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Nigeria liquefied natural gas company (NLNG)
Student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES)
UNIVERSITY OF PORTHRACOURT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING A STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES) REPORT AT NIGERIA LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS PLANT (NLNG) BONNY ISLAND, RIVERS STATE SUBMITTED BY AMADI SAMUEL U2007/3025219 TO THE SIWES CO-ORDINATOR, DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF PORTHARCOURT IN PARTIAL FUFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREEOF BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING. (B.ENG), IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
DEDICATION This work is dedicated to the Almighty God, for his grace of favor, mercies and uncommon strength to successfully complete this program. My family, Mr. and Mrs. Nze VC Amadi, for being both my moral, financial and social pillar, for their undying support throughout my life. To all the NLNG staffs, contractors (OTS and others), without whom there would not be a report in the first place, for there expertise, professionalism and technical know how in sustaining a world-class company. Finally, my fellow SIWES students that I worked with and shared varying work experiences with.
To Mr. of the NLNG OSB Port Harcourt base. I can’t thank him enough. To the department of mechanical engineering and the university of Port Harcourt in general. The NLNG SIWES set of 2011. 4 . for giving me such valuable knowledge that I have now come to understand and appreciate. Azunda Woga. To Nigeria liquefied natural gas company.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express immense gratitude and appreciation to all those that have made my industrial training and on the broader scale my Academic achievements up to this level. To my parents once more Mr. indeed with this company Nigeria has a great future. for making this programs a huge success. you always hold a special place in my heart.(NLNG). To all my lecturers. and Mrs.for providing indeed a worldclass environment of both locals and multinationals that work together with a common goal of succeeding and being among the best. for his special support role he played. Finally to God almighty. indeed they made the experience both social and industrial as we had a lot of fun together as trainees and colleagues. in helping me settle seamlessly in the program.i pray that the lord blesses such good works you do by teaching us all students. Granting us an unlimited supervised access to its state of the art facilities and equipment. and my family for understanding the importance of education and striving even with lean resources to ensure my academic continuity. Nze VC Amadi.
were natural gas was processed mainly. at breathtaking heights. valve testing and repairs. Also with the utilities. The use of simple measuring tools and precision tools for carrying out day to day tasks and activities. for massive equipment that can’t be brought to the workshop. were the key points of the training which made the whole both interesting and educative. in the area of maintenance of some mechanical equipment used in the natural gas processing and liquefaction sector. running 24/7. condensate loading and storage. the water treatment. Training at the NLNG has no doubt increased my technical knowhow. assisting the in troubleshooting the LNG loading arms. cooling towers. carryout mechanical seals change outs. Indeed this was one experience I will not forget in a hurry. 5 . whose submersible design fascinated me.ABSTRACT Funded by the industrial training fund(ITF). as I came in contact with some really sophisticated equipments and interacted with the live plant. Familiarizing me with the basic units needed for the successful purification and liquefaction of natural gas. including the cryogenic pumps. the student industrial work experience scheme(SIWES) has one of its major objectives as exposing students to the norms. Out in the fields. working in the gas trains. code and general standards of the industry. Assisting experienced technicians in the repairs of different array of pumps. crane checks at breath taking heights. the expertise with which the machinist handled their jobs could also be observed and lessons learnt from it. gear boxes.based on decree 47 of 1972 in which the ITF was established. The mechanical workshop. The compressors. etc. just to mention a few were the workshop experiences.
technology. students come face to face with real life processes .2 PURPOSE OF SIWES As contained in the federal military government decree 47 of 1972 which established the ITF.the purpose of the SIWES program is to expose students to practical and technical know how on the job experiences in industries and firms and related allied concerns. 6 . SIWES therefore prepares the Nigerian students to fit in readily to employment opportunities in the mainstream of the country’s socio economic sector. This need for practical knowhow gave birth to the SIWES program. Consequently. agriculture and technology disciplines. funded and directed by the itf for students undergoing studies in some technical disciplines such as the engineering. problems and corresponding solutions which reflect in back to the theoretical aspects of lectures in the classroom.1 STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES) This is a training program wholly organized. sciences. 1. a worker must not only bring knowledge. academic learning and theoretical knowledge alone would not usually prepare an educated person for the world of work.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Some experts are of the opinion that there is a yearning gap between the learning acquired by Nigerian graduates of the Nigerian universities and the skills application required in the workplace. architecture and a number of related courses in the institutions of higher learning across the country.situations. This requirement is particularly crucial for graduates of science. this is so because during g the course of this program. 1. Clearly. engineering. which obviously cannot be acquired within the limited infrastructural capacities of the Nigerian universities and polytechnics. but must also be versatile in the application of skills required to perform defined jobs and work.
