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BOOK 375. B63
BOBBITT
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WHAT SCHOOLS TEACH AND

MIGHT TEACH

3

T153 OOiniET

7

This book may be kept

FOURTEEN DAYS
A
fine of
is

TWO

CENTS

will be charged for each day

the book

kept over time.

WHAT THE SCHOOLS TEACH AND MIGHT TEACH

THE SURVEY COMMITTEE OF THE CLEVELAND FOUNDATION
Charles E. Adams, Chairman Thomas G. Fitzsimons

Myrta L. Jones Bascom Little
Victor

W.

Sincere

Arthur D. Baldwin, Secretary James R. Garfield, Counsel
Allen T. Burns, Director

THE EDUCATIONAL SURVEY
Leonard P. Ayres, Director

CLEVELAND EDUCATION SURVEY WHAT THE SCHOOLS TEACH AND MIGHT TEACH BY FRANKLIN BOBBITT ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION THE UNIVER8ITT OF CHICAGO THE SURVEY COMMITTEE OF THE CLEVELAND FOUNDATION CLEVELAND OHIO • .

Copyright. FELL CO PRINTEB3 PHILADELPHIA • . by the survey committee of the cleveland foundation WM • F. 1915.

A complete hst will be found in the back of this volume. Copies of all these publibe obtained from the Cleveland Foundation. to- may gether with prices. In addition there will be a larger volume giving a summary of the findings and recommendations relating to the regular work of the public schools. and a second similar volume giving the cations summary of those sections relating to industrial education. Twenty-three of these sections will be published as separate mono- graphs. They may also be obtained from the Division of Education of the Russell Sage Foundation. New York City. .FOREWORD This report on ''What the Schools Teach and Might Teach" is one of the 25 sections of the report of the Educational Survey of Cleveland conducted by the Survey Committee of the Cleveland Foundation in 1915.

.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword List of Tables FAOB ^ 9 11 Prefatory Statement The Point Spelling of View 15 21 Reading and Literature Handwriting Language. Grammar Mathematics Algebra 35 40 41 Geometry History Civics Geography Drawing and Applied Art Manual Training and Household^Arts Elementary Science High School Science Physiology and Hygiene Physical Training 46 50 52 54 62 65 69 72 79 81 83 Music Foreign Languages Differentiation of Courses 88 92 94 98 101 Summary . Composition.

.

7. 5. 13. physiology. PAOB5 Time given Sets of building 2. High School of Commerce Time given to spelling Time given to handwriting Time given to language. and literature supplementary reading books per to reading 21 28 to reading of different books in 3. composition. hygiene Time given to physical training Time given to music 31 35 40 41 46 54 65 69 72 84 88 92 . 8. Weeks given 4. 14. 6. 9.LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. 12. 10. 11. and grammar Time given to arithmetic Time given to history Time given to geography Time given to drawing Time given to manual training Time given to science.

.

study for the elementary schools to be found in June. was prepared under a former administration. record of such departures. While its main outlines were still held to. distributed through a 11 . it was being The printed course of departed from in individual schools in many Except occasionally it was not posrespects. constructive But it must be workers within the system. for the city study of courses that remembered cover the work of twelve school years in a score and more of subjects. It was beheved that to accept the printed manual as representing current procedure would do sible to find frequent injustice to thoughtful. the time the facts were gathered for this report. 1915.WHAT THE SCHOOLS TEACH AND MIGHT TEACH PREFATORY STATEMENT For an understanding of some istics of this of the character- report it is necessary to mention certain of the conditions under which it was prepared.

and of this fraction only a relatively small amount could actually be visited by one man in the time possible to devote to the task. Only a small fraction of this comprehensive program is going on during any week of the school year. New courses of study were being planned for the elementary schools. little indication could be found as to what the details of the new courses were to be. The present report has had to be written at a time when the administration by its acts was rejecting the courses of study laid out in the old manual. Yet with the exception of a good arithmetic course and certain excellent beginnings of a geography course. that the This in itself indicated manual could not longer be regarded as an authoritative expression of the ideas of the administration. unduly large to the work done or of work weight had to be given set down in the latest recommendations published course of study manual. It was not a safe time to be either praising or blaming course of study requirements. The situation was too unformed 12 . Under the circumstances it was not a safe time for setting forth the facts. In the absence of records of projected. and yet before the new courses were formulated.hundred buildings. since not even the administration knew yet what the new courses were to be in their details.

for either. This was thought to be the point at which further constructive labors would necessarily begin. the city was confessedly on the eve of a large conIts face was toward the structive program. In the matter of the curriculum. The recommendation of a thing in this report tation with teachers has hitherto been nonThe existent or umecognized in the system. It was felt that if the brief space at the dis- posal of this report could also look chiefly toward the future. and present constructive reconmiendations concerning things that observation indicated should be kept in mind. not even toward not future. and in otherwise ascertaming what appeared to be the main outUnes of practice in the various subjects. the past. brief of the use economical is an intention rather does not indicate that it space at our disposal in calling attention to what appear to be certain fundamental principles of curriculum-making that seem nowadays more and more to be employed by judicious constructive workers. out of incomplete development of the work of the system is not The occasional pointing 13 . The time that the author spent in Cleveland was mostly used in observations in the schools. it would accomphsh its largest service. in consul- and supervisors. and toward the present.

14 . plete. It must grow and change as fast as social conditions make such changes necessary. The intention is to present the disinterested. detached view of the outsider who. To point out such further growth-needs is not criticism. perfected.Both school people and community should remember that since to be regarded as criticism. it is Social growth is never com- especially rapid in our generation. the work of the schools must corres- pondingly change. schools are to fit people for social conditions. although he knows indefinitelj^ less than those within the system about the details of the work. The work of education in preparing for these ever-new conditions can likewise never be complete. conditions are and since these continually changing. can often get the perspective rather better just because his mind is not filled with the details. crystallized.

Since we are using this social point of view in making curriculum suggestions for Cleveland. it seems desirable first to explain Some of the matters set just what we mean. They need. to be effiwork.THE POINT OF VIEW an endless. and as to the steps to be There is taken in the teaching of these essentials. At the end of the process it is expected that they will be able to do the things that adults do. to be presented again because of the frequency with which they are lost sight of in actual school practice. and perhaps worldwide. to be thoughtful public-spirited and the like. down may appear so obvious as not to require expression. . The individual is who reaches this level of attainment 15 educated. think . to think as they . The safe plan for constructive workers appears to be to avoid personal educational philosophies and to read all the essentials of education within the needs and processes of the community itself. Children and youth are expected as they grow up to take on by easy stages the characteristics of adulthood. controversy as to what constitutes the '^ essentials" of education. however. to bear adult responsibilities cient in citizens.

They had to be taught. Anything less than this falls short of its purpose. The one who falls below this level is not truly educated. To in bring one's nature to full maturity. even though he may have had a surplus of schooling. and without systematic teaching. One of the earliest of these too-complicated was written language reading. These matters became necessities to the adult world. Adults have developed kinds of activities so complicated enter into that youth cannot adequately them and learn them without systematic teaching. Anything other than this is education misdirected. spelling.even though he may never have attended school. In very early days. is true education for life in that community. At first these things were few. the social world has been growing more complex. as represented by the best of the adult community which one grows up. when community life was simple. with the years they have grown very numerous. and the school activities — 16 . however. but youth under ordinary circumstances could not participate in them as performed by adults sufficiently to master them. writing. practically all of one's education was obtained through participating in community activities. From that day to this.

It too it had to be taught. a need arose for knowledge of the outlying world. As community vision widened and men's affairs came to extend far beyond the horizon. etc. It was too difficult for youth to master through participation only.. 2 17 . science. drawing. Looking at education from this social point of view it is easy to see that there was a time when no particular need existed for history. civics. and In the early schools this teaching of the so-called Three R's was all that was needed. There arose the new need for the systematic teaching of geography. Other things were still simple enough. What had hitherto not been a human necessity and therefore not an educational essential became both because of changed social conditions. These offered a second task for the schools.thereby came into existence. vocational studies. This knowledge could rarely be obtained sufficiently through travel and observation. beyond what one could acquire by minghng with one's associates in the community. A second thing developed about the same time was the compHcated number system used by adults. because these were the only adult activities that had become so compUcated as to require systematized teaching. so that young people could enter into them sufficiently for all necessary education.

There is no reason to believe that as the school lends its help to some of the more difficult things. Where complicated knowledge is needed. normal plan of learning can be set aside and another substituted. the schools must teach that knowledge.were therefore not then essentials for education. is participation in those things. Whether a thing today is an educational '^essential" or not seems to depend upon two things: whether it is a human necessity today. These things have thereby become educational essentials. One gets his ideas from watching others and then learns to do by doing. Where drill is required. they must give the drill. and whether it is so complex or inaccessible as to require systematic teaching. and other things are being added year by year. Of course the schools must take in hand the difficult portions of the process. It is just as easy to see that changed social conditions of the present make necessary for every one a fuller and more systematic range of ideas in each of these fields than one can pick up incidentally. The normal method of education in things not yet put into the schools. The number of ''essentials'^ generation to generation. changes from Those today who ''essentials'^ proclaim the Three R's as the sole past. appear to be calling from out the rather distant Many things have since become essential. this 18 .

provided. is playful participation in the ac- tivities of their elders. to judge. Naturally natures. At an early age they begin to perform adult activities. ing. it is done in ways appropriate to their first it At is imitative play. con- structive play. It Hfe of their cannot be urged that young people have a own which is to be lived only for youth^s sake and without reference to the adult world about them. it will still do so by helping them to enter adequately into the activities of adulthood. Youth think- and to do. —nature's method of bring- ing children to observe the serious world about them. by and doing. This changes gradually 19 . judging.But the knowledge and the in their relation drill should be given activities to the human in which they are used. They will acquire a by bearing responsibility. to bear adult responsibilities. As a matter of fact children and youth are a part of the total community of which the mature adults are the natural and responsible leaders. to take on adult points of view. As the school helps young people to take on the nature of adulthood. if normal opportunities are it. etc. They wdll take on serious forms of thought by doing the serious things which require serious sense of responsibihty thought. and to gird themselves for entering into The next stage. will learn to think.

the duties of one's calling. becoming at the end adult action. It looks to human . one's recreations. activities of every type: religious activities civic activities. It is of the process responsible not possible to determine the educational materials and processes at any stage of growth without looking at the same time to that entire world of which youth forms a part. tion. one's family duties. are done 20 .into serious participation as they grow older. The social point of view herein expressed is sometimes characterized as being utilitarian. It may be so but not in any narrow or undesirable sense. It demands that training be as wide . one's reading and medita- and the rest of the things that by the complete man or woman. and in which the nature and abilities of their elders point the goal of their training. as life itself.

