complacency of basic 5 pockets we stylized denims as flamboyant blues. This fashioned persona

of denims was introduced as Actifs (Spykar's Fashion Denim Collection) with 5 fits - Stern, Rebel, Maverick, and Recruit & Renegade. 1.5 Consumerism In the era of consumerism, when the Indian consumer is seeking and being provided a legal shelter for all his genuine claims and complaints, a question that assumes great importance; is whether he is really getting what he deserves? Or is he simply being consoled and left with no results in his favour? In India, where 70% to 80% population still comes off rural background and a considerable majority of them are below literacy level, they need to be enlightened about their rights and legal privileges as consumer. The Consumer is the King is an often repeated phrase. This phrase implies the decision making authority of the customer. It is in his hands to ultimately decide what and he wants to buy and patronize. In the normal buying process, the customer having the need for a specific want decides to satisfy his needs. The buyer subsequently, visits the market and searches for his needs at various showrooms. However, focusing on the market scene, one may find a customer lost in his, need jungle. Most of the time a consumer has to compromise on his needs. Any one, two and three need constituents may have been satisfied by his purchase but rarely all. 1.6 Pricing strategies Pricing strategies are a constant theme of discussion at all retailers, and one of the most common issues is: Which sells more at the best margins: end-of-season sales or regular markdowns? 1.6.1 Everyday Low Price The everyday low price concept turns markdown into an obsession, based on the theory that people return to the place where they get the best price. It demands a minute-by-minute attention to the most aggressive price competitiveness, and focuses on in-store execution, which is all about labeling and re-labeling. Grocers and general merchandisers have invested heavily in the technology to manage such a business model, from space allocation, to price optimization, to perpetual inventory solutions.

Therefore to be successful in this cut throat competition companies have to provide the low prices to customers to penetrate in the market. 1.6.2 End-of-Season and Special Event Sales End-of-season sales and sales for special events continue to be a crucial part of specialty retailing. Back-to-School, Thanksgiving, and Anniversary sales represent a very significant proportion of annual sales. The ability to reduce or increase the price in the store is a powerful tool but fraught with danger: What happens if the label price is lower than the system price? Customer dissatisfaction? Litigation? Ruined reputation? What if the label price is higher than the system price? Missed promotional opportunity? Unnecessarily reduced margin? Yet all stores do make price actions, even with a label gun or a red pen, which give no assurance of accuracy or timeliness. Specialty retailers need to put to use the same technology in which the grocers and the general merchandisers began to invest some years ago. Fashion and other specialty stores need to present the high quality/best value model they purport to have adopted. And they need to develop a buzz about the store at the end of every week, not just at the end of the season. Its price optimization and execution technology that they need. 1.6.3 Regional Pricing Variable pricing is another strategy. Store chains typically implement variable pricing by region or demographic zone. They analyze buyer behavior by product and product line and find that certain products do not achieve margin or sales volume expectations at the regular price. By increasing the price in certain regions or zones, margins are increased and sales volumes are unaffected. By decreasing the price in other regions or zones, volume targets are achieved, though at a lower margin. All of this sounds marvelous in theory. At headquarters, variable pricing models achieve the perfect balance of margin and sales volume. At the store level, its another story. Products in higher-margin regions dont get labeled with the higher price and the mismatch between label and system can be costly. Products in lower margin regions that dont

get labeled just dont sell. The end result is often conflicts between store operations and pricing teams. This is because ultimately, variable pricing can only be introduced if there is an efficient labeling technique at the stores. Some retailers have set up re-labeling lines in the distribution center for consumer electronics products, but for most product lines it is an expensive and timeconsuming operation. Its just not feasible. Re-labeling is a task that is best done at the store as goods arrive. 1.7 Nicosia Model The Nicosia model focuses on the relationship between the firm and its potential consumers. In the broadest terms, the firm communicates with consumers through its marketing messages (advertising), and consumers communicate with the firm by their purchase responses. Thus Nicosia model is interactive in design: The firm tries to influence consumers, and the consumers - by their actions (or inaction) - influence the firm. In its full-blown form, the Nicosia model is an elaborate computer flow chart of the consumer decision-making process. The Nicosia model is divided into four major fields: (1) the consumer's attitude based on message exposure, (2) the consumer's product search and evaluation, (3) the act of purchase, and (4) feedback in the form of consumer experience to both the firm and consumer:

Field 1: The Consumer's Attitude based On the Firms Messages. The field of the Nicosia model is divided into two subfields. Subfield 1 includes aspects of the firm's marketing environment and communication efforts that affect consumer attitudes, such as product attributes, the competitive environment, characteristics of relevant mass media, the choice of copy appeal, and characteristics of the target market. Subfield 2 specifies various consumer characteristics (e.g., personality, experience) that mediate reception of the firm's promotional messaged. The output of field 1 is an attitude toward the product based on the consumer's interpretation of the message. Field 2: Search and Evaluation The second field of the Nicosia model deals with the search for relevant information and evaluation of the firm's brand in comparison with alternative brands. The output of this stage is motivation to purchase the firm's brand. (Of course, evaluation could also lead to rejection of the firm's brand; however, the model illustrates positive response. Field 3: The Act of Purchase In the third field, the consumer's motivation toward the firms brand results in purchase of the brand from a specific retailer. Field 4: Feedback The final field consists of two important types of feedback from the purchase experience: one to the firm in the form of sales data, and the other to the consumer in the form of experience (satisfaction or dissatisfaction). The consumer's experience with the product affects the individual's attitudes and predispositions concerning future messages from the firm. 1.8 Need of the Research As Ludhiana is symbolic of the changes that are taking place in the socio - economic scenario of the country due to urbanization and opening up of the Indian economy, people here are becoming more conscious of what they wear and how they look. Therefore it provides a scope to

understand the consumers buying behavior towards branded jeans and what factors influence their choice and also to have knowledge about the loyalty for different brands. The results of the study would an insight about the preferences of the consumers towards branded jeans and their shopping behaviour. This would help the branded jeans companies and different malls to target their potential customers in the right perspective. 1.9 Objectives of the Study The major objective of this study was to find out the extent of consumer awareness about various brands of jeans. The specific objectives of the study were: 1. To know the consumer awareness of various brands of branded jeans. 2. To study the application of components of Nicosia model on branded jeans purchase. 3. To study the loyalty among the consumers regarding brand and product.