3 DURATION OF SIWES SIWES.4 HISTORY OF THE FIRM Nigeria LNG Limited .consequent to this. I had this industrial training at the Nigeria liquefied natural gas company. differs from institution to institution. attached students are expected to record their day to day activities at work in a log book. scheduled into academic calendar year. university of Port Harcourt.6%). Some universities split this 6 months period into two equal parts of 3 months each. this program runs nonstop for six months. SIWES runs for a period of 3 and 9 months. However. In addition to this. it focuses on the 6 months industrial training period of my 400l. at the 200 and 400 levels respectively. the Nigerian university commission(NUC)and the board of technical education(NBTE)concurred that the SIWES program is of tremendous importance to the student and the nation as a whole.In recognition of the above foregoing.The Company NLNG Limited is jointly owned by Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation . 1. Shell (25. in the faculty of engineering. students are required to put up a comprehensive report of the SIWES program as they individually experienced in their various places of attachments. In some universities across the country. it became the duty of the student to ensure that he/she acquired sufficient practical experience through direct participation as this scheme invariably forms part of his/her assessment for the award of degrees in their respective fields. During the period of attachment. For the purposes of this report. 1. which will be submitted for assessment by lecturers at the end of their programs. at the plant complex in bonny island.NNPC (49%). thus it should be made compulsory and as part of the curriculum of relevant departments of students studying is such fields . The program also runs for a period of one year in some polytechnics and colleges. Total (15%) and Agip 7 . Rivers State.
1.6 VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS. In addition to the process complex. 1.5 ACTIVITIES The activities of the NLNG indeed are vast.4%).(10. Gas is supplied to NLNG via a dedicated pipeline supplied from different supply points. shopping mall etc. the next chapter will serve to describe the entire processes. The production division (PD) is made up of the following departments brief outline of their function will also be highlighted. and at such. The NLNG plant is located on Bonny Island. an entire chapter will be dedicated for this purpose. The LNG is shipped to customers in Europe. and community facilities such as a hospital. America and Asia in LNG ships provided by Bonny Gas Transport. a separate residential area is provided. NLNG does not explore for gas. Incorporated as a limited liability company on May 17. The LNG plant consists of six liquefaction units (trains) producing 22 million metric tonnes per annum (mmtpa). school. Rivers State. divisions are made up of departments. The NLNG is made up of various divisions. 1989 to harness Nigeria’s natural gas resources and produce LNG for export. This area includes houses. The department is generally responsible for the total assets management of the Production Division of the company. Production engineering (PE) 8 . recreational facilities. Nigeria. a subsidiary of NLNG. activities and units of the NLNG production cycle. Production operations (PO): The Operations department is committed to constantly and consistently upholding the company’s policy of producing LNG in a safe and profitable way within the industry best practices.
using appropriate tools and techniques under specific circumstances. In order to effectively and efficiently deliver the support. Technical department (PT) Provides expert technical advice and services in order to maximize the overall plants safety. aimed at achieving customer delight to deliver corporate objectives.efficiceny and capacity utilization in a cost effective manner. they learn what is going on outside the NLNG Company and make sure that they stay competitive. Finance and planning (FNP): They provide world class financial services to our customers through continuous process improvements in line with NLNG's core objectives Community relations (ERC): works with NLNG host communities to foster good relationship. Contracts. in so doing protect the health of the people and conserve the environment. and manage seamless value added processes to meet the real needs of our end users. and also to create and sustain a conducive environment for company operations. Human resources and personnel (HRP): are a group of professionals saddled with the responsibility of providing high quality HR and allied services for the Production Division of NLNG in Bonny Island.reliability. implement.The Engineering Department is a large department with enthusiastic and professional technical people supporting the NLNG Industrial and Residential Areas. they work closely with colleagues in Operations and Technology. poised to design. via a yearly benchmarking with other LNG sites. Furthermore. Our goal is to demonstrate sound contracting and procurement competences. 9 . procurement and materials (CPM): made up of a multiple channel member In the supply chain business.
