Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY AREA The study area is situated 105km southwest of Islamabad in Chakwal District. It is a small village covering an area 2550sq.km and its coordinates are Latitude 33°2'51"N, Longitude 72°51'16"E. It is 4km from the center of Chakwal City as shown in figure-1. The Minwal Oilfield lies in geologically situated in the south-southeast of the Salt Range-Potwar foreland basin.

Figure-1.1:- Map showing Location of the study area (Mehmood, 2008).

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1.2

DATA OBTAINED FOR STUDY The well data to be used is Minwal X-1 whereas the Seismic lines that

were used in the study are mentioned below (Figure-2) and been used with the permission of Directorate general petroleum concession. 1. LINE: 93-MN-8 (Dip Line) 2. LINE: 93-MN-7 (Dip Line) 3. LINE: 782-CW-29 (Strike Line)

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Figure-1.2:- Shot point Base Map of the study area.

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Figure-1.3:- Satellite imagery showing shot point base map and block boundary of the study area.

1.3

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The purpose of this dissertation is to understand the various steps

involved in seismic reflection interpretation. This study is carried out to generate reasonable model and structure of the subsurface of Minwal D & P lease area and to understand and enhance our knowledge on different seismic interpretation techniques involved in 2-D seismic interpretation. Data gathering on tectonics, description of structure, stratigraphy, and exploration history is an integral part of this project.

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Chapter 2 GENERAL GEOLOGY AND TECTONICS OF UPPER INDUS BASIN
2.1 REGIONAL TECTONIC SETTING The building of Himalayan mountain process in Eocene triggered compressional system. Northward movement of Indian plate is about 40 mm/year (1.6 inches/yr) and is colliding with Eurasian plate. 55 million years ago Indian plate collided with the Eurasian plate and building of Himalayan mountain belt 30-40 million years was formed in the North Western Pakistan and mountain ranges moved in the east west direction (Kazmi and Jan, 1997). Being one of the most active collision zones in the world foreland thrusting is taking place on continental scale. It has created variety of active folds and thrust wedges with in Pakistan passing from Kashmir fold and thrust belt in North East, South West through the Salt range-Potwar plateau fold belt, the Suleiman fold belt and the Makran accretionary wedge of Pakistan. As far as the Indian plate is concerned which is subducting under the Eurasian plate at its Northern edge, a sequence of north dipping south thrusts are being produced. The shortening of crust caused a large amount of folds and thrust belt. The youngest basins in the Western Himalayan Foreland Thrust Belt are Kohat Plateau, Bannu Basin and Potwar Plateau which have compressive stresses and convergent tectonics. Pakistan is located at in the two domains Gondwanian and the Tethyan Domains (Kazmi & Jan, 1997). The south eastern part of Pakistan belongs to Gondwanian Domain and is supported by the Indo-Pakistan crustal plate whereas the northern-most and western areas of Pakistan fall in Tethyan. Tectonically Pakistan is divided into (Qadri, 1995). 1. Northern Collision Belt.
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2. Subduction Complex Association of Balochistan. 3. Chaman Transform Zone. 4. Ophiolites and Ophiolitic Melanges. 5. Platform Areas. The Potwar Plateau is comprises of less internally deformed fold and thrust belt having a width of approximately 150 km in N−S direction. The terrain in Potwar is undulated. Sakesar is the highest mountain of this region (1522 m). The Potwar is tectonically situated directly below the western foothills of Himalayas and falls in Potwar Plateau. In north it extends about 130 km from the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and is bounded in the east by Jhelum strike-slip fault, in the west by Kalabagh strike-slip fault and in the south by the Salt Range Thrust (Aamir and Siddiqui, 2006) see figure-2.1.

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Figure-2.1:- Tectonic map of Northwest of Himalayas of Pakistan showing main tectonic divisions (modified from Shami and Baig, 2002)

2.2

GEOLOGICAL BOUNDARY OF THE POTWAR PLATEAU The Potwar is bounded by the following two strike-slip and two thrust

fault which are. 1. Kalabagh Fault. 2. Jhleum Fault.
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3. Salt Range Thrust. 4. Main Boundary Thrust. 1. KALABAGH FAULT It is right lateral strike-slip fault and its direction is from north to west 150 km which can be seen as faulted block. It lies in the north of the Kalabagh City, Mianwali and is the Trans-Indus extention of Western Salt Range (McDougal & Khan, 1990). 2. JHELUM FAULT Extending from Kohala to Azad Pattan the Murree is hanging while Kamlial, Chingi and Nagri formations are footwall. Starting from the IndusKohistan to Ravi it is the active aspect of the Indian Shield. It is seen also in the map that MBT, Panjal Thrust and HFT cut shortened by left-lateral reverse Jhelum Fault in west (Baig, Lawrence, 1987). 3. SALT RANGE THRUST It is also known as Himalayan Frontal Thrust. Salt range and TransIndus Himalayan ranges are the foothills. 4. MAIN BOUNDARY THRUST The MBT which lies in the north of the Islamabad is called as Murree fault. The western part of this fault is orienting to north east forming nonstriking fault in its western part i.e. Hazara Kashmir-Syntexis (Latif, 1970; Yeats and Lawrence, 1984: Greco, 1991) also this fault strike the in the direction of east moving in the direction of Southern side of Kalachitta Range and North of Kohat plateau (Meissner et at, 1974). In Potwar the structure trend is east to west or northeast to southwest and mostly large surface anticlines are bounded by the thrust or reverse faults. The structure of Potwar basin is affected by compressional forces, basement slope, and variable thickness of Pre-Cambrian salt over the
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basement, and deposition of very thick molasse and tectonic events. In Potwar basin some surface features mismatch subsurface structures due to decollements at different levels. In such circumstances, it is necessary to integrate seismic data with surface geological information for precise delineation of sub-surface configuration of various structures (Moghal et al, 2007). Tectonic of the Potwar Plateau is controlled mainly by the following factors: 1. Slope of the basement (steeper in western Potwar Plateau). 2. Thickness of the Eocambrian evaporates beneath the cover. 3. Reactivation of basement brittle tectonics (more enhanced in the eastern Potwar Plateau). In Potwar, the Eocambrian evaporite sequence is overlain by Cambrian rocks of Jhelum Group which comprises Khewra Sandstone, Kussak, Jutana, and Bhaganwala formations. From middle Cambrian to Early Permian the Jhelum group consist of limited deposition or erosion and the strata from these periods are missing in Potwar sub-basin. The continental depositional environmental of Nilawahan group of early Permian is bounded to the eastern part of Potwar/Salt Range. The late Permian Zaluch group extends over western and northern/central part of Potwar/Salt Range. Mianwali and Tredian formation of Triassic age deposited in deep to shallow marine environment and Kingriali formation consists of shallow water dolomite. The Jurassic formations include Datta Sandstone, Shinawari (limestone and shale sequence) and the Samana Suk (Limestone) formations (Moghal et al, 2007). The Kohat basin comprises of salt in sufficient enough to form the allocation within the sedimentary basin gliding far in southward direction and has suffered relatively less northward movement. It is heterogeneous in style of tectonic intensity, direction and extension. An evidence for this ongoing deformation and uplifting is shown by the meandering course of the Soan River which straightens near the younger structure of Khur and Dhulian. The present tectonic framework and the position of the Potwar Plateau have
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resulted from the northward under-thrusting by the Indian plate under its own sedimentary cover (Khan, 1986). Salt horizon of Eocene in Kohat area is separated due to structural difference. Data being gathered through (Butler and others, 1987; Leathers, 1987; Baker and others, 1988; Jaumé and Lillie, 1988; Pennock, 1988; Pennock and others, 1989; Raza and others, 1989; Hylland, 1990; Jaswal, 1990; McDougall and Husain, 1991) seismic profiles, well logs, Bouguer gravity anomaly, and surface geology to construct regional structural cross sections map that detail the thrust-related tectonics of the area. The Salt in the basement has created different structural pattern in Potwar and the cross-sectional figure 2.2.