—TIME GIVEN TO READING AND LITERATURE . and the average cities* are shown in the follow- TABLE 1.READING x\ND LITERATURE The amount of mentary schools time in 50 other ing table: time given to reading in the eleof Cleveland.

'^ It is true that other aims are mentioned. '^easy expressive oral reading in rich. acquaintance with the leading authors. that the chief purpose of teaching reading in this city is. exploration. upon the way If the city is aiming only at the usual mastery of the mechanics of reading and the usual introductory acquaintance with simple works of literary art. appreciation of ^^ beautiful expressions. of course. such as enlargement of vocabulary. inventions. from a careful study of the actual work and an examination of the printed documents. this city is using the excess time for widely diversified reading chosen for its content value in revealing the great fields of history. travel. then possible that it is just this excess time that produces the largest educational returns upon the investment. manners and customs in other lands. Properly em- 22 . It would seem. on the other hand. " etc. well-modulated tone. and in fixing life-long habits of intelUgent it is reading. applied science. etc. word-study.000. industry. If. it appears that Cleveland is using more time and labor than other cities consider needful. biography.vestment in this subject of some $150. depends. to use the ter- minology manual. Whether or not this excess investment in reading is justified is the time used.. however. underof its latest standing of expressions and allusions.

phasized. 23 . in the new evalua- The use of interesting and valuable books for other educational purposes at the same time that they are used for drill in the mechanics of reading is coming more and more to be recognized as an improved mode of procedure. criticism of the purposes long accepted. this mistaken emphasis is not at all uncommon among the schools of the nation. The mechanical side of reading is not thereby neglected. each of these purposes is vaUd. but of the apparent failure to recognize other equally important ones. It is given its proper function and relation. How one reads has received an undue amount of attention. and can therefore be better taught. the only statement of purpose is that '^children should read for the joy of it. will receive an increasingly large share of time and thought. Even in reference to the supplementary reading. but there are other equally valid ends to be achieved through proper choice of the reading-content There is here no that are not mentioned." Unfortunately. The character of the reading-content is referred to only in the recom- mendation that in certain grades it should relate to the seasons and to special occasions. where content should be the first concern. what one reads in the school courses must and tion.

Because of the fact that oral reading is slower. in con- nection with their civic problems. oral reading is becoming of steadily diminishing importance to adults. and books.So far as one can in the reading see. magazines. suggestions. more laborious for both reader and listener. The reading tests made by the Survey The city fail to reveal any such superiority. Most reading will be for the content. for recreation. Certainly people should read well and effectively in all ways in which they will be called For the upon most part this means reading for ideas. and information in connection with the to read in their adult affairs. and because of the present easy accessibility of printed matter. Cleveland is attempting work little more than the tradiThe thirty-four per cent excess tional thing. things involved in their several callings . It is desirable that the reading be easy and rapid. and that one gather in all the ideas as one reads. and for such general social enlightenment as comes from newspapers. No longer should the central educational purpose be the development of expressive 24 . time may be justified by the city on the theory that the schools are commissioned to get the work done one-third better than in the average city. appears to be getting no better than average results.

train To an adult generation to read thought. advance in the world of industry and applied world's science. etc. travel. social after in two important ways.. discussions of social relations. The work ought to be rather more extensive than intensive. While works of Uterary art should constitute a considerable portion of the reading program. which adults need mostly to read. political ad- justments. After the primary teachers have taught the elements. The chief end should be the development of that wide social vision and understanding which is so much needed in this comphcated cosmopolitan age. The texts beyond the and it is 25 . by the reading of these things that children form desirable and valuable reading habits. silent It should be rapid and effective for the reading for the sake of the thought read. The reading curriculum needs to be looked First. schools must give children tice in full prac- reading for the thought in the ways in which later as adults they should read. It is history.oral reading. they should not monopolize the program. nor indeed should they be regarded as the most important part of it. the work should be mainly voluminous reading for the sake of entering into as much of the thought and experience as possible. standards of judgment should determine the nature of the reading. biography. current news.

for the most part selecVery little of it has any conscious relation. sets of we all the supplementary readers found in 10 or more schools. The same is true of the books for use in the fifth and seventh grades. Unfortunately. the schools are very incompletely supplied with these sets. immediate or remote. Probably children should read many more selections of literary art than are found in the textbooks and the supplementary sets now owned by the schools.. Many are historical. civic. But certainly such cultural literary experience ought not to crowd out kinds of reading that primary grades are now tions of literary art. we find that few of those assigned for fourth-grade reading are found in onequarter of the buildings and none are in half of them. biographical. Illumina- tion of the things of serious importance in the everyday world of human affairs should have a large place in reading work of every school. they have advanced farther than the textbooks toward much should what constitute a proper If reading consider course. in character. It is true that the supplementary sets of books have been chosen chiefly for their con- tent value. to present-day problems and conditions or with their historical background. etc. scientific. On the side of content. geographical. Some of the books 26 . are of much greater practical value.

This leaves 35 weeks of the year unprovided for. or let us say three times. an altogether insufficient practice. and a grammar-grade child at 30 to 40 pages per hour. the entire series of reading texts ought to be read in some 80 hours. The course of study in reading should therefore provide the opportunity for much practice. the practice reading should be rapid. amount of rapid reading Of course the texts can be read twdce. and effectively by practice. rapidly. This is 10 hours' practice for each of the eight school years. aggregating 30 hours of practice per year. the buildings are But even this is not more be accompHshed in two or — 27 . A third-grade child ought to read matter suitable for its intelHgence at 20 pages per hour.for the sixth is than half of found in as many as three-quarters of them. One learns to do a thing easily. To make good this deficit. but there is none that more reading practice. At the moderate rates mentioned. Since rapidity of reading is one of the desired ends. The second thing greatly needed to improve the reading course is and eighth grades are found in more the buildings. than could easily three weeks of each of the years always presuming that the reading materials are rightly adapted to the mental maturity of the pupils. At present the reading texts used aggregate for the eighth grade some 2100 pages.

— SETS OF SUPPLEMENTARY READING BOOKS PER BUILDING Grade .furnished with supplementary books in sets sufficiently large to supply entire classes. The is average number of such sets per building shown in the following table: TABLE 2.

The words are marked diacritically.ill-chosen for practice in habits of rapid intelli- by going slow that one Too often learns to go the school runs on low speed gear when it ought to be running on high. Quite the reverse. The low may be necesgent reading? It is not fast. The actual work in the grades from the plan suggested. an imitation of a real use by being put into an artificial sentence. be necessary in the primary grades. 5. 6. sary for the starting. is very different In taking up any selection for reading. One pupil reads a paragraph. 4. Pupils ^^use the words in sentences. 3. 2. but not for the running. Reading practice should certainly make It may for increased speed in effective reading. the plan in most schools is about as follows: 1. and pronounced. The oral reading is begun. but unfortunately words out of the context often carry no meaning. but not thereafter for those who have had a normal start. the paragraph With the book removed. the meaning of is then reproduced either by the 29 . A list of the unusual words met with is written on the blackboard." It is only given The pupil frequently has nothing to say that in- volves the word. Teacher and pupils discuss the meaning of these words.

reader or some other pupil. This work
sarily perfunctory
is

is

neces-

because the pupil knows he not giving information to anybody. Everybody within hearing already has the meaning

mind from the previous reading. The normal child cannot work up enthusiasm for oral reproduction under such conditions. 7. The paragraph is analyzed into its various elements, and these in turn are discussed in
fresh in
detail.
is not reading. It is analysis. A not read, it is analyzed. The purpose of real reading is to enter into the thought and emotional experience of the writer; not to

Such work
is

selection

pressed himself.

study the methods by which the author exThe net result when the work is done as described is to develop a critical consciousness of methods, without helping the children to enter normally and rightly into the

The children of Cleveland need this genuine training in reading. Reading in the high schools needs very much
experience of the writer.
the

same

sort of modernization.

There are more

kinds of literature than classical belles-lettres,

and perhaps more important kinds.

We

would

not advocate a reduction of the amount of aesthetic literature. Indeed, the young people of Cleveland need to enter into a far wider range of such literature than is the case at 30

present.

But the reading courses

in high schools

should be built out in ways already recom-

mended for elementary schools. The training, however, should be mainly reading and not in analysis. The former is
surpassing importance to
all

in of

people; the latter

is important only to certain specialists. And, what is more, fullness of reading and right ways of reading will accomphsh incidentally most of the things aimed at in the analysis. The following table of the reading outline of the High School of Commerce is a fair sample of what the city is doing. Note how much time is given to the reading and analysis of the few

selections covered in four years.