This chapter deals with the empirical work done at national and international level by various management scholars in the area of marketing. The study undertaken in this chapter mainly relates with the consumers behavior and preferences with regards to branded jeans and related attributes. Chavadi and Ropatnur (2008) concluded that with retailing picking up and consumers becoming choosy, it become vital for the retailers to look out for new avenues and opportunities to make their customer happy. Intense competition in the market has forced retailers to rethink on their strategies. The retail market being price sensitive calls for in-depth deliberation and delivery of retail mix. Constant efforts are being made to deliver high value added products and services to the customer. Popular brands having national presence are able to create entry barriers through their strong distribution channel and heavy promotion. Barriers such as heavy promotion in turn increases the marketing cost of national brands and customer look towards the industry to unburden the same. This throws an opportunity for retailers to offer products in the form of private labels, thereby redefining the promotional expenses. The objective of developing and delivering private label is to close the value gaps not delivered by so called national brands. Gaurav (2008) stated that marketing has made a paradigm shift from transactional approach to relational approach. We are living in globalize world where competition has become an unavoidable element of business and customers have become scarce. This has led to a situation where all the firms in the same industry are trying to attract the same customer in various ways even while offering similar product and services. They are using relationship marketing approach to ensure that the customer remain loyal and come back to them for the same products and services. This study aims to understand the impact of relationship market on customer loyalty. Sarkar (2008) explained that lifestyle centers are commercial urban villages or open air shopping centers, where consumers can do a lot more than just shopping. These lifestyle centers are replacing the conventional shopping malls because of many reasons. The nature of

consumption in these lifestyle centers is largely hedonic in nature, rather than being only utilitarian. Wachenheimer (2008) stated that if brands and logos are mere symbols, empty of meaning, then choosing among clothing lines or anything becomes a largely rational affair. There are probably four, or maybe four and a half, factors to consider. One, of course, is price, another is convenience, third is quality, the fourth rational factor, I think it's fair to say, is pleasure. The half factor is ethics, which I'll leave aside for now but return to later, in this book's final section. If a product is successfully tied to an idea, branding persuades people whether they admit it to pollsters or even fully understand it themselves to consume the idea by consuming the product. Even companies like Apple and Nike, while celebrated for the tangible attributes of their products, work hard to associate themselves with abstract notions of nonconformity or achievement. A potent brand becomes a form of identity in shorthand. It solves the Pretty Good Problem. Weiss (2008) founded that different nations have different cultural social norms like French were the ones to show style differentiations (highly in favor of jeans in the office, while finding it inappropriate to wear in parties). Another was Americans report not to follow street fashion or celebrities. (Im sure American might get tired of following celebrities. Still, I think they cant help it). He also mentioned about Russians who were found highest in money spending on jeans while Americans were the lowest spenders. The Brazilians are the ones to own the most pairs of jeans and the Canadian and American women faced the greatest difficulties with purchasing the right fit. Chaudhri and Saxena (2007) explained that in an environment as dynamic as a marketplace, survival depends on the ability to change marketing strategy, inconsonance with the change in the markets themselves. In this context, it is not wrong to assist that women as consumers as financial power. This article endeavors to pit a few commonly held opinions against equally commonly held beliefs and ignite thinking on the theme of the inevitability of women consumers centric branding on TV as the drinking force of strategy. Koshy and N. (2007) in their study suggested that increase in turnover can be increased by reducing the margin in this competitive era to survive in the long run. This is in tune with what

Peter Drucker (1995) considers the worship of high profit margins and of premium pricing as one of the five deadly business sins. The vendor selection should be done after careful evaluation. It is important for textile retailing to be always in a receptive mood to know the preference and taste of consumers. And to bring in changes in the shop as well as in the product line according to the changing times. Kunal (2007) in his article explained that branding is rapidly evolving into a consumers comprehensive experience involving all the brand touch points he/she come into contact with. This means that design, more than advertising, is emerging as the distinctive creative kill set in creating successful branding. This article discussed the various elements of design and illustrates how these actually contributed to some of the most vibrant and appealing contemporary Indian brands. The article also attempts is to raise certain question about the limitations of design driven branding and encourages a greater critical discloses of this fast growing field in India. Ray (2007) stated that brand never come cheap and is a luxury for many. Some people brands are image enhancer and only the rich and upper class can afford these brands as it has become a part of their lifestyle. Young corporate professionals believe that to climb the social ladder they need to go in for quality brands. Brands like the Bentley or BMW are now within reach of many Indian CEOs. Hence, they want to flaunt these lifestyle accessories to achieve corporate goals. Thus, these image enhancers are becoming synonymous with success. Narang (2006) in her study suggested that as buyers do not stick to one brand in case of garment purchasing therefore they should be able to recall the different brand names when they go for purchase; repetitive advertising can be used to promote brand recall. Brand preference should be created through feel good advertisements. There should be tone of freshness, style and energy conveyed through the advertisement. As the majority of the buyers are young, so product should be associated with style and trends so that it appeals to the youth and the brand name should be developed as fashion statement among the youth. Parker (2005) stated in his study that the fashion industry at this time; a time of increasing disposable incomes and incidence of recreational shopping, is intensely competitive. Creating the right brand image is largely dependent upon being in tune with the mindsets, beliefs, values and aspirations of the modern, well-informed consumer. Moreover ensuring that the consumer