This is done with multi-disciplinary teams located in one centre and in close coordination with other NLNG stakeholders.people. They also measure and report on the collective performance as a supporting activity. i. accessible and operationally available marine terminal in Bonny for loading LNG. LPG and Condensate tankers in a sustainable and efficient manner as well as managing NLNG marine assets and activities in Bonny and Port Harcourt. property. Integrated scheduling and planning (ISP): to optimize the planning and scheduling of NLNG activities and assets in the feed/production chain. Corporate security services (CSS) Since the establishment of CSS department.Corporate medical services (CMO): provides excellent primary and secondary health care services to all clients in a caring and professional environment. our core mission. Shipping department terminal(SDT): Department is primarily focused on providing safe. Health safety environment quality (HSEQ) : health safety and environment quality are in charge of ensuring that the company produces LNG with minimum damage to the environment and the best safety practices.: BUY GAS-> TRANSPORT GAS-> PRODUCE LNG/NGLs -> STORE AND LOAD SHIP-> SHIP TO CUSTOMER. has essentially remained unchanged. information and image. to ensure the security of and manage threats to company assets . 10 .e.
E n v ir o n m e n t & Q u a lit y M g r H S E Q C . W h it e H e a d C iv il PEC M . O B a s e M a n a g e r P H B J . O la o y e Head R o t E q u ip m e n t PER S . M o h a m m ed H e a d In s p e c tio n PEQ A . e d . O h iw e r e i C o m m u n it y R e la t io n s E R C O d e h M a n a g e r C o r p o r a t e M D r . A dekw u H e a d T u rn a ro u n d s PET M . a n a g e r P r o d u c t io n P D I s ile b o O p e r a t io n s M a n a g e r P O T . ) M g r P R O D U C T IO N D IV IS IO N E N G IN E E R IN G E n g in e e rin g M a n a g e r PE S . O k o n M g r S a f e t y . S e r v ic e s M H R P N w o k e d i a n a g e r C o n t r a c t in g & P r o c u r e m e n t M a n a g e r C P M E . D e G ra a f 11 . S c h o u te n S e e A tta c h e d C h a rt N P X H e a d A s s e t In fo M g t. O g w a h (c ) H e a d M a in te n a n c e PEM O . L u n d ie S e c re ta r y P E /0 B . A f o la b i H e a d In s tru m e n ts PEI A .1. O g u n le k o H e a d E le c tr ic a l PEE I.1 organogram of the production division S e e A tta c h e d C h a rt P E O M a jo r C a p it a l P r o je c ts C o o rd in a to r NPX J . E s e n e r C o r p o r a t e & P H B . S e r v ic e s C M O D .7 ORGANOGRAM P r o d u c t io n G e n e r a l M D iv is io n C . PEA J . L u n d ie T e c h n ic a l S e r v ic e s P T J . A d e n re le Fig. A d e p o ju H e a d R e lia b ility & M a in t S u p p o rt PEK T . M w a n m u t M a n a g e r B o n n y A . E p e lle ( A g . F in a n c e S e r v ic e s F N P S . A k in o l a S e e A tta c h e d C h a rt P E M S e e A tta c h e d C h a rt P E T S e e A tta c h e d C h a rt P E K S e e A tta c h e d C h a rt P E C S e e A tta c h e d C h a rt P E R S e e A tta c h e d C h a rt P E I S e e A tta c h e d C h a rt P E E S e e A tta c h e d C h a rt P E Q H e a d P ro je c ts PEO B . H e a lt h . ) B o n n y H R A . O g in n i E n g in e e r in g M a n a g e r P E S . 1. A h m e d ( A g . A la g o a M a n a g e r In t e g r a t e d S c h e d u lin g P la n n in g IS P A . D o r g u k e r u m ( P H B / D ) S e c u r it y S e r v ic e s C S S C .
The natural gas produced from oil wells is generally classified as “associated-dissolved.2: Natural Gas Value Chain Natural gas processing begins at the well head. The composition of the raw natural gas extracted from producing wells depends on the type. and location of the underground deposit and the geology of the area. Fluids are separated in the field and the oil sent by pipeline to the main centre for export or processing. 2.CHAPTER 2 2. This composition of natural gas and LNG is illustrated using in a pie chart below.1 LIQUEFACTION OF NATURAL GAS Liquefied natural gas is composed primarily of methane.” meaning that the natural gas is associated with or dissolved in crude oil. As such LNG is made up of 95% methane. depth. Separated water will be drained away to disposal pits. The gas from each field (AG and NAG) is then dehydrated 12 . Oil and natural gas are often found together in the same reservoir. 2. absent any association with crude oil is classified as “non-associated gas” (NAG).1: Composition of Natural gas compare to Liquefied Natural gas Fig. Fig. Natural gas production.
