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The resistor's function is to reduce the flow . 7 5


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of electric current. This symbol
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used to indicate a resistor in a circuit
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diagram, known as a schematic. Resistance $ 5 $
value is designated in units called the
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24
"Ohm." A 1000 Ohm resistor is typically
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shown as 1K-Ohm ( kilo Ohm ), and 1000
.
U
K-Ohms is written as 1M-Ohm ( megohm ).
There are two classes of resistors; fixed
resistors and the variable resistors. They are
2
also classified according to the material 7
from which they are made. The typical 1 $
resistor is made of either carbon film or
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metal film. There are other types as well,
but these are the most common. The 7 ; 9
resistance value of the resistor is not the
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only thing to consider when selecting a
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resistor for use in a circuit. The "tolerance"
and the electric power ratings of the resistor
are also important.

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close it is to the actual rated resistence
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value. For example, a 5% tolerance would
indicate a resistor that is within 5% of the 5% &
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specified resistance value.
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tolerance

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The power rating indicates how much power


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the resistor can safely tolerate. Just like you
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wouldn't use a 6 volt flashlight lamp to R
replace a burned out light in your house, C , 6 % (,@* C E, 7* )
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you wouldn't use a 1/8 watt resistor when & .
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you should be using a 1/2 watt resistor.
The maximum rated power of the resistor is 2
4
specified in Watts. Power is calculated
using the square of the current ( I2 ) x the . ( R ) $
resistance value ( R ) of the resistor. If the & Y * $
maximum rating of the resistor is exceeded,

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As for the standard resistance value, the (


values used can be divided like a logarithm.
(See the logarithm table)For example, in the
case of E3, The values [1], [2.2], [4.7] and
[10] are used. They divide 10 into three, like
a logarithm.

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[4.7]

[2.2]

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In the case of E6 : [1], [1.5], [2.2], [3.3],


[1], [1.5], [2.2], [3.3], [4.7], [6.8], : E6 P ,
[4.7], [6.8], [10].
. [10].
In the case of E12 : [1], [1.2], [1.5], [1.8],
[2.2], [2.7], [3.3], [3.9], [4.7], [5.6], [6.8], [1], [1.2], [1.5], [1.8], [2.2], : E12 P ,
[8.2], [10].
[2.7], [3.3], [3.9], [4.7], [5.6], [6.8], [8.2],
. [10].
It is because of this that the resistance value 7 ; $ , ; <
$
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is seen at a glance to be a discrete value.
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The resistance value is displayed using the S 4 2 R
color code ( the colored bars/the colored % C 8 > 5 ; = I 2
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stripes ) , because the average resistor is too
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small to have the value printed on it with 2
numbers. You had better learn the color
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=
1/2
code, because almost all resistors of 1/2W
or less use the color code to display the
resistance value.
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A fixed resistor is one in which the value of
its resistance cannot change.

. 5 =

67

$ /

73 $

$ /$
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Carbon film resistors

This is the most general purpose, cheap


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resistor. Usually the tolerance of the
resistance value is 5%. Power ratings of
1/8W, 1/4W and 1/2W are frequently used.
$

= $ 9

$ ,

1/8W /

Carbon film resistors have a disadvantage;


they tend to be electrically noisy. Metal film
resistors are recommended for use in analog
circuits. However, I have never experienced
any problems with this noise.

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The physical size of the different resistors S?/


are as follows.

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This resistor is called a Single-In-Line (SIL) . $


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resistor network. It is made with many
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resistors of the same value, all in one
package. One side of each resistor is ( *
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connected with one side of all the other
5%
resistors inside. One example of its use $9 , 7* 4 ) 9

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would be to control the current in a circuit 7 * 4


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powering many light emitting diodes
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(LEDs).

9 4 .& 4

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In the photograph on the Top, 8 resistors are


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housed in the package. Each of the leads on
the package is one resistor. The ninth lead $
4
on the left side is the common lead. The
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7
face value of the resistance is printed. ( It
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depends on the supplier. )

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Some resistor networks have a "4S" printed
on the top of the resistor network. The 4S
indicates that the package contains 4
independent resistors that are not wired
together inside. The housing has eight leads
instead of nine. The internal wiring of these
typical resistor networks has been illustrated
below. The size (black part) of the resistor
network which I have is as follows: For the
type with 9 leads, the thickness is 1.8 mm,
the height 5mm, and the width 23 mm. For
the types with 8 component leads, the
thickness is 1.8 mm, the height 5 mm, and
the width 20 mm.