Figure-2.2:- Generalized cross section showing structure through the Potwar Plateau (modified from Malik et al., 1988).

According to the interpretaion of seismic in structures in Potwar region may be divided into. 1. Pop-up anticlines 2. Sanke head anticlines 3. Salt cored anticlines
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4. Triangle zone Minwal X-1 lies in near Joya Mir. This region is active area for oil and gas exploration and production. This Well is drilled by POL drill on the Joya Mair in North Eastern limits of the structure. The location of the well was at SP 232 on Seismic Line No: 93-MN-08. The Eocene Bhadrar and Sakesar formations were the primary objective. The well is located in the high fractures which could contribute in an excellent well productivity. Structurally it is a broad anticline with its axis running SW-NE direction. The limbs of the anticline are in the SW. The Northern limb showing dips which are steeper as compared to the Southern limb, which are slightly gentler. The dips of the Northern limb are in between 50° - 60° while that of Southern limb shows 55° - 75°dips. On the NE side, the anticline is separated by Chak Naurang-Wari fault which is a major fault in the area. 2.3 TECTONIC STRUCTURES Tectonic features in Potwar are divided from South to North into three major tectonic elements (1) the Jhelum Plain, (2) the Salt Range and (3) the Potwar Plateau (Yeats and Lawrence, 1984). In Potwar large wedge of Phanerozoic rocks are thrusted over the Punjab plains along basal decollement in the Eocambrian evaporite sequence of the Salt Range Formation. Basement in Sargodha is gently dipping northwards which does not cause structural deformation. South of the Soan River is nearly undeformed but is deformed on its northern and eastern margins. The potwar is divided into the following structural zones see figure-2.3. 1. Northern Potwar Deformed Zone (NPDZ). 2. Soan Syncline. 3. Eastern Potwar Plateau. 4. Southern Potwar Plateau. 5. Western Potwar Plateau.

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Figure-2.3:- Geology and new trends for petroleum exploration in Pakistan (modified from Kamal, 1991)

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2.4

SOUTHERN POTWAR PLATEAU The study area lies in the southern part of the Potwar Plateau which is

characterized by northward-dipping strata and local open folds of low structural relief and axes that is generally parallel to the trend of the Salt Range. Minwal triangular zone is segmented and lies in the southern potwar plateau and is divided along left lateral Vairo and Dhab Kalan faults. The hanging wall anticline is represented by the triangular zone orienting from southeast to northwest flanks. The triangle zone is the result of two phases of Himalayan thrusting (Shami and Baig, 2002). 1. The thrust and back-thrust phases are the result of northwest southeast successive Himalayan compression. 2. The thrusts initiated as southeast and northwest vergent fault propagated folds. The fault propagated folds were later on displaced by these thrusts. Finally these opposite directed thrusts formed the triangle zone geometry. The drag along the thrust and back-thrust formed the hanging wall anticlines. The hanging wall anticline along the southeastern flank of the triangle zone has been drilled for oil and gas whereas the hanging wall anticline along northwestern flank of the triangle zone is untapped. The structure geometry, source and cap rock of the northwestern flank indicates that there is potential for hydrocarbon exploration (Shami and Baig, 2002).

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Chapter 3 STRATIGRAPHY OF THE AREA
The stratigraphic column is divided into three unconformity-bounded sequences. These unconformities in the study area are Ordovician to Carboniferous, Mesozoic to Late Permian, and Oligocene in age (Figure-3.1) . These unconformities are difficult to identify in the seismic profiles due to complicated thrusting. The Potwar sub-basin is filled with thick infraCambrian evaporite deposits overlain by relatively thin Cambrian to Eocene age platform deposits followed by thick Miocene-Pliocene molasse deposits. This whole section has been severely deformed by intense tectonic activity during the Himalayan orogeny in Pliocene to middle Pleistocene time. The oldest formation penetrated in this area is the Infra- Cambrian Salt Range Formation, which is dominantly composed of halite with subordinate marl, dolomite, and shales (Muhammad Aamir and Muhammad Maas Siddiqui, 2006). The Salt Range Formation is best developed in the Eastern Salt Range. The salt lies unconformably on the Precambrian basement. The overlying platform sequence consists of Cambrian to Eocene shallow water sediments with major unconformities at the base of Permian and Paleocene. The Potwar basin was raised during Ordovician to Carboniferous; therefore no sediments of this time interval were deposited in the basin. The second sudden alteration to the sedimentary system is represented by the complete lack of the Mesozoic sedimentary sequence, including late Permian to Cretaceous, throughout the eastern Potwar area. In Mesozoic time the depocenter was located in central Potwar, where a thick Mesozoic sedimentary section is present. A major unconformity is also found between the platform sequence and overlying molasse section where the entire Oligocene sedimentary record is missing. The molasse deposits include the Murree, Kamlial, Chinji,
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Nagri, and Dhok Pathan Formations (Muhammad Aamir and Muhammad Maas Siddiqui, 2006). Rock units ranging in age from Infra-Cambrian to Cambrian are exposed in the Potwar Province of the Indus basin where the Salt Range Formation with salt, marl salt seams and dolomite is the oldest recognized unit through surface and subsurface geological information and forms the basement for the fossiliferous Cambrian sequence (Shah, 1977). Since the complete section of Salt Range Formation has not been observed in any of the wells of Potwar sub-basin and the formation is not completely exposed along the Salt Range, it was therefore, assumed in the past that the Salt Range Formation is the oldest rock unit overlying the PreCambrian basement. However, the wells drilled up to the basement on Punjab Platfom, Pakistan and Bikaner-Nagaur basin of India situated south of Potwar reveal that the Salt Range Formation is underlain by Infra-Cambrian sediments of Bilara Formation followed by Jodhpur Formation. Extent of these two formations toward north and examination of seismic data indicate that the mentioned formations may also be present in the eastern Potwar region.

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Figure-3.1:- Schematic stratigraphic column of the study area. (S. Grelaud et al, 2002)

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3.1

LITHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF FORMATIONS Following are the lithological description of the section drilled at

Balkassar Oxy#1 which was drilled down to a depth of 3131 meter into Salt Range Formation of Infra Cambrian age. The Formation tops were initially picked at the well site, which were further refined and confirmed by the electric logs. A brief, generalized description of the formations drilled in Balkassar Oxy #1 is given below. 3.1.1 INFRA-CAMBRIAN THE SALT RANGE FORMATION The oldest formation of the cover sequence known to lie at top of the basement is the Eocambrian Salt Range Formation. The Formation is exposed along the outer edge of the Salt Range from Kalabagh in the west to the Eastern Salt Range. The age assigned to the Salt Range Formation is Infra Cambrian. In the Punjab Plains the Salt Range Formation extends to at least 29° N-Latitude, south of the Sargodha High, as confirmed by its thin occurrence in some exploratory wells. More likely evaporates were deposited in smaller intra-cratonic basins. The Salt Range Formation exhibits varied lithology, dominantly composed of reddish brown to maroon gypseous marl interbedded with thin layers of gypsum, dolomite, clay, salt marl and thick seams of rock salt. Thin intercalations of kerogen shale or oil shale have been found in the Salt Range Formation. A trachy basalt trap, called the Khewra Trap or Khewrite is present in some localities, consisting of decomposed radiating needles of a light colored mineral, probably pyroxene. Stratigraphic division of Salt Range Formation in Khewra Gorge is as follows: SAHWAL MARL MEMBER