TABLE
First

3—WEEKS GIVEN TO READING OF DIFFERENT BOOKS
IN HIGH SCHOOL OF

COMMERCE

Weeks
Year Ashmun's Prose Selections Cricket on the Hearth Sohrab and Rustum
read 9 5 3

to

Midsummer

Night's

Dream

6
11

Ivanhoe Second Year Autobiography
Idjdls of the

of Franklin

King

Treasure Island Sketch Book Vision of Sir Launfal Third Year
Silas

7 10 7 7 3 7 5 5 6 5 6
2
10

Marner

Iliad (Bryant's 4 books) Washington's Farewell Address First Bunker Hill Oration Emerson's Compensation Roosevelt Book Fourth Year Markham's The Man with the Hoe Tale of Two Cities

Public

Duty

of the

Educated

Man

4
11 6

Macbeth
Self-Reliance

31

When a short play of

a hundred pages Uke Macbeth requu-es nearly three months for reading, when almost two months are given to Treasure
Island and nearly three
clearly
is it is

months to Ivanhoe,

something other than reading that being attempted. It is perfectly obvious that

the high schools are attending principally to the mechanics of expression and not to the content of the expression. The relative emphasis should be reversed. The amount of reading in the high schools should be greatly increased. Those who object

that rapid work

is

superficial believe that

work

be remembered, however, that slow work is often superficial and that rapid work is often excellent. In fact the world's best workers are generally rapid, accurate, and thorough. Ask any business man of wide experience. Now leaving aside pupils who are slow by nature, it can be affirmed that pupils will acquire slow, thorough habits or rapid, thorough habits according to the way they are taught. If they are brought up by the slow plan, naturally when speeded up suddenly, the quality of their work declines. They can be rapid, accurate, and thorough only if such strenuous work begins early and is continued consistently. Slow habits are undesirable if better ones can just as well be implanted.
32

must be slow

to be thorough.

It should

each workman could easily supply his own tools but now that elaborate machinery has been devised for their manufacture. for example. and a much more strenuous kind of drill. In our day when other ends are set up beyond and above those of former days. it ought to be stated that the plan recommended does reading. The plan looks both toward more reading and improved habits less drill mean We are of reading. were made by hand. the privately purchased textbook could suffice.. Men in the business world will have no difficulty in seeing the logic of this. Now the books to be read are the tools in the teaching of reading. It is so in almost every field of labor where efficiency has been introduced. upon the mechanical side of recommending a somewhat more modernized kind of mechanics. To avoid not possible misunderstanding. 3 must purchase the books used 33 . Leaving the supplying of books to private purchase is the largest single obstacle in the way of progress. In a former day when a mastery of the mechanics of reading was all that seemed to be needed. it has become so expensive that a machine factory must supply the tools. When shoes. the city in the work. final suggestion finds here its logical Before the reading work of elementary or high schools can be modernized. One place.

A fair start has been made but nothing should be permitted to obstruct rapid progress in this direction. In this city the expenditures for supplementary textbooks have amounted to something more than $31. It well to face this issue candidly and to state the facts plainly.a far more elaborate and expensive equipment required. 34 .000 in the past 10 years. is The city is must now supply the educaRelative failure tional tools.000 in the past three years. They can count on it with the same assurance as that of a manufacturer of shoes who attempts to employ the methods of former days in competition with modern methods. can be the only possible lot of reluctant communities. indicates the rapid advance in this direction made under the present school administration but the supply of books still falls far short of the needs of the schools. Approximately one-third of this sum was spent in the first seven years of the decade and more This than $20.

aims also at training for pronunciation.— TIME GIVEN TO SPELLING Grade . the figures presented in Table 4 are really too small to represince it syllabification. Since much of the reading time is given to similar word-study. sent actual practice in Cleveland.SPELLING Cleveland has set apart an average amount of program time for spelling. vocabulary extension. and etymology. TABLE 4. Possibly the study might more accurately be called word-study.

action or drawing. Spell much orally. etc. using it be made clear to pupils. taking the words to be taught from the language experience of the pupils. . Frequent supplementary dictation. following up words actually misspelled. . by illustration with object. ''Each lesson should have also from eight to 20 subordinate words taken from textbook or composition exercises. In some respects the work needs further modernization. phonetic properties. oral and written spelling and meaning. test thoroughly. people need to spell only when they write. Whether to spell correctly children or adults. by giving a synonym or the antonym. are all to may be done by by definition or description. ^^The teaching of a new word in a sentence. ." In most respects the work agrees with the usual practice in progressive cities: the teach- ing of a few words in each lesson. . The words chosen for the work are not always the ones most needed. derivation. They need 36 . the frequent and continuous review of words already taught. .syllables. and follow up words mis- spelled persistently. and by etymology. word-building and phonic exercises should be given. Teach a little daily. studying the words from many angles. drill intensively. .

In case he has much writing to do. etc. This development of the habit of watchfulness over their speUing as they write is the principal thing. inevitably forgets. One who has it will always spell well. degenerates in his spelling. letterwriting. the habit of spelling every word with certainty that it is correct. first. it automatically leads to a constant renewing of his memory for words used and prevents forgetting.the words of their writing vocabulary. The one who has only memorized word-lists. needed. is because of the fact that they have been trying to teach specific words rather than to develop a general and constant watchfulness. The fundamental training in spelling is accomplished in connection with composition. whether rapidly or slowly. even though they have been rigorously drilled. for making people conscious 37 of the . and in proportion as he lacks this general habit of watchfulness. More important still. they need to acquire the habit of watching their speUing as they write. Direct word-list study should have It is only a secondary and supplemental place. and they need to spell no others. and the habit of going to word-hsts or diction- when there is any doubt. The reason why schools fail to ary overcome the frequent criticism that young people do not spell well.

and the failure to 38 . and third. com- These people need an intensive specialized training in spelling that is not needed by the mass of the population. The great majority of the population of Cleveland will spell only as they write letters. etc. but it should not be forced upon all simply because the few need it. positors. Such specialized vocational training should be taken care of by the Cleveland schools. The attempt to bring all to the high level needed by the few. stenographers. spelling watchfulness in connection with writ- ing letters and compositions. for developing a preliminary understanding of the spelling of words used. correspondents. it probably should not require so much time as is now given to it and the time saved should be devoted to the major task of teaching spelled. there are classes of people to whom a high degree of spelling accuracy covering a fairly wide vocabulary is an indispensable vocational necessity: copyists. On the other hand. clerks. proof-readers. receipts. for drill upon words commonly misletter While a necessary portion of the entire process. They do not need to spell a wide vocabulary with complete accuracy. and for bringing them to look closely into the relations of these letter elements.elements of words which are seen as wholes in their reading. second. and simple memoranda.

reach this

level, is responsible for

the justifiable

criticism of the schools that

those few

who

need to
trained.

spell

unusually well are imperfectly
practice should continue through
is

The spelhng

the high school. It

only necessary for teachers
to force

work that contains upon students the habit of watchfulness over every word written. The High School of Commerce is to be commended for making spelling a required portion of the training. The course needs to be more closely knit with composition and business letterto refuse to accept wTitten

any misspelled word

\vTiting.

39

HANDWRITING
Cleveland gives a considerably larger proportion of time to handwriting than the average
of the 50 cities.

TABLE 5.—TIME GIVEN TO HANDWRITING

LANGUAGE, COMPOSITION, GRAMMAR
The
schools devote about the usual

amount

of

time to training for the correct use of the

Most of the time in intermother tongue. mediate and grammar grades is devoted to EngUsh grammar. Composition receives only minor attention.
TABLE 6.— TIME GIVEN TO LANGUAGE, COMPOSITION, AND

GRAMMAR

certain types of error. own speech and is writis it Only as knowledge learned pupils. the ior character. And when judged in the light of the kind of education conability to recite well to pass sidered best 20 years ago. and good examinations in the subject. Technical grammar plays. and should enforce constant own speech on the part It is possible to require pupils to go over it. In classes visited the thing attempted was being done in a relatively effective way. or should play. prob- ably only those things needed should be taught. work and to examine before handing in the light of all the 42 .on textbook grammar. but more important still. everything taught should be constantly pult to use by the pupils in their oversight of their ing. really or assimilated. Since grammar has this perfectly practical function to perform. put to work. As a matter ten expression like everything else. The form and style of expression is perfected mainly through the conscious and unconscious imitation of good models. facility in oral is. The schools should require of much oral and written expression the watchfulness of their of the pupils. work is of a super- and writmainly developed through much practice. all of their written it in. the relatively minor role of assisting students to eliminate and to avoid of fact.

without prompting on the part of the teacher. It is also possible for pupils to guard consciously against knoTvn types of error which they are accustomed to make in their oral recitations. we might call it. Fullness and depth of understanding will come with apphcation. proportionate amount of time — 43 . A Umited amount of systematic grammatical teaching is a necessary prehminary step. terminology. relationships. This should be Like the prehminary accomphshed rapidly. This preliminary understanding can not be learned ''incidentally." Such a plan fails on the side of perspective and relationship. survey in any field. is his education accompUshed. which are pre- cisely the things in which the preparatory teach- ing of the subject should be strong. The purpose is an introductory acquaintance with citation in certain basic forms. This preliminary training in technical grammar need not be either so extensive or so intensive as it is at present. and grammatical perspective.grammatical rules they have learned. Only as the pupil is brought to do it himself. An is altogether dis- it. composition. Every re- whatever subject provides opportunity for such training in habits of watchfulness. now given to The time saved ought to go to oral and written expression. this stage of the work will be relatively superficial.