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Ni-Cr (Nichrome) 2

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Metal film resistors are used when a higher
tolerance (more accurate value) is needed.
They are much more accurate in value than
carbon film resistors. They have about
0.05% tolerance. I don't use any high
tolerance resistors in my circuits. Resistors
that are about 1% are more than sufficient.
Ni-Cr (Nichrome) seems to be used for the
material of resistor. The metal film resistor
is used for bridge circuits, filter circuits, and
low-noise analog signal circuits.

83

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1/8W (tolerance 1%) $


1/4W (tolerance 1%) $
1W (tolerance 5%) $
2W (tolerance 5%) $

7
2

$ = C
9
(W) (mm) (mm)
1/8
2
3
1/4
2
6
1
3.5
12
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2 R
There are two general ways in which
variable resistors are used. One is the
variable resistor which value is easily
changed, like the volume adjustment of
Radio. The other is semi-fixed resistor that
is not meant to be adjusted by anyone but a
technician. It is used to adjust the operating
condition of the circuit by the technician.
Semi-fixed resistors are used to compensate
for the inaccuracies of the resistors, and to
fine-tune a circuit. The rotation angle of the
variable resistor is usually about 300
degrees. Some variable resistors must be
turned many times to use the whole range of
resistance they offer. This allows for very
precise adjustments of their value. These are
called "Potentiometers" or "Trimmer
Potentiometers."

P ,2 R

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Potentiometers "

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. Trimmer Potentiometers

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In the photograph to the left, the variable 2


resistor typically used for volume controls
can be seen on the far right. Its value is very
easy to adjust.The four resistors at the center $
of the photograph are the semi-fixed type.

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These ones are mounted on the printed P ,


circuit board.
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semi-fixed

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The two resistors on the left are the trimmer P ,
potentiometers.

When type "A" rotates clockwise, at first,


the resistance value changes slowly and then
in the second half of its axis, it changes very
quickly.
The "A" type variable resistor is typically
used for the volume control of a radio, for
example. It is well suited to adjust a low
sound subtly. It suits the characteristics of
the ear. The ear hears low sound changes
well, but isn't as sensitive to small changes
in loud sounds. A larger change is needed as
the volume is increased. These "A" type
variable resistors are sometimes called
"audio taper" potentiometers.

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$,

. Trimmer potentiometers

is used to indicate a 2 R
This symbol
variable resistor in a circuit diagram.

There are three ways in which a variable 2


resistor's value can change according to the
rotation angle of its axis.

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"A" 2 R

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. "audio taper" 2

As for type "B", the rotation of the axis and


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the change of the resistance value are $ 9. $ 9 $=?
directly related. The rate of change is the
R
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same, or linear, throughout the sweep of the
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axis. This type suits a resistance value
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adjustment in a circuit, a balance circuit and
so on. They are sometimes called "linear A8 3 7
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taper" potentiometers.
linear " $ 9. 2 R
"
. taper
3 "C" P ,
Type "C" changes exactly the opposite way S 4 . "A" P , D 9 %
to type "A". In the early stages of the $
7 *H
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rotation of the axis, the resistance value
7, / ) , 7* I9
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changes rapidly, and in the second half, the 8 3 . 2
change occurs more slowly. This type isn't
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too much used. It is a special use. As for the
7 *
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3 "B" "A"
,
variable resistor, most are type "A" or type
.2 R
"B".
LDR $ < % $

Some components can change resistance


value by changes in the amount of light
hitting them. One type is the Cadmium
Sulfide Photocell. (Cd) The more light that
hits it, the smaller its resistance value
becomes.
There are many types of these devices. They
vary according to light sensitivity, size,
resistance value etc.

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Pictured at the Top is a typical CDS


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7 = 7* $
2
photocell. Its diameter is 8 mm, 4 mm high,
; c 3 9=
CDS P ,
with a cylinder form. When bright light is
hitting it, the value is about 200 ohms, and
, . 7, 9
8.I ; b 5
when in the dark, the resistance value is
[VV 5
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about 2M ohms.
.
[$
$ =M
?! 7*
This device is using for the head lamp
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9
illumination confirmation device of the car,
.
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for example.
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5*

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(dark detector ) $ ; ; 2 ,
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There is another type of resistor other than


the carbon-film type and the metal film
resistors. It is the wirewound resistor. A
wirewound resistor is made of metal
resistance wire, and because of this, they
can be manufactured to precise values. Also,

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high-wattage resistors can be made by using


a thick wire material. Wirewound resistors
cannot be used for high-frequency circuits.
Coils are used in high frequency circuits.
Since a wirewound resistor is a wire
wrapped around an insulator, it is also a
coil, in a manner of speaking. Using one
could change the behavior of the circuit.
Still another type of resistor is the Ceramic
resistor. These are wirewound resistors in a
ceramic case, strengthened with a special
cement. They have very high power ratings,
from 1 or 2 watts to dozens of watts.