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It is composed of two units, dull red marl beds with some salt seams and 10 meters thick gypsum bed on top (more than 40 meters) and bright red marl beds with irregular gypsum, dolomite beds and the “Khewrite Trap” (3-100 meters). BANDAR KAS GYPSUM MEMBER Massive gypsum with minor beds of dolomite and clay (more than 80 meters). BILLANWALA SALT MEMBER It is composed of ferrigenous red marl, with thick seams of salt (more than 650 meters). One of the most important features of the Salt Range Formation is its behavior as a zone of a decollement between underlying rigid basement and overlying platform sequence. 3.1.2 CAMBRIAN KHEWRA FORMATION The Khewra Formation overlies the Late Proterozoic Salt Range Formation without any apparent disconformity (Shah, 1977). Type locality is the Khewra Gorge in the Eastern Salt Range. The Khewra Formation is widely exposed in the Salt Range. The Khewra Formation consists mainly of reddish brown to purple, thick-bedded to massive sandstone with few brown shale interclations. The sandstone is characteristically cross-bedded, has abundant ripple marks and mud cracks, and, in places, exhibits convolute bedding. Thickness of the Khewra Formation is 150m at the type locality in the Eastern Salt Range. Apart from rare trace fossils, the formation is devoid of fossils. Because of its position between the late Proterozoic Salt Range Formation and the fossiliferous early Cambrian Kussak Formation, the Khewra Formation is thought to represent the basal part of the Lower Cambrian. 3.1.3 PERMIAN
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TOBRA FORMATION The Tobra Formation rests unconformably upon different Cambrian Formations and the Salt Range Formation respectively (Shah, 1977). Type locality is the village of Tobra, north of Khewra, in the Eastern Salt Range. The Formation is exposed throughout the Salt Range. It was also encountered by the wells in the Kohat-Potwar area. In the Eastern Salt Range, the Tobra Formation consists mainly of polymict conglomerates with pebbles and boulders of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The thickness of the formation is 20m at the type locality. Its age is early Permian. DANDOT FORMATION The Tobra Formation is overlain conformably by the Dandot Formation (Shah, 1977). Type locality is the village of Dandot, northeast of Khewra, in the Eastern Salt Range. The formation is well represented in the Eastern and Central Salt Range. The formation mainly consists of dark greenish-grey, splintery shale and siltstone with intercalated sandstone, whereas in the Salt Range greenish grey to black, carbonaceous shales with sand flasers alternate with cross-bedded sandstones. The formation consists of rich fauna as well as spores. On the basis of its faunal content and its gradational contact with the underlying Tobra Formation, the Dandot Formation has been dated as Early Permian (Teichert, 1967). WARCHHA FORMATION The Warchha Formation rests conformably upon the Dandot Formation. Type locality is the Warchha Nala in west-Central Salt Range. The Warchha Formation is widely exposed in the Salt Range. The formation is generally thick-bedded to massive, reddish-brown, cross-bedded, medium to coarsegrained and arkosic. Intercalated purple to dark grey shale layers reach a thickness of several meters each. The Warchha Formation is unfossiliferous. It is considered Early Permian because of its position between the
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fossiliferous Early Permian Dandot and Sardhai Formations. The thickness of the Warchha Formation reaches 150m to 165m in the Salt Range (Kadri, 1995). SARDHAI FORMATION The Warchha Formation has a transitional contact with the overlying Sardhai Formation (Shah, 1977). Type locality is the Sardhai Nala in the Eastern Salt Range. The formation has an areal distribution similar to the Warchha Formation. The prevailing lithology in the Eastern and Central Salt Range is bluish-grey, purple or reddish claystone. Plant remains and fish scales have occasionally been found. The fossils indicate the early Permian age. The paleo-environment is interpreted as mainly terrestrial, partly lagoonal, with marine incursions, which become more frequent towards the west. The thickness of the Sardhai Formation is 40m at the type section. 3.1.4 PALEOCENE HANGU FORMATION The Hangu Formation unconformably overlies various formations of Paleozoic to Mesozoic age (Davies, 1930 & Fatmi, 1973). The type locality is south of Fort Lockhart in the Samana Range. It consists largely of grey to brown, fine to coarse-grained, silty and ferruginous sandstone which grades upward into fossiliferous shale and calcareous sandstone. At places, the formation is intercalated with grey argillaceous limestone and carbonaceous shale. In the Makarwal and Hangu areas, it contains coal beds in the lower part. Its thickness ranges from about 15m in Hazara to 150m at Kohat Pass. The Hangu Formation is early Paleocene in age. LOCKHART FORMATION The Lockhart Limestone conformably overlies the Hangu Formation (Davies, 1930 and Fatmi, 1973). Its type section is exposed near Fort Lockhart. It consists of grey, medium to thick-bedded and massive
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limestone, which is rubbly and brecciated at places. Its thickness ranges from about 30m to 240m. It contains foraminifera, molluscs, echinoids and algae (Cox, 1931; Davies & Pinfold, 1937; Eames, 1952 and Latif, 1970). The age of the Lockhart Formation is Paleocene. PATALA FORMATION The Patala Formation overlies the Lockhart Formation conformably and its type section is in the Patala Nala in the Western Salt Range (Davies and Pinfold, 1937). It consists largely of shale with sub-ordinate marl, limestone and sandstone. Marcasite nodules are found in the shale. The sandstone is in the upper part. The formation also contains coal, and its thickness ranges from 27m to over 200m (Warwick, 1990). It contains abundant foraminifera, molluscs and ostracods (Davies & Pinfold, 1937, Eames, 1952, and Latif, 1970). The age of the Patala Formation is Late Paleocene. 3.1.5 EOCENE SAKESAR FORMATION With increase in limestone beds, the Nammal Formation transitionally passes into the overlying Sakesar Formation, the type locality of which is the Sakesar Peak (Gee, 1935 and Fatmi, 1973). It consists of grey, nodular to massive limestone, which is cherty in the upper part. Near Daudkhel, the Sakesar Formation laterally grades into massive gypsum. Its thickness ranges from 70m to about 450m. Its age is early Eocene. CHORGALI FORMATION The Chorgali Formation rests conformably over the Sakesar Formation (type locality Chorgali Pass) (Pascoe, 1920 and Fatmi, 1973). It consists largely, in the lower part, of thin-bedded grey, partly dolomitized and argillaceous limestone with bituminous odour, and in the upper part, of greenish, soft calcareous shale with interbeds of limestone. Its thickness ranges from 30m to 140m. It contains molluscs, ostracods and foraminifera .
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The age of the Chorgali Formation is Early Eocene. It is overlain unconformably by the Neogene sequence. Namal Formation It comprises grey to olive green shale, light grey to bluish grey marl and argillaceous limestone. In Salt Range, these rocks occur as alternations. In Surghar Range, the lower part composed of bluish grey marl with interbedded calcareous shale and minor limestone while upper part consists of bluish grey to dark grey limestone with intercalation of marl and shale. Its type locality is Nammal Gorge Salt Range, Punjab and thickness of this formation is 100m at type locality. Its age is early Eocene. 3.1.6 MIOCENE Murree Formation The type section of Murree Formation is in north of Dhol Maiki. Murree Formation is composed of thick monotonous sequence of red and purple clay and inter-bedded greenish sandstone with sub-ordinate intra-formational conglomerate (Wynne, 1873). The thickness of the formation increases from 180m to 600m in the Salt Range to 3,030m in the northern Potwar area. It is poorly fossiliferous though plant remains and some vertebrate bones have been found. This fauna indicates early Miocene age of the Murree Formation. KAMLIAL FORMATION The type section of Kamlial Formation is in the southwest of Kamlial, the formation overlies the Murree Formation conformably and transitionally; though at some localities it lies unconformably on the Eocene Sakesar Formation (Pinfold, 1918, Lewis, 1937, Fatmi, 1973 and Cheema et al., 1977). The formation consists mainly of grey to brick red, medium to coarsegrained sandstone interbedded with purple shale and intraformational conglomerate. A number of mammalian fossils have been found (Pascoe, 1963). The age of the Kamlial Formation is middle to late Miocene.
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3.1.6 PLIOCENE SIWALIK GROUP 1. Chingi formation The type locality of Chingi formation is South of Chinji, Campbellpur, Punjab. And its lithology comprises of Clay, sandstone with minor siltstone. According to Shami and Baig thickness of this formation is 750m at type locality. The age of Chingi formation is Late Miocene to early Pliocene. 2. NAGRI FORMATION Nagri village, Campbellpur District, Punjab is the type section of the nagri formation. Its lithology comprises of salt, conglomerate, clay. Thickness of this formation ranges from 200m-3000m. Its age is early Pliocene. 3. DHOK PATHAN FORMATION Its Type locality is Dhok village Campbellpur District, Punjab is the type section of this formation of this formation. Lithology comprises of sandstone, clay and conglomerate. Its thickness at type section ranges from 1330m2000m and its age is Middle Pliocene. 4. SOAN FORMATION Its type locality is Gaji Jagir, Sahil Road near Mujahid village north.of Soan River, Campbellpur District, Punjab and Lithology comprises of Conglomerate, siltstone and thickness of this formation ranges from 300m3000m. The age of this formation is late Pliocene.