2. Fig. 2.3: Constituents of LPG. NGL’s and LNG LPG . is put through a sweetening process before compressed into a main pipeline to the processing (LNG) plant.Liquefied Petroleum Gas NGL .and.Natural Gas Liquids LNG .4: Different sectors in Natural gas production 13 . While some of the needed processing can be accomplished at or near the wellhead (field processing). depending on the H2S content. the complete processing of natural gas takes place at a processing plant.Liquefied Natural Gas Fig.
9 mtpa where it undergoes treatment to remove impurities. NGL recovery. the pipeline will be 'Sphered' or 'Pigged'. In order to sweep these liquids along to the processing plant. the gas pressure is controlled at the desired level.On arrival. The volume of natural gas is reduced in the liquefaction process by a factor of 600 which makes transportation of the gas to the users an economic proposition when compared to 14 . LNG and GTL (Gas to Liquid) feedstock specifications. but usually involves four main processes to remove the various impurities: • Oil and Condensate Removal • Water Removal • Separation of Natural Gas Liquids • Sulfur and Carbon Dioxide Removal Throughout processing. The actual practice of processing natural gas to pipeline dry gas quality levels is quite complex. pipeline transport. water. Liquefaction of the natural gas (which is mostly methane).Gas processing is necessary for reasons of Sales gas specifications. the pressure decreases during the journey and gas condensate and water are formed. 2.2 NLNG PRODUCTION PROCESSES The Nigeria LNG Plant at Bonny Island. These impurities are CO 2. Nigeria processes natural gas from both onshore and offshore gas fields after initial dehydration treatment of the feed gas for pipeline delivery into her six production trains. is then achieved in two stages by (1) initial cooling against propane (at four pressure levels) and (2) by further cooling against a mixed refrigerant stream to minus 161oC. Mercury and heavy hydrocarbons which would freeze out or attack the aluminum used in the Cryogenic sections of the plant if they were not removed. due to friction and retrograde condensation of heavy components. with a total capacity of 2. River State.
2. Utilities. 15 . The LNG is transported to customers in insulated tankers which minimize the vaporization which results from heat ingress. Storage / Loading. which are included in the Liquefaction Complex.2.1 Trunk line Terminal This unit receives the natural gas feedstock to the complex from the gas collection areas. Fig 2.5: LNG production Process flow chart The following description provides a brief overview of the process units. and some general facilities are included.transportation through pipelines.
2.4 Dehydration Unit The Dehydration Unit removes water from the feed gas leaving the Acid Removal Unit.2.5 Mercury Removal Unit The dehydrated natural gas from the dehydration unit passes through the mercury removal unit which removes trace quantities of mercury present in the feed to the Liquefaction Unit. 2.Fig.2 Plant Pressure Control Station (PPCS) b) plant pressure This unit reduces and controls the gas pressure to 55.2.2. The temperature is -161 degrees Celsius and atmospheric pressure.3 • Acid Gas Removal Unit This unit removes CO2 from the natural gas fed to the liquefaction unit to prevent it from freezing out at low temperature. which would cause blockage of lines and equipment. 2.6: NLNG Trunk line Terminal Unit (A) control station 2.3 Bara (Train1-3) and 65 bar (train 4-6) so that the LNG trains are fed at a constant pressure independently of any trunk line pressure fluctuation. Although these are not directly involved 16 .6 Liquefaction Unit The Liquefaction Unit produces liquefied natural gas (LNG) at a temperature adequate for storage under atmospheric pressure.2. 2. 2.8 UTILITY OPERATIONS: For successful operation of the Liquefied Natural Gas Plants a certain number of ancillary services OR UTILITIES are required.2. Drying is required to prevent ice formation in the Liquefaction Unit. 2.2.
(Refer to the block diagram above where they fit into the process): • Well Water System • Electricity Generation and Distribution • Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) System • Cooling Water (CW) System • Water Treatment (WTP) System • Fuel Gas (FG) System • Drinking Water (DW) and Service Water (SW) Systems • Demineralised Water System • Instrument and Tool Air System • Inert Gas System An overview of some of the utilities directly involved in the conversion and treatment of Natural Gas to LNG are discussed below.in the conversion and treatment of natural gas to LNG. II. they are important to operation of the complex. as follows: • To dry out the systems prior to initial start up • To purge plants on start up and shutdown • As make up to the LNG trains MCR circuit • To maintain inert atmospheres in appropriate sections of the LNG trains and process services • To purge miscellaneous analytical equipment • To purge tanker loading arms before and after use and • To purge the flare header and stacks INERT GAS SYSTEM (NITROGEN SYSTEM) The Inert Gas System supplies nitrogen gas to the Liquefaction Complex following users 17 . I. and feed to the Nitrogen production plant. INSTRUMENT AND TOOL AIR SYSTEM The Instrument and Tool Air System provides dried compressed air for use as instrument air. flare pilot ignition air. They are listed below according to the Unit.