perceives the firm to be in tune with their way of thinking and holding similar values centrally to the Levis brand identity will be the key to ensuring marketing success. Creating the right brand image is largely dependent upon being in tune with the mindsets, beliefs, values and aspirations of the modern, well-informed consumer. Moreover ensuring that the consumer perceives the firm to be in tune with their way of thinking and holding similar values centrally to the Levis brand identity will be the key to ensuring marketing success. This shows that customers' perceptions of products can derive from marketing effort alone; brand images and brand differentiation can be the consumers' only guide to want satisfaction. This is particularly evident in a highly branded stylized market such as the jeans market. When shopping for designer jeans consumers are more likely to consider purchasing a brand product from his or her awareness set than from a company whose brand image he or she has not been exposed to. Brand awareness is an obvious precondition to purchase. Verma and Gupta (2004) examined the relationship between the price of the product and the buyers perception of quality in respect of durable, semi durable and non-durable products in the Indian context. They found that for a durable product like television, setting the price too low will negatively affect the quality image of the product and the consumer would be reluctant to buy a low-priced brand as it might lower his image in the society. Pricing it reasonably high will give the product a high-quality image. For toothpaste, brand reputation is a critical factor and the marketer should price the product according to the reputation enjoyed by the brand. Bureau (2002) quantified the following major findings were that around 74 per cent of female students own more than three pairs and 31 per cent of them wear their jeans daily. He also found out that around 30 per cent of home makers in age group 21-40 in SEC A own more than three pairs. While 80 per cent of home makers in Sec A wear jeans more than thrice a week due to the comfort factor, SEC B category women seldom wear jeans (once in two weeks). As for working women, despite their higher financial freedom, a majority of them view jeans a wear-at-home outfit, while a substantial number keep jeans for occasions (parties). The brand that women perceive best is international label as 46 per cent opted for an international label, 24 per cent for national label and the remaining 30 per cent not caring for any lineage. Display of jeans and labelling is critical. About 11 per cent always need the help of a salesperson to locate the racks

which house their size. According to 60 per cent of the home makers, they get most efficient treatment at branded stores. Banerjee and Divakar (2001) examined the behavior of the consumer in a promotion intensive retail environment. They suggested it is important for retail managers to be sensitive to the issue that consumers can no longer be assumed to make purchase decisions in a myopic framework. Managers cannot assume a simple demand curve where price and quantity purchased are assumed to be inversely-related, but a more complex discontinuous function with threshold price points that trigger different planning decisions for consumers. These thresholds are related to the frequency and depth of price discounting decided by retailers. Feltham (1998) revealed that a widely held assumption is that brands purchased by the family will continue to be purchased by the children when they become adults. However, little consumer research actually exists on continued parental influence on young adults purchasing decisions. Two studies examined parental influence (the degree to which brands purchased by students corresponded to brands purchased by parents), roommate influence, and additional factors such as price perceptions, brand differences, and brand comparisons. Burke (1996) is of the view that managers know that in todays increasing complex and competitive environment, they need to develop ideas that break through the clutter of messages in the mass media and the confusing array of products at the point of purchase. Unfortunately, the more innovative the concept - whether it is a new product, package, price, promotion, or distribution plan the greater the risk. Quelch and Harding (1996) stated those ten years ago, there was a distinct gap in the level of quality between private label and brand name products. Today that gap has narrowed; private label quality levels are much higher than ever before, and they are more consistent especially in categories historically characterized by little produce innovations. Evans (1989) explored that Complementary approaches are proposed for understanding and targeting fashion consumers concentrating especially on innovation theory and self-concept theory. These are seen as being two potentially relevant approaches because fashion is concerned with newness, therefore innovation theory (also concerned with introducing new products and

ideas) is logically important, and because fashion buying could have much to do with projecting images of how buyers see themselves (or would like to be seen, etc) and because there is evidence to suggest that buying in younger markets is related strongly to the expression of self, more than might have been the case in the past. The synthesis of these approaches, it is argued, could lead to an increase in fashion branding, based on a greater segmentation of fashion markets. Fashion promotion, in turn, could be more targeted and use concepts from both innovation and self-concept theory. Salmon and Cmar (1987) revealed that the combat between manufacturers and private brands in the same product categories is as much a feature of modern marketing as combat among manufacturer brands. Moreover the battles between manufacturer and private brands have taken a new turn. Strong brand names and, private labels, originally confirmed mainly to packagedgoods businesses, have become immensely - in the fashion industry. The reactions of the retailers and manufacturers have implications that transcend the boundaries of the soft goods trade. Quelch and Bonventre (1983) reported that retail stores have become the newest battle ground in the war of consumer goods manufacturers to win customers. As advertising costs soar, retail sales efforts deteriorate and consumers become more discriminating, manufacturers are discovering the need to reach potential buyers directly at the time and place at which the buying decision is made - the point of purchase. Manufacturers are finding that such tools as well designed displays, distinctive packaging, price and sample promotions and in-store advertising can provide them with competitive edge. Shapiro and Wyman (1981) revealed in their report that important methods that help marketers communicate more efficiently with potential and existing customers have come into wider use over the past decade. These techniques can assist marketer in two ways, one is they allow increased flexibility for devising marketing programs. And another is that in an age of escalating selling and media costs, they enable marketers to hold down expenses. Shapiro (1968) experimenting on 600 women found that the price was generally on indicator of quality, price could not overcome product preferences. She found out that the use of price to judge quality was a generalized attitude; and Price reliance varied over products, but was more significant in situations of high risk, low self confidence and absence of other cues.


To know the awareness level of consumers regarding various available brands of Jeans. To know the factors influencing consumer to buy their particular brand. To analyze the most preferred brand of jeans. Understanding the concepts of branding and consumer behavior. To study the effect of brands on consumer buying behavior in relation to Readymade garments. To analyze the branding strategies adopted by some of the companies in the readymade garments to woo the consumers into buying their products. To do a comparative study of the branding strategies adopted by the companies in the readymade garments.