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Chapter 4 PETROLEUM GEOLOGY OF AREA
The geological history of this basin begins from Precambrian age. East of Potwar Plateau is salt-cored which anticlines are separated by the wide synclines. Tanwin-Bains-Buttar and Joya Mair-Chak Naurang-AdhiGungrillaKallar are such main trends. The cores of these salt anticlines are thrusted and originated due to the compression of Himalayan orogeny in Miocene-Pliocene age. The oil and gas in the area has been produced from the fractured carbonates of Paleocene and Eocene age but Mesozoic sandstones and Paleozoic carbonates and sandstones has produced additional oil (Ahmed, 1995) in the area.

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Oil and gas exploration in Eastern Potwar area mainly in south of Soan Syncline are enlongated synclines which are trending from NE-SW have steep dipping flanks because of the salt pop-up. The thrusts, fault propagation folds and triangle and pop-up zones which are double edged and are believed to be formed by the strike- slip movement along the decollment surface. The Western Potwar lacks the evaporite sequence as compare to the Eastern Potwar and Central Potwar (Moghal et al, 2007). The Salt Range Fore Land Basin falls under the class of extra continental down wrap basin. It has plenty of tectonic structures and hosts continental margin, thick marine sedimentary sequence, source and reservoir and cap rocks (Riva, 1983). The optimization temperature and the thick overburden of 3047m of molasse provides burial depth (Pressure) for the achieving the oil formation. Because of this in Salt Range Potwar Foreland Basin is producing oil from the depth of 2750-5200 m. This resulted in the formation of source, reservoir and seal in the areas of Minwal, Joyamir, Toot, Meyal and Dhulian Oil fields (Kozary, 1968). Approximately 135,000 barrels of oil is being generated from the Karsal field of Central Potwar. Seismic data of 2002 by PPL did not revealed any structural closure which indicates that producing wells are on a monocline/flexure nose and permeability from the local field in surrounding areas of faults. Basins are faulted and anticlinal in nature and contain salt in its core which are sometimes are asymmetric to overturned. The hydrocarbon in most of the areas of Potwar may be attributed to the structural styles. The structural style framework is the result of the intensive structure formation in eastern part which contains network divides and altered geological sections and collaborate other data forms. In Potwar subbasin the structural development is due to the faults and decollement levels. In the Potwar sub-basin, there are local decollement levels recognizable besides two main at the interfaces of Eocene-molasse sequence and platform-evaporite sequence (Salt Range Formation). Based on the structural styles Potwar sub-basin is divided into various zones. Structures have been
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in different orientation and styles and have been observed through interpretation of maps. The table-4.1 shows the oil and gas fields in Upper Indus Basin. Figure-4.1 shows the structural evolution of the triangular zone in the area.
Age Formations Lithology Oil & Gas Field Producti on

Dhurnal Eocene/Paleo cene Lockhart Sakesar Chorgali Limestone Dakhni Balkassar ChalkNaurang Jurassic Datta Samana Suk Permian Nilawahan Zaulch Group Cambrian Khewra Sandstone Sandstone & Limestone Conglomerate & Limestone Sandstone Minwal Dhulian, Toot Meyal Adhi Dhurnal Adhi Missa Keswal
Table-1:- Hydrocarbon significance of different rock units in the study area (modified after Kadri, 1995)

Oil

Oil

Oil Gas

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Figure-4.1:- Subsurface geometry of area in relation to structure and entrapment of oil and gas (modified from Moghal, 2003).

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4.1

RESERVOIR The main oil producing reserviors in Minwal are the Cambrian,

Permian, Jurassic, Paleocene and Eocene. Primary Porosity is lower in these reservoirs as compare to the secondary porosity. The main oil producing reservoirs in Minwal area are fractured carbonates which are of Sakesar and Chorgali Formations. The massive light yellow gray and partly dolomitized of Sakesar limestone contain chert. The Chorgali Formation is creamy yellow to yellow gray, silty, partly dolomitic and thin bedded limestone. It was deposited in intratidal conditions where sebkha conditions dominated (Shami and Baig, 2002). The calcite cement has occupied the pore spaces and compaction and its cementation helped it to destroy its porosity also primary porosity than <1% in the Chorgali and Sakesar Limestone during the core analysis in the Meyal, Dhulian and Minwal oilfields have been observed due to dolomitization. Some samples have also showed that primary porosity has completely destroyed due to the over burden pressure of the rock especially compaction and cementation and the logs like Bore Hole Compensate-Gama Ray, Compensate Neutron Log-Lithodensity Logging has not indicated the primary porosity and permeability. In the North Western Potwar the fractured porosity is comparatively very high because these rocks have deformed into the process of Himalayan orogeny. The rock fractures develop parallel, oblique and perpendicular to the fold axes of anticlines (Shami and Baig, 2002). 4.2 SOURCE ROCK The potential source rock in Minwal is the grey shales of Mianwali formation, Datta formation and Patala formation. The Eocambrian Salt Range Formation contains oil shales with 27%-36% TOC in isolated pocket of shales are the source rock in the Salt Range Potwar Foreland Basin (Shami and Baig, 2002). In Potwar, the TOC 1.57 and hydrogen Index of 2.68 in shales have been observed (Porth and Raza, 1990). Patala formation is the key source
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rock of oil production in Potwar sub-basin according to the oil to source correlation.

4.3

CAP ROCK The thin-skinned tectonics has developed the traps creating the

faulted anticlines, pop-up and positive flower structures above Pre-Cambrian salt. The lateral and vertical seal to Eocene reservoir is provided by the Murree Formation’s clays and shales (Shami and Baig, 2002).