while the rest of the Unit is located in the Common Facilities Area.III. There are two distinct modes in the normal operation of the LNG Storage and Loading Facilities: Holding mode and Loading mode. at -161oC to minimize vaporization of the LNG. In the Loading mode (when a ship is moored at the jetty). HEAT TRANSFER FLUID (HTF) SYSTEM UNIT HTF is used as the heat transfer medium for the LNG trains and process heaters. LNG Storage and Loading LNG storage tanks receive product run down from the production trains. LNG rundown is circulated through the loading lines to keep them at cryogenic temperature. The HTF system is based on the use of Shell Thermia Oil B. LNG rundown from the liquefaction plants is routed directly to the LNG storage tanks. units: FUEL GAS SYSTEM UNIT Each of the LNG trains is provided with the following process services as dedicated • Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) System • Cooling Water (CW) or Air fin Cooling System • Fuel Gas (FG) system consisting within each LNG train of a HP header to supply the process gas turbines and a LP header to feed the HTF furnace and the regeneration gas heater.200 m3 and is maintained under a very slight positive pressure. are used to transfer LNG to moored LNG ships via the loading lines and (normally two liquid loading arms with one vapor return arm). IV. The High Pressure (HP) Fuel Gas System supplies the gas turbine drivers of the refrigerant compressors and the electrical generators. 18 . In the Holding mode (period between cargo transfers). Submerged LNG Loading Pumps located inside the LNG storage tanks. V. Each tank has a gross volume of 84.
An industrial safety system is a countermeasure crucial in any hazardous plants such as oil and gas plants and nuclear plants. Also what was done during the industrial training period. Process control is performed by means of process control systems (PCS) and is interlocked by the safety systems so that immediate actions are taken should the process control systems fail. Here we undertook general plant maintenance both preventive. Industrial safety. etc. Maintenance. and environment in case the process goes beyond the control margins. As the name suggests. are listed below. offsite. industrial safety. utilities. permit to work system.safety at work in nlng was largely emphasized on and strictly complied with. corrective and breakdown maintenance on units and machines in the plant process area. being able to work with/and in a multinational ethnic diversified environment.3 The production engineering maintenance (PEM) section This department was where I was attached specifically. with the sole aim of improving the service life of a piece of equipment. Though this might not be associated with much importance. The main category of maintenance carried out by our team in the NLNG. They are used to protect human. Maintenance can be seen as the continual monitoring. failure prediction modes and ways to minimize/eliminate them if possible. plant. at the optimal service conditions and minimum cost. working with foreign nationals and locals.2. were jobs which were mainly on mechanical maintenance in the gas process areas. they range from about a 30minutes session to days of maintenance work. 19 . being able to relate well with them was also part of the experience gained. these systems are not intended for controlling the process itself but rather protection. was also part of the experience gained. work procedure which is key in this type of sensitive industry.
Mechanical workshop A period of two months was spent in the mechanical workshop. the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance. Valve testing and certification: here. From time to time. valves were tested in a test laboratory that has a test rig. Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine.Breakdown maintenance It means that people waits until equipment fails and repair it Preventive maintenance It is a daily maintenance (cleaning. periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis. Major overhaul of equipments such as those that can’t be repaired in the field was done in the workshop. The mechanical workshop activities can be divided into four major sections viz. in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. to measure deterioration. Predictive maintenance This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis. design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration. oiling and re-tightening). Initially. Corrective maintenance it improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be carried out reliably. It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance. valves in the plant operate at set pressures corresponding to the capacity of the vessel they are relieving pressures from. If a safety 20 . A lot of repair activities and maintenance was carried out in the workshop. valves in the field are tested routinely to ascertain its level of reliability to avoid failures during service. A safety valve is said to have failed if it doesn’t relieve pressure at the set value. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability. inspection.