44 The expression side of all the school work. civics. geography. clouds. migration of birds. Probably little time should be set apart on the program for composition.except that the word has been spoiled because of the artificiaUty of the exercises. commerce. transportation. and so the subject matter of these topics is not developed. etc. The present manual suggests compositions based upon ^^ changes in trees. . accounts of industry. etc. trees. Elementary science is not taught in the schools of Cleveland. as well as far greater interest for the student. that possesses the greater value for the purposes of education. Further. leaves.. both in the elemen- . and reports of observations on related matters in the community. dissemination of seeds. The composition or expression most to be recommended consists of reports on the supplementary reading in connection with history. ice. travels. Such reports will usually be oral but often they will Expression occurs naturally and be written. " This type of composition program under present conditions cannot be a vital one. geography. revealed in history. manufacture. sanitation. industrial studies. and flowers. it is the world of human action. normally only where there is something to be discussed. snow. Topics of interest and of value are practically numberless. .

physics. where the students have an abundance of things to discuss. etc. The isolation of the composition tinues through the academic high schools in considerable work conand degree through the technical high schools expression chiefly in also.. Probdustrial studies. should be The used to give the necessary practice. technical matters needed can be taught in occasional periods set aside for that specific purpose. work probably needs In the high schools the to be developed the classes in science. 45 . ably four-fifths of all of the training in English expression in the high schools should be accomplished in connection with the oral and written work of the other subjects.tary school and in the high school. in- commercial and industrial geography. history.

MATHEMATICS To arithmetic. the Cleveland schools are devot- ing a somewhat larger proportion of time than cities.—TIME GIVEN TO ARITHMETIC . the average of TABLE 7.

while indispensable. he must have mastered the fundamentals. in the supervision many our economic thinking with reference to taxation. pensions. do calculations as it is the ability and the habit of thinking in Calculations. before one is prepared to use mathematical forms of thought in considering the many social and vocational problems.mental needs of the age upon which we are now entering of our in is accurate quantitative thinking in co-operative governmental labors. of other civic and the multitude matters. astronomy. corporations. the fields of one's vocation. so must it be with effective vocational. but it should always be kept in mind that 47 . or engineering needs to be put in mathematical terms in order that it may be used effectively. Our chief need is not so much the ability to to think in figures figures. and economic thinking in general. expenditures. and vocational Just as the thought involved in physics. insurance. at as early an age as prac- Naturally ticable. public utilities. This should be done with a high degree of thoroughness. civic improvements. civic. The elementary school. should certainly give the necessary pre- liminary knowledge of and practice in the fundamental operations of arithmetic. are incidental to more important matters.

and how dividends are declared and paid. we should emphasize its informational value rather than its mathematical conical tent. its chief officers.: this is only a preliminary mastery of the alphabet of mathematical thinking. what stocks and bonds are. we find this statement ''Owing to the important place this subject holds in life. the pupils should have no difficulty in solving the problems as no new principle is introduced. of nomic. how it is organized." 48 ." Under stocks and bonds: "Pupils should be taught to know what a corporation is." Under taxation and revenue: ''If the general features of this subject are presented from the standpoint of civics. The following quotations are typical: "The important problem of the seventh and is eighth grades to enable the pupils to under- stand and deal intelligently with the most important social institutions with which arithmetical processes are associated. One finds clear recognition of this in Cleveland in the new arithmetic manual. and civic subjects." In discussing the teaching of the mathemataspect of insurance. part of our problem quantitative aspects is The other eco- a development of the the vocational. in so far as such knowledge is needed by the general public.

It emphasizes rapidity. and the confidence that comes to pupils from checking up their results. It provides for much drill. present. Uke the teaching of penmanship. On the side of the preliminary training in the fundamental operations. beyond the preliminary training needed for accuracy and rapidity in the fundamental operations. Arithmetic teaching. the present arithmetic course of study is on the whole of a superior character. elementary and secondary. Neither being complete at present. accuracy. The full development will take place For the within these various other fields. It provides 49 . each will tend to complete the other.. When this principle is carried through to its logical conclusion. is for the purpose of giving tools that are to be used in matters that He beyond. it will be observed that most of these developments will not take place within the arithmetic class. but in the various other subjects.These statements indicate a recognition of the most important principle that should control in the development of all of the mathematics. It holds fast to fundamentals. and for a great variety of drill. etc. it probably will be well for the schools to develop the matters both within the arithmetic classes and in the other classes. dispensing with most of the things of 4 little practical use.

Subjects which have been considered necessary in a high school. but the subjects which are necessary in this course should be given in such a way as to strengthen the mind. should not for this reason only be placed in a commercial course. But they should be : 50 . the use of which would result in greatly in- Such printed materials creased effectiveness. ought to be furnished in great abundance.pUcated. Subjects should not be given because they strengthen the mind. we find the following very significant sentences relative to the course of study for the proposed high school of commerce ^'An entirely new course of study should be made out for this school. 1906. easy advances from the simple to the comThe field of number is explored in a to feel at is great variety of directions so that pupils are made defect home in the subject. Algebra In the report of the Educational Commission of Cleveland. We can see no reason for giving these students either algebra or geometry. One large the lack of printed exercise materials. because they tend to develop the mind. The mathematics in this school should consist of business arithmetic and mensuration.

boys looking forward to vocations that do not involve the generalized mathematics of algebra. It seems advisable here to do nothing more than to present the question as one which the city needs to investigate. Carried out to its logical concluit and applied to the entire city system. The present practice. raises questions as to the advisability of requir- ing algebra of girls in any of the high school courses or of requiring it of that large number of . Now either the commercial students do need algebra or a large proportion of these others do not need it. reveals inconsistency. The pubhc schools ought to give the all up to that level same mathematics to where the need is common 51 . Differentiation in the mathematics of differ- ent classes of pupils is necessary. and toward a growing and consistent application of it. The current tendency in public education is toward agreement with the principle enunciated by the Cleveland Educational Commission. In one or the other of the schools a wrong course is probably being followed." We find here a recommendation since carried out that indicates a clear recognition of the principle of adaptation of the course of study to actual needs. sion. in Cleveland as elsewhere.taught short and practical methods of working business problems.

ratio. multiplication. Beyond that point. Their mathematics is probably greatly in advance of that of the academic schools. etc. Since geometrical forms involve numerical relations. This is now done in developing ideas of fractions. it should be knit up in far larger measure mth practical matters. mathematics needs to be adapted to the probable future activities There are those who will need to reach the higher levels of mathematical ability. and it should develop through the grades and high school in ways similar to the arithmetic. and in conjunction with the arithmetic. per cent. It is thought that. and on the other. of the individual. technical high schools of Cleveland have adopted this form of organization. on the one hand. It should be done and variously than at present much more fully 52 . they supply good materials to use in making number relations concrete and clear. Others wall have no such need. it should be developed in connecThe tion with geometry and trigonometry. and construction work. drawing. division. Geometry Form study should begin in the kindergarten.to all. There is a growing belief that even for those who are in need of algebra the subject is not at present organized in desirable ways.

and for the double purpose of practising the Arith- form-ideas as well as the number-ideas. The apphcation comes not so much in the development of practical problems in the mathematics classes as in the development of the form aspect of those other activities that involve form. and other facts of life. . in mechanical and free-hand draw- At the same time that in the ing. In connection with the arithmetic. development should also be going on in the classes of drawing. in constructive labor. in the graphical rep- resentation of social. the construction and art work. design. it appears to be developing in Cleveland in a 53 vigorous and healthy manner. We have here pointed to what appears to be in progressive schools a growing program of work. The application will be made in practical design. the drawing. metic study and form-study can well grow up together. this is being developed mathematics classes. and construction. The alphabet of formstudy will thus be taught in several of the studies. economic. Everywhere it is yet somewhat vague and inchoate. and the mathematics of the technical high schools. gradually merging into the com- bined algebra and geometry so far as students need to reach the higher levels of mathematical generalization.

and arithmetic.—TIME GIVEN TO HISTORY . it is more likely to be on the part of an individual city than upon that of 50 cities. like reading. TABLE 8. grammar. If a mistake is being made. crepancy should give the city pause and concern.HISTORY for elementary educahave placed a high valuation upon history. The probability The curriculum makers seem to tion do not is that Cleveland is giving too little time to this subject. writing. Apparently it has not been considered an essential study of high worth. as against 496 hours in the average This disof 50 progressive American cities. spelling. To history are allotted but 290 hours in Cleveland.

The true work is really indicated by the of our last sentence of the eighth-grade history assign- ment: ''The text oughly mastered. pp. 1-124 inclusive. it receives an aggregate of less of The perfunctory assignment is work the seventh grade typical: ''United States History Assignment. 125-197. While there is incidental reference to collateral reading.'^ For fifth col- and sixth grades there is assigned a small history text of 200 pages for one or two lessons per week. B A Assignment. as a matter of fact the schools are not supplied with the necessary materials for this collateral reading in the character of the grammar grades. Mace's History. Questions and suggested collateral reading found in Appendix may be used as teacher directs. 108 pages. Mace's History. The two years of the seventh and eighth grades are devoted to the mastery of about 500 pages of text." book should be thor- 55 . two. pp.The treatment indicates that in the course of study manual Of the than for it is a neglected subject. Make use of questions and suggested lateral reading at your own option.

The history should be so taught that it will have a demonstrably practical purpose.In discussing the situation. Looked at from a practical point of view. Once having discovered the list of social topics. economic. History is one of the most important methods of social analysis. needed is an understanding of present conditions. social. the history should be developed on the basis of topics. but there is no better key to a right understanding of our present conditions than history furnishes. it is possible to find historical readings which will show how present conditions have grown up out of earlier ones. One comes to understand a present situation by observing how it has come to be. In drawing up courses of study in the subject for the grammar grades and the high school. all need a good understanding of the industrial. political. a great abundance of 56 . the first thing to which we must call attention is the great value of history for an understanding of the multitude of complicated social problems met with by all people in a democracy. and other problems with which we It is true the thing are continually confronted. the first task should be an analysis of present-day social conditions. In a country where all people are the rulers. the proper understanding of which requires historical background.