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Chapter 5 2D SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING
5.1 SEISMIC DATA ACQUISITION Geophysics is technique used to probe the internal structure of the earth (shallow and deep) and also to understand the extent of the different formation on map and to conclude the internal physical properties. By analyzing the geophysical data it is observed that how physical properties of the earth can vary vertically and horizontally. Different scales are being investigated for entire surface of the earth (global geophysics; e.g. Kearey & Vine, 1996) and for engineering purpose (Vogelsang, 1995 & McCann et al, 1997). The seismic data acquisition can be done with two methods. 1. Reflection Seismic acquisition. 2. Refraction Seismic acquisition. In our dissertation reflection seismic survey has been used. In reflection seismic survey elastic waves between different geological layers in the subsurface is used to produce the geological model of the subsurface for hydrocarbon exploration. This method provides us the picture of the subsurface. For 2D seismic survey the source and the receiver are placed inline. The reliable interpretation of and processing of the 2D seismic data depends upon its field parameters. The poor parameter and design of the survey can generate distort the subsurface picture in the seismic section. 5.2 SEISMIC SOURCE

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The seismic source releases energy with in the localized region causes stress in a surrounding medium. The example of seismic source is an explosion. The main criteria of seismic sources are. 1. The seismic energy must be satisfactory provide sufficient energy enough to be recordable. 2. Seismic energy is recorded in the form of wave energy either P-wave or Swave. Other unwanted energy signals would create distortion in the recorded data and this is called as coherent noise. 3. Seismic energy which is converted into waveform must repeat itself. 4. The seismic energy source must be non-hazardous/safe which is safe and efficient and must be environmental protected (Philip Kearey et al, 2002). The land seismic sources falls under two categories which are mentioned below. 1. Explosive. 2. Non-explosive. 5.2.1 EXPLOSIVE SOURCE DYNAMITE In seismic line no. 782-CW-29, dynamite has been used as a source for acquisition and it is blasted in shallow shots and it meant for improving the coupling of the energy source and to minimize surface damage. It provides the higher resolution of a data. Because they are drilled in short holes they are slow to use on land. In modern processing, repeated precise source signature is required which is the major drawback of dynamite (Philip Kearey et al, 2002). SOURCETYPE PATTERN NUMBER/ POINT SHORT INTERVAL
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Dynamite Array SHORT POINT 9 656

MEASURED SYSTEM

ft

Table-5.1:- Source Parameter for line NO. 782-CW-29

5.2.2 NON-EXPLOSIVE SOURCE VIBROSEIS In seismic line no. 93-MN-07 and 93-MN-08, vibroseis has been used as a source for acquisition. It provides a precision and repeated signal. A vibrator is loaded in a truck which passes the vibration into the ground through its pads. This causes vibration in the ground which is called sweeps (Philip Kearey et al, 2002). Vibrator in vibroseis requires a firm ground or base to operate causes no damage to the town or significant disturbance to the environment. One the major disadvantages of the vibroseis accounts that costs a half a million US dollar (Philip Kearey et al, 2002). The source parameter used for the seismic lines are mentioned in table 1 and 2. ENERGY SOURCE SWEEP FREQUENCY SWEEP LENGTH GROUP INTERVAL Vibroseies 9-72HZ 14sec 40M

Table-5.2:- Source parameter used for the seismic lines 93-MN-08 and 93-MN-07

5.3

RECEIVERS The geophones or seismogram are the receivers in seismic data

acquisition which converts the ground signal into electrical signal caused by the shooting of the seismic energy. The sismic industry uses two types of geophones electromagnetic geophone (for land Survey) and Hydrophones (for marine survey). This signal comprises of instrument system and the aftermath of this is the subsurface geological information visible in recording
33

section (Dobrin and Savit, 1988). Figure-5.1 shows common cross-sectional view of a geophone and the table-3 shows the geophone parameter. Line Group Interval Array Length Geophone Group Array Type Group Interval 40M 40M 36M Inline

Table-5.3:- Shows the geophone parameter used for the seismic lines.

5.4

THE ARRAY SYSTEM PROFILING The single shot and single geophone was used in early days for each

traces for seismic data acquisition. The concept of spreading of geophones over 10-100s of feet connected in the series or parallel arrangement was introduced in 1930s. The purpose of this geometry was for that the first six geophones must cancel the ground rolls and noises which are traveling horizontally. Vibroseis is capable of shooting many shots as seen in dynamite in which one has to drill many shot holes (Dobrin and Savit, 1988). There are different types of spread used in the field to acquire seismic data. 1. End Spread. 2. Inline Offset Spread 3. Split Spread. 4. Cross Spread. 5. L Shaped Spread. The seismic lines have used inline spread geometry. It is a spread shot from a shot-point which is separated from the spread an appreciable distance but along the line of the spread (Sah, 2003). 5.5 GEOPHONE INTERVAL The distance between two sets of geophones either next to or adjoining geophones is called a geophone interval. The seismic line no. 782-

34

CW-29 has geophone interval of 20 m. The seismic line no. 93-MN-08 and 93MN-07 have geophone interval of 36 m. 5.6 GROUP INTERVAL It is the horizontal distance between two sets of geophones either next to or adjoining geophones. The seismic line no. 782-CW-29 has group interval of 328 and for the seismic line no. 93-MN-08 and 93-MN-07 have group interval of 40 m.

5.7

SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING The raw data recorded in the field is processed to construct a useful

geological model so that its interpretation possible. The step called seismic data processing is applied. Its results and output depends upon the field acquisition parameters. The data in is field is recorded either in digital or analog form and are transformed in the processing center. The primary objective is to remove or suppress all Noises and to increase the signal to noise ratio. The type of surface condition have tells that how much energy penetrates into the ground. The environmental condition, surface condition and demography play an important role in quality of field data. Besides processing also depend upon the technique used in processing (Dobrin and Savit, 1988). The main objectives of the seismic data processing are summarized as below. 1. Improving Signal to Noise ratio. 2. Representation of geology in seismic cross-section. 3. To acquire the target provided by client. The seismic data processing chart is shown in figure-5.2. To increase the Signal to Noise which constitutes the following corrections and adjustments are applied during the seismic data processing.
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1. Time. 2. Amplitude. 3. Frequency-Phase content. 4. Deconvolution. 5. Correlation. 6. Stacking/Data Compressing. 7. Velocity Analysis. 8. Preprocessors. 9. Filters. 10. Migration/Imaging/Data Positioning.

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Figure-5.1:- Detailed Processing Sequence Flow Chart (Modified from Rehman, 1989)

37

5.7.1 TIME The time adjustment falls under two categories. a. Dynamic. b. Static. a. DYNAMIC TIME CORRECTION (NORMAL MOVE-OUT) If the source and receiver are located at the same point in zero offset than the difference between the travel time ΔT and the reflected arrivals at x is the NMO (Philip Kearey et al, 2002).

b. STATIC TIME CORRECTION If the ray path is vertical beneath any shot or detector the static correction is applied. The time taken by the signal from the source to the receiver which is called a travel time is corrected for the time taken to travel the vertical distance between the shot or detector elevation and the survey datum. The adjustment of travel time to datum can be achieved if the correction of the height interval between the base of the weathered layer and datum is substituted by the material which contains the velocity of the top layer (Philip Kearey et al, 2002). Figure-5.3 illustrates the how the datum elevation is being corrected.