ship mooring systems. Equipment overhaul and repairs: here. faulty equipment is repaired to design specifications. Repair manuals are followed stepwise to achieve the clearances and tolerances permissible. the schenk series. boring. grinding machines. Machining sections: the fabrication of small parts that can be used in equipments to enhance or correct some faults are mainly done here. etc that cannot be repaired in house. shapes and sizes. are stored in cocoons under nitrogen until when needed. cleaned to remove debris and dirt. just about any mechanical equipment found in the field can be repaired in this section. the mechanical lay down yard for storage of mechanical parts sensitive to corrosion. in fact. The lathe machine. Dynamic balancing: here. trainees are not expected to engage directly in machining. and must be done with the best possible minimal error. but can watch and observe as experts handle jobs on machining.valve fails. equipments involved in high speed rotation. impellers.4 Some photos of the repairs and general photos Photo gallery 21 . repairs and overhauls are carried out successfully. etc are balanced in order to avoid excessive vibrations that can cause damage to the equipment and its parts. The valve is retested and certified. In collaboration with some other departments within the PE. As part of the company’s safety policy. critical parts like the nozzle and seat. gear boxes. it is overhauled. Equipments here can range from pumps of different types. mainly by cleaning. This is done using a computerized test rig machine. due to their large sizes will mean sending out a team of workshop personnel to go out there and get them done. Some equipment like tank cranes. use of available spare parts. 2. and machining of some simple corrective parts. like the rotor of the electric motor. Some other sections like the tool shop. etc were mainly found in this section. compressors. actuators. loading arms etc.
Fin fan shafts Gear box repair Safety valves Pump repairs Gate valve Cryogenic pumps The plant complex 22 .
air compressor section of the train Central control room amine pump repair Residential area mechanical workshop 23 .
presented very minimal challenges for me as the program was quite seamless. Also as a result of the space found being entirely in a new geographical location. Students find it hard to secure spaces in most industries as most industries cannot cope with the extra burden (mainly financial) of having an extra workforce. welfare wise. Welfare and allowances: This wasn’t applicable to my place of training as we were taken care of. Polytechnics and colleges also enroll their students for the program. Relevance problem: I choose to call this a relevance problem because a trainee will only encounter this when he has settled properly in his place of attachments. but I will use this chapter to however highlight some of the general problems encountered by the majority of the SIWES students.Chapter 3 3. I would honestly say.1 Problems encountered during the SIWES program The SIWES program with the Nigeria NLNG.transportation. Limited space for attachment: This has been a major challenge faced by most SIWES student trainees. However. The requirement that most students of courses with technical and engineering background undergo the SIWES program is not only attainable for universities. This implies a large number of students looking for placements in the very few available positions of attachments. feeding becomes a major problem for them. as students have to carter for the expenses they accrue as a result of them undergoing such training. as a mechanical engineering student. 25 . a lot of willing students and industries find it hard to come to terms with the acceptable allowance due their trainees. for a period of just 6 months (as the case for university trainees) and this is usually no mean feat. cases of no pay is a frequent problem. some students are even forced to rent new apartments.
which mainly dealt on jobs of mechanical origin. In essence. and better correlate them to field facilities. the manner in which work was done. it is a pivotal stage in the students learning process.engineering drawings. when I see any vessel for storage of any fluid.etc.i was proud of my lecturers as every question directed to me found its roots in one or more of the subjects studied in class.attached to the maintenance section. I quickly recalled my fluid mechanics in class. Some students have even fallen ill because of this single factor. Relocation: This was a problem. I came to 26 . as all the normal routine class work activities and cores learning activities were better appreciated.2 Relevance of the industrial training The relevance of the SIWES program is something that a student will largely not understand until he/she has undergone such a program. It was engineering at work.however. going to an entirely new environment with little knowledge of the place. impeller or rotor of turbines. working with both local and international colleagues imbibed in me.the refrigeration cycle used for the liquefaction of natural gas was all based on thermosdynamics. the program helped me better appreciate engineering. At the NLNG. because at this point the student is left with no other option than to continue the program or quit. the course I was made to take in class. when I saw a pump. I quickly recalled the strength of materials(pressure vessels). 3. safety and the environment. The following sections will seek to summarize a tip of the iceberg of the relevance of the program Appreciation of theoretical concepts: during the program. I will say I didn’t really experience this. the exposure to some state of the art facilities. most of the other trainees in some other industries can be attached to departments that is of little or no relevance to there course of study and this posses a big problem. some memories that are indelible from my subconscious. in one sentence. the only difference was seeing them a little bigger.