: reading being provided for each of the topics. We have in mind such topics as the following Sociological Aspects of Territorial Expansion War Race Problems Tariff and Free Trade Transportation Money Systems Our Insular Possessions Growth of Population Trusts Banks and Banking Immigration Capital and Labor Education Inventions Suffrage Centralization of Government Strikes and Lockouts Panics and Business Depressions Commerce Taxation Manufacturing Labor Unions Foreign Commerce Agriculture Postal Service Army Government Control of Corporations Municipal Government Navy Factory Labor Wages 57 .

Pensions etc. Naturally as much as possible should be covered in the grammar grades.Courts of Charities Law Crime Fire Protection Roads and Road Transportation Newspapers and Magazines National Defense Conservation of Natural Resources Liquor Problems Parks and Playgrounds Housing Conditions Mining Health. Such as cannot be 58 . they should be assigned to grammar grades and high school according to the degree of maturity necessary for their comprehension. Unemployment Women Child Labor in Industry Cost of Living Pure Food Control Savings Banks of Cities Water Supply Prisons Recreations and Amusements Co-operative Buying and Selling Insurance Hospitals After drawing up such lists of topics for study. Sanitation.

anecdotal. Naturally. thriUing dramas of human achievement. There are too many ment other conditions that require readjustat the same time. stored up. and in the beginning a relatively superficial. students must have some famiharity with the general time relations of history and the general chronological movements of affairs before they can understand the more or less specialized treatment of individual topics. of students drop out. It must all be a gradual growth. overview of the world's history for the sake of perspective. since so large a number work. nations. The read- ing should be biographical. rich with 59 human . the states of modern Europe and America. Greece. Rome. this all need the would involve a radical revision of the high school courses in history.covered there should be covered as early as practicable in the high school. The purpose should be to give a general. It is not here recommended that any such changes be attempted abruptly. During these grades a great wealth of historical materials should be Pupils should acquire much famili- arity with the history of the ancient oriental Judea. and Of course. in Preliminary studies are therefore both necessary and desirable the intermediate and grammar grades for the purpose of giving the general background.

and barren to afford in their entirety valuable concrete historical experience. abstract. so that much Given the reading can be covered rapidly. They can in this manner lay a broad historical foundation for the study of the social topics that should begin by the seventh grade and continue throughout the high school. The general studies should certainly continue for tion of some porthe time through the grammar grades 60 . But they are too brief. the main outlines of which are remembered without difficulty. interest. they give one that perspective which comes from a comprehensive view of the entire field. It should proper conditions classes —chiefly an abundance of the proper books supplied in sets large enough for —pupils much can cover a large amount of ground. Reading of the character that we have here called preliminary should not cease as the other historical studies are taken up.be at every stage of the work on the level with the understanding and degree of maturity of the pupils. and acquire a great quantity of useful information. They are excellent reference books for gaining and keeping historical perspective. obtain a wealth of historical experience. and read rapidly. The textbooks Read of the present type can be employed as a part of this preliminary training.

but it probably should be mainly supervised reading of interesting materials rather than recitation and examination work. 61 .and high school. We would recommend that the high schools give careful attention to the recommendation of the National Education Association Committee on the Reorganization of the Secondary Course of Study in History.

The extraele- ordinary value of civic education in the mentary school. the — auditor. and the The topics are important. should have received more decided recognition. health and sanitation. The manual suggests that one-quarter of the history time 10 to 20 minutes per week in the fifth and sixth grades should be given to a discussion of such civic topics as the department of public service. The elementary teachers and principals of Cleveland might profitably make such a civic survey as that made in Cincinnati as the method of discovering the topics that should 62 .— CIVICS Civic training scarcely finds a place upon the elementary school program. but the time is inadequate and the pupils of these grades are so immature that no final treatment of such comphcated matters is possible. This is the more surallowed prising because Cleveland is a city in which there has been no end of civic discussion and progressive human-welfare effort. mayor and the council. For seventh and eighth grades. street cleaning. the manual makes no reference to civics. the city water supply. as a means of furthering civic welfare. the treasurer. garbage disposal.

Whether the deficiencies here pointed out are serious or not depends in large measure upon the character of the other social subjects. they illumine numbers of our difficult social problems. who take the classical course receive no civics It is not even elective for them. If these are developed in full and concrete ways. Wliether very much of this is actually done at 63 . In the it is required of all for a The course is offered only in the senior year. whatever. tional large It is probable that the larger part of the informaportions of civic training should be imparted through these other social subjects. course in ceive the high schools of Cleveland re- no civic training whatever — ^not is even the available inadequate half-year of work that for a few. enter into a Those who take the scientific or Enghsh courses may technical high schools half-year. take civics as a half-year elective. those plished. the mastudents who enter and complete the it is offered in the third. except in the High School of Com- merce. where result of jority of As a these various circumstances. a little is being accomIn the academic high schools.grammar grade course. such as history and geography. In the high schools. The heavy emphasis upon this subject should be reserved for the later grades of the elementary school.

is much underdeveloped.present as has is doubtful. geography work is still far from adequate at the time this report is written. 64 1 . akeady been noted. and while somewhat further advanced. for the history teaching.

TABLE 9. like all other subjects.GEOGRAPHY Geography amount of in Cleveland is given the customary is time. much more time will be called for in the last two grammar grades. and correspondingly grades. exceptionally heavy in the intermediate grades hght in the grammar As geography. though it distributed over It is the grades in a somewhat unusual way.—TIME GIVEN TO GEOGRAPHY . is more and more humanized and socialized in its reference.

so in geography. and becoming the centers about which geographic thought and experience are gathered. and then questioning them next day to ascertain how much they have remembered and how well. graphical teaching is being recognized in de- veloping the ject. agriculture. As in the reading. and the conditions of nature that limit and shape the development of mankind. and waters round about. is a and that good teachers and 66 . right de- velopment of the course of study must depend in large measure upon the material equipment that is at the same time provided. It has not consisted of stimulating and guiding the children toward of this printed material and inquiring interand the skies above. new course of study in this sub- commerce. modes of living are schools. is But the direc- tion of progress unmistakable and unques- tionably correct. still less in the majority. The best work now being done here is thoroughly modern.pupils a certain number of paragraphs or pages in the textbook as the next lesson. That the latter is the proper end of geointelligent inquisitiveness est as to the world. Unfortunately it is not yet great in amount in even the best of the Industries. It sounds like a legitimate evasion to say that education spiritual process.

it just as modern business has found one-hundred-dollar necessary to install typewriters take the place of the penny quill pens. The proper teaching of geography requires an abundance of reading materials of the type that will permit pupils to enter vividly into the varied experience of all classes of people in all parts of the world. and set aside the tools that were adequate in a simpler age. moving-picture chine.willing. to be efficient. charts. summaries. only a beginning has been made. globes. Maps. diagrams. and a treatment for the sake of perspective. The reading should become 67 . It would be well to drop the term ''supple- This reading should be the basic geographic experience." The textbook then becomes a reference book of maps. stereoscopes. In the supplementary books now furnished the The schools. mentary. schools need 10 times as much geographical reading as that now found in the best equipped school. pictures. develop and employ the elaborate tools needed by new and complex modern conditions. about to all that is required. the fundamental instrument of the teaching. are all for the purpose of developing ideas and imagery of details. models. obedient. so must education. stereopticon. ma- and museum materials. All else is supplementary. and industrious pupils are As a matter of fact.

The development is not yet vigorous. The high school geography departments. have not yet altogether attained the social point of view. stimulation. so great as to The make it necessary for the city to furnish the books. In the high schools the clear tendency introduce is to more less of the industrial and com- mercial geography and to diminish the time given to the valuable physiography. On the one hand. to be supplied with the more advanced kinds of such material equipment as already suggested for the elementary schools. they now need and on the other. many of them could well wait until the reading materials are sufficiently supplied. so far as observed.and remain fundamental and quantity required is central. But they are moving in that direction. While the various other things enumerated are necessary for complete effectiveness. 68 .

—TIME GIVEN TO DRAWING . the subject receives the higher grades. but probably justifiable. however. in quite the reverse way. in a somewhat unusual.DRAWING AND APPLIED ART The elementary schools are giving the usual proportion of time to drawing and applied art. manner. greatest emphasis in TABLE 10. The time is distributed. Whereas the subject usually receives more time in the primary grades than in the grammar its grades. in Cleveland.

developments in the main have been wholesome and in line with best modern progress. It is often applied in artificial schoolroom ways to things without significance. and resourcefulness. The thing specially needed is further expansion of the best. and the extension of this type of 70 work through . These shortcomings indicate incompleteness in the development. The course throughout attempts to develop an understanding and appreciation of the principles of graphic art plus ability to use these principles through practical application in constructive activities of an endlessly varied sort. ingenuity. Occasionally the work appears falsetto and even sentimental. it is not therefore surprising that they sometimes lack skill. insight. the work exhibits balanced under- standing and complete modernness. result is The a not infrequent use of schoolroom exercises that do not greatly aid the pupils as they enter the busy world of practical affairs. Too often the teachers do not realize that the study of drawing and design is for the serious purpose of giving to pupils a language and form of thought of the greatest of practical significance in our present age. General grade teachers cannot be specialists in the multiplicity of things demanded them. its Where the teaching is at best in both the elementary and high schools of Cleveland.

also between both sets of teachers and the general community. 71 ! I I . There should be a larger amount of active co-operation between the teachers of art and design and the teachers of manual training.trained departmental teachers to all parts of the city.

the subject receives considerably less than the usual amount of time.MANUAL TRAINING AND HOUSEHOLD ARTS In the grammar grades manual and household training receives an average proportion of the time. In the grades before the seventh. 11.— TIME TABLE GIVEN TO MANUAL TRAINING .