Figure-5.2:- Static corrections (a) Seismograms showing time differences between reflection events on adjacent seismograms due to the different elevations of

38

shots and detectors and the presence of a weathered layer. (b) The same seismograms after the application of elevation and weathering corrections, showing good alignment of the reflection events (After O’Brien, 1974)

The two kinds of static corrections which are applied are mentioned below. a. Elevation Correction. b. Weathering Correction. 5.7.2 AMPLITUDE CORRECTION Because of spherical divergence and energy dispersion in the earth the Amplitude Adjustment is applied. The types of Amplitude Adjustment which are applied are mentioned below. a. Automatic Gain Control (AGC) or Structural Gain Control. b. Relative True Amplitude Gain. a. AUTOMATIC CONTROL To improve the quality of the low amplitudes at later stages the AGC or the automatic gain control is applied (Dobrin and Savit, 1988). b. RELATIVE TRUE AMPLITUDE GAIN Amplitude information concerned with the facies changes, porosity variations, and gaseous hydrocarbons are maintained (Dobrin and Savit, 1988). 5.7.3 FREQUENCY PHASE CONTENT To enhance the signal and to reduce noise the frequency-phase content of the data is handled. The suitable bandpass filter can be selected by referring to frequency scan of the data which helps in calculating the frequency content of the signals (Dobrin and Savit, 1988). GAIN CONTROL (AGC) OR STRUCTURAL GAIN

39

5.7.4 DECONVOLUTION (INVERSE FILTERING) A process designed to restore a wave shape to the form it had before it underwent a linear filtering action (convolution) (Sheriff, 1989). The examples to remove the effects caused by the filtering include. a. Deterministic Deconvolution. b. Spiking Deconvolution. c. Predictive Deconvolution. d. Sparse-spike Deconvolution. a. DETERMINISTIC DECONVOLUTION If the characteristics of a system are known than it can be used to remove the effects of the recording instrument. If the reflection from the sea floor and the travel time in water is known than this deterministic deconvolution helps to remove the ringing that results from those waves which have undergone more than one bounce in water layer (Sheriff, 2004). b. SPIKING DECONVOLUTION To make the embedded wavelet short close to a spike a special a type of deconvolution method is applied which is called spiking deconvolution in which the frequency bandwidth of the data is limited to some extent (Sheriff, 2004). c. PREDICTIVE DECONVOLUTION In the process of predictive deconvolution the effects of some multiples are being removed which uses the later portion of the autocorrelation (Sheriff, 2004). d. SPARSE-SPIKE DECONVOLUTION The sparse-spike deconvolution is being applied to reduce the reflections and to emphasize more on large amplitudes (Sheriff, 2004).
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5.7.5 CORRELATION It is measurement of character and time alignment of two traces. Because correlation is convolution so an identical frequency domain operation also applies to correlation (Yilmaz, 2001). There are two types of correlation technique which are applied. a. Cross Correlation. b. Auto Correlation. a. CROSS CORRELATION It measures the similarity between the two time series. One data set value is moved with respect to the other and values which are infront of each other are multiplied and their products are than summed to give the value of the cross-correlation (Telford et al, 1990). b. AUTOCORRELATION Cross correlation of a time series with itself is known as auto correlation. In this case the correlation of the data is being done with itself (Telford et al, 1990). 5.7.6 STACKING (DATA COMPRESSION) The stacking is the process of combination of traces which is a composite record from different records (Sheriff, 2001). The technique uses the phenomena of common midpoint (CMP) stack in which one trace is being achieved by summing up all the offsets of common midpoint gather. Generally 48-96 fold stacks are commonly being used. 5.7.7 VELOCITY ANALYSIS It is being carried out on a suitable CMP or CDP gather. Its output is the velocity spectrum which is the table of numbers as a function of velocity vs. two way zero off set time. There are several types of velocities in reflection seismic data analysis (Telford et al, 1990).
41

a. Interval velocity. b. Root Mean Square Velocity. c. Normal Move Out Velocity. d. Stacking Velocity. 5.7.8 PREPROCESSORS The preprocessor has three components. a. Muting. b. Edit c. Demltiplexing. a. MUTING This process is useful in removing ground roll, air waves, or noise bursts out of the stack. In this process the relative stacking components must be changed with recorded time and before the beginning of this process the record, long-offset traces must be muted and removed from the stack. The deconvolution and other operators may be changed in muting. It can occur gradually or abruptly (Sheriff, 2001). b. EDIT The raw data seismic data obtain from the field acquisition is in multiplexed form and contains some unwanted signal such as ground rolls, air waves or noise and dead traces. Demultiplexing which is done through some calculations corrects the information such as the removal of the effect of the gains in recording instrunment and replacing a correct value for spherical divergence nevertheless it also useful for static-shift and normalmoveout corrections (Sheriff, 2001). c. DEMULTIPLEXING It is used to separate the individual component channels that have been multiplexed (Sheriff, 2001).
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5.7.9 FILTERS It is a system which recognizes the distinction against some of the data entering in it. This disction is normally based on the frequency but the other are based on wavelength, moveout, coherence, or amplitude. Linear filtering in geophysical data processing is called Convolution. The system is generally being convolved either in time domain or spectral shaping in the frequency domain. The types used in filters are (Sheriff, 2001) as in table-4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 5.7.10 Low pass frequency filters. High pass frequency filters. Band pass frequency filters. Notch filters. Inverse filters/Deconvolution. Velocity filters. F-K filters. MIGRATION/IMAGING

The seismic section is reconstructed in such a manner that events caused by the reflection are moved to their actual position according to their correct surface location and correct vertical time. It mainly concerns with the energy which is extends over the Fresnel zone and reducing the diffraction patterns which are the results of point reflectors and faulted beds. Migration is required because in dipping horizons and variable velocities recorded at the surface position differs from the subsurface positions (Philip Kearey et al, 2002). The time migration (Post-Migration) involves the change of velocity in vertical direction whereas the horizontal change in the velocity is called the Depth Migration (Prestack Migration) (Sheriff, 2001).

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Chapter 6 SEISMIC DATA INTERPRETATION
6.1 SEISMIC DATA INTERPRETATION The final step in seismic study of an area is to interpret the processed seismic section so that a geological model of sub-surface can be developed. Here the objective of seismic reflection interpretation is to study the subsurface structures that help in discovering the hydrocarbon accumulation in the subsurface sedimentary rocks. As science has not yet discovered the direct method of finding the oil and gas, or of assessing the quantities of hydrocarbons in the subsurface, so the seismic reflection method only indicates the geological situations where the hydrocarbons can accumulate. Seismic can be interpreted in two modes: 1. The first mode is in areas of substantial well control, in which the well information is first tied to the seismic information, and the seismic then supplies the continuity between the well for the zone of interest. 2. The second mode is in areas of no well control (frontier areas) in which the seismic data provide both definition of structure and estimates of depositional environments. Seismic velocities and seismic stratigraphic concepts are used to define the lithology. Seismic reflection amplitudes help to detail velocities and serve as a guide to pore constituents.
44

Seismic interpretation is the transformation of seismic reflection data into a structural picture, contouring of subsurface horizons and further depth conversion by applying some suitable velocities. The seismic reflection interpretation usually consists of calculating the positions, and recognizing the geologically, covered interfaces or sharp transition zones from seismic pulses which is reflected from the ground surface. The main methods for the interpretation of the seismic section are. 1. 2. 1. Structural Analysis Stratigraphic Analysis STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS It is the study of reflector geometry on the basis of reflection time. The key use of the structural analysis of seismic section is in the search for structural traps containing hydrocarbons. Most structural interpretation uses two-way reflection times rather depth. And time structural maps are constructed to display the geometry of selected reflection events. Some seismic sections contain images that can be interpreted without difficulty. Discontinues reflections clearly indicate faults and undulating reflections reveal folded beds. 2. STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS Stratigraphic analysis involves the subdivision of seismic sections into sequence of reflections that are interpreted as a seismic expression of genetically related sedimentary sequences. The principles behind this seismic sequence analysis are of two types. Firstly, reflections are taken as chronostratigraphical units, since the type of rock interface that produce reflections are strata surfaces and unconformities, by contrast the boundary of diachronous lithological units tend to be transitional and not to produce reflections.