from all points of the plant to the waste oil treatment facility. with minimal error and good housekeeping was important and I consider this an experience gained. nationality or age. the cooling water was never discharged into the sea to prevent it from affecting fishes. why some other necessary documents have to be processed quickly. but I was impressed by the mutual respect that was shown to me by all staffs. All these made me understand that as humans we should have mutual respect for one 27 .realize that the design of most complex systems are born out of very simple theories like pressure laws(in the case of the loading arms). safety was made to be part of us. The high point of this was in the way NLNG plant carefully collects waste oil in drains. The manner in which the operations department emphasized on standard jobs. I was sometimes flattered to be a better engineer than they are. All these factors helped me further appreciate safety and the environment. A better sense of responsibility to the environment was also developed. this an experience gained. obviously I expected a little hassle from the staffs and senior colleagues. A better understanding of why reports have to be submitted on time. In every job done. as trainees and staffs. reason being that every facility is critical and must be available for production to go on. Time management: Time is money as the popular saying goes.heat transfer laws(for exchangers) etc. as opposed to just letting them runoff to the nearby sea. Safety and environment: Safety first. Jobs to be executed must be planned and they must be time framed. etc. help buttress the fact that safety is important.this helped me understand and improve on my time management skills. Human relations: As a trainee. Work procedure: planning is key. Time management is a valuable skill the average trainee gains during the SIWES duration. Working in a gas plant and knowing the disastrous effect a possible gas explosion can be as a result of something wrongly done. no matter their position.
The exposure to such a culture of team spirit and care has no doubt made me a better individual today.another despite our status. 28 . This will not serve in entirety to share all I consider as relevance to the program. but just to highlight a few highpoints of the SIWES program. as the list is almost inexhaustible. We were made to work in pairs as these helped foster good team spirit and cooperation with each other. No doubt the program is relevant to the entire student life as he/she is been transformed to a better person after the program. better than the way he/she started.
some basics in the engineering practice has been entirely clarified. The program. from both local and international colleagues. this made me understand. I hope to someday graduate a better person with all these experience gained. In conclusion. However. e. just theoretical knowledge would mean your employer will have to entirely retrain you on some engineering fundamentals. design. As a graduate. a sense of responsibility to execute assigned task. that indeed I am on the right path. with seasoned professionals afforded me what is arguably the best industrial training I have attained so far in my academic pursuit. At every point in time even most staffs reminisced their own individual experiences as trainees in times past.g. NLNG as a professional and world-class company. failure modes.Chapter 4 4. The program provided me such rare opportunity to experience engineering at work. some of which cannot be gotten from normal classroom studies. but when they perform alongside other trainees. to me achieved its objectives as I can say I have gained useful industrial experience.1 General appraisal of the industrial training program. etc in a typical industrial setting. added self confidence. although most times the program might not be perfect and smooth 29 . psychological boosted which students might have felt as a result of feeling inferior. The classroom work indeed is a stepping stone in achieving greater heights in academics. This section will be entirely from my point of view as most SIWES students might disagree due to their condition of service during their training.etc makes the student better mentally. Also the program affords students the opportunity to gain first hand employee employer relationship. such things no matter how deeply taught in classroom cant be understood except experienced. the SIWES training process to me should be highly recommended in the university system. time management. the entire training would have made no sense if I hadn’t been taught the basic core engineering courses. but with the SIWES program. decision making.
Also the welfare of student trainee should be looked into on a more national platform. this is indeed sad.which translates to better graduates for nation building. The federal government. 4. Also employment opportunities. Some 30 . The government: Should make laws that will encourage firms to accept more trainees. from place of attachment in the future are also plausible.2 ways of improving the program Nothing is perfect. but the intents and objectives of the program are entirely brilliant. and every system that is functional can be improved for better performance. and should be encouraged in the system. Therefore the program was indeed enlightening. the school systems. The students: a lot of firms have shut the door to further SIWES students intake due to ill conduct of the previous sets that have undergone such programs with them. They can hold meetings through the state ministry of education with industries in the state to accept a minimum number of trainees at all times in their workforce. Generalized laws can be passed to enable the industries operating in the nation acknowledge the SIWES program. either by supporting them. The university: Should assist students in securing spaces for attachment.for the trainee. financially or by reducing the tax payable by such firms that accept trainees. At such the SIWES program can be improved to such high levels of efficiency to make it better. interesting educative and informative. as this has been a major problem for the students. coporate bodies and the students all have roles to play to improve the SIWES program. this no doubt will mean more students training . most students now have an edge over others that may not have undergone such training. This is indeed a good practice as students will find it a little less stressful securing spaces of attachment.