This chapter describes the methodology adopted for conducting the study on the purchase behaviour of the consumer towards branded jeans. It relates to the influence of price, quality and brand on the consumer and also to the level of brand loyalty among the consumers. With the emergence of the foreign collaboration and various MNCs entering the Indian jeans market the competition among the marketers has grown stiffer. Due to this fierce competition many brands, of branded jeans are available in the market. The previous studies of the market reveal that the consumer is deftly moving towards brand identification and standardisation. And only big players can bring in standardisation and build brand image. 3.1. Research Design The research design is an arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. The research problem in clear cut terms helps the researches to prepare a research design. It constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. It is the strategy for a study and the plan by which the strategy is to be carried out. The research carried down is Descriptive in nature. It is descriptive in nature because the research describes the influence of price, quality and brand on the consumer and also describes the level of satisfaction and brand loyalty among the consumers. 3.2 Universe and Population Universe is the infinite number of elements which the researcher is targeting in his study. Universe in this study includes all the people wearing branded jeans in the whole world. Population is finite number of elements which the researcher is going to target in particular area. Ludhiana is one of the most important industrial towns and growing urban complex which represents the crossection of urban population of the country, the scope of the study was thus restricted to Ludhiana city only.

The population taken for the purpose of the present study was all those people who wear branded jeans in Ludhiana City. 3.3 Sample Size, Sampling Technique and Sampling Unit In order to select a relevant sample size for the study and to have proper distribution of the respondents into various categories of age, income and occupation, a sample size of 125 respondents was fixed for the purpose of the study and Simple Random and snowball sampling technique was used. Sampling Unit is the single unit of the population. The sampling unit of the study is: any individual (respondent) who wears branded jeans in Ludhiana city. 3.4 Data Collection The data for the present study was collected by interviewing selected respondents with the help of a structured questionnaire. The questions regarding the brand awareness level of the respondents were having multiple choices along with some open ended questions. Multiple, choices were given in the questions related to purchase time, choice of outlet, brand awareness, factor influencing for a particular brand, repurchase. The question regarding the factors which influence the most in buying of a particular brand were analyzed by calculating the number of responses as it was a checklist question. 3.5. Data Analysis Analysis of the collected data has been done by constructing suitable tables and using percentage. For the responses in which the respondents were asked to rank the factors influencing the purchase of a branded jeans and to rank the best brand in branded jeans (three for the maximum, one for minimum), the column total was taken for all the respondents. The highest scored factor was ranked the first and lowest scored factor was ranked the last.

3.6. Limitation of the Study Any study based on consumer through a predesigned questionnaire suffers from the basic limitations of the possibility of difference between what is recorded and what is the truth no matter how carefully the questionnaire has been designed and field investigation has been conducted. This is because the consumers may not deliberately report their true preferences and even if they want to do so, there are bound to be differences owing to problems in filters of communication process. The error has been minimized by conducting interviews personally, yet there is no fool proof way of obviating the possibility of error creeping in. In addition there are limitations regarding scope of validity of conclusion: 1. It would have been better to include some major cities of the country but it could not be made possible within the limited resources of single researchers time and money. 2. It was considered to be a fair assumption that the selected respondents would be aware of various brands of branded jeans, although it could not be ruled out that in some cases, the respondents might not have been able to render correct information for one reason or the other. 3. The study relates to Ludhiana. Although there is a possibility of applicability of the conclusion about consumer behaviour for other areas, no such general applicability beyond Ludhiana is claimed. 4. Only branded jeans have been taken for the study so the scope of study is limited to jeans only.


4.1 Profile of the Respondents The demographic characteristics of the consumer i.e. gender and age has been discussed below. Table 4.1.1: Demographic Profile of the Respondents (N=125) Demographic Characteristic No. of Respondents Percentage 76 61 49 39 125 100

Gender Male Female Total

Graph 4.1.1: Demographic Profile of the Respondents (N=125)

Table 4.1.2: Showing Age of Respondents Demographic Characteristic No. of Respondents Percentage 43 34 66 53 9 7 7 6 125 100

Age (Yr.) <20 20 30 30 40 >40 Total

Graph: 4.1.2: Showing Age of Respondents

Table: 4.1.3: Showing age of male respondents Age (Yr.) <20 20 30 30 40 >40 Total Demographic Characteristic Males Respondents Percentage 18 50 2 6 76 23 66 3 8 100

Graph: 4.1.3: Showing age of male respondents

Table: 4.1.4: Showing age of female respondents Demographic Characteristic Female Respondents Percentage 11 29 5 2 47 23 62 11 4 100

Age (Yr.) <20 20 30 30 40 >40 Total

Graph: 4.1.4: Showing age of female respondents

Analysis: Table 4.1 shows the gender and age of the respondents. Out of 125 numbers of respondents, 76 (61%) are male respondents and 49(39%) are female respondents. The questionnaire age column was divided in four ranges i.e. <20 yrs, 20-30 yrs, 30-40 yrs. and more than 40 yrs. Most of the respondents (53%) were in the age group of 20-30 yrs. and the least were from the age group of greater than 40 yrs. Interpretation: From here we can conclude that majority of the consumers who buy branded jeans are from the

middle age group i.e. between 20 to 30 yrs of age. And the preference for jeans decreases as they progress further in age. 4.2 Consumer Awareness of Various Brands of Branded Jeans A study of the market reveals that the consumer is deftly moving towards brand identification and standardization. Only big players can bring in standardization and build brand image. An in-depth analysis of the jeans industry reveals the position of brands and various loopholes that are still to be tackled to accelerate growth. Following aspects were considered: 1. Spontaneous recall of branded jeans. 2. Time of purchase. 3. Best brand in branded jeans. 4. Maximum number of branded jeans owned by the respondents. 5. Insignia placement.

4.2.1 Spontaneous Recall of Branded Jeans Spontaneous response largely is a representative of consumers preference over the other existing brands. The consumer when asked to name the brand of branded jeans which came to their mind at first instance responded as under. Table 4.2: Spontaneous Recall of Branded Jeans (N=118)
S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Brand LEE LEE COOPER LEVIS PEPE JEANS SPYKAR JEANS WRANGLER OTHERS Total No. of respondents 9 4 39 24 16 13 13 118 Percentage 8 3 33 20 14 11 11 100

Graph 4.2: Spontaneous Recall of Jeans Brand

Analysis: Table 4.2 shows that while Levis emerged as the winner with 33% response; Lee cooper was last in the spontaneous recall with 3% response each. Also 11% people mentioned other brands which include a lot many, for e.g. UCB, Vibes, etc. Interpretation: Levis is the commonly known brand among people as compared to others when asked for the spontaneous recall of any brand of jeans. Thus it was concluded that Levis was the popular brand

among the Ludhiana population as for as the first instance response was concerned.