they need. is The who does not go on to high school greatly in need of more advanced training in sewing than can be given in the sixth grade. that sewing should find some place at least in the girl work of seventh and eighth grades. for properly supervising others and for making intelhgible and appreciative use of the labors of others. It would appear. this it work for girls is at its best in Cleveland. We omit discussion here of the specialized training of vocational women. When we boys. Where acter. As in the technical high schools. a considerable understanding of these various matters. for example. since this is handled in other reports of the Survey. much Women's household occupahome. all of this work should involve as large a degree of normal responsibility as possible. Each building having a household arts room should possess a sewing machine or two. turn to the manual training of the we are confronted with problems of greater difficulty.perform them. so far as retained in the . The academic high schools are now planning to offer courses in domestic science. appears to be of a superior charThose who are in charge of the best are It is not difficult to discern in a position to advise as to further extensions and developments. are un73 tions. at the very least. certain of these.

through contact and experience. Each well-trained household worker does or supervises things as every other. which has become arises. There is no large remnant of unspecialized labor common to all. But man's labor is greatly specialized throughout. nothing of labor to give special- to boys except that ized. some knowledge of the things that make up the world of productive labor? Cleveland's reply. joinery and cabinet-making as 74 . as in the case of women.specialized. A fundamental problem tions Shall we give boys access to a variety of specialized occupaso that they may become acquainted. through responsible performance. But men There the unspecialized field has is disappeared. to judge from actual practices. since in the case of large and important. is that a single sample will be sufficient for all except those who attend technical and In special schools. To all girls we give simply this unspecialized it is remnant. with the wide and diversified field of we give them some less specialized man's labor? Or shall sample out of that diversified field so that they may obtain. The city has therefore chosen this sample. much To the same range of give the entire range is of household occupations to all girls a simple and logical arrangement.

— fifth and sixth grades work begins in simple knife-work for an hour a week under the direc- the tion of women teachers. The household social arts courses for the girls have purposes in view. and are growing increasingly vital in the work of the city. In the seventh and eighth grades it becomes benchwork for an hour and a half per week. and is taught by a special manual training teacher. Much of this work is of a rather formal character. Seventh and eighth grade teachers do not greatly value the work." instead of consciously answering to the demands of social purposes. The regular teachers look upon the fifth and sixth grade sloyd which they teach with no great enthusiasm. to call it —by giving we ought social purpose? The of principal of one of the academic high schools emphasized in conversation the value manual training for vocational guidance 75 . but do not greatly extend the course in width. Is it not possible also to vitaHze the manual training it of the boys unspeciahzed pre-vocational training. As a result they are kept vitalized. apparently looking toward that man- ual disciphne formerly called '^ training of eye and hand. always a man. In the academic high schools the courses in joinery and cabinet-making bring the pupils to greater proficiency.

the manual training work will have to be made more diversified so that one can try out his tastes and abilities in a number of lines. tailoring. moreover. the main thing is that the pupils bear actual responsibility for the doing of actual work. or If vocational guidance is commercial work. responsibility ability to bear then they must try themselves out on the work level.a social purpose. gardening. edly a valid one. he said. 76 . In keeping work normal. And. is The The purpose is undoubtlimitation of the method that joinery and cabinet-making cannot help a boy to try himself out for metal work. This is rather difficult to arrange. to try themselves out and to find their vocational tastes and aptitudes. earUest stages of the training will naturally be upon what is little more than a to provide play It is well for schools to give free rein to the constructive instinct and the fullest and widest possible opportunities for its exercise. printing. but it is necessary before the activities can be lifted above the shop. It permitted boys. each kind of work must be kept as much like responsible work out in the world as possible. level of the usual manual training The level. Let the manual training actually look toward vocational aptitudes for But if boys are work and their in to try out their work. to be a controlling social purpose.

guidance. This diversity of opportunity should continue to the work really level. with the nature of work. and the work vitalized. will be wondrously It is well to mention that the is program sugits its gested a complicated one on the side of difficult theory and a one on the side of 77 . Most of our civic and social problems are at bottom industrial problems. Owing to the interdependence of human affairs. and with the nature of responsibility. On the play level. and processes that it experience. provide the opportunities. therefore. constructive activities should be richly diversified. demands. There is a still more comprehensive social purpose which the city should consider. vitalize the the social purpose involved will work. men need to be broadly informed as to the great world of productive labor. so must we also use actual practical activities as means of making him familiar in a concrete way with materials and processes in their details. means. One cannot know the nature of work or of work responsibility except as it is learned through Let the manual training adopt the social purpose here mentioned. Just as we use industrial history and industrial geography as means a wide vision of the fields of of giving youth man's work.

and that secure. pupils can be given something other than play. Both are already in the schools in some degree. 78 . Printing and gardening are two things that might well be added to the manual training program. They might well be considered as desirable portions of the of all. By the time the city has developed these two things it will have at the same time developed the insight necessary for attacking more difficult problems. Also the in home gardening. a good way to avoid stumbling. manual training They lend themselves rather easily to responsible performance on the work level. There are innumerable things that a school can print for use in its work. In the planning it is well to look to itself it is the whole program.practice. possible to introduce normal work-motives. In so doing. supervised for eduit is cational purposes. In the work to well remember that one is step at a time.

common chemical reactions and a host of other things about science that are bound to come up in the day's work in their various activities. The future citizens of Cleveland need to know something about electricity. There is no laboratory work. heat. expan- — — sion and contraction of gases and solids.ELEMENTARY SCIENCE This subject finds no place upon the program. introduced in the language lessons for is so small as to be almost The topics are not chosen for their bearing upon human needs. the present almost complete neglect of elementary science is indefensible. distillation. Naturally much of the elementary science to 79 . No elaborate argument should be required to convince the authorities in charge of the school system of a modern city like Cleveland that in this ultra-scientific age the children who do not go beyond the elementary school and they constitute a majority need to possess a working knowledge of the rudiments of science if they are to make their lives effective. the mechanics of machines. Considered from the practical standpoint of human needs. The minute amount of such teaching actual now composition purposes neghgible.

To them try to teach the elements only 'inciis dentally" as they are applied in to fail to see fail their relations. applied science should be as full as possible. school Certainly the garden. which must be reached before education is accomplished. for depth and intensity. But preliminary to this there ought to be systematic presentation of the elements of various sciences in rapid ways for overview and perspective. There an introductory stage in the teaching of every such subject when the work should be superThis stage paves the way ficial and extensive. and therefore to Intensive studies in understanding them. The term is '^ superficial " is used advisedly. ductory work But systematic superficial is needed by way of giving pupils their bearings in the various fields of science. 80 .be taught should be introduced in connection with practical situations in kitchen. sanitation. shop. by way of filling in the details may well be in part intro- incidental. etc.

No opportunity is given them for so much as a ghmpse of the world's biological background. who take classical course get their first glimpse of modern science in the third or fourth high school year. any biological science. The 6 ^ 81 . They have no opportunity of contact with. when they have an opportunity to elect a course in physics or chemistry of the usual traditional stamp. and elective physics in the fourth year. Students But nowhere the is there any- thing that even remotely suggests such a course. one naturally expects to find in the high school a good introductory course in general science. '^ Physiology and Botany.HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE Having no elementary science in the grades. Those who take the scientific or English course have access to physical geography and to an anemic biological course entitled." which few take. similar in organization to that suggested for the elementary stage. Students of the High School of Commerce have their first contacts with modern science in a required course in chemistry in the third year. In the technical high schools the first science for the boys is systematic chemistry in the second year and physics in the third.

82 . As to the later organization of the work. most of this work should be included in their courses. since they have so few contacts with the pracpractical labors. A portion of this should be found in the elementary school and taught by departmental science teachers. It is a difficult task to make the science teaching vital and modern for the academic high schools. Cleveland needs to see its schools affairs. ^^ botany and physiology" in their The the city needs to organize preliminary work of in general science for the purpose of paving way to the more intensive science work the later years. the two technical high schools clearly indicate the modern trend of relating the science teaching to What is needed is a wider expansion of this phase of the work without losing sight of the need at the same time for a systematic and general teaching of the sciences. As junior high schools are developed. tical labors of the world.girls first have year. and a portion in the first year of the high school. more as a part of the world of and not so much as a hothouse nursery isolated from the world and its vital interests.

In a letter to the School Board. it appears that in actual practice the subject receives even less time than this. In two cases the time was given over to grammar." is It is difficult to see why health-training not an essential. Superintendent Frederick wrote ''The teaching of physiology and hygiene should become a matter of serious moment in our course of study. in one to arithmetic. February 8.: : PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE Teaching in matters pertaining to health is amount of time in the elementary schools. 83 • My an elective study judgment is that . This represents practice that is not unusual. In the attempt to observe the class work in physiology and hygiene. and in one to music. 1915. and one 30-minute period each week in the four upper grades. At present it is it is not sys- tematically presented in the elementary schools and in the high schools only in the senior year. The subject gets pushed off the program by one of the so-called ''essengiven but a meagre tials. a member of the Survey staff went on one day to four different classrooms at the hour scheduled on the program. While the school program shows one 15-minute period each week in the first four grades.

figures for the 50 cities include elementary science along with the physiology and hygiene. PHYSIOLOGY.it as a required study in the seventh should become a definite part of the program.—TIME GIVEN TO SCIENCE. TABLE 12. and eighth grades/' The small nominal amount of time as compared with the time usually expended is parProfessor Holmes' tially shown in Table 12. HYGIENE Grade .

the the readings and supervise the course to see 85 . 16 physicians and 27 nurses have 75. they alone are in position to follow up the various matters and assimilated through the ideas are being put and at home.schools. For the present certain things done: 1. are the ones this subject. of whom more than half have defects that require following up. all Conscious effort is continually homes by the made by doctors and nurses to inspire to right li\ing all of the children with whom they come in conit tact. however. At present. and in \dsits into the nurses. should be drawTi up and taught by the regular teachers in grammar school grades.000 children to inspect. may well be A course in hygiene and sanitation." Looking somewhat to the future. It is a physical impossibiUty for them to do into practice both at school much is teaching until the force of school nurses greatly increased. This course should be looked upon as merely preliminary to the more substantial portions of education in this The physicians and nurses should select field. can be affirmed that the school physicians and nurses who ought to give the teaching in After giving the prehminary ideas see that in the classrooms. based upon an abundance of reading.

that the materials are covered conscientiously and not 2. The schools should arrange for practical applications of the preparatory knowledge in many ways as possible. In the high schools. training of boys in hy- giene and sanitation is little is developed. 3. and other campaigns. slighted. as the work is departmentalized in the grammar grades. light. The only thing offered them an elective half-year course in physiology in the senior year of the 86 . and after a time they can be given any needed training for teaching that will enable them. Their ''follow-up" work will always give but to prepare for this the classwork must give some systematized preparatory ideas. Children in relays can look after the ventilation. and other sanitary conditions of school-rooms and grounds. and report for credit as . The corps of school nurses should be gradually enlarged. them their chief educational opportunity. humidity. — possibly —practical sanitary and hygienic ac- tivities carried on outside of school. anti-dirt. Only as knowledge is put to work is it assimilated and the prime purpose of education accomplished. to become departmental teachers in this subject for a portion of their time. They can make sanitary surveys of their home district engage in anti-fly. anti-mosquito. temperature. dust.