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These resistors can become extremely hot 7* 5 .


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when used for high power applications, and
4 7 * C 8 8.
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this must be taken into account when
designing the circuit. These devices can $
.
5, S 4 2 <
easily get hot enough to burn you if you
. 5 C ? , + 4 C
touch one.

(C

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The upper one is 10W and is the length of C


45 mm, 13 mm thickness.

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The upper one is has metal fittings attached.


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These devices are insulated with a ceramic
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coating.

The lower one is 50W and is the length of [d C


75 mm, 29 mm thickness.

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There are mainly three types of thermistor.


NTC(Negative Temperature Coefficient
Thermistor)
: With this type, the resistance value
decreases
continuously
as
the
temperature rises.

PTC(Positive Temperature Coefficient


Thermistor)
: With this type, the resistance value
increases
suddenly
when
the
temperature rises above a specific
point.
CTR(Critical
Temperature
Resister
Thermistor)
: With this type, the resistance value
decreases
suddenly
when
the
temperature rises above a specific
point.
The NTC type is used for the temperature control.

5 =

R ($ 9.

") 2 R

8$
$

4 $

P ,

8$

$
4

73

.2

4 $

D 4

< P , $/?/

NTC P ,
2 E
PTC P ,

4 $

7 *

P ,
4 $

2 E , 2I *
CRT P ,

83 7* : $ 4
H

<

83 7* :

4 $
=

83 7* :

4 $

8$
$

P ,

4 $

4 $

.2

/ )$

, 2I *

7* NTC P ,

.
.2

&'

" # !

$' )

% ) *

The relation between the temperature and $


the resistance value of the NTC type can be
calculated using the following formula.

$ = 2

4 $

$=?

:$

R : The resistance value at the


temperature T
T : The temperature [K]
R0 : The resistance value at the
reference temperature T0
T0 : The reference temperature [K]
B : The coefficient

.T2

4 $

, $

.( ;
2
.(

4$
;

As the reference temperature, typically ,


25C is used. The unit with the temperature 25C &
is the absolute temperature(Value of which $ = 7
0 was -273C) in K(Kelvin).
25C are the 298 kelvins.

P* ,

7*

<

4 C8 $,

7*

)$

.
$9

E 5

; P* ,
(; R

Q1 7 5

$ ;9

Q;

&'

Q;

) % = P* ,

.
4

( .

=
4

, 8

3 ( $*%

. &8 Inrush current


E5 &

C8
=#

:B

/
,

, E5

Q1

($ , /

7* E 5 & . Inrush current $ E ; ,

. =

: T0

; 298 ! , 25C 2

7* $ 4

/ $ = Q1 $
.( $ / $

4 $

:T

$ = : R0

4$

H* , > 9< 4 - 5 (;

83 . steady state

, - 5

<

4 $

NTC P , $

2E5 h $ 8R

)2

S4

$ =:R

, $

ICL $ 4
.2

NTC P ,;

. T0 $

( ; +;9J
2

=2

,
-E )

7*

; P* , S 4

$ =

" # !

$' )

% ) *

UV 7 4 4

(; R

, (,@*

H% 7* ( #?/ )

a,Z 4
. ( $,/

H A-

. >E 5

. 2

$,

E5
-E )

.$ ,

2
,

5; 4 $

NTC

(2

4 ) $,

S4

.,

*B

4$

Q 1

/ Q;

*#

&'

7* 7

7;

R H

7 *

Q; 2

4 $

^
NTC

] 7* +;9J ,3

4J

. ICL Q 1

NTC

.F Limiter
R

7*

>

/ $
7*

(, : !46

$=?

M%

:7

Q; NTC

; UVV

$ =

.2

E M

= = 7* C 8

, &8

$% .,

5*

H,

/ 7*

NTC

G= ,

P* ,

NTC

H 9 , NTC

Q;

/ & ICL P * ,

.#

$ ;.