4 2.2 Time of purchase When asked as to what is the time of purchase of branded jeans, the respondents gave the following response. Table 4.3 Time of purchase (N=125) S. No. 1 2 3 Time Special occasion Sales / discount Any time Total No. of respondents 14 28 83 125 Percentage 11.2 22.4 66.4 100

Graph 4.3 Time of purchase Analysis: Table 4.3 shows that most 66.4 of the respondents will purchase branded jeans at any moment of time as of their liking. Only 22.4% prefer to purchase during sales and discount and 11.2% prefer to purchase on a special occasion. Interpretation: Mostly people purchase branded jeans as and when they require rather than waiting for any discounts or special occasions. 4.2.3. Best brand in branded jeans

When asked to rank the brands of jeans, the respondents gave the following response. For calculating the rank score the first rank was given 3 points while the second rank was given 2 points and thus the total rank score was calculated. Table 4.4: Best brand in Jeans (N=125)
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Brand LEE LEE COOPER LEVIS PEPE JEANS SPYKAR JEANS WRANGLER Total No. of Respondents Rank-I Rank-II 15 22 8 10 43 21 33 23 12 20 14 29 125 125 Rank Scores 37 18 64 56 32 43

Graph 4.4: Best brand in Jeans Analysis: As seen in the table 4.4, the highest rank scores (171) was Levis, thus we can say that Levis emerged as no.1 brand in the branded jeans. While Lee Cooper with the rank score of (44) was last in the list. Interpretation: From the above analysis we can say that people feel that Levis is the best brand available in the market as compared to other brands like Wrangler, Spykar jeans etc.


Maximum number of Branded Jeans owned by the respondents

The respondents were asked as to which brand of jeans they own in maximum number. Following was the response given by the respondents.
Table 4.5: Maximum number of Branded Jeans owned by the respondents (N=116) S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Brand LEE LEE COOPER LEVIS PEPE JEANS SPYKAR JEANS WRANGLER OTHERS Total No. of respondents 9 2 32 29 20 13 13 116 Percentage 8 2 27 24 17 11 11 100

Graph 4.5: Maximum number of branded jeans owned by the respondents

Analysis: It could be concluded from the table 4.5 that maximum number of branded jeans which the respondents own was from the brand Levis (27%). While the other brand liked Pepe jeans and Spykar were almost the same. The strange thing came to the notice that only 2 out 125 of the respondents own the brand Lee Cooper of branded jeans. Interpretation: Levis is the brand which is owned in maximum number as we can relate this from the fact that majority of the people are aware of the brand - Levis in branded jeans segment.


Insignia Placement

Brands insignia is an important feature of the branded jeans and its placement is different in different brands. Few existing and few exemplary placements of brand insignia were listed and the respondents were asked to state as to where the insignia should be placed in branded jeans. Table 4.6: Placement of Brand Insignia (N=125) S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Brand Insignia On the front pocket On the back pocket On the button On the sides of jeans Along the loops of jeans Not visible at all Total No. of respondents 56 22 15 14 5 13 125 Percentage 44.8 17.6 12 11.2 4 10.4 100

Graph 4.6: Placement of Brand Insignia Analysis: Out of the 125 respondents 10.4% were such who did not want the brand insignia to be visible at all. While maximum 44.8% number of respondents wanted the insignia to be placed on the front pocket, 17.6% of the respondents wanted the insignia to be placed on the back pocket and the

least response 4% was for the placement of brand insignia along he loops of the jeans. Interpretation: The insignia on the front pocket was the most preferred place for brand insignia on branded jeans as people feel that the brand insignia over here is visible to everybody.

4.3 Application of Components of Nicosia Model To study the application of components of Nicosia model (consumer buying behaviour model) on branded jeans purchase following aspects were considered: 1. Variables influencing the purchase. 2. Awareness about the brand. The above two aspects cater to the first attribute of Nicosia model. 1. Influence for a particular brand. 2. Perception about the price The above two aspects cater to the second attribute of Nicosia model 1. Choice of retailer 2. Factors for the choice of retailer. The above two aspects cater to the third attribute of Nicosia model 1. Satisfaction for the brand The above aspect caters to the fourth attribute of Nicosia model.

First Attribute of NICOSIA MODEL: 4.3.1 Variable Influencing the Purchase

The respondents were asked to rank the top three features which influenced them while purchasing branded jeans. The 6 feature influencing namely are brand, price, friends / family, quality and design, advertisement and others. For calculating the rank score the first rank was given 3 points while the second rank was given 2 points and the third rank was given 1 point, thus the total rank score was calculated, the consumer ranked these in the following order. Table 4.7 Variables Influencing the Purchase (N=125) S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Features Brand Price Friends/ Family Quality & Design Advertisement Others Total Rank-I 62 25 10 4 2 2 125 No. of respondents Rank-II Rank-III 31 24 55 32 8 13 7 6 24 43 0 7 125 125 Rank Scores 235 224 69 203 13 6

Graph 4.7 Variables Influencing the Purchase Analysis: As the study was targeted on the branded jeans where brand plays an important role as a factor influencing the purchase of jeans (Table 4.6), brand received the highest scores of 272. Thus brand was ranked the first followed by price with the score of 217 while quality and design was next in the list with the scores of 157. Also a couple of respondents mentioned that the factor which influenced them to purchase a particular brand of branded jeans was after their trial. Interpretation: Consumers are more brand conscious while they purchase jeans i.e. brands is the most influencing variable for the purchase. After considering the brand they consider the price of the jeans along with quality and design.