45

Secondly,

genetically

related

sedimentary

sequences

normally

comprise the set of concordant strata that exhibit discordance with underlying and overlying strata. According to Dobrin and Savit, 1988 throughout the history of the reflection method, its performance in locating hydrocarbons in stratigraphic traps has been much less favorable than in finding structurally entrapped oil and gas. Stratigraphic oil traps can result from reefs, pinchouts, or other features associated erosional truncation, facies, transition and sand lenses associated with buried channels, lakes, or similar sources. 6.2 INTERPRETATION OF SIESMIC LINES OF THE STUDY AREA The seismic data interpretation has been carried out on 93-MN-8, 93MN-7(Dip Lines) and 782-CW-29(Strike Line). Pre-Stack Time Migration version of 2-D seismic lines has been interpreted. The seismic data interpretation revealed that the structure of the area is a fault bounded anticline trending SW-NE direction. In the north the anticline is bounded by south east dipping back thrust, whereas the southern flank of anticline is gentle. After interpretation of seismic lines two way time and Depth contour maps were generated on Chorgali level. The study area has shown two types of fault. 1. 2. Reverse faults. Thrust faults. Thrust faults were observed in seismic lines 93-MN-08, 93-MN-07 and 782-CW-29. These faults have created the pop up structure which can generate hydrocarbon in the area. The faults are identified on the seismic section by sudden change in the position of the reflectors and distortion or disappearance of the reflection. 6.3 SEISMIC SECTION
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Seismic Section is the outcome of the seismic reflection survey. The seismic section shows the high values of traces in vertical line which are called recorded peaks in the cross section. Most importantly it points out some the features of a geologic cross-section. These high value traces in seismic section is filled in with black shows the wiggle-variable area. The seismic section display or plot the data of the seismic line. The vertical scale in the seismic section displays the arrival time (Two way Travel Time). Seismic section plots or displays seismic data along a line. The vertical scale is usually arrival time but sometimes depth and the Horizontal axis shows the short points and CDP. 6.4 SEISMIC HORIZONS The reflection that can be traced across a seismic section is called a seismic horizon. Since Chorgali formation is producing reservoir in the area so Chorgali horizon is marked in the seismic sections. In seismic sections the basement shows no good continuous reflection and has very short, disordered and discontinuous reflection. The geology of the area it reveals that it has Salt in its basement. The horizon named Chorgali is marked on the basis that it is producing reservoir in the area and has excellent visibility and good continuity of reflection so we can trace well over the whole seismic lines. So this horizon can be easily recognized in the seismic section. Hence two way travel time for the Chorgali formation was taken from the seismic sections. The red line marks the Chorgali reflector. Whereas the black lines marks the faults observed in the seismic lines. The distorted very short and disordered reflection pattern in the bottom of the seismic sections is basement in the seismic section. The Minwal X-1 is drilled in the seismic line 93-MN-08 at short point 232. The seismic sections are given in figure 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3.

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Figure-6.1:- Shows the seismic section 93-MN-08

48

Figure-6.2:- shows the seismic line no. 93-MN-07

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Figure-6.3:- showing the line no. 782-CW-29

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6.5

CONTOUR MAPS A line that connects the line of equal values is called a contour line.

Such maps show us steepness of slopes, elevation top of the subsurface of the sedimentary rock layer and also the two way travel time of the horizon in milliseconds (Norman, 2001). 6.5.1 TIME CONTOUR MAP Time was taken from the seismic section. The next step was the generating the time contour map. As the time was in milliseconds so it was converted into seconds and then plotted into the base map. The Time contour map of top of Chorgali is given below.

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Figue-6.1:- Time contour map of top of Chorgali Formation.

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6.3.2 DEPTH CONTOUR MAP The depth contour map marks the depth of structure. The depth contour map in the subsurface mainly shows the faults, anticlines and folds. So after marking the time contour map the depth contour map is being generated in the area of the Eocene top by using the following formula. S=V*T/2 Where, T = Two way reflection time (sec) V =Average velocity (meter/second)

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Figure-6.2:- Depth map contour map of the top of Chorgali Formation.

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6.3.3 TIME VS DEPTH GRAPH The time and velocity in seismic line no. 93-MN-08 at short point 232 data is given below and depth was calculated through this data and after that time Vs depth curve was generated. Short Point 232 CDP 475 Veloci S=V*T Depth=V*T/2 ty 3135 3222 3389 3442 3614 3870 3953 4559 25080 1018152 2470581 2963562 5269212 8668800 9688803 2279500 0 000 12.54 509.076 1235.2905 1481.781 2634.606 4334.4 4844.4015 11397.5

Time 8 316 729 861 1458 2240 2451 5000

Tim eV sD epth
0 0 2000 4000 Depth= V*T/2000 6000 8000 10000 12000 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

Figure-6.3:- Shows the time VS depth graph.

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CONCLUSIONS
1. According to the picture reflected by Time Structure and Depth Contour Maps, Minwal structure is an a fault bounded anticline and has a combination of North and South verging thrust with downthrown block in the middle. 2. 3. In the north the anticline is bounded by south east dipping back thrust, whereas the southern flank of anticline is gentle. South verging thrust does have a sub-thrust resulting in small up thrown block to the north. The thrust fault in the area indicates the compressional tectonic movement. 4. 5. These opposite directed thrust formed the triangle zone geometry. The carbonates of Chorgali and Sakesar (Eocene) formation are reservoir rocks in this area.

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1. Aamir, Muhammad., and Siddiqui, Muhammad Mass., 2006, Interpretation and visualization of thrust sheets in a triangle zone in eastern Potwar, Pakistan, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, v. 25; no. 1; p. 25, 26, 28, 29. 2. Ahmed, Shahid., 1995, Production Of Crude Oils In Pakistan: Outlook For The Future, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, JOJ9-A, Pak Plaza, Fazal-e-Haq Road, Blue Area, Islamabad, Pakistan, PP-1. 3. Baig, M. S. and Lawrence, R. D., 1987. Kashmir J. Geol., 5, PP 1-22. 4. Baker, D.M., 1988, Balanced structural cross section of the central Salt Range and Potwar Plateau of Pakistan-Shortening and overthrust deformation: Corvallis, Oregon State University, PP-120. 5. Butler, W.H., Harwood, G.M., and Knipe, R.J., 1987, Salt control on thrust geometry, structural style and gravitational collapse along the Himalayan Mountain front in the Salt Range of northern Pakistan, in Leche, I., and

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O’Brien, J.J., eds., Dynamic geology of salt and related structures: San Diego, Calif., Academic Press, PP-339–418. 6. Cheema, M.R., S.M. Raza & H. Ahmed. 1977. Cainozoic. In: Shah, S.M.I. Ed. 1977. Stratigraphy of Pakistan. Quetta, Geological Survey of Pakistan (Memoirs 12): PP-56-98. 7. Cox, L.R., 1931, A contribution to the molluscan fauna of the laki and tha basal kirthar groups of Indian Eocene. Trans. Royal Society of Edinburg, Vol. 57, PP-25-92. 8. Davis, D.M., J. Suppe., and F.A. Dahlen., 1983, Mechanics of fold-andthrust belts and accretionary wedges: Journal of Geophysical Research, V. 88, PP-1153 - 1172. 9. Davis, L.M., The Fossil Fauna of Saman Range and Some Neighbouring Areas; Part 6, The Paleocene Foraminifera. Geol. Surv. India Mem. Paleont. India, New ser. Vol. PP-13-15. 10. 11. Davies, L. M. & E. G. Pinfold, 1937: The Eocene beds of the Punjab Salt Dobrin, Milton B, Savit, Carl H., 1988, Introduction to geophysical Range. India Geol. surv., Mem., Palaeont. India, NewSeries, PP-24, 79. prospecting, International Edition, McGraw-Hill Books, PP-58, 99, 202, 203, 228. 12. Duroy. Y., A. Farah, and R.J. Lillie, 1989. Subsurface densities and flexure of the Himalayan foreland in Pakistan: L.L. lithospheric