G;.
=

4J 3 .'

:$

.( =

Q;

Q1 ( = ] .

Inrush Current P * ,

] &8Y 83 P * ,
. E5

81

" # !

$' )

4 $

7
/;

: !46
P

% ) *

C , $ 5 $
=Q ;

4; + E, Q,

P 8

?.

C,

2 R

C,

.( / =D
8 4 Q;

$*

$ 9

S4

H 9

S4

$ 9

" 5 .

$9

C,

.2

4 # 9

Q* $ <

/ C ,3

P , )? . $

.G
2

; 2 R

Q;
. $*

C;

(;

4 C,

4$

M%

$=?

:R

)? . ); . " 2 ; $

, $

:p

C;

R= p L / A

.
.

$ 4 Q*

"
.H

D 4,

.$;.

; $

/ $;.

Q,
H9

, $

.
;

"

, Z( 9

"2

C8

S4

$4

2
]

4 -

C;

&'

;9

=$

$;.

$4
,,

:A
H9

.$ .

H9

, S4>

.
4

9:L

;9
(,

P %

9 D 4,

, V,Z 9= ,

"

"

C;;

; $

$' )

D,

, $
R

" # !

/4

% ) *

$;.

P ,

. E
$ 5

Electrical Resistor

Non Inductive
Resistor

$ /4

"$

Variable Resistor
(Rheostat)

2 R

Single-In-Line
(SIL) Resistor
Network
"4S" Resistor
Networks

P ,

PTC Thermistor

NTC Thermistor

&'

$
4S

$
$

Thermistor

$ /$

Fixed Resistor

: +4;

4$

4 $
(

/ )
$

4$

Varistor , TVSS ,
VDR

Q;

LDR : Light
Dependent Resistor

$< % $

LDR : Light
Dependent Resistor

$< % $

" # !

$' )

% ) *

; $
, $
+

7* 5, S4
,3

, C8 2

5 .

> $*

7
=

=
$

4 $,

= & 5 ,
.+

$ / $,
2 <
6 =

7* 2

: +4;
H,
= C, S 4

8 5, C 8 7*

= 7; C

?*
9%

Standard Series Values (5%)


1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.7
3.0
3.3
3.6
3.9
4.3
4.7
5.1
5.6
6.2
6.8
7.5
8.2
9.1

10
11
12
13
15
16
18
20
22
24
27
30
33
36
39
43
47
51
56
62
68
75
82
91

100
110
120
130
150
160
180
200
220
240
270
300
30
360
390
430
470
510
560
620
680
750
820
910

&'

1.0K(1K0)
1.1K(1K1)
1.2K(1K2)
1.3K(1K3)
1.5K1K5)
1.6K(1K6)
1.8K(1K8)
2.0K(2K0)
2.2K(2K2)
2.4K(2K4)
2.7K(2K7)
3.0K(3K0)
3.3K(3K3)
3.6K(3K6)
3.9K(3K9)
4.3K(4K3)
4.7K(4K7)
5.1K(5K1)
5.6K(5K6)
6.2K(6K2)
6.8K(6K8)
7.5K(7K5)
8.2K(8K2)
9.1K(9K1)

10K
11K
12K
13K
15K
16K
18K
20K
22K
24K
27K
30K
33K
36K
39K
43K
47K
51K
56K
62K
68K
75K
82K
91K

100K
110K
120K
130K
150K
160K
180K
200K
220K
240K
270K
300K
330K
360K
390K
430K
470K
510K
560K
620K
680K
750K
820K
910K

1.0M(1M0)
1.1M(1M1)
1.2M(1M2)
1.3M(1M3)
1.5M(1M5)
1.6M(1M6)
1.8M(1M8)
2.0M(2M0)
2.2M(2M2)
2.4M(2M4)
2.7M(2M7)
3.0M(3M0)
.3M(3M3)
3.6M(3M6)
3.9M(3M9)
4.3M(4M0)
4.7M(4M7)
5.1M(5M1)
5.6M(5M6)
6.2M(6M2)
6.8M(6M8)
7.5M(7M5)
8.2M(8M2)
9.1M(9M1)

" # !

$' )

10M
11M
12M
13M
15M
16M
18M
20M
22M

% ) *

$,
$

7; $

$
5 = 7*

&'

4;9

: +4;

% ) *

$ , 73 Tolerance
4

I9.

" # !

$' )