4.3.2. Awareness about the Brand As the study was targeted on the premium segment of jeans where brand plays an important role, the respondents were asked about the factor by which they came to know about a particular brand. Following were the responses of the respondents. Table 4.8: S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Awareness about the Brand (N=125) No. of Respondents 56 18 26 23 2 125 Percentage 52.8 14.4 20.8 18.4 1.6 100

Variables Advertisement Hoarding Point of purchase Word of mouth Others Total

Graph 4.8: Analysis:

Awareness about the Brand

From the above table we can say that majority of the respondents (52.8%) came to know about the particular brand through the advertisement of the brand. Other factor like point of purchase and word of mouth were next in the list. Couple of respondents came to know about the brand by trying it. Interpretation: The major source of awareness for a particular brand which affects the mind of the consumers is advertisement, while point of purchase and word of mouth are next in the list. Second Attribute of NICOSIA MODEL: 4.3.3 Factors Influencing To Buy a Particular Brand

To study the second attribute of Nicosia model, various factors which influenced the respondent to buy a particular brand were analyzed. The factors which were analyzed for a particular brand were price, brand reputation, product design, product quality, product promotion. Following were the responses:Table 4.9: Factors Influencing to buy a Particular Brand (N=125) S. No. Factors No. of Responses

1 2 3 4 5

Price Reputation Product design Product quality Product promotion

42 36 40 86 4

Graph 4.9: Factors Influencing to Buy a Particular Brand

Analysis: The most important factor which influenced the respondent to buy a particular brand was product quality (74). While the next important factor which influence the respondent to buy a particular brand was price (42) followed by product design (40). Also brand reputation was given the next level for importance which influenced the respondent to buy a particular brand. Interpretation: Product quality is considered the most important factor which influences the consumer to buy a particular brand. Quality of the product is generally considered as the reason for which people stick to one brand or they buy that particular brand.

4.3.4 Consumers Perception of Price With regards to the jeans of various brands available in the market the respondents were asked to give their idea about the price which they feel is appropriate for branded jeans. The price was classified by dividing in 3 intervals as follows: Table 4.10: Consumers Perception of Price (N=125) S. No. Price Range (Rs.) No. of Respondents Percentage 1 <1000 0 0 2 1000 1500 28 22.4 3 1500 2000 69 55.2 4 >2000 28 22.4 Total 125 100

Graph 4.10: Consumers Perception of Price Analysis: Maximum response (55.2%) was seen in the price range of Rs.1500-2000. Further the price range of 1000-1500 and >2000 and equal percentage of respondents (22.4%). Thus from here we can say that majority of the respondents have a idea that branded jeans are in the range of 15002000, thus 1500-2000 was the appropriate price range for a good branded jeans. Interpretation: For good branded jeans consumers are willing to pay an appropriate price as they feels that branded jeans belong to that range only.

Third Attribute of NICOSIA MODEL: 4.3.5 Outlet Choice

Preference of the consumer in regard to the choice of the branded jeans outlet was seen by asking the respondents about their choice of the store from where they would prefer to visit to purchase branded jeans. Table 4.11: Outlet Choice (N=125) Outlet Type No. of Respondents Exclusive brand outlet 38 Multi Retail Outlet (Retail Chains) 63 Factory Outlets 24 Total 125

S. No. 1 2 3

Percentage 30 50 20 100

Graph 4.11: Outlet Choice

Analysis: Maximum response (50%) was seen for multi-brand outlets by the respondents. Further not much of difference was seen between the response for exclusive brand outlet (30%) and factory outlets (20%). We can conclude that people prefer to go to multi brand outlets. Interpretation: The most preferred choice of consumers to buy branded jeans is from multi branded outlet rather than going to exclusive brand outlet and factory outlets.


Preference for Outlet

In this the respondents were asked to give the reasons for which they go to a particular outlet for the purchase of branded jeans. Following were the responses of the respondents. Table 4.12: S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Preference for Outlet (N=125) No. of Respondents 65 28 22 8 2 125 Percentage 52 22.4 17.6 6.4 1.6 100

Factors Variety Convenience Discount Special schemes Gifts Total

Graph 4.12: Preference for Outlet Analysis: From the above table we can say that majority of the respondents (52%) prefer to go to a particular outlet for the purchase of branded jeans because of the variety available in that outlet. The next factor which came in the mind of the respondents for going to a particular outlet was convenience (22.4%) and discounts (17.6%). On a whole we can conclude that variety is the major factor (52%) which the respondents take into consideration while going to a particular outlet for the purchase of branded jeans.

Interpretation: The only reason for which consumers of branded jeans go to multi branded outlets is the large variety available over there irrespective of the fact that how convenient it is for them for going to that particular place.

Fourth Attribute of NICOSIA MODEL:


Satisfaction for a Brand

The respondents were asked to give their satisfaction about the brand they have purchased, whether they were satisfied or not. Following were the responses of the respondents. Table 4.13: Satisfaction for A Brand (N=125) S. No. 1 2 Total Satisfied Yes No No. of Respondents 118 7 225 Percentage 94.4 5.6 100

Graph 4.13: Satisfaction for a Brand

Analysis: From the above table we can conclude that majority of the respondents (94.4%) are satisfied with the brand they have purchased. Interpretation: Consumers are generally satisfied with brand of jeans they have purchased.

4.4. Loyalty among Consumers

An attempt was made in the present study to test the brand loyalty of the consumers. 4.4. a Brand Loyalty Following aspect were studied for judging the level of brand loyalty of the respondents: 1. Maximum owned brands 2. Repurchase 3. Respondents suggestion of brand to others 4. Brand switching due to price increase 5. Pre determination of brand 4.4. b Product Loyalty Standard purchase decision involvement test (SPDI) was done to check for the product loyalty among consumers.

4.4. a. (i) Maximum Owned Brand Respondents were asked as to which brand of jeans they owned in maximum number. Table 4.14: Maximum Owned Brand (N=125) Brand No. of respondents Percentage 9 8 LEE LEE COOPER 2 2 32 27 LEVIS 29 24 PEPE JEANS 20 17 SPYKAR JEANS 13 11 WRANGLER 13 11 OTHERS Total 116 100

S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Graph 4.14: Maximum Owned Brand

Analysis: As seen from the table 4.14 most of the respondents (27%) owned Levis in maximum number, Pepe Jeans (24%) was the next choice. The brand owned by least number of respondents was Lee Cooper. Interpretation: The brand which people own in maximum number is the same of which the people are aware off i.e. Levis. Thus brand loyalty is confirmed as people purchase the same brand which they are aware off and which they rate as the best brand.