The things recommended for the elementary actual hygiene schools need to be schools also. in most cases it is physiology and anatomy of a superficial preliminary tj^pe which is not put to use and which therefore mostly fails of normal assimilation. and is elective in all but the "VMiile in is classical course in the others. Physiology is required of girls in the technical schools. carried out in the high 87 . one or two of the high schools there training in and sanitation. In the classical course. and in the technical and commercial schools. they have not even this.scientific and English courses in the academic high schools.

— TIME GIVEN TO PHYSICAL TRAINING . TABLE 13. where a slightly larger amount is set aside for the purpose. pupils are expected to receive one hour per week. Except for first and second grades.PHYSICAL TRAINING The city gives slightly more than the usual amount of time to physical training in the elementary schools.

are being advocated the use of games. Very desirable improvements in the course by the directors and supervisors of the work. and introducing where conditions will permit.city life. The perfunctory. the loss in large degree has to be made good by systematic community effort in estabUshing and they will get maintaining playgrounds 12 months in the year. it has the value of gi\dng a Uttle rehef and rest. They are recommending. w^ork observed was mechanical. This is good. but it is not sufficiently positive to be called physical training. Special teachers and play leaders 89 . The course of study lays out a series of obsolescent Swedish gymnastics for each of the years. the nature of children is not changed. Most of this conditions take away from the school. They still need huge amounts of active physical play for wholesome development. The movements should be promoted by the city in every possible way. At present the regular teachers as a rule have not the neces- sary point of view and do not sufficiently value the work. and lacking in vitahty. folk dances. Sandwiched in between exhausting intellectual drill. but as urban away proper play opportunities. and playrooms The school and for its immediate envuonment is the logical place for this development. athletics. etc.

often apparatus is not supplied. Special commendation must be accorded the home-room of basis of organizing the athletics the technical high schools. With one or two exceptions. In the high schools two periods of physical training per week in academic and commercial schools. large athletic fields. Some of the school grounds are too small. the city has not sufficiently considered the indispensable need of huge amounts of physical play on the part of adolescents as the basis of 90 .need to be employed. Probably no way. are prescribed for the In the last two in all but program years it is omitted from the the High School of Commerce. the surfacing is not always well adapted to play. indoor playrooms are insufficient in number. These various things need to be supplied before the physical training curriculum can be modernized. the little given is mainly indoor gymnastics of a formal sort owing to the general lack of sufficiently first two years of the course. seems that plan anjrvvhere employed comes nearer to reaching the entire student body in a vital it With the exceptions referred to. where it is optional. Material facilities should be extended and improved. tennis courts. and thi^ee or four periods per week in the technical schools. and other necessary facilities. baseball dia- monds. etc.

it The one thing on the altar of can least afford to is sacrifice economy row. There are scores of other expensive things that the city can better afford to neglect. High school students represent the best youth of the com- munity. the vitality of its citizens of tomor- 91 .full and life-long physical vitality. Their efficiency is certainly the great- est single asset of the new generation.

the subject is developed only and given no credit.MUSIC In the elementary schools Cleveland considerably more than the average is giving of amount time to music. except for a one-hour optional course in the High School of incidentally Commerce. TABLE 14.—TIME GIVEN . In the high schools. It is entirely why music should be so important for the grammar school age and then lose all of this importance as soon as the high pertinent to inquire school is reached.

is urged that the subject tary schools. in considering the question it should be kept in there are very many things of more importance and of far more pressing immediate mind that necessity. 93 . field of cannot be finished in the elemenIt Pupils in fact receive only an introductory training in vocal music. It seems the city ought to consider the question of whether the course ought not to be much expanded and continued throughout the high school period as an elective subject. However.high school and should be given the dignity and the consideration of a credit course. The whole instrumental music remains untouched. as it is in many progressive high schools.

'Tor 15 years [now 25 years] past. and other European nationalities. and Italians. German immigration has almost ceased. More The situation is so well presented in the report of the Educational Commission of 1906 that further discussion here is unnecessary. and those later born. Beginning with the present year. ^'It and demand on the part of German and not in any educational or pedagogical necessity. taught in grades beginning with the it has been confined to the four upper grades. aimed to induce the children of Germans where they would learn English and be sooner Americanized.: FOREIGN LANGUAGES German has schools. They summarize their discussion of the teaching of German in the elementary schools as follows ^'Such teaching originated in a nationalistic feeling immigrants. have taken their place numerically. it is taught only in the seventh and eighth recently grades. as the Bohemians. Poles. no longer to attend the public schools. of the second and third generations. ''The children of the earlier German immigrants are already Americanized and use the Enghsh language freely. long been taught in the elementary it Until less than 10 years ago all was first. 94 .

the teaching of admitted that those who begin German in the high school. it would not be needed. to discuss comprehensively so plicated a topic as foreign languages in the 95 . can keep up with and do as good work in the same classes as those who have had eight years of German in the primary and grammar grades and two years in the high schools. in the limited space at our disposal. Hungarian.need to be taught German in the schools beginning at six years of age. first generation. com- It is impossible. "It is Bohemian and first Italian. from six to 13 years of age. ''Hence the Commission reconmiends that German in these grades be discontinued and that the German language be taught only in the high schools. that is. after the second year." The form of argument that once was valid for including German in the elementary course of study may now be valid for Polish. it is Properly a means of preventing the children's drifting from the parental moorings. for the children of the generation of these nationalities. After the done. ''It is demonstrated by experience and by abundant testimony that children neither from German nor from English-speaking families really learn much German in the primary and grammar grades.

Latin is a living language in our country in that it provides half of our vocabulary. while another group as urgently insists that if any foreign languages are taught.high school. If the Latinists would shift their ground to this living Latin and provide means of teaching it fully be even so Anything that agrees based on reason. When Latin study of the character here suggested is devised. right is Each side is absolutely certain that it is and is unalterably of the opinion that there side of the question to no other as much considered. its One group of educators sturdily defends the traditional classical course. there must be much truth on both sides. Pupils who would know English well should have a good knowledge of this living Latin. Under the circumstances the disinterested outsider may well suspect that where there is so much sincerity and conviction. it ought to be opened that the opposing 96 . And undoubtedly this is the case. with its own side is opposed is but ignorant prejudice. anything and sible effectively for modern purposes. schools of it is pos- thought might here find common ground upon which all could stand with some degree of comfort and toleration. with great emphasis on Greek and Latin. they must be the modern ones. These opposing schools of thought are profoundly sincere in their conflicting beliefs.

all will have to wait until the Latinists have pro\4ded the plans and the materials. In the mean time. so as to finish these simple matters that can be done by children and gain time in the later years for the more complicated matters that require mature judgment. The Spanish has but a small hterature.up to the students of it all courses as an elective. and while Germany has excelled in many things. In the new so-called English course in the academic high schools required foreign languages are omitted entirely. it question relates to the placing of these electives. outside of the English is the French. In the third and fourth years German or Spanish is made elective. If the foreign language is studied simply as preparation for the leisure occupation of reading its hterature of —the only value the course the case most who take —why should not French be of in it elective also? By far the largest of the world's literatures. however. 7 97 . all so that could be taken by who wish a full appreciation and understanding of their semi- Latin mother tongue. belles-lettres is not one of them. Such a study ought to be required of the clerical students of the High School of Commerce. Another all. If is one is to study a foreign language at usually thought best to begin earlier than the third year of the high school. This gives rise to several questions.

A large part two things. however. In Cleveland this principle has been recognized in organizing the work of the special schools and classes. usual practice. principals and teachers are nominally permitted wide latitude in its administration. of this is freedom is taken away by city of the One the use by the plan of leaving textbooks to private purchase.DIFFERENTIATION OF COURSES Courses of training based upon human needs where conditions are Uniform courses of study for all schools within a city were justifiable in a former should be diversified diversified. For perfectly obvious reasons. simpler age. a uniform series of textbooks must be definitely prescribed for Uniform textbooks do not the entire city. however. for needs when the have schools were caring only that were common to all classes. In necessarily enforce a uniform curriculum. Under the present administration. For all the regular elementary schools. so long as textbooks are privately purchased. But also as needs differentiated in our large industrial cities. a uni- form course of study has been used. they do enforce it as completely as a prescribed uniform course of 98 . courses of training must become differentiated.