Malinconico, and F.J. Lillie, etc., Tectonics of the Western Himalayas: GSA special paper 232, PP-217 - 236. 13. Eames, F. E., 1952b: A contribution to the study of Eocene in Western Pakistan and Western India: Part B. Description of the faunas of certain standard sections and their bearing on the classification and correlation of the Eocene in Western Pakistan and Western India. I. bid; 107, PP-173200. 14. Farah, A., Lawrence, R. D. and De long, K. A., 1984, An Overview of the Tectonics of Pakistan, in Hag, B. U. and Milliman, J. D., Marine Geology
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and Oceanography of Arabian Sea and Coastal Pakistan, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, PP-161-176. 15. 16. 17. 18. Fatmi, A.N., 1973, Lithostratigraphic Unit of Kohat Potwar Province, Gee, E.R., 1935, The saline series of north-western India-Current Gee, E. R., 1980, Salt Range series, Pakistan Geological map at Gee, E.R., 1989, Overview of the geology and structure of the Salt Indus Basin, Pakistan, Pakistan Geol. Surv., Mem., 10., PP-8. Science, Bangalore, vol. II, PP-460-463. 1:50000, six-sheet directorate of overseas surveys, UK. Range, with observations on related areas of northern Pakistan, in Malinconico, L.L., Jr., and Lillie, R.J., eds., Tectonics of the western Himalayas: Geological Society of America Special Paper 232, PP 95–111. 19. Harding, T.P., and T.d. Lowell., 1979, Structural Styles, their PlateTectonic habitats, and hydrocarbon traps in Petroleum Provinces: AAPG, V.63, PP-1017 - 1058. 20. Hylland, M.D., 1990, Geology of the southern Gandghar Range and Kherimar Hills, northern Pakistan: Corvallis, Oregon State University, PP77. 21. Jaumé, S.C., and Lillie, R.J., 1988, Mechanics of the Salt Range–Potwar Pakistan-A fold-and-thrust belt underlain by evaporites: Plateau, 22.

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of petroleum in Kohat-Potwar Depression, Pakistan: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 70, no. 4, PP-396–414. 27. Khan, M. A., H. A. Raza., and S. Alam., 1991, Petroleum Geology of the Makran Region: Implications for Hydrocarbon occurrence in cool basins: Journal of Petroleum Geology, V. 14(1), PP-5 -18. 28. Kearey, Philip., Brooks, Michael., and Hill, Ian., 2002, An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration, 3th edition, Blackwell Sciences, 350 Main Street, Malden MA 02148-5018, USA, PP-1, 2, 34, 35, 45, 59, 67, 69, 70. 29. 30. Kearey, P. & Vine, F.J, 1996, Global Tectonics, 2nd edn, Blackwell Latif, M. A., 1970a., Exploration notes on the geology of south east Science, Oxford. hazara, to accompany the revised geological map, wein JB. Geol. B.A., Sonderb. 15, PP-5-20. 31. to 32. 33. Latif, M.A., 1970, Exploration Notes on geology of southeastern Hazara, accompany the revised geological map, Wein Jahrbueh der

geologischen bundesanatalt, Vol. 15, PP-5-20. Lavergne, Michel., 1989, Seismic Methods, Imprimerie Nouvelle, 45800 Leathers, M.R., 1987, Balanced structural cross section of the Salt Saint-Jean-de-Braye, Paris, PP- 68. Range and western Potwar Plateau, Pakistan-Deformation near the strikeslip terminus of an overthrust sheet: Corvallis, Oregon State University, PP-228. 34. 35. Lewis, G. E. 1937, A new Siwalik correlation. Am. J. Sci. 33, PP-191204. Lillie, R. J., G. D. Johnson., M. Yousaf., A. S. H. Zaman., and R. S. Yeats., 1987, Structural development within the Himalayan foreland fold-andthrust belt of Pakistan, in C. Beaumount, and A. J. Tankard, eds, Sedimentary Basins and Basin-Forming Mechanisms: Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 12, PP-379 - 392.
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The Sulaiman thrust lobe of Pakistan: Early stage undertrusting of the Mesozoic rifted margin of the Indian subcontinent: Geol. Soc. America, Abstracts with program, V.21 No. 6, PP-318. 37. McDougall, J.W., and Hussain, Ahmad., 1991, Fold and thrust propagation in the western Himalya based on a balanced cross section of the Surghar Range and Kohat Plateau, Pakistan: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 75, no. 3, PP-463–478. 38. McDougal, J. W., and S. H. Khan., 1990, Strike slip faulting in a Foreland Fold-Thrust Belt: the Kalabagh Fault and western Salt Range, Pakistan. Tectonics, v. 9, no. 5, PP-1061-1075. 39. McCann, D.M., Eddleston, M., Fenning, P.J. & Reeves, G.M, 1997, Geophysics in Engineering Geology, Geological Society Modern 40.

Engineering Geology Special Publication 12. Meissner, C.U., Master, J.M., Rashid, M.A and Hussain, M., 1974, Stratigraphy or tile Kohut Quadrangle Pak. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper. D 7I6-1, p.DIO-DI4, PP-1-5. 41. Moghal M. Anwar., Saqi Muhammad Ishaq., Hameed Abdul., and Bugti M. Nawaz., 2007, Subsurface Geometry of Potwar Sub-Basin in Relation to Structuration and Entrapment, Pakistan Journal of Hydrocarbon Research, Vol. 17, PP-68. 42. 43. Pascoe, E. H., 1920, Petroleum in the Punjab and North-West Frontier Raza, H.A., Ahmed, Riaz., Alam, Shaji., and Ali, S.M., 1989, Petroleum Province, India Geol. Surv. Mem. 40, PP-330-489. zones of Pakistan: Pakistan Journal of Hydrocarbon Research, v. 1, no. 2, PP-21–56. 44. Pennock, E.S., 1988, Structural interpretation of seismic reflection data from the eastern Salt Range and Potwar Plateau, Pakistan: Corvallis, Oregon State University, M.S. thesis, PP-55. 45. Pennock, E.S., Lillie, R.J., Zaman, A.S.H., and Yousaf, Mohammad, 1989,
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Structural interpretation of seismic reflection data from eastern Salt

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65

Short Points 103

Two Way Travel Time TWT (sec) (millisec) 1.61 1610 66

105 108 110 113 115 118 120 123 125 128 130 133 135 138 140 143 145 148 150 153 155 158 160 163 165 168 170 173 175 178 180 183 185 188 190 193 195 198 200 203 205 208 210

1.63 1.65 1.64 1.65 1.65 1.66 1.66 1.65 1.66 1.66 1.64 1.63 1.64 1.64 1.62 1.62 1.61 1.6 1.59 1.58 1.57 1.56 1.54 1.52 1.52 1.51 1.49 1.48 1.47 1.46 1.45 1.44 1.43 1.42 1.41 1.4 1.4 1.38 1.37 1.36 1.35 1.34 1.33

1630 1650 1640 1650 1650 1660 1660 1650 1660 1660 1640 1630 1640 1640 1620 1620 1610 1600 1590 1580 1570 1560 1540 1520 1520 1510 1490 1480 1470 1460 1450 1440 1430 1420 1410 1400 1400 1380 1370 1360 1350 1340 1330 67

213 215 218 220 223 225 228 223 210 235 238 240 243 245 248 250 253 255 258 260 263 265 268 270 273 275 278 280 283 285 288 290 293 295 298 300 303 305 308 310 313 315 318

Fault Fault

Fault Fault

1.32 1.31 1.3 1.27 1.26 1.25 1.26 1.15 2.3 2.34 2.32 2.3 2.28 2.26 2.24 2.22 2.2 2.1 2 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88

1320 1310 1300 1270 1260 1250 1260 1150 2300 2340 2320 2300 2280 2260 2240 2220 2200 2100 2000 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 68

320 323 325 328 330 333 335 338 340 343 345 348 350 353 355 358 360 363 365 368 370 373 375

1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9

1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1880 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900

Table-1:- showing the time noted for the seismic line no. 93-MN-08

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