4.4.a. (ii) Repurchase Decision In this it was studied that whether the respondents would like to repurchase the jeans of the brand which he has already used. Thus people are brand loyal. Table 4.15: S. No. 1 2 Total Repurchase Yes No Repurchase Decision (N=125) No. of Respondents 102 23 125 Percentage 92 8 100

Graph 4.15: Repurchase Decision Analysis: It could be concluded that majority (92%) of the respondents would repurchase the brand they have already use while only (8%) would not repurchase the brand they have already use.

Interpretation Consumers are brand loyal as it can be figured out from the fact that they are willing to repurchase the brand they have already used.

4.4. a. (iii) Respondents Suggestion of Brand to Others The respondents were asked to state the brand of jeans they would like to suggest to others.When the response of maximum owned brand was compared with the respondents suggestion of brands to others, it was clear that Levis was the brand of jeans which was owned in maximum number and also was suggested in maximum number. Table 4.16: S. No. 1 2 3 4 5

Respondents Suggestion of Brand to Others (N=125) Brand Suggested LEE LEE COOPER LEVIS PEPE JEANS SPYKAR JEANS WRANGLER OTHERS No. Respondents
13 3 42 29 14

of Percentage 10 2 34 24 11

7 Total

6 124

5 100

Graph 4.16: Respondents Suggestion of Brand to Others

Analysis: From the above table we can conclude that Levis was the brand which was maximum (34%)

suggested by the respondents to others, followed by Pepe Jeans (24%). In addition to the above mentioned brand the respondents also gave a list of large number brands which they thought of suggesting to others. Interpretation: Since people suggest the same brand which they have purchase in maximum number to other people, we can say that brand loyalty among these consumers exists.

4.4. a. (iv) Brand Switching Due To Price Increase The respondents were asked about the percent increase in the price of the brand being used presently, that would lead to their shifting to a lower priced brand. Table 4.17: S. No. 1 2 3 4 Brand Switching Due To Price Increase (N=125) No. of Respondents 26 34 17 48 125 Percentage 20.8 27.2 13.6 38.4 100

Percentage Increase 10-20 20-30 30-40 Not shift Total

Graph 4.17: Brand Switching Due To Price Increase Analysis: It was seen that majority of the respondents 38.4% will not shift to other brands due to price increase. Whereas 27.2% of the respondents feel that they would shift to other brands if the price of their present brand increases by 20-30%. Interpretation: From here we can conclude that majority of the consumers are brand loyal and would not shift from their own brand to other brands due to price increase in future.

4.4. a. (v) Predetermination of Brand The respondents were asked, whether they had a brand in mind or not before they purchase branded jeans. Table 4.18: Predetermination of Brand (N=125) S. No. 1 2 Statement Respondents having brand in mind Respondents not having brand in mind Total No. of Respondents 76 49 125 Percentage 61 39 100

Graph 4.18: Predetermination of Brand Analysis: Around 61% of the respondents responded in affirmative i.e. they had a brand in mind before they actually purchase branded jeans. And around 39% of the respondent did not have a brand in mind before making the purchase of branded jeans. Interpretation: Majority of the consumers are brand conscious and did search for brand they had in mind before they actually purchased a jeans. It could therefore be seen that the importance of point of purchase tactic was less as compared to other Medias of awareness because the mental setup for the purchase of a particular brand was made much before the actual purchase.

4.4. b. Standard Purchase Decision Involvement Test (SPDI) Standard purchase decision involvement test was done to check the loyalty among the consumers towards branded jeans as a product. Following statements were analyzed: 4.4. b. (i) In selecting from many types and brands of jeans available in the market (N=125) The above mentioned statement was asked in order to enquire whether the consumer cares or not in buying of branded jeans as a product. Following were the responses of the respondents: Table 4.19: Intensity of Careness (Which one to buy) S. No. 1 2 Statement Not care at all as to which one I buy. Care a great deal as to which one I buy. No. of Respondents 30 95 Percentage 24 76

Graph 4.19: Intensity of Careness (Which one to buy) Analysis: From the above table we can clearly state that majority (76%) of the respondents care a great deal as to which product they buy. Interpretation: Generally consumers of branded jeans belongs to the middle age group, having middle and high income cares a great deal as to which product they buy.

4.4.b.(ii) How important would it be to the consumer to make a right choice of the products. The above mentioned statement was asked in order to enquire whether the consumer cares or not for having the right choice of the product. Following were the responses of the respondents: Table 4.20: Level of Importance (for the right choice) (N=125) S. No. 1 2 Statement Not at all important Extremely important Total No. of Respondents 14 111 125 Percentage 11.2 88.8 100

Graph 4.20: Level of Importance (for the right choice)

Analysis: From the above table we can clearly state that majority (88.8%) of the respondents give importance in making the right choice of the product. Interpretation: Generally consumers of jeans belonging to the middle age group, having middle and high income feels that making the right choice of the product is extremely important for them.

4.4. b. (iii) How concerned are the consumer for the outcome of the product. The above mentioned statement was asked in order to enquire whether the consumer cares or not about the outcome of the choice he has made for the product. Following were the responses of the respondents: Table 4.21: Level of Concern (for the outcome) (N=125) S. No. 1 2 Statement Not at all concerned Very much concerned Total No. of Respondents 15 110 125 Percentage 12 88 100

Graph 4.21: Level of Concern (for the outcome) Analysis: From the above table we can clearly state that majority (88%) of the respondents are concerned about the outcome of the product of their choice. Interpretation: Generally consumers of jeans belonging to the business class, service class are very much concerned about the outcome of the choice of their product.