organizing seminars etc. The program is entirely for the good of the student.3 Advice to future participants The intents and objectives of the SIWES program has been largely misunderstood by some students. Improved welfare for attached trainees is also good for the program as this will encourage students to commit to the program. can go along way to improve the program. Thus the SIWES program should not be seen as an avenue or laxity. which has been a 13year old problem for the trains.firms however have high regards for SIWES students and at such are open to further intakes due to the previous sets good conduct as was the case in NLNG where one of my SIWES colleague solved a burning issue of amine loss. Also supervised access to the company facilities and accessing the trainee should be encouraged. as they have to show willingness on their parts to work with the students. The industrial training fund (itf): In collaboration with the appropriate ministries and government parastatals. It becomes obvious that students themselves can help improve the program by being of good conduct as this would mean better years ahead for the subsequent sets of trainees. the industries and corporate bodies. I once saw it as just another course and avenue to make good grades. working closely with the industries. 4. Also by giving orientation to their workforce to assist the student in explanations as required by the student becomes an important factor in improving the program in general. depending on how determined and eager the student wishes to be towards learning. they can better improve the manner in which the program is being run. but a 31 . Also orientation on expected conduct by trainees can also help the program in general. but with time I got to understand that it was beyond that. The employers: The success of the average SIWES program depends largely on the employers of labor. Better allowances for the students.
you must place priorities right. The student is also advised to strictly pay attention to company policies especially those that border on safety and the environment. students should bear in mind that they are there to learn. as this will help them better appreciate some engineering principles and other science theories as it applies to their place of attachment. The use of appropriate personal protective equipments can go a long way to prevent unnecessary accidents and injury. you must avoid it were possible and make your points and opinion known in a civilized manner. as most tasks executed by professionals might seem easy and simple and might be tempting to the student to go ahead and operate such machineries or carryout such task without being certified or properly trained. because it can lead to damage of company property and injury or even death to personnel. understand that you are there to learn and not teach them. Students should not engage on activities that will speak poorly of their background both moral and academicals. have respect for both personnel and company policies. Even when criticism is necessary. during your stay. proper explanation should be given to your supervisor as to why you cant carryout the task. Theft is something that should be completely avoided as this can bring to distrust of both the student and even their institution. Never take anything that doesn’t belong to you and if anything is found. otherwise. Finally. Always think safety and whenever in doubt ask questions. be willing to carryout tasks that are within your ability. Always have respect for co workers no matter how uneducated they might seem. 32 . never fight anyone as this speaks badly of you. be someone people can work with. should be returned to appropriate authorities. it is an act most students carryout without knowing. don’t be forced out as this can be embarrassing. This helps build goodwill. It is imperative that subsequent trainees be essentially of good conduct. we should ask questions. When it is time to round up the program. leave peacefully.means of acquiring what to most students will be their first major industrial experience before seeking their first job after graduation. no matter how valuable it might seem. This is of great concern. Where in doubt. students should even go as far as reviewing all they have learnt in the number of years spent in the university system.
Better relationships should be fostered between the SIWES authorities and appropriate government and industry parastatals.4advice to SIWES managers SIWES managers should endeavor to create an enabling environment for the program to thrive. 33 . committed hardworking smart devoted and focused during the training period. Seminars should be held from time to time to create awareness on the importance of the program.Finally as upcoming graduates. it is clear to see that the program. and should not be forgotten in a hurry. A comprehensive plan for the program can be structured such that students undergoing the program will be given better orientation on the possible challenges of the program. Everything that has been learnt ranging from industry experience and social relationship in the workplace should become part and parcels of us. 4. its intent and objectives are born out of brilliant ideas and at such should be highly recommended. so as to encourage active participation of stakeholders.5conclusion In conclusion. be diligent. utilize this opportunity as SIWES trainees. Students should avail their selves of this great opportunity as they can use the experience gained to secure their first jobs. The issue of entitlements to beneficiaries should be duly paid to avoid ill feelings amongst concerned parties. 4.
2 natural gas value chain Fig 2.1 Organogram of the production engineering division Fig.1 roller bearing Fig 3.6 root type pump 34 .3 screw pump Fig 3.trunkline terminal Fig 3.2 cryogenic bearing Fig 3.2 Organogram of the production engineering.1.1 composition of natural gas components Fig 2.References The NLNG intranet system Wikipedia Google List of figures Fig.5 centrifugal pumps Fig 3. 1.4 piston/plunger pump Fig 3. Fig 2.
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