As the schools of different sec- and from the course of study.study manual. Different social classes often exist within the same school. The second condition enforcing a uniform course of study in certain subjects is the use of uniform examinations in those subjects. On the other hand. it will become possible to offer alternative courses in these grades. Those pracBut as the tically certain of going on to higher educational foreign languages work requiring and higher mathematics should probably be permitted to begin these studies by the sixth or seventh grade. We would merely suggest here that it is possible to use supervisory examinations without making them uniform for all schools. and as junior high schools are developed. Administrative limitations prob- ably must prevent the use of more than one course of study in a single elementary school. those who are prac- tically certain to drop out of school at the end or junior high school of the grammar grades 99 . Different types of school may well have different types of examination. work of the grammar grades is departmentalized. they should be allowed greater freedom in tions of the city are allowed to experiment to develop variations choosing the textbooks that will best serve in teaching their courses.

it is not difficult to arrange for the necessary differentiation of courses in the same school. ones a smaller classes so large number than normal. 100 . etc. practical mathematics. applied design. have full opportunities for applied science. vocational studies. effect practically impossible to such desirable differentiations. hygiene.should civics. When the necessary studies are once organized and departmental work introduced. courses of study should provide for children of differing natural ability. Extra materials and opportunities should be provided for children of large capacity. and abbreviated courses for those of less than normal ability. Finally. In departmentalized grammar grades and junior high schools this can be taken care of rather easily by permitting the brighter pupils to carry more studies than normal. and with it is and the backward Under things for the the present elementary school organization with so many teachers to do.

it Through the children should gain life-long applied science. invention. The fundamental is social point of view of is this discussion of the courses of study of the Cleve- land schools activities of 2. In too large measure this time is employed in mastering the mechanics of reading and in the analytical study of the manner in which the words are combined in sentences and the senobject of the tences in paragraphs.SUMMARY 1. travel. industry. the great fields of history. that effective teaching prepar- ation for adult Hfe through participation in the life. this life habits of exploring. As an indispensable means toward this end the books should be supplied by the schools instead of being purchased by the parents. fiction. The schools of Cleveland devote far more time to reading than do those of the average city. through reading. end the work should be made more extensive and less intensive. 3. The main reading should be the mastery of the thought rather than the study of the construction. in other lands. The teaching of spelling should aim to give the pupils complete mastery over those words which they need to use in writing and it and wholesome To 101 . biography.

The work in technical grammar should be continued for the purpose of giving the pupils a foundation acquaintance with forms. terms. They are perfected through the conscious and unconscious imitation of good models rather than through the advanced study of technical to and the like. The dictionary habit should be cultivated. industrial studies. The time devoted to language. civics. Drill on lists of isolated words should give way to practice in spelling correctly every word in everything written. sanitation. geography. The time saved should be given to oral and written expression in connection with the reading of history. but this training need not be so extensive and intensive as at present. and grammatical perspective. accuracy in oral developed through practice rather than through precept. and every written lesson should be a spelling lesson. Facility and and written expression are grammar. tion. recite well done in Cleveland is to enable the pupil to on textbook grammar and to pass examinations in the subject. The chief result of the work as 4. relations. Only as knowledge 102 is put work is it really learned or assimilated.should instil in them the permanent habit of watching their spelling as they write. composiand grammar is about the same as in the average city. .

forms. penditures. tent of courses in mathematics is termined by need of our quantitative human thinking needs. taxation. is penmanship. to practical matters 103 . public improvements. In the addiffer- vanced pupils. A to be defundamental scientific age is more accurate about our vocations. titude of other public and the muland private problems need to think accuproportions. History receives much less attention in this The character city than in the average city. and relationships.Cleveland gives more time to mathematics than does the average city. 6. income. mathematics should be entiated according to the needs of different Algebra should be more closely related and developed in connection with geometry and trigonometry. pose of providing tools to be used in matters beyond. The present course of study is of superior character. The greatest improvement school in the work is to be found in its further carrying over into the other fields of work and classes in applying it in other classes as well as in the arithmetic class. for the pur- involving quantities. ex- civic problems. The con5. rately We and easily in quantities. providing for efficient elementary training and dispensing with most that lie of the things of httle practical use. like the teaching of Arithmetic teaching. insurance.

and progressive human. 7. This reading should be biographical. and It should which we are conbe amply supplemented by a wide range of reading on social welfare topics. where there has been an almost unequalled amount of civic discussion industrial problems with fronted. It should be at every stage on the level with the understanding and degree of maturity of the pupils so that much reading can be covered rapidly. abstract. political." The work ing is too brief. and barren to help the pupils toward an understandof the social. 8. thrilling dramas of human achievement. rich with human interest. anecdotal.welfare little effort. Not much civics teaching should be attempted in the intermediate grades. the teach- ing of civics in the public schools receives too principals It is recommended that the and teachers make such a civic survey as that made in Cincinnati as the method attention. The work as laid out in the 104 . of discovering the topics that should enter into a grammar-grade course. In Cleveland.: of the work is really indicated by the last sentence of the eighth-grade history assignment ^'The text of our book should be thoroughly mastered. but it should be given in the higher grades. economic. A new course of study in geography is now being put into use.

and the conditions of nature that limit and determine in a measure the development of mankind. and how well. Drawing and applied art have been taught The object of the in Cleveland since 1849. teaching is to develop an understanding and appreciation of the principles of graphic art and ability to use these principles in practical applications. 9. it shows. in both the elementary and high schools.old manual and as seen in the classrooms has been forbiddingly formal. and the skies above. and then questioning this them next day how much of printed material they have remembered nizes. Where this work is done best. and the waters round about. What is needed is extension of this best 105 . It has mainly consisted of the teacher assigning to the pupils a certain number of paragraphs or pages in the to ascertain textbook as the next lesson. To attain this ideal will requu-e in every school 10 times as adequate provision of geographical reading and geographical material as is now found in the best equipped school. that the proper end of geographical teaching is rather to stimulate and guide the children toward an inquiring interest as to how the world is made. The new course of study recogon the contrary. balanced understanding and complete modernness.

it is of a superior char- acter and should be extended along now being followed. Elementary science finds no place in the course of study of Cleveland. and 11. Where teaching of household arts lines is at best in Cleveland. distillations. 106 ." A course in hygiene should be and practical applications of the drawn up. the mechanics of machines. its all parts of the city through specially trained departmental teachers.type of work to 10. The schools should help supply this need. the multitude of other matters of science met with daily in their activities. Manual training for boys should be extended and broadened with a view to giving the pupils real contact with more types of industry than those represented by the pres- ent woodwork. The future citizens of Cleveland will need an understanding of electricity. common chemical reactions. heat. Teaching in matters pertaining to health is assigned little time in the elementary schools. work should be arranged through having pupils look after the sanitary conditions of rooms and grounds. The subject gets pushed of the so-called "essen- the program by one tials. and the time that given to something off is assigned to it is frequently else. expansion and contraction of gases and solids. 12.

more pressing immediate necesto 15. At present the work is too largely of the formal gymnastic type. It is a question whether this arrangement is the right one. athletics.The 13. The move- ment should be promoted way. is Physical training given about as much time as in the average city. in every possible more than the average amount In the elementary schools Cleveland gives of time to music. but some of the most important of the questions at issue as matters have been indicated which the school authorities should 107 . where conditions will permit. 14. Desirable improvements in the course are being advocated by the directors and supervisors of the work. it and in considering possible extensions should be remembered that there are other subjects of far sity. folk dances. but in the high schools the subject is developed only incidentally and is given no credit. It is impossible in this brief report discuss adequately so compHcated a matter as that of the teaching of foreign languages in the high schools. school doctors and nurses should help in this teaching and practice. the use of games. They are recommending and introducing. and the like. but without ade- quate facilities for outdoor and indoor plays and games.

There should be progressive differentiation of courses to meet the widely varying steadily needs of the different sorts of children in ent sections of the city. There land. is because in Cleveland is backhas not yet taken on the it is social point of view. differ- 108 . progress should be made and consciously away from city-wide uniformity in courses of study and methods of teaching.continue to study until satisfactory solutions are reached. it being developed on the basis of is human needs. Where it is school work it ward. 17. 16. Where progressive. much of both kinds of work in Cleve- In a city with a population so diversified as is that of Cleveland.

Health Work in the Pubhc Schools Ayres. Railroad and Street Transportation Fleming. Wage Earning and Education (Summary volume) — — — — — — Lutz. Overcrowded Schools and the Platoon Plan Hart- — — — — — — — — well. Measuring the Work of the Pubhc Schools Judd. . Schools and Classes for Exceptional Children chell. Dressmaking and Milhnery Bryner. New York City. The School and the Immigrant. The Metal Trades— Lutz. They will be sent postpaid for 25 cents per volume with the exception of "Measuring the Work of the PubHc Schools" by Judd. The Garment Trades Bryner. Financing the Public Schools Clark. Department Store Occupations O'Leary. The Building Trades—Shaw. — —Mit- School Organization and Administration —Ayres.— CLEVELAND EDUCATION SURVEY SECTIONAL REPORTS These reports can be secured from the Survey Committee of the Cleveland Foundation. Ohio. and " Wage EarnThese three volumes will be ing and Education" by Lutz. The Teaching Staff Jessup. The Printing Trades Shaw. What the Schools Teach and Might Teach—Bobbitt. The Pubhc Library and the Pubhc Schools. Household Arts and School Lunches Boughton. sent for 50 cents each. Cleveland. Educational Extension Perry. The Cleveland School Survey (Summary volume) — Ayres. _____ Boys and Girls in Commercial Work Stevens. All of these reports may be secured at the same rates from the Division of Education of the Russell Sage Foimdation. Child Accounting in the Pubhc Schools ^Ayres. School Buildings and Equipment ^Ayres. Education through Recreation Johnson. "The Cleveland School Survey " by Ayres.

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