In this chapter a brief summary and conclusion of the study has been presented, so as to understand the implications of these findings. This chapter also discusses the scope of the study. The purchase behaviour is influenced by many variables. The variables like price, brand, brand awareness and brand loyalty have been emphasized in this study. A sample of 125 males owning the premium brands jeans was surveyed. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and was analyzed using various statistical tools. Details of the methodology are given in Chapter 3. 5.1 Conclusions This section deals with the conclusions drawn from the study. 5.1.1 Consumer Awareness and Consumer Perception of Brand and Price

1. Of all the existing premium brands of jeans, Levis, Pepe Jeans, Wrangler and Spykar Jeans are the most popular brands among the Ludhiana population, be it with regards to spontaneous recall, as well as the brand jeans which the consumers own in maximum number. 2. Most of the consumers were any time purchasers i.e. did not purchase during discounts and special occasions. 3. Most of the consumers ranked Levis at the number one brand followed by Pepe jeans in the branded jeans segment. 4. Majority of the consumers want the brand insignia to be placed on the front pocket, followed by placing the brand insignia on the back pocket.

5.1.2. Application of components of Nicosia Model 1. First Attribute a) Most of the respondents were influenced by the brand name and price of the product while they go for purchase of branded jeans. b) Majority of respondents became aware of the brand they know through advertisement and point of purchase. 2. Second Attribute a) Product quality was the most important factor which influences the consumer to buy a particular brand. b) Consumers held that Rs.1500-2000 was the most appropriate price range for good branded jeans. 3. Third Attribute a) Multi branded outlets (retail chain) were the most preferred outlets which the consumers go for. b) Variety of the product was the most influencing factor for going to a particular outlet. 4. Fourth Attribute: When asked whether the consumers are satisfied with the brand they have purchased, majority (95%) of them said that they are satisfied. 5. 1.3. Brand Loyalty of Consumers 1. Majority of the respondents would not shift to another lower priced brand whether there is an increase in price of the existing brand. 2. Majority of the consumers were brand conscious and search for a brand they have in mind before they go out for purchase of branded jeans. 3. Majority of the respondents suggested the brand Levis to others, which prove that they

are brand loyal as they also possess maximum number of branded jeans of that brand only and ranked Levis as the number one brand. 4. On the whole the consumers had high level of confidence in the repurchase of the brand they already use, thereby showing high degree of brand loyalty of the consumers. 5. Majority of the respondents care a great deal as to which one they should buy as they feel that making the right choice of the product is extremely important for them. Also they are very much concerned about the outcome of the product. 5.2 Implications of the Study Marketing starts with the consumer and ends with the consumer. Consumer satisfaction thus becomes the most important goal of a business enterprise. The key to ensure customer satisfaction lies in understanding the consumers likes and dislikes, his motivation, in short the consumer behaviour. Also what affects his purchase choice or decisions, who is the decision maker and how his perception work on product evaluation makes it important to study the purchase behaviour. Purchase behaviour is a sound basis for identifying consumer needs. Therefore, a consumer study for any product is of vital importance to the marketers in shaping fortunes of organizations. Also it is significant for regulating use of goods and thereby maintaining economic stability. Knowledge of dimensions of purchase behaviour may be valuable in devising market segmentation strategies, in designing promotional strategies and in deciding media structure. The present study also attempts to bring about the consumer preferences with regards to quality, brand and pricing of the ready-made jeans. It is essential for the marketer to understand the psychological impact of brand image on consumer and how it affects their quality perception. It is hoped that the study will be of help to the manufacturers of jeans who will bring new ideas and right ways to influence customer. A knowledge regarding the decision maker can help targeting of advertising. An evaluation of the shopping behaviour will guide decision of the marketer in formulation of desirable distribution channel.

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1. Which brand of following products comes to your mind spontaneously? (State 1 for each) Readymade shirts : _______________________ T-Shirts : _______________________ Trousers : _______________________ Jeans : _______________________ When do you buy your jeans? (Tick only one) Special Occasion Sale/ Discount offers Anytime 3. ______ ______ ______


Which are the best brands in jeans segment (Rank top two). c. Levis______ d. Wrangler______ e. Lee Cooper ______ f. Spykar Jeans______

a. Pepe Jeans______ b. Lee______ 4.

What influence you the most in buying of jeans? (Rank top 3) Brand Price Friends\Family Advertisements Quality & Design Other (specify) : : : : : : _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ jeans do you own in maximum number?

Which brand of ready-made _______________________


Are you satisfied with the brand you have purchased? Yes No ______ ______


You feel the insignia should be (Tick only one) On the front pocket On the back pocket On the both sides of jeans On the button Along the loops of the jeans ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

Not visible at all 8.


Which price do you think is appropriate for good branded jeans? (In Rs.) <1000, ______ 1000 1500 , ______ 1500 2000 , ______ >2000 ______


Where do you generally purchase your jeans from (Tick only one) a) Exclusive brand outlet ______ b) c) Multi-brand outlet (Retail Chains) Factory Outlets ______ ______


What are the major reasons for going to that particular place? (Tick only one) a) b) c) d) e) Variety Convenience Discount Special schemes (like buy two get one free) Gifts ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

Others (Specify) ___________


How did you become aware of a brand you know? (Tick only one) Advertisements Hoardings Point of Purchase Word of mouth (friends/ family) Others (Specify) ___________ ______ ______ ______ ______


Do you have the brand in mind before you go for a purchase of jeans in a particular store? Yes No ______ ______


What influence you the most in buying of a particular brand? (You can tick more than one)

Price Reputation Product design Product quality Product promotion Other (specify) __________

______ ______ ______ ______ ______


Would you like to repurchase the jeans of the brand already used? Yes No ______ ______


Which brand of jeans would you like to suggest to your friends/ family? ______________________________________


You will shift from the brand of jeans you buy to other brand of jeans if the price of the brand you buy increased by: (Tick only one) 10-20% 20-30% 30-40% Not Shift ______ ______ ______ ______


Standard Purchase Decision Involvement Test a) In selecting from many types & brands of jeans available in the market, would you say that: I would not care at all as to which one I buy I would care a great deal as to which one I buy ______ ______

b) How important would it be to you to make a right choice of this product: Not at all important ______ Extremely important ______ c) In making your selection of jeans , how concerned would you be about the outcome of your choice: Not at all concerned ______ Very much concerned ______

Respondents profile:

Name Age (yrs.) Contact Gender

: _________________________________ : _________________________________ : _________________________________ : _________________________________